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Sample records for embryonic cadmium exposure

  1. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  2. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  3. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  4. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  5. Cadmium affects muscle type development and axon growth in zebrafish embryonic somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2003-05-01

    We have previously reported that exposure to cadmium during zebrafish embryonic development caused morphological malformations of organs and ectopic expression of genes involved in regulating developmental process. One of the most common developmental defects observed was altered axial curvature resulting from defects in the myotomes of the somites. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity in zebrafish somitogenesis. We showed that the critical period of exposure was the gastrulation period, which actually preceded the formation of the first morphologically distinct somites. The somites thus formed lost the typical chevron V-shape and are packed disorderly. The myogenic lineage commitment of the axial mesodermal cells was not affected, as the myogenic regulatory transcription factors were expressed normally. There were, however, losses of fast and slow muscle fibers in the myotomes. The innervation of the muscle blocks by spinal motoneurons is an important process of the somitogenesis. Both primary and secondary motoneurons appear to form normally while the axon growth is affected in cadmium-treated embryos. The notochord, which is essential in the patterning of the somites and the central nervous system, showed abnormal morphological features and failed to extend to the tail region. Taken together, it appears that cadmium exposure led to abnormal somite patterning of the muscle fibers and defects in axonogenesis.

  6. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  7. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  8. Embryotoxicity hazard assessment of cadmium and arsenic compounds using embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stummann, T.C.; Hareng, L.; Bremer, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been successfully validated as an in vitro method for detecting embryotoxicity, showing a good overall test accuracy of 78% [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Seiler, A., Brown, N., Piersma, A., Brady, M., Clemann, N., Huuskonen, H., Paillard, F., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2002. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro embryotoxicity tests: results of the definitive phase and evaluation of prediction models. European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. Altern. Lab. Anim. 30, 151-176]. Methylmercury was the only strong in vivo embryotoxicant falsely predicted as non-embryotoxic making the metal the most significant outlayer [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Pohl, I., Seiler, A., Clemann, N., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2004. Validation of the Embryonic Stem Cell Test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests. Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 209-244]. The misclassification of methylmercury and the potential environmental exposure to developmental toxic heavy metals promoted our investigation of whether the EST applicability domain covers cadmium and arsenic compounds. The EST misclassified cadmium, arsenite and arsenate compounds as non-embryotoxic, even when including arsenic metabolites (methylarsonate, methylarsonous and dimethylarsinic). The reasons were the lack of higher cytotoxicity towards embryonic stem cells as compared to more mature cells (3T3 fibroblasts) or the absence of inhibition of cardiac differentiation by specific mechanisms rather than general cytotoxicity. Including EST data on heavy metals from the literature (lithium, methylmercury, trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium) revealed that the test correctly predicted the embryotoxic potential of three out of the seven heavy metals, indicating an insufficient predictivity for such metals. Refinement of the EST prediction model and inclusion of additional toxicological endpoints could

  9. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  10. Programmed Effects in Neurobehavior and Antioxidative Physiology in Zebrafish Embryonically Exposed to Cadmium: Observations and Hypothesized Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Ruiter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are a major cause of premature mortality. Recent studies show that predispositions for NCDs may arise from early-life exposure to low concentrations of environmental contaminants. This developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD paradigm suggests that programming of an embryo can be disrupted, changing the homeostatic set point of biological functions. Epigenetic alterations are a possible underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the DOHaD paradigm by exposing zebrafish to subtoxic concentrations of the ubiquitous contaminant cadmium during embryogenesis, followed by growth under normal conditions. Prolonged behavioral responses to physical stress and altered antioxidative physiology were observed approximately ten weeks after termination of embryonal exposure, at concentrations that were 50–3200-fold below the direct embryotoxic concentration, and interpreted as altered developmental programming. Literature was explored for possible mechanistic pathways that link embryonic subtoxic cadmium to the observed apical phenotypes, more specifically, the probability of molecular mechanisms induced by cadmium exposure leading to altered DNA methylation and subsequently to the observed apical phenotypes. This was done using the adverse outcome pathway model framework, and assessing key event relationship plausibility by tailored Bradford-Hill analysis. Thus, cadmium interaction with thiols appeared to be the major contributor to late-life effects. Cadmium-thiol interactions may lead to depletion of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-methionine, resulting in methylome alterations, and may, additionally, result in oxidative stress, which may lead to DNA oxidation, and subsequently altered DNA methyltransferase activity. In this way, DNA methylation may be affected at a critical developmental stage, causing the observed apical phenotypes.

  11. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  12. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G.; Su, L. Joseph; Rood, Jennifer C.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P ≤ 0.0001). Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88) and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18) and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38). Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen. PMID:23319964

  13. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  14. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  15. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  16. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  17. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Maternal occupational cadmium exposure and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhl, Jonathan; Romitti, Paul A; Cao, Yanyan; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Burns, Trudy L; Conway, Kristin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Agopian, A J; Stewart, Patricia

    2018-01-23

    Cigarette smoking is a well-studied risk factor for orofacial clefts (OFCs). Little is known about which constituents in cigarette smoke contribute to this teratogenicity in humans. One constituent, cadmium, has been associated with OFCs in animal studies; in humans, the role of maternal cadmium exposure on OFCs, independent of cigarette smoke, is unclear. In particular, the relation between maternal occupational cadmium exposure and OFCs is largely unexplored. Using data from a large, population-based case-control study, we compared expert rater assessed maternal occupational cadmium exposure from self-reported occupational histories during the period 1 month before through 3 months after conception between OFC cases (n = 1,185) and unaffected controls (n = 2,832). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals for any (yes/no) and cumulative (no, low, high exposure) occupational cadmium exposures and all OFCs, cleft lip ± cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Overall, 45 mothers (cases = 13, controls = 32) were rated as having occupational cadmium exposure. Comparing all OFCs to controls, we observed inverse, nonsignificant aORs for any or low exposure, and positive, nonsignificant aORs for high exposure. Where data were available, aORs for CL/P and CP tended to parallel those for all OFCs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically examine maternal occupational cadmium exposure and OFCs, using expert rater exposure assessment. The small numbers of exposed mothers observed, however, led to imprecise estimates. Continued research using more detailed occupational exposure assessment and increased sample sizes is recommended. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative immunochemical evaluation of fish metallothionein upon exposure to cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yudkovski, Yana; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Yankelevich, Irena

    2008-01-01

    mormyrus by introducing to the assay recombinant MT and beta-actin standards. Commercial antibodies for cod MT and mammalian actin were implemented. In addition, a sensitive anti L. mormyrus MT antibody was produced, adequate only for solid phase immunochemical assays. Cadmium was applied to the fish...... clean natural sites, indicating applicability of MT as biomarker of exposure to a multi-factorial pollution, in comparison to its low revealed sensitivity to controlled cadmium exposure....

  20. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2008-06-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  1. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Results Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 μg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01–1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Conclusions Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children. PMID:18560540

  2. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  3. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  4. Exposure assessment of dietary cadmium: findings from shanghainese over 40 years, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental exposure to cadmium causes renal dysfunction and bone damage. Cadmium contamination in food is regarded as the main environmental source of non-occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of dietary cadmium exposure in environmental cadmium exposure and its health risk among adults in Shanghai, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey about food consumption was conducted in 2008 among 207 citizens aged over 40 years in Shanghai, China. The food frequency questionnaire was combined with food, tobacco and water cadmium exposure to estimate the daily environmental cadmium exposure in both point and probabilistic estimations. Urine and blood samples of the participants were analyzed for internal exposure to total cadmium. Correlation analysis was conducted between the internal cadmium exposure and environmental cadmium exposure. Results According to the point estimation, average daily environmental cadmium exposure of the participants was 16.7 μg/day and approached 33.8% of the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). Dietary and tobacco cadmium exposure approached 25.8% and 7.9% of the PTDI, respectively. Males had higher levels of dietary cadmium exposure than females (p?=?0.002). The probabilistic model showed that 93.4% of the population did not have any health risks from dietary cadmium exposure. By sensitivity analysis, tobacco consumption, tobacco cadmium level, cadmium in vegetables and cadmium in rice accounted for 27.5%, 24.9%, 20.2% and 14.6% of the total cadmium exposure, respectively. The mean values of urinary and blood cadmium among the study population were 0.5 μg/L and 1.9 μg/L, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between environmental cadmium exposure and blood cadmium (R?=?0.52, Pcadmium intake and blood cadmium excluding non-smokers (R?=?0.26, P?=?0.049cadmium and age (R?=?0.15, P?=?0.037). Conclusions It has been suggested that there is no increased health risk among adult

  5. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults...... higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18µg/g crea; n=1272; p

  6. Effects of protracted cadmium exposure on gametes of the purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W.J. III; Engel, D.W. [National Marine Fisheries Services, Beaufort, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Gametes and larvae of sea urchins and more specifically Arbacia punctulata have been used extensively in embryological studies and toxicity bioassay testing. Most of the experiments and bioassays have used the fertilized eggs of different sea urchin species and measured abnormal growth, malformations, or changes in the rates of growth as a function of contaminant exposure. Guida demonstrated that cupric ion activities of <10{sup -10.5} M caused reductions in the rates of growth of Arbacia Punctulata larvae and caused incomplete or malformed pluteal skeletons. These effects occurred at cupric ion concentrations that were in the same ranges as some measured in the more contaminated estuaries in the northeastern U.S. Sunda and coworkers also used sea urchin embryonic development to test potential trace metal toxicity in water samples collected from those same estuaries, and demonstrated toxicity potentially attributable to dissolved trace metals in the water column. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if protracted sublethal exposure of sexually mature sea urchins to dissolved cadmium in sea water would affect the viability of eggs and sperm, and whether it would affect fertilization and embryonic development and ultimately the larvae. The results of the experiments support the hypothesis that spermatogenesis and oogenesis were affected by cadmium exposure.

  7. Copper-cadmium interaction in mice: effects of copper status on retention and distribution of cadmium after cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The role of increased dietary copper in altering the accumulation of cadmium and other metals in tissues, was investigated. Female Swiss-Webster mice were pretreated with cadmium or copper in drinking water for three weeks prior to cadmium exposure for an additional nine weeks, with sub groups from each dose level receiving Cu additions to the Cd supplemented water. In Cd pretreated animals, a significant decrease was observed in Cd concentrations in liver and kidney when Cu was added to Cd in drinking water. Cadmium levels in soluble protein fractions of liver of animals administered 5 ppm Cd were approximately three fold greater than that for the same Cd dose when Cu was added. The same was the case for the metallothionein-like protein fraction (MTP) of the liver cytosol. In copper pretreated animals similar trends were noted in that brain, spleen, liver (but not kidney) Cd levels were decreased in animals receiving Cu additions to the Cd dose. Increased binding of Cd to the MTP fraction was observed after both in vivo and in vitro exposure of intestinal mucosal cells to cadmium

  8. Effects of embryonic cyclosporine exposures on brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Danielle E; Thorn, Robert J; Passarelli, Emily A; Kapoor, Mrinal; LoPiccolo, Mary K; Richendrfer, Holly A; Colwill, Ruth M; Creton, Robbert

    2015-04-01

    Cyclosporine, a calcineurin inhibitor, is successfully used as an immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. However, the use of this pharmaceutical during pregnancy is concerning since calcineurin is thought to play a role in neural development. The risk for human brain development is difficult to evaluate because of a lack of basic information on the sensitive developmental times and the potentially pleiotropic effects on brain development and behavior. In the present study, we use zebrafish as a model system to examine the effects of embryonic cyclosporine exposures. Early embryonic exposures reduced the size of the eyes and brain. Late embryonic exposures did not affect the size of the eyes or brain, but did lead to substantial behavioral defects at the larval stages. The cyclosporine-exposed larvae displayed a reduced avoidance response to visual stimuli, low swim speeds, increased resting, an increase in thigmotaxis, and changes in the average distance between larvae. Similar results were obtained with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, suggesting that most, but not all, effects on brain development and behavior are mediated by calcineurin inhibition. Overall, the results show that cyclosporine can induce either structural or functional brain defects, depending on the exposure window. The observed functional brain defects highlight the importance of quantitative behavioral assays when evaluating the risk of developmental exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  10. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  11. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  12. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  13. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B; Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20-60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3-65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Group one received distilled water and served as control. The other three groups were exposed to 100, 200 ...

  15. Sources of Cadmium Exposure Among Healthy Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38–0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27–0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11–33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06 – 0.15 μg/g ) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. PMID:21333327

  16. Effects of copper and cadmium spiked-sediments on embryonic development of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjhoux, Iris; Baudrimont, Magalie; Morin, Bénédicte; Landi, Laure; Gonzalez, Patrice; Cachot, Jérôme

    2012-05-01

    Because of their high capacity to accumulate contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals, aquatic sediments are considered as a long-term source of contamination for aquatic organisms. In compliance with the increasing interest both for sediment quality evaluation and the use of fish early life stage (ELS) toxicity assays, we proposed an embryo-larval test to evaluate embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of sediment-bound contaminants. Pre-blastula stage medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed by static sediment contact to two model heavy metals (cadmium and copper) at environmental concentrations during the whole 10-day embryonic development. Lethal and sub-lethal effects were recorded in both embryos and larvae for 20 days post fertilisation (dpf) using several global toxicity and phenotypic endpoints. The comet assay was also performed on medaka prolarvae to evaluate genotoxic effects of the tested chemicals. Environmental concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) did not affect embryo and larval survival. However, both heavy metals significantly induced morphological abnormalities, particularly spinal and cardiovascular deformities. Cd but not Cu induced tachycardia. Both heavy metals induced a significant increase in DNA damage at all tested concentrations. Resulting LOEC values for Cd and Cu corresponded to 1.9 and 8.5 μg/g d.w. sediment, respectively. Although metal bioavailability is probably lower for naturally contaminated sediments, the relatively low toxicity thresholds for both Cd and Cu raise the question of possible risk for fish embryos developing in direct contact to sediments. This study demonstrates the applicability, sensitivity and relevance of the Japanese medaka embryo-larval assay (MELA) to evaluate sediment hazardous potency at environmental concentrations of heavy metals. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  18. Cadmium affects osmotic phase and regulatory volume decrease in cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to verify whether cadmium (Cd2+, a metal possibly accumulated in body tissues from air and food, affects cell volume regulation capability in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 Phoenix cells. The osmotic phase (OP, which is the expected cell swelling due to aquaporins involvement after hyposmotic challenge, and regulatory volume decrease (RVD, bringing cell volume back to control values through Ca2+-dependent ion efflux (K+ and Cl–, have been monitored in HEK 293 cells treated with Cd2+ (1-10-100 μM for different time intervals (30 min, 3 h, overnight and then submitted to 15 % hyposmotic shock. The results show that both 1 and 10 μM Cd2+ significantly reduced OP, whereas 100 μM impaired Cd2+ RVD mechanisms. The use of glutathione (GSH, 200 μM confirmed that Cd2+ elicited its effect via oxidative damage, being RVD inhibition after Cd2+ treatment prevented by this antioxidant compound. Our findings show that: i HEK 293 cells are a suitable model to assay the effect of xenobiotics on cell homeostasis; ii Cd2+, depending on its concentration, affects cell homeostasis at different levels, i.e. water and ion permeability, responsible for, respectively, OP and RVD mechanism, adding thus more information to the knowledge of Cd2+ toxicology.

  19. Cadmium exposure pathways in the Czech urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puklová, V; Batáriová, A; Cerná, M; Kotlik, B; Kratzer, K; Melichercik, J; Ruprich, J; Rehůrková, I; Speváková, V

    2005-03-01

    The article describes the exposure pathways of cadmium in the Czech urban population. The data on Cd concentrations originated from the Environmental Health Monitoring System, which has been realized in 30 cities since 1994. The data on cadmium content in particular exposure pathways - diet, drinking water, ambient air and soil -were processed for the period 1994-2003. The estimate of the daily dietary intake for an average adult population amounted to 11-19 microg/d, i.e. 0.17-0.30 microg/kg bw/d, which represents 17%-30% of the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). The contribution from drinking water to the oral exposure is low; on average 0.5 microg/d. Potential exposure to airborne Cd was estimated at about 0.02 microg/d. The additional Cd intake from urban soil ingestion probable in small children was found to be insignificant based on Cd concentrations in the soil of kindergarten playgrounds. Biomonitoring outputs characterize the recent and life-long cadmium burden of the Czech population from general environment In 1994-2003, the median blood Cd levels ranged in the interval 0.9-0.4 microg/l blood, in smokers being more than double that in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels detected indicate slightly decreasing trend as well as urine Cd levels (range of median values 0.44-0.28 microg/g creatinine). Since 1996 the levels in children have been found in more than 50% cases below the detection limit of the methods used. The estimated total cadmium intake in the Czech urban population does not signalize any increased risk of health impairment considering non-carcinogenic effects.

  20. Brief embryonic strychnine exposure in zebrafish causes long-term adult behavioral impairment with indications of embryonic synaptic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nicole M; Arpie, Brianna; Lugo, Joseph; Linney, Elwood; Levin, Edward D; Cerutti, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, and were subsequently raised in untreated water until adulthood. PCR analysis showed indications that strychnine exposure altered expression of some genes related to glycinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal synapses during embryonic development. In adulthood, treated fish showed significant changes in swimming speed and tank diving behavior compared to controls. Taken together, these data show that a short embryonic exposure to a neurotoxicant can alter development of neural synapses and lead to changes in adult behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  2. Cadmium Exposure and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Jones, Miranda R; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95%CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, HF and PAD endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed. PMID:23955722

  3. Cadmium exposure: Health hazards of silver cottage industry in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, P. K.; Khandelwal, Dinesh; Sethi, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    In countries such as India, the silver jewelry industry is an important cottage industry. Silver is mixed with cadmium and then used to make silver jewelry. During this process there is a formation of cadmium fumes, and the workers inhale the fumes. Cadmium is a neurotoxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal, and there are no national policies to prevent exposure to such chemicals. We will present a case of cadmium induced peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and decreased bone density.

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to cadmium on neurodevelopment of infants in Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Limei; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yijun; Hu, Yi; Shi, Rong; Tian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although animal studies suggested that prenatal cadmium exposure can cause neurodevelopmental deficits, little is explored in human populations, or its mechanism. We investigated the association between prenatal cadmium exposures and infants' developmental quotients (DQs) based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules (gross motor, fine motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) at 12 months of age and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in prenatal cadmium-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in Shandong, China, by enrolling 300 mothers between September 2010 and December 2011. Maternal blood cadmium concentration (median, 1.24 μg/L) was negatively associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels in cord serum. A 10-fold increase in maternal cadmium levels was associated with a 5.70-point decrease in social domain DQs, a 4.31-point decrease in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. These data suggest that prenatal low-level cadmium exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. BDNF may play an important role in the decline of social domain DQs induced by prenatal low-level cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Cadmium was inversely associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels. • BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. • BDNF may contribute to the decline of DQs induced by prenatal cadmium exposure. - Negative associations were found between prenatal cadmium exposure and social domain DQs as well as BNDF levels in cord serum.

  5. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  6. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  7. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  8. Long-term cadmium exposure accelerates age-related mitochondrial changes in renal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Aya; Jimi, Shiro; Segawa, Masaru; Hisano, Satoshi; Takebayashi, Shigeo; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Long-term cadmium exposure leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Mitochondrial DNA deletion may contribute to the pathogenesis of cadmium-induced nephropathy. The aim of our study is to clarify the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletion and mitochondrial dysfunction in the renal cortex of rats injected three times/week with 1 ml of 1 mM CdCl 2 or saline for 80 weeks. After 40-week cadmium injection, mitochondrial number diminished, and cadmium in the renal cortex reached a saturation level. At this time interval, nearly 30% of cadmium in the whole cell fraction was found in the mitochondria. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in the proximal tubular epithelial cells decreased after 40-week exposure of cadmium. Oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPC) started to accumulate in the cytochrome c-positive mitochondria in some tubular epithelial cells after 80-week exposure. After 40 weeks, accumulation of the 4834-bp deletion in mitochondrial DNA was evident in both control and cadmium-treated groups. However, the amount of accumulated mitochondrial DNA deletion tended to increase after 40-week exposure, and was significantly greater after 80 weeks of exposure, compared to the control. Our results indicate that long-term cadmium exposure in rats accelerates accumulation of 4834-bp mitochondrial DNA deletions and impairment of mitochondrial function associated with accumulation of oxidized product

  9. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data showed a negative correlation between tissue cadmium and SOD in plasma, erythrocyte and brain. While positive associations were observed between blood and tissue (brain and liver) cadmium and SOD, a significant (p < 0.01), negative correlation was found between tissue cadmium and SOD. Conclusion: As ...

  10. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mengjiao [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd{sup 2+}] ([Cd{sup 2+}]-based-IC{sub 50}, i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  11. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  12. A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from

  13. Cadmium exposure among residents in an area contaminated by irrigation water in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, S.; Yue, L.; Shang, Q.; Nordberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    River water used to irrigate arable land in Dayu County, Jiangxi Province, China, is polluted with cadmium from tailings and the wastewater of tungsten ore dressing plants. From information about the date on construction of ore dressing plants and an analysis of the annual growth rings of trees, we deduced that local residents have been exposed to cadmium for at least 25 years. Cadmium exposure was estimated based on a meal survey, which indicated that 99.5% of the oral cadmium intake came fr...

  14. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  15. Identification of genes that are induced after cadmium exposure by suppression subtractive hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye-Jin; Park, Kun-Koo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Moon, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Mi-Ock

    2003-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium is a xenobiotic toxicant of environmental and occupational concern and it has been classified as a human carcinogen. Inhalation of cadmium has been implicated in the development of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis, but, the detailed mechanism by which cadmium induces adverse biological effects is not yet known. Therefore, we undertook the investigation of genes that are induced after cadmium exposure to illustrate the mechanism of cadmium toxicity. For this purpose, we employed the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. We identified 29 different cadmium-inducible genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-α, enolase-1α, VEGF, Bax, and neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nor-1), which are known to be associated with inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Induction of these genes by cadmium treatment was further confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Further, we found that these genes were also induced after cadmium exposure in normal human lung fibroblast cell line, WI-38, suggesting potential use of this induction profile to monitor cadmium toxicity in the lung

  16. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; McGeer, James C.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  17. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  18. Cadmium exposure among residents in an area contaminated by irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, S; Yue, L; Shang, Q; Nordberg, G

    1995-01-01

    River water used to irrigate arable land in Dayu County, Jiangxi Province, China, is polluted with cadmium from tailings and the wastewater of tungsten ore dressing plants. From information about the date on construction of ore dressing plants and an analysis of the annual growth rings of trees, we deduced that local residents have been exposed to cadmium for at least 25 years. Cadmium exposure was estimated based on a meal survey, which indicated that 99.5% of the oral cadmium intake came from rice and vegetables grown locally. The average oral intake of cadmium was calculated to be 367-382 micrograms/ day. Smokers had additional exposure from locally grown cadmium-containing tobacco. Cadmium concentrations in samples of urine (11 micrograms/g creatinine), blood (12 micrograms/l) and in the hair (0.11 microgram/g) of persons in the exposed area were high. The cadmium exposure lies in a range that can be considered to cause adverse renal effects in the long term.

  19. Comparative transcriptomic responses to chronic cadmium, fluoranthene, and atrazine exposure in Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svendsen, C.; Owen, J.; Kille, P.; Wren, J.; Jonker, M.J.; Headley, B.A.; Morgan, A.J.; Blaxter, M.; Stürzenbaum, S.R.; Hankard, P.K.; Lister, L.J.; Spurgeon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional responses of a soil-dwelling organism (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus) to three chemicals, cadmium (Cd), fluoranthene (FA), and atrazine (AZ), were measured following chronic exposure, with the aim of identifying the nature of any shared transcriptional response. Principal

  20. Is Cadmium Exposure Associated with the Burden, Vulnerability and Rupture of Human Atherosclerotic Plaques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Barregard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The general population is exposed to cadmium from food and smoking. Cadmium is a widely spread toxic pollutant that seems to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, although little is known if it contributes to the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques and the process whereby plaques become vulnerable and are prone to rupture. We tested the hypotheses that cadmium exposure is associated not only with an increased subclinical burden of atherosclerotic plaques in different vascular territories and early signs of plaque vulnerability, but also with cadmium content and plaque-rupture in the clinical phase of the disease. Ultrasound technique was used to measure plaque prevalence and echogenicity in the carotid and femoral arteries in a population sample of women (n = 599) in whom blood cadmium was measured. In addition cadmium was measured in snap-frozen endarterectomies and whole blood obtained from patients who were referred to surgery because of symptomatic carotid plaques (n = 37). Sixteen endarterectomies were divided into three parts corresponding to different flow conditions and plaque vulnerability. In the population sample blood cadmium was associated with the number of vascular territories with plaques (p = 0.003 after adjustment for potential confounders). The cadmium concentrations in symptomatic plaques were 50-fold higher in plaque tissue than in blood. Cadmium levels in blood and plaque correlated, also after adjustment for smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors (pcadmium content was double as high in the part where plaque rupture usually occurs. In conclusion, the results show that cadmium exposure is associated with the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women with different degrees of glucose tolerance, and that the content of cadmium in symptomatic plaques in patients is related to that in blood, but much higher, and preferentially located in the part of plaque where rupture often occurs. PMID:25816093

  1. Cadmium and lead exposure and risk of cataract surgery in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiye; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-11-01

    Cataract is a major cause of visual dysfunction and the leading cause of blindness. Elevated levels of cadmium and lead have been found in the lenses of cataract patients, suggesting these metals may play a role in cataract risk. This study aimed to examine the associations of blood lead, blood cadmium and urinary cadmium with cataract risk. We identified 9763 individuals aged 50 years and older with blood lead and cadmium levels, and a randomly selected subgroup of 3175 individuals with available urinary cadmium levels, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008 (mean age=63years). Participants were considered to have cataract if they self-reported prior cataract surgery in NHANES's vision examination. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using survey logistic regression models. We identified 1737 cataract surgery cases (the weighted prevalence=14.1%). With adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, cigarette smoking (serum cotinine and pack-years) and urine hydration, every 2-fold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 23% higher risk of cataract surgery (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.46, p=0.021). We found no associations of cataract surgery with blood cadmium (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.07) and blood lead (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.06). Mediation analysis showed that for the smoking-cadmium-cataract pathway, the ratio of smoking's indirect effect to the total effect through cadmium was more than 50%. These results suggest that cumulative cadmium exposure may be an important under-recognized risk factor for cataract. However, these findings should be interpreted with a caution because of inconsistent results between urinary cadmium and blood cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell’s ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. PMID:23811327

  3. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Marika, E-mail: marika.berglund@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Intitute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance—Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) (Germany); Schoeters, Greet; Smolders, Roel [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Mol (Belgium); Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Blumen, Luies [Environmental Health Sciences International, Hulst (Netherlands); Horvat, Milena [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Copenhagen (Denmark); Joas, Anke [BiPRO GmbH, Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-08-15

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. As expected, smoking mothers had higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24 µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18 µg/g crea; n=1272; p<0.0001), and children had lower UCd (gm 0.065 µg/g crea; n=1689) than their mothers at the country level. Non-smoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home had 14% (95% CI 1–28%) higher UCd than those who were not exposed to ETS at home (p=0.04). No influence of ETS at home or other places on UCd levels was detected in children. Smoking women with primary education as the highest educational level of the household had 48% (95% CI 18–86%) higher UCd than those with tertiary education (p=0.0008). The same observation was seen in non-smoking women and in children; however they were not statistically significant. In children, living in a rural area was associated with 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.03) compared to living in an urban area. Children, 9–12 years had 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.04) than children 5–8 years. About 1% of the mothers, and 0.06% of the children, exceeded the tolerable

  4. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Schoeters, Greet; Smolders, Roel; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Blumen, Luies; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mørck, Thit A.; Joas, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. As expected, smoking mothers had higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24 µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18 µg/g crea; n=1272; p<0.0001), and children had lower UCd (gm 0.065 µg/g crea; n=1689) than their mothers at the country level. Non-smoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home had 14% (95% CI 1–28%) higher UCd than those who were not exposed to ETS at home (p=0.04). No influence of ETS at home or other places on UCd levels was detected in children. Smoking women with primary education as the highest educational level of the household had 48% (95% CI 18–86%) higher UCd than those with tertiary education (p=0.0008). The same observation was seen in non-smoking women and in children; however they were not statistically significant. In children, living in a rural area was associated with 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.03) compared to living in an urban area. Children, 9–12 years had 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.04) than children 5–8 years. About 1% of the mothers, and 0.06% of the children, exceeded the tolerable

  5. Correlation between exposure to magnetic fields and embryonic development in the first trimester.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Juan Su

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between maternal magnetic field (MF exposure in daily life and embryonic development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 149 pregnant women who were seeking induced abortion of unwanted pregnancies. Participating women were asked to wear an EMDEX Lite magnetic field meter for a 24-h period to obtain MF exposure level within 4 weeks following the abortion. Embryonic bud and sac lengths were measured through B-mode ultrasound before the surgical abortion. Embryo sections were prepared and examined for histological changes, and the apoptosis status of the deciduas was examined using the TUNEL apoptosis assay. RESULTS: Embryonic bud length was inversely associated with maternal daily MF exposure level; the association was statistically significant at the time-weighted-average and 75th percentile of MF exposure levels, with coefficients of -3.09 (P = 0.0479 and -3.07 (P = 0.0228, respectively. Logistic regression for examining the risk of higher MF exposure indicated that women with her 75th percentile of daily MF measurements ≥0.82 mG had a 3.95-fold risk of having a fetus with a shorter embryonic bud length than those whose daily MF exposure were <0.82 mG. MF exposure was associated with a higher degree of apoptosis, but the association was not statistically significant. We failed to find a statistical correlation between MF exposure and embryonic sac length and histological changes in the first trimester. CONCLUSION: Prenatal MF exposure may have an adverse effect on embryonic development.

  6. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the relationship

  7. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  8. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  9. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  10. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  11. Effects of chronic cadmium exposure and cadmium exposure combined with γ-ray irradiation on the peripheral lymphocytes and their genotoxicity on hprt gene: experiment with rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yizhong; Chen Honghong; Hu Yuxing; Zou Meijun; Xu Aihong; Shao Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure and cadmium exposure combined with γ-ray irradiation on the peripheral lymphocytes and their genotoxicity on hprt gene. Methods: Ninety-six SD rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups: (1) normal control group, (2) low-dose cadmium exposure group undergoing intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mg CdCl 2 ·kg -1 ·d -1 for 8 weeks, (3) high-dose cadmium exposure group undergoing intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg CdCl 2 ·kg -1 ·d -1 for 8 weeks, (4) pure irradiation group exposed to whole-body γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 2 Gy for one time, (5) low-dose cadmium exposure combined with irradiation group undergoing intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mg CdCl 2 ·kg -1 ·d -1 for 8 weeks and then whole-body 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation, and (6) high-dose cadmium exposure combined with whole-body 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation group undergoing intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg CdCl 2 ·kg -1 ·d -1 for 8 weeks and then whole-body 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation. Ten days after the irradiation cardiac blood samples were collected from some of the rats to culture the peripheral lymphocytes to detect the micronucleus rate and hprt mutant frequency of lymphocytes by multinucleated cell assay. The other rats underwent continuous Cd exposure for 4 weeks after γ-ray irradiation and then cardiac blood samples were collected to detect the micronucleus rate and hprt mutant frequency of lymphocytes. Meanwhile, the amount of white blood cells (WBC) was counted and the blood cadmium concentration was measured by ICP-MS. Results: The numbers of WBC in the peripheral blood at different time points of the high dose cadmium group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (F=8.74, P<0.01 and F=13.11, P=0.000). The micronucleus rate at different time points of the pure irradiation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F=26.74, P=0.000 and F=14.13, P=0.000). The micronucleus rates of

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Short-Term Cadmium Exposure on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of short-term cadmium exposure on brackish water shrimp-Palaemonetes africanus. Tests were carried out by exposing the shrimps to the test solutions containing various concentrations of the cadmium (0, 0.1, 1.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, and 100.0) mg/l using the semi-static agitation test ...

  13. Feeding Behavior of an Aquatic Snail as a Simple Endpoint to Assess the Exposure to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Álvaro; Valle-Torres, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    One of the aims of ecotoxicology is the assessment of the effects of chemicals on the ecosystems. Bioassays assessing lethality are frequently used in ecotoxicology, however they usually employ supra-environmental toxic concentrations. Toxicity tests employing behavioral endpoints may present a balance between simplicity (i.e., laboratory bioassays) and complexity (i.e., relevant ecological effects). The aim of this study was to develop a feeding behavioral bioassay with the aquatic snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which included a 2 days exposure to cadmium, followed by a 9 days post-exposure observational period. Several behavioral feeding endpoints were monitored, including percentage of actively feeding animals, percentage of animals in food quadrants and a mobility index. The percentage of actively feeding animals was reduced by the four cadmium treatments (0.009, 0.026, 0.091 and 0.230 mg Cd/L) with the stronger effect in the highest concentration. The two highest cadmium concentrations significantly reduced the percentage of animals in food quadrants and the mobility index. Therefore, the percentage of actively feeding animals was the most sensitive endpoint to cadmium toxicity as the four cadmium concentrations caused a significant decrease in this endpoint. It is concluded that feeding behavior is a useful endpoint to detect the exposure of aquatic snails to cadmium.

  14. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yataan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulcin Yapici; Gunay Can; Ali Riza Kiziler (and others) [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    The study was designed to determine asymptomatic lead poisoning prevalence and cadmium exposure of preschool children living in a coal-mining area in Yataan, Mugla, Turkey. The research was conducted between May and June 2002. The study included 236 healthy children (53.4% female and 46.6% male) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Assessments of the levels of blood lead and cadmium were performed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Themean blood lead level of the males was higher than the females.There was a negative correlation between blood lead level and age in both sex groups. The blood lead level was found to be > 10 {mu}g/dL in 95.7% and > 20 {mu}g/dL in 87.6% of all children. The mean blood cadmium level of all children was 1.31{+-}0.72 mg/dL. The blood cadmium level was found to be > 0.5 {mu}g/dL, which is considered to be toxic, in 85% of all children. The difference in blood cadmium levels between sexes was not significant. A negative correlation was found between blood cadmium level and age of all children. Although it is not possible to understand from this study what proportion of the biological lead and cadmium burden results from mining waste and what proportion comes from other sources, these results indicate that asymptomatic lead poisoning and cadmium exposure are significant problems in children living in the Yataan area. Environmental lead measurements must be performed, the results must be compared with the normal limits, and precautions must be taken if necessary in the Yataan area. Public health research efforts should focus on reducing the excessive levels of lead and cadmium in the environment.

  15. Association between cadmium exposure and urolithiasis risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen-Lang; Wang, Jun-Yue; Gong, Lei-Liang; Gan, Shu; Gu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Shu-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether a consistent relationship exists between cadmium exposure and urolithiasis in humans. Accordingly, we summarized and reviewed previously published quantitative studies. Eligible studies with reference lists published before June 1, 2017 were obtained from searching several databases. Random effects models were used to summary the overall estimate of the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Six observational studies involving 88,045 participants were identified and stratified into the following categories according to cadmium assessment results: occupational (n = 4) and dietary (n = 2). The findings of the meta-analysis suggested that the risk of urolithiasis increases significantly by 1.32 times at higher cadmium exposure (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.08-1.62; for highest vs lowest category urinary cadmium values). The summary OR in occupational exposure (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.13-2.14) increased at the same condition. Meanwhile, no association was observed between cadmium exposure and urolithiasis risk in dietary exposure (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.87-1.47). A significant association remained consistent, as indicated by subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. The meta-analysis indicated that increased risk of urolithiasis is associated with high cadmium exposure, and this association is higher in occupational exposure than in dietary exposure. Nevertheless, well-designed observational studies with different ethnic populations are still needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of aqueous, dietary and combined exposures of cadmium to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofyan, Agus; Price, David J.; Birge, Wesley J.

    2007-01-01

    While effects of water-borne metal exposures on freshwater animals have been well documented, the effect of dietary metal exposure is less understood but is gaining importance. However, little attention has been given to the importance of combining both exposure pathways. In this study, we compared effects of aqueous ('water only'), dietary ('food only') and combined ('water + food') exposures of cadmium to the freshwater cladocerans, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Major test endpoints included survival, feeding rate and reproduction. The C. dubia three-brood reproduction tests were conducted according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) methods. Three exposure scenarios were used: aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary exposures. Results showed that all three exposures affected survival, feeding rate and reproduction of C. dubia. Interestingly, combined exposure showed contribution effects of aqueous and dietary exposures. Lower cadmium concentrations were needed in combined exposure to produce effects as compared to higher concentrations in aqueous or dietary exposure alone. These results demonstrated the potential importance of dietary and combined exposures for consideration of cadmium regulation and risk assessment of metals

  17. Effects of aqueous, dietary and combined exposures of cadmium to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofyan, Agus [Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); College of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia)], E-mail: asofy0@uky.edu; Price, David J. [Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Birge, Wesley J. [Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    While effects of water-borne metal exposures on freshwater animals have been well documented, the effect of dietary metal exposure is less understood but is gaining importance. However, little attention has been given to the importance of combining both exposure pathways. In this study, we compared effects of aqueous ('water only'), dietary ('food only') and combined ('water + food') exposures of cadmium to the freshwater cladocerans, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Major test endpoints included survival, feeding rate and reproduction. The C. dubia three-brood reproduction tests were conducted according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) methods. Three exposure scenarios were used: aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary exposures. Results showed that all three exposures affected survival, feeding rate and reproduction of C. dubia. Interestingly, combined exposure showed contribution effects of aqueous and dietary exposures. Lower cadmium concentrations were needed in combined exposure to produce effects as compared to higher concentrations in aqueous or dietary exposure alone. These results demonstrated the potential importance of dietary and combined exposures for consideration of cadmium regulation and risk assessment of metals.

  18. A chain modeling approach to estimate the impact of soil cadmium pollution on human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Eelco; Römkens, Paul; van Raamsdonk, Leo; van der Fels-Klerx, Ine

    2008-12-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from soil characteristics. This chain model consists of three basic steps: (i) calculation of plant cadmium levels from soil contamination levels and soil characteristics, (ii) calculation of animal transfer from consumption and contamination levels, and (iii) human exposure from both plant and animal products. Six soil scenarios were assessed, reflecting a specific contaminated region and ranging from 0.5 mg/kg of Cd (pH 4.5) to 2.5 mg/kg of Cd (pH 5.5). Cadmium levels in feed crops and vegetables were estimated with regression and mathematical models. Animal exposure and transfer to cattle kidneys, livers, and meat were calculated using a consumption database and a parameterized linear simulation model. Human exposure was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation, using a consumption database. The median human exposure for the different scenarios ranged from 0.24 to 0.98 microg/kg of body weight per day, which is comparable to results obtained from exposure levels based on observed field contamination data. The study shows that a chain model approach from soil contamination to human exposure, including animal exposure and transfer to animal products, can successfully be applied. The model can be used for fast evaluation of dietary cadmium exposure and the identification of risk areas based on soil conditions.

  19. Effect of exposure to cadmium on the tropical freshwater prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cadmium (Cd) on mortality, resistance and bioaccumulation in the tropical freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Egypt were studied. Survival of prawns exposed to Cd doses over 60 μg l-1 were sig nificantly lower than that of prawns exposed to lower doses. After 96 h prawns ex posed to >40 μg ...

  20. Cadmium in placenta- a valuable biomarker of exposure during pregnancy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasek, Martina; Mikolić, Anja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Sulimanec Grgec, Antonija; Jurasović, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Rats were exposed to cadmium (Cd) during pregnancy orally (50 ppm Cd in drinking water from gestation day [GD] 1-20) or parenterally (5 mg/kg sc during GD 1-19 or on GD 16). Cadmium levels were measured in blood, placenta, and fetus at the end of exposure. Human studies comprised of two cohorts of healthy Croatian postpartum women in the continental versus coastal area; in these women, Cd levels were measured in maternal blood, placenta, and cord blood. Cadmium in rat placenta was 10-fold higher following parenteral versus oral exposure, with highest value after exposure in mid pregnancy. The values were 10-fold higher in placenta than blood, and the fetus had ≤10% of blood metal levels. Cadmium levels in human placenta noted increased values in smokers that were 10- to 20-fold higher than in maternal blood and in cord blood were very low (exposure following oral and parenteral treatment during pregnancy in rats and in human biomonitoring that includes prenatal assessment. In addition, tobacco smoking is a prominent source of metal exposure. Cd levels in placenta are also a valuable biomarker of metal dietary exposure related to specific dietary habits and soil characteristics.

  1. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Gil, Fernando; Lorca, Andres; Alguacil, Juan; Rohlman, Diane S.; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Mendoza, Ramón; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  2. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Lorca, Andres [Department of Clinical, Experimental and Social Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Rohlman, Diane S. [Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University (United States); Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa (United States); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Molina-Villalba, Isabel [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Mendoza, Ramón [Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  3. The physiological role and toxicological significance of the non-metal-selective cadmium/copper-metallothionein isoform differ between embryonic and adult helicid snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Schnegg, Raimund; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; deVaufleury, Annette; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    Metal regulation is essential for terrestrial gastropods to survive. In helicid snails, two metal-selective metallothionein (MT) isoforms with different functions are expressed. A cadmium-selective isoform (CdMT) plays a major role in Cd 2+ detoxification and stress response, whereas a copper-selective MT (CuMT) is involved in Cu homeostasis and hemocyanin synthesis. A third, non-metal-selective isoform, called Cd/CuMT, was first characterized in Cantareus aspersus. The aim of this study was to quantify the transcriptional activity of all three MT genes in unexposed and metal-exposed (Cd, Cu) embryonic Roman snails. In addition, the complete Cd/CuMT mRNA of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was characterized, and its expression quantified in unexposed and Cd-treated adult individuals. In embryos of Helix pomatia, the Cd/CuMT gene was induced upon Cu exposure. Its transcription levels were many times higher than that of the other two MT genes, and also exceeded by far the Cd/CuMT mRNA concentrations of adult snails. In the hepatopancreas of adult Roman snails, no Cd/CuMT could be detected at the protein level, irrespective of whether the snails had been exposed to Cd or not. This contrasts with the situation in the near relative, Cantareus aspersus. It appeared that the 3'-UTR of the Cd/CuMT mRNA differed largely between Cantareus aspersus and Helix pomatia, being larger in the latter species, with a number of putative binding sites for proteins and miRNAs known to inhibit mRNA translation. We suggest this as a possible mechanism responsible for the lack of Cd/CuMT protein expression in adult Roman snails. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of cadmium and arsenic exposure with salivary telomere length in adolescents in Terai, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillman, Toki; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Watanabe, Chiho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous metals commonly found in the environment which can harm human health. A growing body of research shows telomere length as a potential biomarker of future disease risk. Few studies have examined the effects of metals on telomere length and none have focused on adolescents. Objectives: In this study, the impact of cadmium and arsenic on salivary telomere length was studied in adolescents in Terai, Nepal. Methods: Adolescents aged 12–16 years old (n=351)were recruited where questionnaire interviews and both saliva and urine collection took place. Telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from saliva. Urinary cadmium and arsenic concentration were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between urinary metals and salivary telomere length. Results: The geometric means and standard deviations of cadmium and arsenic were 0.33±0.33 μg/g creatinine and 196.0±301.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively associated with salivary telomere length after adjustment for confounders (β=−0.24, 95% CI −0.42,−0.07). Arsenic showed positive associations with telomere length but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cadmium may shorten adolescent telomeres, even at exposure levels that may be considered low. These results agree with prior experimental and adult epidemiological studies, and also help identify the mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium. This study expanded current evidence on the harmful effects of cadmium exposure on telomere length even to adolescents. - Highlights: • This is the first study examining metal exposure on telomere length in adolescents. • Urinary cadmium levels were similar to non-industrially polluted levels in Asia. • Urinary arsenic levels were as high as groundwater

  5. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Dexamethasone (Dex) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties against many conditions. There is a potential teratogenic risk, however, for pregnant women receiving Dex treatment. It has been claimed that Dex exposure during pregnancy could affect osteogenesis in the developing embryo, which still remains highly controversial. In this study, we employed chick embryos to investigate the effects of Dex exposure on skeletal development using combined in vivo and in vitro approach. First, we demonstrated that Dex (10{sup −8}–10{sup −6} μmol/egg) exposure resulted in a shortening of the developing long bones of chick embryos, and it accelerated the deposition of calcium salts. Secondly, histological analysis of chick embryo phalanxes exhibited Dex exposure inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes, increased apoptosis of chondrocytes and osteocytes, and led to atypical arranged hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of genes related to skeletogenesis was also analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of ALP, Col1a2 and Col2a1 was decreased in the Dex treated phalanxes. A detectable increase was observed in Runx-2 and Mmp-13 expression. We next examined how Dex affected the different stages of skeletogenesis in vitro. Utilizing limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures, we determined that Dex exposure exerted no effect on apoptosis but impaired chondrogenic cell proliferation. Interestingly, low dose of Dex moderately prompted nodule formation as revealed by alcian blue staining, but higher doses of Dex significantly inhibited similar chondrogenic differentiation. Dex exposure did not induce apoptosis when the chondrogenic precursors were still at the mesenchymal stage, however, cell viability was suppressed when the mesenchyme differentiated into chondrocytes. Alizarin red staining revealed that the capacity to form mineralized bone nodules was correspondingly enhanced as Dex concentrations increased. The mRNA level of Sox-9 was slightly

  6. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties against many conditions. There is a potential teratogenic risk, however, for pregnant women receiving Dex treatment. It has been claimed that Dex exposure during pregnancy could affect osteogenesis in the developing embryo, which still remains highly controversial. In this study, we employed chick embryos to investigate the effects of Dex exposure on skeletal development using combined in vivo and in vitro approach. First, we demonstrated that Dex (10 −8 –10 −6 μmol/egg) exposure resulted in a shortening of the developing long bones of chick embryos, and it accelerated the deposition of calcium salts. Secondly, histological analysis of chick embryo phalanxes exhibited Dex exposure inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes, increased apoptosis of chondrocytes and osteocytes, and led to atypical arranged hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of genes related to skeletogenesis was also analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of ALP, Col1a2 and Col2a1 was decreased in the Dex treated phalanxes. A detectable increase was observed in Runx-2 and Mmp-13 expression. We next examined how Dex affected the different stages of skeletogenesis in vitro. Utilizing limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures, we determined that Dex exposure exerted no effect on apoptosis but impaired chondrogenic cell proliferation. Interestingly, low dose of Dex moderately prompted nodule formation as revealed by alcian blue staining, but higher doses of Dex significantly inhibited similar chondrogenic differentiation. Dex exposure did not induce apoptosis when the chondrogenic precursors were still at the mesenchymal stage, however, cell viability was suppressed when the mesenchyme differentiated into chondrocytes. Alizarin red staining revealed that the capacity to form mineralized bone nodules was correspondingly enhanced as Dex concentrations increased. The mRNA level of Sox-9 was slightly increased

  7. Perinatal exposure to lead and cadmium affects anxiety-like behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leret, M.Luisa; Millan, Jose Antonio San; Antonio, M.Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of early simultaneous exposure to low level of lead and cadmium on anxiety-like behaviour in the rat, and on monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus at weaning and adult animals. Rats were intoxicated with cadmium acetate (10 mg/l) and lead acetate (300 mg/l) in drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy until weaning. Maternal co-exposure to lead and cadmium produced mainly alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems of hippocampus in both age studied, while noradrenaline content in hypothalamus and hippocampus remained unchanged at 75 days of age. The intoxicated rats showed an increased on indices of anxiety on the elevated plus-maze. These long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviour can be related to dopaminergic and serotoninergic alterations detected in hippocampus

  8. Thiol peptides induction in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex Koenig) in response to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Legorreta, Teresa [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico); Mendoza-Cozatl, David; Moreno-Sanchez, Rafael [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico D.F. 14080 (Mexico); Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico)], E-mail: gold@mda.cinvestav.mx

    2008-01-20

    Trace metal accumulation and thiol compounds synthesis as induced by cadmium exposure was studied in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Shoots were exposed for 24, 48, 96 and 144 h to several CdCl{sub 2} concentrations (0, 30, 50 and 70 {mu}M). Levels of cadmium, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine ({gamma}-EC), and phytochelatin-like peptides were determined in green blades, live sheaths and root/rhizomes tissues. Metal accumulation was dependent on Cd concentration and type of tissue, with green blades showing the highest content followed by live sheaths and root/rhizomes. All tissues experienced an increase in thiol-containing compounds as a response to cadmium exposure. Live sheaths showed the highest levels of cysteine, GSH and {gamma}-EC. This is the first report of induction of thiol peptides, presumably phytochelatins, by a trace metal in a sea grass species.

  9. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  10. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 3: Effect of Cadmium on Rat Prostate Gland Acid Phosphatase and Scrum Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Activities. Cd Dose Enzyme Activity (U/l.,, Mean 35 SD; n 2 3). (mg/kg bd wt) x 104. Prostate ACPC Serum ACP Serum AP. Total Nonprostatic Prostatic "l'otal Nonprostatic Prostatic. 0.0 (control) 263.4 :1: 2.0 31.7 ...

  11. Embryonic exposure to sodium arsenite perturbs vascular development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Catherine W; Hans, Charu; Shah, Shishir; Merchant, Fatima A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to arsenic in its inorganic form, arsenite, causes adverse effects to many different organs and tissues. Here, we have investigated arsenite-induced adverse effects on vascular tissues in the model organism zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to arsenite at different exposure windows and the susceptibility to vascular tissue damage was recorded at 72hours post fertilization (hpf). Intersegmental vessel sprouting and growth was most perturbed by exposure to arsenite during the 24-48hpf window, while disruption in the condensation of the caudal vein plexus was more often observed at the 48-72hpf exposure window, reflecting when these structures develop during normal embryogenesis. The vascular growth rate was decreased by arsenite exposure, and deviated from that of control embryos at around 24-26.5hpf. We further mapped changes in expression of key regulators of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1/fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vegfr1/flt1) expression was evident already at 24hpf, coinciding with the decreased vascular growth rate. At later time points, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9) expression was upregulated, suggesting that arsenite affects the composition of the extracellular matrix. In total, the expression of eight key factors involved in different aspects of vascularization was significantly altered by arsenic exposure. In conclusion, our results show that arsenite is a potent vascular disruptor in the developing zebrafish embryo, a finding that calls for an evaluation of arsenite as a developmental vascular toxicant in mammalian model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Lee, Sundong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 μg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 μg/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  13. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  14. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  15. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20–59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. Results 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1 μg/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. Conclusions These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This

  16. Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Anderson, Todd; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-11-01

    Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of a freshwater snail responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle, (2) acute cadmium exposure of adults, and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and acute cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of acute cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in cadmium-free conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments.

  17. Demographic responses to multi-generation cadmium exposure in two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Miller, Thomas J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2008-08-20

    A life table response experiment (LTRE) was used to quantify the population-level effects of continuous, multi-generation cadmium exposure on two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata; the parasite resistant BS90 and parasite susceptible NMRI strains. Snails were exposed to waterborne cadmium for three consecutive generations. Survival, growth and reproduction were measured empirically and incorporated into a stage-based, deterministic population model. Cadmium significantly affected hatching success, time to maturity and juvenile and adult survival in both strains. There were significant effects of generation on fecundity, hatching success time to maturity and juvenile survival in NMRI and time to maturity and adult survival in BS90. Cadmium significantly affected the population growth rate, lambda (λ), in BS90. Cadmium, generation and the cadmium x generation interaction had significant effects on λ in NMRI. At the high cadmium exposure, λ for NMRI showed a decrease from generation 1 to generation 2 followed by and increase from generation 2 to 3. Lambda in high cadmium BS90 steadily decreased over the three generations while NMRI at this same concentration was similar to the controls. The results indicated that strain-specific differences in response to multi-generation cadmium exposure are evident in B. glabrata. Moreover, effects seen in the first generation are not necessarily indicative of effects in subsequent generations. Changes in λ over the course of the three-generation exposure suggest that acclimation and/or adaptation to cadmium may have occurred, particularly in NMRI at the high cadmium exposure level.

  18. Time dependent effect of chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol on zebrafish: Morphology, biochemical and anxiety alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlan, Nurul Farhana; Sata, Nurul Syafida Asma Mohd; Hassan, Siti Norhidayah; Bakar, Noraini Abu; Ahmad, Syahida; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah Wan

    2017-08-14

    Exposure to ethanol during critical period of development can cause severe impairments in the central nervous system (CNS). This study was conducted to assess the neurotoxic effects of chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol in the zebrafish, taking into consideration the time dependent effect. Two types of exposure regimen were applied in this study. Withdrawal exposure group received daily exposure starting from gastrulation until hatching, while continuous exposure group received daily exposure from gastrulation until behavioural assessment at 6dpf (days post fertilization). Chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol decreased spontaneous tail coiling at 24hpf (hour post fertilization), heart rate at 48hpf and increased mortality rate at 72hpf. The number of apoptotic cells in the embryos treated with ethanol was significantly increased as compared to the control. We also measured the morphological abnormalities and the most prominent effects can be observed in the treated embryos exposed to 1.50% and 2.00%. The treated embryos showed shorter body length, larger egg yolk, smaller eye diameter and heart edema as compared to the control. Larvae received 0.75% continuous ethanol exposure exhibited decreased swimming activity and increased anxiety related behavior, while withdrawal ethanol exposure showed increased swimming activity and decreased anxiety related behavior as compared to the respective control. Biochemical analysis exhibited that ethanol exposure for both exposure regimens altered proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids of the zebrafish larvae. Our results indicated that time dependent effect of ethanol exposure during development could target the biochemical processes thus leading to induction of apoptosis and neurobehavioral deficits in the zebrafish larvae. Thus it raised our concern about the safe limit of alcohol consumption for pregnant mother especially during critical periods of vulnerability for developing nervous system. Copyright © 2017

  19. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S.

    2003-01-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC 50 values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12±0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl 2 H 2 O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas

  20. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils by young Douglas fir trees: effects of cadmium exposure on cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, Cédric; Gloaguen, Vincent; Faugeron, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Douglas fir trees grown on an artificially Cd-contaminated soil, can tolerate this trace element (up to 68 mg/kg in soil) during several months. Most of the absorbed Cd is retained in roots (25 mg/kg DM), but transfer to aerial part is also effective. Showing the highest content, up to 6 mg/kg DM, among all the aboveground parts, barks seem to be a preferred storage compartment. However, the transfer factor is quite low, about 0.3. Another objective of this study was to compare the cell wall components of trees exposed to increasing Cd amounts in soil. A decrease in lignin and an increase in pectin contents were observed in response to increasing soil cadmium concentration. A concurrent reduction in methyl-esterification of pectin suggests than the structure of this major binding site could therefore be modified as a reaction to cadmium contamination. Future prospects will focus on the modulation of pectin composition in response to Cd exposure.

  1. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  2. Environmental pollution due to cadmium: measure of semen quality as a marker of exposure and correlation with reproductive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franciscis, P; Ianniello, R; Labriola, D; Ambrosio, D; Vagnetti, P; Mainini, G; Trotta, C; Mele, D; Campitiello, M R; Caprio, F

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory reports exist in the literature regarding an association of cadmium with parameters of semen quality. The aim of the study was to assess cadmium levels in both blood and seminal plasma and to analyze the relationships between cadmium concentrations and lifestyle and semen parameters. Fifty healthy male volunteers were recruited to provide semen and blood samples. Each patient completed an extensive questionnaire regarding his occupation, residence, social status, diet, water source, smoking habits, and medical and surgical history. Semen analysis was carried out according to WHO guidelines. Detection of cadmium in both semen and blood samples was carried out by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean concentrations of cadmium were 8.18 ± 1.6 ng/ml in blood samples and 2.56 ± 0.9 ng/ml in semen samples. Cadmium blood levels were significantly higher in men from industrialized areas and in current smokers, but were not correlated with semen levels. A significant positive correlation was found between cadmium blood levels, number of immotile spermatozoa, and teratozoospermia index (TZI). Significant inverse relationships between cadmium blood concentration and type-a and type a + b motility were found. The present data show a significant correlation between blood cadmium concentrations, cigarette smoking, occupational exposure, and parameters of semen quality. Such a reduction in spermiogenetic function could be an early marker of a toxic effect by cadmium pollution.

  3. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mengjiao; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the changes in the Cd tolerance of a marine diatom after exposure under different Cd concentrations for various durations and (2) to explore the potential subcellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying these changes. The 72-h toxicity, short-term Cd uptake, subcellular Cd distribution, as well as the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) were measured in a marine diatom Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii after exposure to a range of free Cd ion concentrations ([Cd 2+ ], 0.01-84 nM) for 1-15 days. Surprisingly, the diatoms did not acquire higher resistance to Cd after exposure; instead their sensitivity to Cd increased with a higher exposed [Cd 2+ ] and a longer exposure period. The underlying mechanisms could be traced to the responses of Cd cellular accumulation and the intrinsic detoxification ability of the preconditioned diatoms. Generally, exposure to a higher [Cd 2+ ] and for a longer period increased the Cd uptake rate, cellular accumulation, as well as the Cd concentration in metal-sensitive fraction (MSF) in these diatoms. In contrast, although PCs were induced by the environmental Cd stress (with PC 2 being the most affected), the increased intracellular Cd to PC-SH ratio implied that the PCs' detoxification ability had reduced after Cd exposure. All these responses resulted in an elevated Cd sensitivity as exposed [Cd 2+ ] and duration increased. This study shows that the physiological/biochemical and kinetic responses of phytoplankton upon metal exposure deserve further investigation.

  4. Early detection of nephrotoxic effects due to low-dose exposure of cadmium among cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, I A; Shouman, A E; Anwar, S

    1996-01-01

    The effects of low-level exposure to cadmium due to cigarette smoking on renal function were judged by the estimation of urinary levels of total proteins, cadmium, alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha1M) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity among 50 males (38 smokers and 12 control non-smokers). Elevated urinary cadmium levels [2.408-28.160; 9.31 +/- 7 .1 microg Cd/gm urine creatinine] were observed among the majority of smokers (24 cases, 63.16%) and these levels showed a positive correlation with age and smoking index. Furthermore, urine total proteins [115.18-652.14; 242.89 +/- 121.88 mg protein/gm urine creatinine) were increased suggesting glomerular involvement among 20 cases (52.63%) of smokers. In addition, urinary alpha1M levels (14.645-86.053; 34.05 +/- 16.83 mg alpha1M/gm urine creatinine) and urinary GST activity [0.0-0.008; 0.00015 +/- 0.0002 micromol/min/100 microl/gm urine creatinine] were elevated among 18 (47.37%) and 20 (52.63%) cases of smokers respectively. Since urinary alpha1M and GST originate from renal proximal tubules, the data of the present investigation could reflect early low-level cadmium exposure nephrotoxic effect on both the glomeruli and tubules.

  5. Amount and metal composition of midgut gland metallothionein in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) after exposure to cadmium in the food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bach, Louise Thornhøj; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crabs were fed with Cd in concentrations of 1.1–5.1 μg g −1 food. • Metallothionein concentrations only increased at 5.1 μg g −1 . • Cd contents of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure. • A marked influence by the variable Cu contents on metal composition was recorded. • Digestive gland metallothionein is a poor biomarker for Cd exposure. - Abstract: Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the food affects the subcellular binding of cadmium with the shore crab Carcinus maenas as model organism. Approximately 80% of the assimilated cadmium was bound in the soluble fraction of the midgut gland and of this, 82% was found in the metallothionein fraction. Metallothionein synthesis was only induced at the highest exposure level. However, the number of cadmium atoms bound per molecule of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure, from approximately 0.18 in the control group to 1.4 in a group administered food containing 5.1 μg Cd g −1 . We noted a marked interaction between the presence of copper and zinc in the midgut gland and the binding of cadmium. The usefulness of crustacean midgut gland metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure at modest levels was questioned since exposures at levels producing significant increases in the tissue contents of the metal did not result in elevated concentrations of metallothionein in the midgut gland

  6. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis James K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'exposome' represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Top-down strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics defines an individual's metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers for disease risk that reflect adaptive response to exposure. We investigated changes in metabolism in volunteers living near a point source of environmental pollution: a closed zinc smelter with associated elevated levels of environmental cadmium. Methods High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy (metabonomics was used to acquire urinary metabolic profiles from 178 human volunteers. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were correlated with lifestyle or biological factors. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were also measured, using mass spectrometry, as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Results Six urinary metabolites, either associated with mitochondrial metabolism (citrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-deoxy-erythronic acid or one-carbon metabolism (dimethylglycine, creatinine, creatine, were associated with cadmium exposure. In particular, citrate levels retained a significant correlation to urinary cadmium and smoking status after controlling for age and sex. Oxidative stress (as determined by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels was elevated in individuals with high cadmium exposure, supporting the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation was causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions This study shows evidence that an NMR-based metabolic profiling study in an uncontrolled human population is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at true environmental

  7. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Zbigniew; Koch, Wojciech; Marzec, Agnieszka; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in the city of Lublin in south-east Poland to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants, compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one–MIBK, in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70% of PTWI/TDI values, and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years, whereas the exposures to nickel remains on a stable level.

  8. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on larval zebrafish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Ava K; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have been linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant. The zebrafish is widely recognized as an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effect of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254 on anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). We found that exposure to low concentrations of A1254, from 2 to 26 h post-fertilization (hpf) induced specific behavioral defects in two assays. In one assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae displayed decreased avoidance behavior but no significant differences in thigmotaxis or freezing relative to controls. In the other assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus and a stationary visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae had elevated baseline levels of thigmotaxis but no significant differences in avoidance behavior relative to controls. The 5 ppm larvae also displayed higher terminal levels of freezing relative to controls. Collectively, our results show that exposure to ecologically valid PCB concentrations during embryonic development can induce functional deficits and alter behavioral responses to a visual threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Selenium, cadmium and diazinon insecticide in tissues of rats after peroral exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of selenium (Se, cadmium (Cd and diazinon (DZN in selected tissues of rats after an oral administration in various combinations were analyzed. Male rats were orally dosed with diazinon (40 mg.L-1, diazinon (40 mg.L-1 +selenium (5 mg.L-1, diazinon (40 mg.L-1 +cadmium (30 mg.L-1, and diazinon (40 mg.L-1 +selenium (5 mg.L-1 +cadmium (30 mg.L-1 in drinking water. After 90 days of per oral administration of compounds, the samples of liver, kidney, muscle tissue (m. quadriceps femoris, and adipose tissue were collected. The content of DZN was analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Cd was analyzed using an Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS and Se using a Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS methods. Cadmium significantly increased in liver and kidney after DZN +Cd and DZN +Se +Cd administration. Se significantly increased in liver of DZN +Se, DZN +Se +Cd and DZN +Cd exposed rats, in kidney of DZN +Se and DZN +Se +Cd and DZN +Cd, and in muscle of DZN +Se +Cd group. Highest DZN content was found in the adipose tissue in DZN, DZN +Cd and DZN +Se +Cd but not in combined exposure with Se. Anyway, the differences between the control and experimental groups were not significant. The results indicate that cadmium and selenium accumulate mainly in liver, kidney and selenium also in muscle after p.o. administration but diazinon concentrations increases were not signifcant. The co-administration of diazinon, Se and Cd affects the content of these compounds in the organism and the accumulation rate depends on the combination of administered compounds. Diazinon and cadmium could contribute to the selenium redistribution in the organism after the peroral intake.

  10. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-01-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  11. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  12. Phenotypic defects in newborn Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda) following embryonic exposure to fenoxycarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambourou, Hélène; Chaumot, Arnaud; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Daniele, Gaëlle; Delorme, Nicolas; Abbaci, Khédidja; Debat, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    During morphogenesis numerous morphogenetic factors ensure the production of a target phenotype. By disrupting these processes, a toxic exposure during this period could cause an increase of phenotypic defects. In the present study, embryos of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum were exposed throughout the embryogenesis to increasing concentrations of fenoxycarb (0, 0.5µgL -1 , 5µgL -1 and 50µgL -1 ), a growth regulator insecticide analog of the insect juvenile hormone. In addition, to identify morphogenesis' sensitive period, embryos were exposed during either early or late embryonic development to 5µgL -1 of fenoxycarb. In newborn individuals from exposed embryos, three phenotypes were investigated: i) eye pigmentation, ii) length of the antenna and gnathopod of both left and right sides and iii) midgut tissue state. Developmental homeostasis was assessed by measuring fluctuating asymmetry and inter-individual variance of both the antenna and gnathopod. Exposure to 5µgL -1 and 50µgL -1 fenoxycarb throughout the embryonic development induced a delayed hatching and altered appendages size. Moreover, exposure to 5µgL -1 throughout the embryogenesis and during the gastrulation phase impaired eye pigmentation, while exposure to 50µgL -1 resulted in increased tissue damages of the midgut. No significant increase of fluctuating asymmetry was observed in exposed individuals, neither for the antenna nor for the gnathopod. These results demonstrate that fenoxycarb can alter embryonic development of G. fossarum without disrupting developmental homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to Cadmium Impairs Sperm Functions by Reducing CatSper in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Feng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd, a common environmental heavy metal and endocrine disruptor, is known to exert toxic effects on the testes. However, the mechanisms accounting for its toxicity in mature spermatozoa remain unclear. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were orally administered with CdCl2 for 5 weeks at 3 mg·kg-1·day-1. Additionally, mouse spermatozoa were incubated in vitro with different doses of CdCl2 (0, 10, 50, 250 µM. Several sperm functions including the sperm motility, viability and acrosome reaction (AR ratio were then examined. Furthermore, the current and expression levels of both the sperm-specific Ca2+ channel (CatSper and the sperm-specific K+ channel (KSper were evaluated by patch-clamping and western blotting, respectively. Results: Our data showed that the motility, viability and AR of sperm exposed to cadmium significantly decreased in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, these changes were correlated with changes in CatSper but not KSper. Conclusion: The findings indicate sperm dysfunction during both chronic and acute cadmium exposure as well as a specific role for CatSper in the reproductive toxicity of cadmium.

  14. Impact of chronic cadmium exposure at environmental dose on escape behaviour in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardere, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to a low concentration (0.5 μg l -1 ) of cadmium ions was investigated on escape behaviour of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using video analysis. Observations were also performed on the microanatomy of lateral system neuromasts. When fish were exposed for 4 h per day over 8 days to the cadmium ions, most of both types of neuromasts observed remained intact. However, some of them presented damaged sensory maculae. Whereas before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively to nearly all the lateral system stimulations, after exposure they decreased by about 10% their positive responses to stimulations. From the 15th day after the beginning of cadmium exposure, neuromasts presented progressively less damage, cadmium accumulation in gills and scales decreased significantly and fish escape behaviour had recovered. This study presents a new concept in ecotoxicology: using behavioural change to reveal the effects of pollution levels, scarcely detectable by currently used techniques (physiological responses). - Cadmium exposure involved a significant bioaccumulation in fish scales, slight damage to the lateral line system and a significant decrease in fish escape behaviour

  15. Impact of chronic cadmium exposure at environmental dose on escape behaviour in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucher, Karine [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-Ifremer-ULR, B.P. 5, 17137 L' Houmeau (France)], E-mail: kfaucher@ifremer.fr; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-Ifremer-ULR, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lagardere, Jean-Paul [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-Ifremer-ULR, B.P. 5, 17137 L' Houmeau (France)

    2008-01-15

    The effect of chronic exposure to a low concentration (0.5 {mu}g l{sup -1}) of cadmium ions was investigated on escape behaviour of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using video analysis. Observations were also performed on the microanatomy of lateral system neuromasts. When fish were exposed for 4 h per day over 8 days to the cadmium ions, most of both types of neuromasts observed remained intact. However, some of them presented damaged sensory maculae. Whereas before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively to nearly all the lateral system stimulations, after exposure they decreased by about 10% their positive responses to stimulations. From the 15th day after the beginning of cadmium exposure, neuromasts presented progressively less damage, cadmium accumulation in gills and scales decreased significantly and fish escape behaviour had recovered. This study presents a new concept in ecotoxicology: using behavioural change to reveal the effects of pollution levels, scarcely detectable by currently used techniques (physiological responses). - Cadmium exposure involved a significant bioaccumulation in fish scales, slight damage to the lateral line system and a significant decrease in fish escape behaviour.

  16. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Manzo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, “omics” methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl 2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl 2 -treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl 2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl 2 . These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  17. Effects of Oral Cadmium Exposure on Renal Glomerular and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    + - ATPase activities at the end of the 2 and 3 months exposure when compared to the controls. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 8 (1) 2004: 29 - 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v8i1.17222 · AJOL African ...

  18. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.forsgard@vgregion.se [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Östling, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.ostling@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Persson, Margaretha, E-mail: margaretha.persson@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Borné, Yan, E-mail: yan.borne@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); and others

    2015-01-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear.

  19. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Borné, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear

  20. Impact of electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAEED H Alchalabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the teratogenic effect of mobile phone radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development at the common used mobile phone frequency in our environment. Methods: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three experiment groups; control and two exposed groups (1 h/day, 2 h/day exposure groups (n=20/ each group and exposed to whole body radiation during gestation period from day 1- day 20. Electromagnetic radiofrequency signal generator was used to generate 1 800 MHz GSM-like signals at specific absorption rate value 0.974 W/kg. Animals were exposed during experiment in an especial designed Plexiglas box (60 cm × 40 cm × 30 cm. At the end of exposure duration at day 20 of pregnancy animals were sacrificed and foetuses were removed, washed with normal saline and processed to Alizarin red and Alcian blue stain. Skeleton specimens were examined under a stereo microscope and skeleton's snaps were being carefully captured by built in camera fixed on the stereo microscope. Results: Intrauterine exposure to electromagnetic radiation lead to variation in degree of ossification, mineralization, formation of certain parts of the skeleton majorly in head and lesser in other parts. Deformity and absence of formation of certain bones in the head, ribs, and coccygeal vertebrae were recorded in skeleton of foetuses from exposed dams compare to control group. Conclusions: The electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy alter the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes, and thus impact embryonic skeleton formation and development directly.

  1. Outdoor and indoor cadmium distributions near an abandoned smelting works and their relations to human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, David J., E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Lawlor, Alan [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hooper, Helen L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, Richard [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Thomas, Laura D.K. [MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Ellis, James K.; Bundy, Jacob G.; Keun, Hector C. [Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jarup, Lars [MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The relationship of measured or modelled Cd concentrations in soil, house dust and available to plants with human urinary Cd concentrations were assessed in a population living around a Cd/Pb/Zn smelter in the UK. Modelled air concentrations explained 35% of soil Cd variation indicating the smelter contributed to soil Cd loads. Multi-variate analysis confirmed a significant role of biological and life-style factors in determining urinary Cd levels. Significant correlations of urinary Cd with soil, house dust and modelled plant available Cd concentrations were not, however, found. Potential reasons for the absence of clear relationships include limited environmental contact in urban populations; the role of undefined factors in determining exposure; and the limited spatial scope of the survey which did not sample from the full pollution gradient. Further, the absence of any significant relationship indicates that environmental measures provide limited advantage over atmospheric model outputs for first stage human exposure assessment. - Highlights: > Environmental measurements indicate smelter pollution of a surrounding urban area. > Life-style and biology influenced U-Cd more than measured environmental levels. > Limited contact with outdoor environments may limit Cd uptake in urban populations. > Better life-style data could improve the attribution of human Cd exposure routes. > Measured Cd levels provide limited added exposure insight over dispersion models. - Measured and modelled environmental cadmium concentrations provide limited additional explanation of human urinary cadmium concentrations.

  2. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Borné, Yan; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su

  3. A longitudinal study on urinary cadmium and renal tubular protein excretion of nickel-cadmium battery workers after cessation of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanhua; Zhang, Yanfang; Yi, Juan; Zhou, Jinpeng; Huang, Xianqing; Shi, Xinshan; Xiao, Shunhua; Lin, Dafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to predict the outcome of urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion and renal tubular function by analyzing their evolution through 10 years after Cd exposure ceased. Forty-one female, non-smoking workers were recruited from the year 2004 to 2009 when being removed from a nickel-cadmium battery factory, and they were asked to provide morning urine samples on three consecutive days at enrollment and in every follow-up year until 2014. Urinary Cd and renal tubular function biomarkers including urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentrations were determined with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The medians of baseline Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations at enrollment were 6.19, 105.38 and 71.84 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary β2-m and RBP concentrations were both related to Cd concentrations over the years (β absolute-β2-m = 9.16, P = 0.008 and β absolute-RBP = 6.42, P < 0.001, respectively). Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations in the follow-up years were all associated with their baseline concentrations (β absolute-Cd = 0.61, P < 0.001; β absolute-β2-m = 0.64, P < 0.001; and β absolute-RBP = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively), and showed a decreasing tendency with the number of elapsed years relative to their baseline concentrations (β relative-Cd = -0.20, P = 0.010; β relative-β2-m = -17.19, P = 0.002; and β relative-RBP = -10.66, P < 0.001, respectively). Urinary Cd might eventually decrease to the general population level, and Cd-related tubular function would improve under the baseline conditions of this cohort.

  4. Long term exposure to cadmium: Pathological effects on kidney tubules cells in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, Bice; Cerciello, Raimondo; Cretì, Patrizia; Pizzoleo, Carmela; Scudiero, Rosaria; Tizzano, Monica; Panzuto, Raffaele; Simoniello, Palma; Montinari, Maria Rosa; Motta, Chiara M

    2017-12-01

    The effects of an exposure to cadmium chloride 0.47μM for 150days were studied in kidneys of juveniles Sparus aurata by a multidisciplinary approach so to correlate uptake and detoxification potential to changes in brush border and glycocalyx sugar composition. Results demonstrated that cadmium concentration in kidney significantly increased from day 30 reaching a plateau on day 120 while metallothioneins reached a peak on day 90 and by day 120 were already decreasing to control values. Cytological damage was extensive on day 90, clearly detectable at both structural and ultrastructural levels, in tubular cells and brush-border. Staining with a panel of four lectins revealed a significant increase in N-Ac-Gal and a decrease in mannose in the glycocalyx and the tubular basal membranes. From day 120, when cadmium concentration was high and metallothionein concentration decreasing, a clear recovery was observed in tubular cells morphology and sugar composition. Possible significance of these apparently contrasting data are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of in vitro exposure to cadmium and copper on sea bass blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Arizza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells freshly collected from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu at 10-7 M, 10-5 M, 10-3 M, and exam- ined for neutral red retention capacity and for cell vitality with MTT assay. A relationship between heavy metal exposure and alteration in responses of blood cells in a dose-time-dependent was found. Our results showed that fish blood cells may constitute an interesting biological model for experimen- tal and applied toxicology, especially in the case of environmental pollution.

  6. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Bernard, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Hahn, R.; Manojlovic, N.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed to assess whether environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, lead and other heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population the authors selected 65- and 66-year-old women (n = 286) who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average cadmium levels in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU) revealed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg greater than Duisburg greater than Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. However, with respect to the urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein), albuminuria, total proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and some other biological findings, no significant differences between the study populations were noted. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically-confirmed hypertension as well as the relative frequency of hypertensive subjects (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg) did not differ significantly among the three study groups. There was no exposure-response relationship between CdU and tubular proteinuria in the range of the CdU-levels found (0.1 to 5.2 micrograms/g creatinine). However, albuminuria tended to be increased at CdU levels greater than 2 micrograms/g creatinine.

  7. Effect of co-exposure to lead and cadmium on antioxidant status in rat ovarian granulose cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Bangalore (India); Agarwal, Avnika; Gupta, Sarita [M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)

    2007-03-15

    The effects of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on granulose cells were studied. Adult female rats were treated i.p. with either lead acetate (LA) or cadmium acetate (CA) both, alone, or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight on a daily basis for 15 days. Both metals were accumulated in the ovary after metal exposure. Metal exposure caused a decrease in reduced glutathione content along with elevated lipid peroxidation in all groups. Granulose cells of both cadmium as well as combination group demonstrated a maximum increase in lipid peroxides and catalase activity, along with decreased glutathione status and superoxide dismutase activities. Combined treated animals exhibited an intermediate effect in antioxidant status. However, ''in vitro'' exposure showed no significant change in antioxidant enzymes in all metal exposed cells. Data from the present study indicates that lead and cadmium in isolation and in combination cause oxidative stress. Lead and cadmium in combination do not show additive or synergistic effect indicating the competition between them due to similarity in electronic affinities. Present study highlights the effects of toxic metals that disturb membrane integrity of cells via ROS and thereby classifying mechanism for altered receptor binding, steroidogenesis, and hormone production. (orig.)

  8. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  9. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songprasert, Nisarat; Sukaew, Thitiporn; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Padungtod, Chantana; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

    2015-01-01

    The cadmium (Cd) contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG) in urine (as an internal exposure dose) and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose). Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infarction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available. PMID:26262629

  10. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, B.F. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Andreani, T. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CITAB − Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real (Portugal); Gavina, A., E-mail: anacsgavina@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vieira, M.N. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, C.M. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Under sunlight exposure, all QDs form particle aggregates in the different media. • CdSeS/ZnS QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri before sunlight exposure. • Sunlight exposure decreased the toxicity of CdS 480 in all organisms. • Sunlight exposure increased the toxicity of CdS 380 QDs for D. magna. • Shell of QDs seemed to make them less harmful to aquatic organisms. - Abstract: Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same

  11. Exposure to lead and cadmium released from ceramics and glassware intended to come into contact with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Mania, Monika; Szynal, Tomasz; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Starska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of harmful elements, particularly lead and cadmium constitutes a health threat and essential measures should be undertaken to reduce consumer exposure. The latest risk assessments by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have indicated that the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for lead and cadmium do not ensure health safety and their review had to be undertaken. Migration from ceramics and glassware intended for food contact is an important source of lead and cadmium intake. To study the release of lead and cadmium from ceramics and glassware (including decorated products) intended for food contact that are available on the Polish market and to assess the resulting health risk to the consumer. Ceramics and glassware (mainly decorated) were sampled from the Polish market during 2010- 2012 throughout the country by staff of the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in accordance with monitoring procedures and guidelines designed by the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene. Migration of lead and cadmium was measured by incubating the samples with 4% acetic acid for 24 hours at a temperature of 22±2ºC in the dark. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used to measure these elements in food simulant according to a validated and accredited method (PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025). 1273 samples of ceramics and glass wares were analysed in 2010-2012. Lead and cadmium release were usually found to be below analytical detection limits. Permissible migration limits (as prescribed by the legislation) of these metals were rarely exceeded and were reported mainly in articles imported from outside the EU. Two imported and decorated ceramic flat plates released lead at 0.9 and 11.9 mg/dm2 (limit 0.8 mg/dm2) and 5 imported deep plates gave migration values of 4.7 mg/L, 4.9 mg/L, 5.6 mg/L, 6.1 mg/L, 8.6 mg/L (limit 4.0 mg/L). Lead migrations from ceramic ware rims

  12. Molecular changes in vitellogenin gene of Spodoptera exigua after long-time exposure to cadmium - Toxic side effect or microevolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachetka-Bożek, Anna; Chwiałkowska, Karolina; Augustyniak, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The reproduction of pest insects is a continuously ongoing issue, especially in the environmental pollution context. Natural or artificial stressing factors enforce a kind of trade-off, most often between growth/survival and reproduction, which improves fitness of the organism. Harmful factors, such as cadmium, can affect the vitellogenesis leading to reduction of yolk synthesis and egg production. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection to cadmium in food might have induced change in vitellogenesis of Spodoptera exigua. We analyzed the level of Vg gene expression in S. exigua from the control and the cadmium strain at regular time intervals within 48h after eclosion. The full sequence of Vg gene was also compared between strains. The vitellogenin gene expression in both strains was time-dependent. This dependence was more visible in the control strain. In the cadmium strain the vitellogenin expression was significantly lower, comparing with the control strain in the first day after eclosion but increased significantly in the second day. The sequenced CDS (5286bp long) of the control and the cadmium strains were translated into protein sequences containing both 1761 aa. The protein sequences comparison revealed that there is one amino acid change at aa position 1282. Multiple alignments of six orthologous proteins from different species showed that amino acid change is located in the conserved position. Long-lasting exposure to cadmium resulted in permanent mutation in vitellogenin gene. We do not know yet if the mutation can improve fitness of the cadmium-selected insects. However, we can suppose that the mutation is neutral or even beneficial. The mutation and most probably additional effects of cadmium exposure have an influence on the vitellogenin expression. Some modification in the expression of the vitellogenin receptor are also likely to be important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    exposure. - Highlights: • Wistar rats were given tap water or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water. • Ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were tested for MMPs activity. • CdCl{sub 2} was also directly dissolved at the incubation buffer in another experiment. • Cadmium inhibited the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 in both experiments. • Cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the ECM turnover.

  14. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K.; Moroz, Andrei; Felisbino, Sérgio L.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn 2+ ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd 2+ intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl 2 diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl 2 intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd 2+ treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl 2 , respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl 2 within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its exposure. - Highlights: • Wistar rats were given

  15. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  16. Effects of chronic low-dose cadmium exposure on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovásová, Eva; Rácz, Oliver; Cimboláková, Iveta; Nováková, Jaroslava; Dombrovský, Peter; Ništiar, František

    2013-01-01

    The effects of long-term (1 yr) exposure to low doses of cadmium (Cd) dissolved in drinking water on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters were studied in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: male control group (C-m), female control group (C-f), male Cd-exposed group (Cd-m), and female Cd-exposed group (Cd-f). Cd groups were exposed to Cd dissolved in drinking water (cadmium dichloride 4.8 mg CdCl2/L, i.e., 2.5 mg Cd/L, 500-fold of maximal allowable concentration for potable water). The experiment was terminated on d 370. In all groups, biochemical parameters (total protein [TP], albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, urea, and creatinine) and antioxidant parameters (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity) were measured in the blood. Total protein and albumin concentrations were decreased significantly in the Cd-m group. Other biochemical parameters did not change in Cd groups compared to control groups. Superoxide dismutase fell significantly in both male and female Cd-exposed groups. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was markedly lower in Cd-exposed groups. Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in Cd-f group. These results suggest that chronic low-dose oral Cd exposure induces oxidative stress.

  17. [Low dose exposure to cadmium and its health effects (1). Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Hiroshi; Kitoh, Hideaki; Satoh, Masahiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2002-09-01

    We reviewed studies on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cadmium (Cd). Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli exposed to Cd did not show mutagenicity, whereas cultured mammalian cells exposed to Cd showed mutation, DNA strand breaks, and chromosomal aberrations. Carcinogenicity tests showed that exposure to Cd increased the occurrence of tumors in testis, lung, prostate, hematopoietic tissues, and injection sites. On the other hand, recent epidemiologic studies are not supportive of earlier observations on the association between Cd and prostate cancer. The US NIOSH data on a possible association between Cd and lung cancer may need reevaluation. No studies which show a positive relationship between oral Cd exposure and carcinogenesis have been reported. All available data suggest that Cd should be reassigned to IARC Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) from the current Group 1.

  18. Impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium on cognitive development at preschool age and the importance of selenium and iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bottai, Matteo; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Koutra, Katerina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vafeiadi, Marina; Fthenou, Eleni; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vahter, Marie; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding a potential link of low-to-moderate iodine deficiency, selenium status, and cadmium exposure during pregnancy with neurodevelopment is either contradicting or limited. We aimed to assess the prenatal impact of cadmium, selenium, and iodine on children’s neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. The study included 575 mother–child pairs from the prospective “Rhea” cohort on Crete, Greece. Exposure to cadmium, selenium and iodine was assessed by concentrations in the mother’s urine during pregnancy (median 13 weeks), measured by ICPMS. The McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities was used to assess children’s general cognitive score and seven different sub-scales. In multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, elevated urinary cadmium concentrations (≥0.8 µg/L) were inversely associated with children’s general cognitive score [mean change: −6.1 points (95 % CI −12; −0.33) per doubling of urinary cadmium; corresponding to ~0.4 SD]. Stratifying by smoking status (p for interaction 0.014), the association was restricted to smokers. Urinary selenium was positively associated with children’s general cognitive score [mean change: 2.2 points (95 % CI −0.38; 4.8) per doubling of urinary selenium; ~0.1 SD], although the association was not statistically significant. Urinary iodine (median 172 µg/L) was not associated with children’s general cognitive score. In conclusion, elevated cadmium exposure in pregnancy of smoking women was inversely associated with the children’s cognitive function at pre-school age. The results indicate that cadmium may adversely affect neurodevelopment at doses commonly found in smokers, or that there is an interaction with other toxicants in tobacco smoke. Additionally, possible residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

  19. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ngo Duc; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Thuy, Le Thi; Nyberg, Ylva; Mai, Le Bach; Vinh, Nguyen Cong; Khai, Nguyen Manh; Öborn, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  20. Ethanol exposure disrupts extraembryonic microtubule cytoskeleton and embryonic blastomere cell adhesion, producing epiboly and gastrulation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    2013-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD occurs when pregnant mothers consume alcohol, causing embryonic ethanol exposure and characteristic birth defects that include craniofacial, neural and cardiac defects. Gastrulation is a particularly sensitive developmental stage for teratogen exposure, and zebrafish is an outstanding model to study gastrulation and FASD. Epiboly (spreading blastomere cells over the yolk cell, prechordal plate migration and convergence/extension cell movements are sensitive to early ethanol exposure. Here, experiments are presented that characterize mechanisms of ethanol toxicity on epiboly and gastrulation. Epiboly mechanisms include blastomere radial intercalation cell movements and yolk cell microtubule cytoskeleton pulling the embryo to the vegetal pole. Both of these processes were disrupted by ethanol exposure. Ethanol effects on cell migration also indicated that cell adhesion was affected, which was confirmed by cell aggregation assays. E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule expression was not affected by ethanol exposure, but E-cadherin distribution, which controls epiboly and gastrulation, was changed. E-cadherin was redistributed into cytoplasmic aggregates in blastomeres and dramatically redistributed in the extraembryonic yolk cell. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to identify potential causative factors for early development defects, and expression of the cell adhesion molecule protocadherin-18a (pcdh18a, which controls epiboly, was significantly reduced in ethanol exposed embryos. Injecting pcdh18a synthetic mRNA in ethanol treated embryos partially rescued epiboly cell movements, including enveloping layer cell shape changes. Together, data show that epiboly and gastrulation defects induced by ethanol are multifactorial, and include yolk cell (extraembryonic tissue microtubule cytoskeleton disruption and blastomere adhesion defects, in part caused by reduced pcdh18a expression.

  1. Hsp27, Hsp70, and metallothionein in MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells: effects of prolonged exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, Rita T.; Fine, Michael R.; Pollock, Fiona M.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a widely distributed industrial and environmental toxin. The principal target organ of chronic sublethal cadmium exposure is the kidney. In renal epithelial cells, acute high-dose cadmium exposure induces differential expression of proteins, including heat shock proteins. However, few studies have examined heat shock protein expression in cells after prolonged exposure to cadmium at sublethal concentrations. Here, we assayed total cell protein, neutral red uptake, cell death, and levels of metallothionein and heat shock proteins Hsp27 and inducible Hsp70 in cultures of MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells treated with cadmium for 3 days. Treatment with cadmium at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 μM (LLC-PK1) or 25 μM (MDCK) reduced measures of cell vitality and induced cell death. However, a concentration-dependent increase in Hsp27 was detected in both cell types treated with as little as 5 μM cadmium. Accumulation of Hsp70 was correlated only with cadmium treatment at concentrations also causing cell death. Metallothionein was maximally detected in cells treated with cadmium at concentrations that did not reduce cell vitality, and further increases were not detected at greater concentrations. These results reveal that heat shock proteins accumulate in renal epithelial cells during prolonged cadmium exposure, that cadmium induces differential expression of heat shock protein in epithelial cells, and that protein expression patterns in epithelial cells are specific to the cadmium concentration and degree of cellular injury. A potential role for Hsp27 in the cellular response to sublethal cadmium-induced injury is also implicated by our results

  2. Cadmium exposure triggers genotype-dependent changes in seed vigor and germination of tomato offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcia Eugenia Amaral; Piotto, Fernando Angelo; Nogueira, Marina Lima; Gomes-Junior, Francisco Guilhien; Chamma, Helena Maria Carmignani Pescarin; Pizzaia, Daniel; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2018-01-21

    Although negative effects on the offspring fitness can be triggered by the mother-plant exposure to environmental stresses, some plants are able to "remember" past incidents and enhance the progeny tolerance. Here, the mineral profile, cytogenetic modifications, and physiological potential of seeds from two tomato cultivars, with contrasting tolerance degrees to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, were evaluated after plant exposure to this metal. Both cultivars exhibited high Cd translocation to the seeds; however, the tolerant tomato accumulated more Cd than did the sensitive one. As a consequence of the Cd accumulation, reductions in the Mn concentration in Cd-challenged plants were detected. Surprisingly, seed germination and vigor were increased in the tolerant tomato cultivar after Cd exposure, despite increases in the chromosomal abnormalities. By contrast, seeds from the sensitive cultivar exhibited no changes in their physiological potential after Cd exposure, despite Cd-induced reductions in the mitotic index. Moreover, bunch position exerted effects on the vigor and type of chromosomal abnormality. The results show that maternal plant exposure to Cd can affect tomato offspring by changing the seed physiological potential, and such effect can be partially explained by alterations in the seed-derived elements (essential and non-essential) and genotype-dependent tolerance mechanisms.

  3. Exposure factors of cadmium for residents in an abandoned metal mine area in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seung Chul; Chang, Jun Young; Lee, Jung Sub; Yu, Hwa Yon; Jung, A-Ra; Kim, Jee-Young; Choi, Jong-Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Do Yu, Seung; Choi, Kyounghee

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated blood and urine cadmium (Cd) levels and human exposure factors for residents in an abandoned metal mine in Korea. We collected blood, urine, soil, water, and rice grain samples to analyze Cd concentrations and analyzed heavy metal concentration patterns in soil. We estimated the major exposure factor of Cd through non-carcinogenic risk assessment depending on exposure routes. The blood Cd concentration in the case group was 5.33 μg/L (geometric mean), significantly higher than that in the control group (1.63 μg/L, geometric mean). Urine Cd concentrations were also similar. The Cd concentrations in paddy soil (1.29 mg/kg) and rice grains (0.14 mg/kg) in the study area were higher than those in the control area (0.91 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively). The analysis of heavy metal concentration in soil showed that the Cd levels in agricultural soil in the case group were attributable to the mine. The hazard quotient (HQ) of Cd by rice ingestion in the case group (1.25) was 2 times higher than that in the control group (0.6). We found that the HQ of rice ingestion contributed to more than 97 % of the total HQ, indicating that rice grains were the major exposure source. However, it is likely that the continuous intake of Cd-exposed crops led to chronic exposure among the residents in mine area.

  4. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Soon; Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium conce...

  5. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  6. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  7. Embryonic Methamphetamine Exposure Inhibits Methamphetamine Cue Conditioning and Reduces Dopamine Concentrations in Adult N2 C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, S.N.; Neal-Beliveau, B.S.; Engleman, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MAP) addiction is substantially prevalent in today's society, resulting in thousands of deaths and costing billions of dollars annually. Despite the potential deleterious consequences, few studies have examined the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. Using the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) allows for a controlled analysis of behavioral and neurochemical changes due to early developmental drug exposure. The objective of the current studies was to determine the long-term behavioral and neurochemical effects of embryonic exposure to MAP in C. elegans. In addition, we sought to improve our conditioning and testing procedures by utilizing liquid filtration, as opposed to agar, and smaller, 6-well testing plates to increase throughput. Wild-type N2 C. elegans were embryonically exposed to 50 μM MAP. Using classical conditioning, adult-stage C. elegans were conditioned to MAP (17 and 500 μM) in the presence of either sodium ions (Na+) or chloride (Cl-) ions as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-). Following conditioning, a preference test was performed by placing worms in 6-well test plates spotted with the CS+ and CS- at opposite ends of each well. A preference index (PI) was determined by counting the number of worms in the CS+ target zone divided by the total number of worms in the CS+ and CS- target zones. A food conditioning experiment was also performed in order to determine if embryonic MAP exposure affected food conditioning behavior. For the neurochemical experiments, adult worms that were embryonically exposed to MAP were analyzed for (dopamine) DA content using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The liquid filtration conditioning procedure employed here in combination with the use 6-well test plates significantly decreased the time required to perform these experiments and ultimately increased throughput. The MAP conditioning data found that pairing an ion with MAP at 17 or 500 μM significantly

  8. Embryonic Methamphetamine Exposure Inhibits Methamphetamine Cue Conditioning and Reduces Dopamine Concentrations in Adult N2 Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, Simon N; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S; Engleman, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MAP) addiction is substantially prevalent in today's society, resulting in thousands of deaths and costing billions of dollars annually. Despite the potential deleterious consequences, few studies have examined the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. Using the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans allows for a controlled analysis of behavioral and neurochemical changes due to early developmental drug exposure. The objective of the current study was to determine the long-term behavioral and neurochemical effects of embryonic exposure to MAP in C. elegans. In addition, we sought to improve our conditioning and testing procedures by utilizing liquid filtration, as opposed to agar, and smaller, 6-well testing plates to increase throughput. Wild-type N2 C. elegans were embryonically exposed to 50 μM MAP. Using classical conditioning, adult-stage C. elegans were conditioned to MAP (17 and 500 μM) in the presence of either sodium ions (Na+) or chloride ions (Cl-) as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-). Following conditioning, a preference test was performed by placing worms in 6-well test plates spotted with the CS+ and CS- at opposite ends of each well. A preference index was determined by counting the number of worms in the CS+ target zone divided by the total number of worms in the CS+ and CS- target zones. A food conditioning experiment was also performed in order to determine whether embryonic MAP exposure affected food conditioning behavior. For the neurochemical experiments, adult worms that were embryonically exposed to MAP were analyzed for dopamine (DA) content using high-performance liquid chromatography. The liquid filtration conditioning procedure employed here in combination with the use of 6-well test plates significantly decreased the time required to perform these experiments and ultimately increased throughput. The MAP conditioning data found that pairing an ion with MAP at 17 or 500 μM significantly increased the preference

  9. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  10. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J., E-mail: dietrich@pan.olsztyn.pl [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K. [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dobosz, Stefan [Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute, Rutki 83-330 Zukowo (Poland); Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-05-10

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  11. Nervous system effects of dissolved and nanoparticulate cadmium in rats in subacute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Edina; Oszlánczi, Gábor; Máté, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Andrea; Kozma, Gábor; Sápi, András; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László; Papp, András

    2011-07-01

    Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal with various applications in technology, can affect people both by environmental (foodborne) and occupational (inhalation) exposure and can cause nervous system damage. To model this, rats were subacutely treated either with CdCl(2) solution per os (3.0 mg kg(-1) b.w.) or nanoparticulate CdO(2) (particle size ca 65 nm) by intratracheal instillation (0.04 mg kg(-1) b.w.) alone or in sequential combination. Nervous system effects were observed at different levels of function (open field behavior, cortical electrical activity, nerve action potential) and some general toxicological indicators were also measured. Three weeks of oral plus one week of intratracheal exposure caused significant reduction of body weight gain and open field motility. Lengthening of latency of sensory evoked potentials, observed in all treated rats, was also the most significant in the group receiving oral plus intratracheal treatment. Conduction velocity of the tail nerve was likewise decreased in all treated groups. Several of the effects pointed to a potentiating interaction between the two forms of Cd. Modeling environmental and occupational Cd exposure by oral and intratracheal application in rats was feasible, with results suggesting serious negative health effects in humans suffering such a combined exposure. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: age and gender aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Duc Minh; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Le, Thi Thuy; Nyberg, Ylva; Le, Bach Mai; Nguyen, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Manh Khai; Oborn, Ingrid

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n=132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n=130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ>1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic odorant exposure upregulates acquisition of functional properties in cultured embryonic chick olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Grace; Musto, Christa; Gomez, George

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal development and differentiation is modulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that stimulate endogenous neurogenesis and differentiation to promote adaptive survival of the organism. Studies on bird odor imprinting have shown how sensory stimuli or environmental influences can affect neonatal behavior, presumably by remodeling the developing nervous system. It is unclear whether these changes originate from the sensory neurons themselves or from the brain. Thus, we attempted to address this by using an in vitro system to separate the peripheral neurons from their central connections. Olfactory neurons from embryonic day 17 Gallus domesticus chicks were isolated, cultured, and exposed to 100 µM amyl acetate or phenethyl alcohol in 12-hr bouts, alternated with periods of no-odor exposure. On days 4 and 5 in vitro, cells were immunostained for olfactory marker protein, neuron-specific tubulin, and olfactory GTP-binding protein, and tested for odorant sensitivity using calcium imaging. While odorant exposure did not result in a significant increase in the overall number of neurons, it promoted neuron differentiation: a larger proportion of odorant-exposed cells expressed olfactory marker protein and the olfactory GTP-binding protein. When cell responsiveness was tested using calcium imaging, a greater proportion of odorant-exposed cells responded to stimulation with 100 µM amyl acetate or phenethyl alcohol. Thus, odorant exposure during development modulated the developmental trajectories of individual neurons, resulting in changes in protein expression associated with odorant signaling. This suggests that the neuronal changes in the periphery have an important contribution to the overall long-term functional changes associated with odor imprinting. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Environmental exposure to cadmium at a level insufficient to induce renal tubular dysfunction does not affect bone density among female Japanese farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2005-01-01

    Some recent research suggests that environmental exposure to cadmium, even at low levels, may increase the risk of osteoporosis, and that the bone demineralization is not just a secondary effect of renal dysfunction induced by high doses of cadmium as previously reported. To investigate the effect of exposure to cadmium at a level insufficient to induce kidney damage on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism, we conducted health examinations on 1380 female farmers from five districts in Japan who consumed rice contaminated by low-to-moderate levels of cadmium. We collected peripheral blood and urine samples and medical and nutritional information, and measured forearm BMD. Analysis of the data for subjects grouped by urinary cadmium level and age-related menstrual status suggested that cadmium accelerates both the increase of urinary calcium excretion around the time of menopause and the subsequent decrease in bone density after menopause. However, multivariate analyses showed no significant contribution of cadmium to bone density or urinary calcium excretion, indicating that the results mentioned above were confounded by other factors. These results indicate that environmental exposure to cadmium at levels insufficient to induce renal dysfunction does not increase the risk of osteoporosis, strongly supporting the established explanation for bone injury induced by cadmium as a secondary effect.

  15. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. ► Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. ► These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  16. Hearing loss in children with e-waste lead and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Wei, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wengli; Wu, Xianguang; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-15

    Environmental chemical exposure can cause neurotoxicity and has been recently linked to hearing loss in general population, but data are limited in early life exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) especially for children. We aimed to evaluate the association of their exposure with pediatric hearing ability. Blood Pb and urinary Cd were collected form 234 preschool children in 3-7years of age from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and a reference area matched in Shantou of southern China. Pure-tone air conduction (PTA) was used to test child hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8kHz. A PTA≥25dB was defined as hearing loss. A higher median blood Pb level was found in the exposed group (4.94±0.20 vs 3.85±1.81μg/dL, phearing loss (28.8% vs 13.6%, phearing thresholds at average low and high frequency, and single frequency of 0.5, 1 and 2kHz were all increased in the exposed group. Positive correlations of child age and nail biting habit with Pb, and negative correlations of parent education level and child washing hands before dinner with Pb and Cd exposure were observed. Logistic regression analyses showed the adjusted OR of hearing loss for Pb exposure was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.029, 1.486). Our data suggest that early childhood exposure to Pb may be an important risk factor for hearing loss, and the developmental auditory system might be affected in e-waste polluted areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure

  18. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  19. Validating the use of embryonic fish otoliths as recorders of sublethal exposure to copper in estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, Nicole C.; Greig, Alan; Swearer, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explore the use of fish otoliths (‘earbones’) as a tool for detecting exposure to heavy metals in sediments. Because otoliths are metabolically inert and incorporate chemical impurities during growth, they can potentially provide a more permanent record of pollutant exposure history in aquatic environments than soft tissues. To validate this technique we cultured embryos of a native Australian fish, the common Galaxias (Galaxias maculatus), in the laboratory on sediments spiked with copper in a concentration gradient. Our aims were to test whether exposure to copper contaminated sediments is recorded in the otoliths of embryos and determine over what range in concentrations we can detect differences in exposure. We found elevated copper levels in otoliths of embryos exposed to high copper concentrations in sediments, suggesting that otoliths can be used as a tool to track a history of exposure to elevated copper levels in the environment. -- Highlights: •Our aim was to determine if exposure to Cu is recorded in embryonic fish otoliths. •Fish eggs were cultured on Cu-spiked sediments in a gradient of concentrations. •Fish do uptake and incorporate Cu into their otoliths during development. •High sediment Cu concentrations resulted in high otolith Cu concentrations. •With further validation, otoliths could be used to track a history of Cu exposure. -- We use sediments spiked with Cu to examine the uptake of heavy metals into embryonic fish otoliths as a novel tool for tracking pollution exposure history

  20. Uptake and tissue distributions of cadmium, selenium and zinc in striped marsh frog tadpoles exposed during early post-embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, Chantal M; Cresswell, Tom; Melvin, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    Metals and metalloids released through anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic organisms, resulting in adverse effects in sensitive species. We investigated the influence of feeding regime and exposure complexity (i.e., mixture) on bioaccumulation kinetics and body distribution of common metal(loid) pollutants in Limnodynastes peronii during early post-embryonic development. Tadpoles were exposed to radiolabelled 109 Cd, 75 Se and 65 Zn alone and in a mixture for 4 days, followed by 3 days depuration in clean water. One group was fed directly in exposure aquaria, whereas a second group was transferred to clean water for feeding, to investigate the potential influence of sorption to food on uptake. Bioconcentration factor and retention was observed to be greatest for Se. Results demonstrate that tadpoles accumulated and retained half the amount of Cd when exposed in mixture, suggesting that Se and/or Zn may have antagonistic effects against Cd uptake. Additionally, tadpoles fed directly in exposure water accumulated 2-3-times more Cd and Zn compared to tadpoles fed in clean water, indicating that the presence of food particles is an important factor that may influence uptake. Interestingly, this had a negligible impact on Se uptake. The study reveals how exposure conditions can influence the bioaccumulation of metal(loid)s, highlighting experimental factors as important considerations for both controlled toxicity experiments and for understanding exposure risks for amphibian populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reprogramming Malignant Cancer Cells toward a Benign Phenotype following Exposure to Human Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo Orazio

    2017-01-01

    The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins. However, the possibility that these embryonic stem cells-derived exosomes might be the main effectors of the anti-tumor effect mediated by the embryonic stem cells has not been explored yet. The present study aims to investigate whether exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells can reprogram malignant cancer cells to a benign stage and reduce their tumorigenicity. We show that the embryonic stem cell-conditioned medium contains factors that inhibit cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells display anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects, and decrease tumor size in a xenograft model. These exosomes are also able to transfer their cargo into target cancer cells, inducing a dose-dependent increase in SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog proteins, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. This study shows for the first time that human embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the tumor suppressive activity displayed by human embryonic stem cells. PMID:28068409

  2. Embryonic-only arsenic exposure in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) reduces growth and alters muscle IGF levels one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowicz, Dana B; Sims, Kaleigh C; Castro, Noemi M; Bridges, William C; Bain, Lisa J

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant of drinking water and crops in many parts of the world. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to decreased birth weight, weight gain, and proper skeletal muscle function. The goal of this study was to use killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) as a model to determine the long-term effects of embryonic-only arsenic exposure on muscle growth and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. Killifish embryos were exposed to 0, 50, 200 or 800ppb As III from fertilization until hatching. Juvenile fish were reared in clean water and muscle samples were collected at 16, 28, 40 and 52 weeks of age. There were significant reductions in condition factors, ranging from 12 to 17%, in the fish exposed to arsenic at 16, 28 and 40 weeks of age. However, by 52 weeks, no significant changes in condition factors were seen. Alterations in IGF-1R and IGF-1 levels were assessed as a potential mechanism by which growth was reduced. While there no changes in hepatic IGF-1 transcripts, skeletal muscle cells can also produce their own IGF-1 and/or alter IGF-1 receptor levels to help enhance growth. After a 200 and 800ppb embryonic exposure, fish grown in clean water for 16 weeks had IGF-1R transcripts that were 2.8-fold and 2-fold greater, respectively, than unexposed fish. Through 40 weeks of age, IGF1-R remained elevated in the 200ppb and 800ppb embryonic exposure groups by 1.8-3.9-fold, while at 52 weeks of age, IGF-1R levels were still significantly increased in the 800ppb exposure group. Skeletal muscle IGF-1 transcripts were also significantly increased by 1.9-5.1 fold through the 52 weeks of grow-out in clean by water in the 800ppb embryonic exposure group. Based on these results, embryonic arsenic exposure has long-term effects in that it reduces growth and increases both IGF-1 and IGF-1R levels in skeletal muscle even 1year after the exposure has ended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  4. Embryonic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in chickens: effects of dose and embryonic stage on hatchability and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, V; Swennen, Q; De Ketelaere, B; Onagbesan, O; Tona, K; Decuypere, E

    2003-09-01

    Chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) were injected with 0, 8, 20 or 50 ng tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) per egg at embryonic day (ED) 4, 8 or 12 to investigate the effects of differential periods of sensitivity to TCDD exposure. At hatch, all chicks were weighed, sexed and examined macroscopically to identify possible malformations. Liver, bursa, heart and spleen masses were recorded from a number of chicks. The remaining chicks were raised until 6 weeks of age and body and organ masses, plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones, triglycerides and glucose were measured. Dose and stage during embryonic development at which injection was performed affected hatchability. Fifty nanogram of TCDD was highly toxic for 4-day-old chicken embryos. TCDD was less toxic for chicken embryos of 8- and especially 12-days old. One-day-old chick and organ weights were not different between TCDD doses at all injection days. However, injection performed at ED4 or ED8 with 20 and 50 ng, respectively, significantly depressed post-hatch body mass gain. Moreover, body mass gain in males was more depressed than in females. The delayed growth in TCDD treated chickens was accompanied by changes in T(3)/T(4) ratio that at some ages were significantly higher compared to control animals. No pronounced changes in plasma triglycerides or glucose concentrations during postnatal life were observed. Absolute and relative organ masses of 6-week-old chickens showed no remarkable changes.

  5. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  6. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity

  7. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5-8, 9-12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07-5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Prenatal arsenic exposure alters the programming of the glucocorticoid signaling system during embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Katharine E.; Labrecque, Matthew T.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ali, Abdulmehdi; Allan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    The glucocorticoid system, which plays a critical role in a host of cellular functions including mood disorders and learning and memory, has been reported to be disrupted by arsenic. In previous work we have developed and characterized a prenatal moderate arsenic exposure (50 ppb) model and identified several deficits in learning and memory and mood disorders, as well as alterations within the glucocorticoid receptor signaling system in the adolescent mouse. In these present studies we assessed the effects of arsenic on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway in both the placenta and the fetal brain in response at two critical periods, embryonic days 14 and 18. The focus of these studies was on the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2) which play a key role in glucorticoid synthesis, as well as the expression and set point of the GR negative feedback regulation. Negative feedback regulation is established early in development. At E14 we found arsenic exposure significantly decreased expression of both protein and message in brain of GR and the 11β-HSD1, while 11β-HSD2 enzyme protein levels were increased but mRNA levels were decreased in the brain. These changes in brain protein continued into the E18 time point, but mRNA levels were no longer significantly altered. Placental HSD11B2 mRNA was not altered by arsenic treatment but protein levels were elevated at E14. GR placental protein levels were decreased at E18 in the arsenic exposed condition. This suggests that arsenic exposure may alter GR expression levels as a consequence of a prolonged developmental imbalance between 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 protein expression despite decreased 11HSDB2 mRNA. The suppression of GR and the failure to turn down 11β-HSD2 protein expression during fetal development may lead to an altered set point for GR signaling throughout adulthood. To our knowledge, these studies are the first to demonstrate that gestational exposure to moderate levels of

  9. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  10. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11–17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  12. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  13. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Dysfunction Associated with Cadmium Exposure: Beneficial Effects of Curcumin and Tetrahydrocurcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Apaijit, Kwanjit; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal with high toxicity potential. Humans are exposed to Cd present in diet, polluted air, and cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has been associated with increased risk of chronic diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and nephropathy, all of which could be attributable to dysfunctional endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Cd toxicity is correlated with increased reactive oxygen formation and depletion of antioxidants, resulting in an oxidative stress. Chelation of Cd has proved useful in the removal of the Cd burden. However, several chelating agents cause side effects in clinical usage. Recent studies have shown that the antioxidant compounds curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin can alleviate vascular dysfunction and high blood pressure caused by Cd toxicity. In chronic Cd exposure, these antioxidants protect vascular endothelium by increasing nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability and improving vascular function. Antioxidant activity against Cd intoxication results directly and/or indirectly through free radical scavenging, metal chelation, enhanced expression of the antioxidant defense system, regulation of inflammatory enzymes, increase in NO• bioavailability, and reduction of gastrointestinal absorption and tissue Cd accumulation. This review summarizes current knowledge of Cd-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction and a possible protective effect conferred by the antioxidants curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin.

  15. Critical Windows of Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Size at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cadmium (Cd exposure has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We measured Cd concentrations in urine samples at or near 13, 24, and 35 gestational weeks from 282 women in Wuhan, China. We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the associations between maternal creatinine adjusted urinary Cd concentrations at each trimester and birth size. A significant inverse association was observed between higher maternal Cd levels measured during the 1st trimester and birth size in girls. For each log unit increase in Cd (µg/g creatinine levels from the 1st trimester, there was a decrease in birth weight by 116.99 g (95% confidence interval (CI: −208.87, −25.11 g. The Cd levels from the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also borderline significantly associated with ponderal index in girls. Joint estimation of trimester-specific effects suggested that associations with Cd levels for ponderal index (pint = 0.02 were significantly different across trimesters, and differences for effects across trimesters for birth weight were marginally significant (pint = 0.08 in girls. No significant associations were observed between Cd levels from any trimester and birth size in boys. Maternal Cd exposure during earlier periods of pregnancy may have a larger impact on delayed fetal growth.

  16. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  17. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  18. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish.

  19. Health effects of environmental exposure to cadmium: objectives, design and organization of the Cadmibel

    OpenAIRE

    Lauwerys, Robert; Amery, Antoon; Bernard, Alfred; Bruaux, Pierre; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Claeys, Françoise; De plaen, Pierre; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Fagard, Robert; Lijnen, Paul; Nick, Laurence; Roels, Harry; Rondia, Désiré; Saint-Remy, Annie; Sartor, Francis

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative environmental pollutant. For the general population mainly exposed by the oral route and through tobacco smoke inhalation, the kidney is the critical organ. Belgium is the principal producer of cadmium in Europe, and certain areas of the country are polluted by cadmium mainly because of past emissions from nonferrous industries. Preliminary studies carried out in one polluted area have suggested that environmental pollution might lead to an increased uptake of cadmiu...

  20. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2012-01-15

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels {>=}5 {mu}g/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary {beta}{sub 2}-MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  1. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A McElroy

    Full Text Available Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years. We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44. Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  2. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Soon; Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-02-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium concentration in muscle tissue of wild goldfish was 0.65-3.21 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, whereas it decreased in Group IV. Levels of cadmium in gill tissue of wild goldfish were 16.57-42.39 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, 15.23-43.01 mg/kg wet wt in Group II, 15.11-39.56 mg/kg wet wt in Group III, and 13.15-38.55 mg/kg wet wt in Group IV (P taurine may have a preventive effect against cadmium accumulation in biological tissues.

  3. Environmental cadmium and lead exposure and anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P. S.; Bonde, J. P.; Bungum, L.

    2016-01-01

    -AMH. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The associations between serum-AMH and whole blood cadmium or lead were investigated by general linear models in a population-based sample of 117 pregnant women. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of blood cadmium and lead were 0.71μg/L and 17.4μg/L, respectively. The mean serum...

  4. DNA mismatch repair related gene expression as potential biomarkers to assess cadmium exposure in Arabidopsis seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wan; Zhou Qixing; Li Peijun; Gao Hairong; Han, Y.P.; Li, X.J.; Yang, Y.S.; Li Yanzhi

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, Arabidopsis seedlings were hydroponically grown on MS media containing cadmium (Cd) of 0-2.0 mg L -1 for 60 h of treatment. Gene expression profiles were used to relate exposure to Cd with some altered biological responses and/or specific growth effects. RT-PCR analysis was used to quantitate mRNA expression for seven genes known to be involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system and cell division. Results indicated that Cd concentrations of 0.25-2.0 mg L -1 cause increased total soluble protein levels in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. Exposure to 0.25 and 0.5 mg L -1 of Cd dramatically induced expression of four genes (i.e. proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (atPCNA 2), MutL1 homolog (atMLH1), MutS 2 homolog (atMSH2) and atMSH3) and five genes (i.e. atPCNA1,2, atMLH1 and atMSH2,7), respectively, in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings; Exposure to 1.0 mg L -1 of Cd significantly elevated expression of only two genes (atMSH6,7), but caused prominent inhibition in expression of three genes (atPCNA2, atMLH1 and atMSH3) in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings. The expression alterations of the above genes were independent of any biological effects such as survival, fresh weight and chlorophyll level of shoots. However, shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 2.0 mg L -1 of Cd exhibited statistically prominent repression in expression of these seven genes, and showed incipient reduction of fresh weight and chlorophyll level. This research provides data concerning sensitivity of expression profiles of atMLH1, atMSH2,3,6,7 and atPCNA1,2 genes in Arabidopsis seedlings to Cd exposure, as well as the potential use of these gene expression patterns as representative molecular biomarkers indicative of Cd exposure and related biological effects.

  5. Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ching Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men’s arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC, lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03 ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16 ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22 ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.

  6. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet’s role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. PMID:24607659

  7. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. ► Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. ► Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. ► Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose–response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility (∼83.7%) than that of shellfish (∼73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2–3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  8. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs in mouse testes and spermatozoa after exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengxin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhang, Yunwen; Hao, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2017-02-26

    There is increasing evidence that cadmium (Cd) exposure can cause male subfertility and even complete infertility in mammals. Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs are critical for spermatogenesis, and their dysregulation might lead to male infertility. However, whether they are involved in Cd-induced subfertility is unknown. Here we found that intraperitoneal exposure to Cd in mice led to male subfertility indicated by reductions in testicular sperm production and motility, and by abnormal morphology. Testicular and sperm RNAs were used to investigate lncRNA expression profiles by strand-specific RNA sequencing at the transcriptome level to help determine any RNA-related mechanisms in Cd-induced subfertility. The Cd-treated testes and spermatozoa exhibited aberrant expression profiles for lncRNAs and mRNAs. Of the lncRNAs, there were 139 with upregulated expression and 174 with downregulated expression in testes; in contrast, 685 were upregulated and 375 were downregulated in spermatozoa. For mRNA expression, 214 were upregulated and 226 were downregulated in testes; 272 were upregulated and 111 were downregulated in spermatozoa. Gene ontology and pathway analyses showed that the functions of differentially expressed lncRNA targets and mRNAs were closely linked with many processes involved in spermatogenesis. Additionally, many newly identified lncRNAs showed inducible expression, suggesting that they might be good candidate markers for Cd-induced male reproductive toxicity. This study provides a preliminary database for further exploring lncRNA-related mechnisms in male infertility induced by Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Zinc and multi-mineral supplementation should mitigate the pathogenic impact of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-11-01

    High-level cadmium (Cd) exposure has long been known to induce nephropathy, severe osteoporosis, and fractures in humans. More recent epidemiology, however, reveals that, in populations not known to have important industrial exposure to this heavy metal, high-normal blood or urine Cd levels correlate with increased risk for vascular disorders, cancers, diabetes, and total mortality, as well as osteoporosis and nephropathy. Since these disorders appear unlikely to expedite Cd absorption, and since Cd has promoted these pathologies in rodent studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that Cd is an important mediating risk factor for these disorders in humans. Avoiding tobacco smoke or frequent ingestion of shellfish or organ meats can lessen humans exposure to Cd, but the chief dietary sources of Cd are plant-derived foods - green leafy vegetables, whole grains, tubers, and root vegetables - typically recommended for their health-supportive properties; indeed, among non-smokers, vegans tend to have the highest Cd body burden. Fortunately, iron sufficiency and ample dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, and zinc can impede absorption of dietary Cd, both by down-regulating intestinal expression of mineral transporters, and by directly competing with Cd for access to these transporters. Correction of iron deficiency appears to be of particular importance for controlling Cd absorption. Moreover, zinc supplementation can counteract the toxicity of Cd already in the body via induction of metallothionein, which binds Cd avidly via its sulfhydryl groups; so long as it remains sequestered in this form, Cd is innocuous. Zinc supplementation may in any case be recommendable, as optimal zinc status exerts protective anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunosupportive effects. Inasmuch as the toxicity of Cd appears to be mediated in large part by oxidative stress, ingestion of spirulina, lipoic acid, melatonin, and N-acetylcysteine may also have potential for mitigating the risk

  11. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  12. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Emerging Market Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Horton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  13. Low impact of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of 226Ra in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Berntssen, Marc H.G.; Hylland, Ketil; Eriksen, Dag Ø.; Holen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether 226 Ra, a radionuclide present in produced water from oil platforms in the North Sea and other offshore drilling areas, could affect vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Blastula-stage embryonic cells (EC) from fertilized eggs of Atlantic cod were isolated and exposed to environmental relevant concentrations of 226 Ra and transcription of selected genes quantified. The results showed a weak, but significant up-regulation of GPx3 and HSP70 transcripts after 48 h of exposure to 2.11 Bq/L. In EC exposed to three 226 Ra concentrations (2.11, 23 and 117 Bq/L) for 12 h, metallothionein, HSP90AA, thioredoxin and caspase 8 were significantly up-regulated in cells exposed to 117 Bq/L, whereas thioredoxin was also significantly up-regulated in EC exposed to 23 Bq/L. When EC were exposed to the same 226 Ra concentrations for 48 h, only heme oxygenase was significantly up-regulated in the 23 Bq/L exposure group. The results suggest that environmentally relevant activities of 226 Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish ECs. Exposure of Atlantic cod EC to Cd, selected as a model toxicant, supported the ability of EC around blastula stage to respond to toxicants by altered transcription. Due to dilution, environmentally relevant concentrations of radionuclides present in produced water would be expected to pose a minor threat to early life stages of fish. - Highlights: ► 226 Ra affects the transcription of genes in Atlantic cod embryonic cells. ► 226 Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish embryonic cells. ► 226 Ra not expected to pose a major threat to early life stages of marine fish.

  14. Synergistic effects of parental and embryonic exposure to predation risk on prey offspring size at emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-01-01

    Cues signaling predation risk can strongly influence prey phenotypes both within and between generations. Parental and embryonic effects have been shown to operate independently in response to predation risk, but how they interact to shape offspring life history traits remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted experiments to examine the synergistic impacts of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on offspring size at emergence in the snail, Nucella lapillus, which is an ecologically important intermediate consumer on rocky intertidal shores. We found that when embryos were exposed to predation risk, the offspring of risk-experienced parents emerged larger than those of parents that had no risk experience. This response was not the result of increased development time, greater resource availability, or fewer emerging offspring, but may have occurred because both parental and embryonic experiences with risk increased growth efficiency, perhaps by reducing embryonic respiration rates under risk. Our results highlight the potential for organisms to be influenced by a complex history of environmental signals with important consequences for individual fitness and predator-prey interactions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food.

  16. Response of bacterioplankton communities to cadmium exposure in coastal water microcosms with high temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Demin; Xiong, Jinbo; Chen, Xinxin; Zheng, Jialai; Hu, Changju; Yang, Yina; Zhu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, in which temporal variability in the bacterioplankton community has been considered a ubiquitous process. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of a bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 μg liter(-1) of cadmium (Cd) for 2 weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in the coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether the bacterial community structure would reflect the Cd gradient in a temporally varying system. Our results showed that the bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after a 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 μg liter(-1)). A process akin to an arms race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in the bacterial community. The temporal succession of the bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N, PO4 (3-)-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed a high frequency of being associated with Cd levels during 2 weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton communities exist in highly varying manipulated coastal systems. Future investigations on an ecosystem scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  17. Reduced cadmium accumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna under carbon nanotube exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-12-01

    With increasing application and commercial production, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will inevitably be released into aquatic environments and affect the transport and toxicity of toxic metals in ecosystems. The present study examined how CNTs affected the biokinetics and toxicity of a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), in the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna. The authors quantified the dissolved uptake and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50, 48 h and 72 h) of Cd in daphnids in the presence of functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (F-CNTs) with different lengths (10-30 µm vs 0.5-2 µm) and concentrations (4 mg/L and 8 mg/L). Compared with the control treatment without CNTs, both CNTs slowed down the accumulation rate of Cd in D. magna over 8 h of exposure and further reduced the accumulation thereafter. Mechanisms for the reduced Cd uptake were mainly related to the influences of CNTs on the physiological activity of daphnids. The LC50 of D. magna in the presence of Cd and shorter CNTs was almost the same as that of the control group without CNTs. However, the LC50 of the groups with normal CNTs was significantly higher than that of the control group (i.e., F-CNTs decreased Cd toxicity significantly). Meanwhile, CNTs also decreased the tolerance of D. magna to Cd. The present study suggests that different physical properties of CNTs, such as length, need to be considered in the environmental risk assessment of CNTs. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Low cadmium exposure in males and lactating females–estimation of biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajnko, Anja; Falnoga, Ingrid; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Mazej, Darja; Jagodic, Marta; Krsnik, Mladen; Kobal, Alfred B.; Prezelj, Marija; Kononenko, Lijana; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. Aim: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure. To this end, we used data from Slovenian human biomonitoring program involving 1081 Slovenians (548 males, mean age 31 years; 533 lactating females, mean age 29 years; 2007–2015) who have not been exposed to Cd occupationally. Results: Geometric means (GMs) of Cd in blood and spot urine samples were 0.27 ng/mL (0.28 for males and 0.33 for females) and 0.19 ng/mL (0.21 for males and 0.17 for females), respectively. Differing results were obtained when contrasting normalisation by urine creatinine with specific gravity. GMs of urine albumin (Alb), alpha-1-microglobulin (A1M), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were far below their upper reference limits. Statistical analysis of unnormalised or normalised urine data often yielded inconsistent and conflicting results (or trends), so association analyses with unnormalised data were taken as more valid. Relatively weak positive associations were observed between urine Cd (ng/mL) and blood Cd (β=0.11, p=0.002 for males and β=0.33, p<0.001 for females) and for females between urine NAG and blood Cd (β=0.14, p=0.04). No associations were found between other renal function biomarkers and blood Cd. Associations between Cd and renal function biomarkers in urine were stronger (p<0.05, β=0.11–0.63). Mostly, all of the associations stayed significant but weakened after normalisation for diuresis. In the case of A1M, its associations with Cd were influenced by

  19. Japanese medaka exposed to gold nanoparticles: Only embryonic exposure generates irreversible hatching failure, developmental failure, and mortality of sac-fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jin; Nam, Sun-Hwa; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated irreversible toxicity effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) during the short-term (only embryonic stage) and long-term (both embryo and sac-fry stages) exposures of Japanese ricefish, Oryzias latipes (medaka) embryos and sac-fry. Embryos and sac-fry exposed to AuNPs at 8 and 15days post-fertilization exhibited mortality, developmental failure, and abnormal appearance, and sac-fry additionally exhibited hatching failure and abnormal behavior. Embryos damaged by AuNPs during the embryonic stages failed to hatch and died, despite being raised under AuNP-free conditions after embryonic exposure. This study demonstrates that AuNPs have irreversible effects on O. latipes embryos and sac-fry, including the embryonic stages, regardless of the length of exposure. This result may be critical for predicting the potential continuous effects of AuNPs when the exposure duration of fish is short but includes the embryonic stages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to test the toxicity of AuNP exposure on the embryos and sac-fry of O. latipes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Srianujata, S.; Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C.; Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N.; Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 μg/l for Pb-B, 0.41 μg/l for Cd-B, 2.06 μg/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 μg/day for Pb-F and 7.1 μg/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Effects of low oral lead and cadmium exposure and zinc status of heme metabolites in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effects of moderate zinc deficiency and low oral lead and cadmium exposure on metabolites of porphyrin synthesis were investigated in weanling rats. Groups of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats (6/group) were fed diets containing either zinc (Zn) deficient (Zn D), pair-fed (Zn PF), Zn high (Zn H) or control (Zn C) and given sodium (10 micrograms/mL as NaCl), lead (20 micrograms/mL as Pb acetate) or cadmium (5 micrograms/mL as CdCl2) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Porphyrins in tissues were analyzed by HPLC. Feeding of zinc deficient diets decreased food intake and body weight of rats; plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels were 60 and 27% less than the control group, respectively. Kidney was the target organ for lead and cadmium accumulation. The concentration of lead in tissues were about: kidney = 98 micrograms/g; liver = 74 micrograms/g; whole blood = 22 micrograms/mL. Porphyrin intermediates detected in tissues were: heptaporphyrin, pentaporphyrin, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. The Zn D diet increased protoporphyrin concentrations in the liver by nearly 100% (P exposure to Pb or Cd decreased protoporphyrin to levels found in the Zn C group. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations were evaluated by 21% in Zn D rats; other metabolites were unchanged. In the kidney coproporphyrin was slightly higher in ZN D + Pb group. Low oral Cd exposure had no effect on porphyrin metabolites in all tissues. These results suggest that Zn deficiency triggers the accumulation of protoporphyrin in the liver and to some extent in the erythrocytes, and enhances renal coproporphyrin accretion in low lead exposed rats.

  2. Cadmium Exposure as a Putative Risk Factor for the Development of Pancreatic Cancer: Three Different Lines of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Buha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although profoundly studied, etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC is still rather scant. Exposure to cadmium (Cd, a ubiquitous metal associated with well-established toxic and carcinogenic properties, has been hypothesized to one putative cause of PC. Hence, we analyzed recently published observational studies, meta-analyses, and experimental animal and in vitro studies with the aim of summarizing the evidence of Cd involvement in PC development and describing the possible mechanisms. Consolidation of epidemiological data on PC and exposure to Cd indicated a significant association with an elevated risk of PC among general population exposed to Cd. Cadmium exposure of laboratory animals was showed to cause PC supporting the findings suggested by human studies. The concordance with human and animal studies is buttressed by in vitro studies, although in vitro data interpretation is problematic. In most instances, only significant effects are reported, and the concentrations of Cd are excessive, which would skew interpretation. Previous reports suggest that oxidative stress, apoptotic changes, and DNA cross-linking and hypermethylation are involved in Cd-mediated carcinogenesis. Undoubtedly, a significant amount of work is still needed to achieve a better understanding of the Cd involvement in pancreatic cancer which could facilitate prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of this fatal disease.

  3. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Everaarts, J.M.; Devi, K.S.

    zone, total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in water are 0.02 ± 0.01 µg/L and 0.06 ± 0.02 µg/L, respectively. Cadmium in the estuarine waters of the Dutch Wadden Sea varied from 0.03 ± 0.01 µg/L in the western part to 0.08 ± 0.03 µg/L in the eastern part...-wall of the polychaete worm Arenicola marina from the field varied from 5-25 ng/mL, 0.2-3.6 µg/g dw, and 0.5-1.5 µg/g dw, respectively (Everaarts unpublished data ). The present experimental laboratory study reports on the distribution of cadmium in the sediment column...

  4. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Kestemont, Patrick; Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  5. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorts, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.dorts@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Kestemont, Patrick [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine [Research Unit in Cell Biology (URBC) (NARILIS), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Silvestre, Frédéric [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  6. Effects of lead exposure on the concentration of cadmium, selenium and values of morphology in the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heavy metals, including cadmium and lead are both environmental and industrial toxins which cause metabolic disorders. Effects of these elements are long lasting and usually take a long time to show themselves. Also of importance is the active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, which is also a source of heavy metals. Heavy metals exhibit nephrotoxic activity, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and the level of selenium (Se, and values of morphology of employees of zinc and lead smelter. Material and methods. 334 occupationally exposed males (tested group and 60 males not exposed (control group were involved in the study. The men were between 19 and 62 years of age. The study population lived and/or worked in the industrial region of Upper Silesia. Blood cadmium concentration (Cd-B, blood lead concentration (Pb-B and serum concentrations of Se (Se-S were studied. The level of elements was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The average concentration of each metal in the exposed group was 2.42±2.20 µg/l (Cd-B, 33±9.6 µg/dl (Pb-B and 73.99±20.44 µg/l (Se-S. In the entire study population (exposed and control, a statistically significant negative linear relationship was found between Pb-B and Se-S (r=–0.16, p<0.05. There was no correlation between Cd-B and Se-S, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between Pb-B and Cd-B (r=0.48, p<0.05. Spearman Rank Correlation analysis showed that in the study population there was observed statistically significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between Se-S in smokers group. Conclusions. Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were observed in the exposed group compared to the control group. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lead may be a factor lowering the blood Se in the tested group. The most

  7. Patterns of gene expression in carp liver after exposure to a mixture of waterborne and dietary cadmium using a custom-made microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynders, Hans; Ven, Karlijn van der; Moens, Lotte N.; Remortel, Piet van; De Coen, Wim M.; Blust, Ronny

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression changes in carp liver tissue were studied after acute (3 and 24 h) and subchronic (7 and 28 days) exposure to a mixture of waterborne (9, 105 and 480 μg/l) and dietary (9.5, 122 and 144 μg/g) cadmium, using a custom-made microarray. Suppression subtractive hybridization-PCR (SSH-PCR) was applied to isolate a set of 643 liver genes, involved in multiple biological pathways, such as energy metabolism (e.g. glucokinase), immune response (e.g. complement C3) and stress and detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450 2F2, glutathione-S-transferase pi). These genes were subsequently spotted on glass-slides for the construction of a custom-made microarray. Resulting microarray hybridizations indicated a highly dynamic response to cadmium exposure. At low exposure concentrations (9 μg/l through water and 9.5 μg/g dry weight through food) mostly energy-related genes (e.g. glucokinase, elastase) were influenced, while a general stress response was obvious through induction of several stress-related genes, including hemopexin and cytochrome P450 2F2, at high cadmium concentrations. In addition, fish exposed to the highest cadmium concentrations showed liver damage after 7 days of exposure, as measured by elevated alanine transaminase activity in plasma and increased liver water content (wet-to-dry weight ratio). Moreover, decreased hematocrit and growth were found at the end of the experiment. Altogether this study clearly demonstrated the importance of varying exposure conditions for the characterization of the molecular impact of cadmium and showed that microarray results can provide important information, required to unravel the molecular events and responses related to cadmium exposure

  8. Patterns of gene expression in carp liver after exposure to a mixture of waterborne and dietary cadmium using a custom-made microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynders, Hans [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: hans.reynders@ua.ac.be; Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Moens, Lotte N. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Coen, Wim M. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-11-16

    Gene expression changes in carp liver tissue were studied after acute (3 and 24 h) and subchronic (7 and 28 days) exposure to a mixture of waterborne (9, 105 and 480 {mu}g/l) and dietary (9.5, 122 and 144 {mu}g/g) cadmium, using a custom-made microarray. Suppression subtractive hybridization-PCR (SSH-PCR) was applied to isolate a set of 643 liver genes, involved in multiple biological pathways, such as energy metabolism (e.g. glucokinase), immune response (e.g. complement C3) and stress and detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450 2F2, glutathione-S-transferase pi). These genes were subsequently spotted on glass-slides for the construction of a custom-made microarray. Resulting microarray hybridizations indicated a highly dynamic response to cadmium exposure. At low exposure concentrations (9 {mu}g/l through water and 9.5 {mu}g/g dry weight through food) mostly energy-related genes (e.g. glucokinase, elastase) were influenced, while a general stress response was obvious through induction of several stress-related genes, including hemopexin and cytochrome P450 2F2, at high cadmium concentrations. In addition, fish exposed to the highest cadmium concentrations showed liver damage after 7 days of exposure, as measured by elevated alanine transaminase activity in plasma and increased liver water content (wet-to-dry weight ratio). Moreover, decreased hematocrit and growth were found at the end of the experiment. Altogether this study clearly demonstrated the importance of varying exposure conditions for the characterization of the molecular impact of cadmium and showed that microarray results can provide important information, required to unravel the molecular events and responses related to cadmium exposure.

  9. Identification of molecular candidates and interaction networks via integrative toxicogenomic analysis in a human cell line following low-dose exposure to the carcinogenic metals cadmium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jee Young; Weon, Jong-Il; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Park, Kang-Sik; Kim, Im Soon; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium and nickel have been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. Given their prevalence in the environment, the fact that cadmium and nickel may cause diseases including cancer even at low doses is a cause for concern. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the toxicological effects induced by low-dose exposure to cadmium and nickel remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, it has recently been recognized that integrative analysis of DNA, mRNA and proteins is required to discover biomarkers and signaling networks relevant to human toxicant exposure. In the present study, we examined the deleterious effects of chronic low-dose exposure of either cadmium or nickel on global profiling of DNA copy number variation, mRNA and proteins. Array comparative genomic hybridization, gene expression microarray and functional proteomics were conducted, and a bioinformatics tool, which predicted signaling pathways, was applied to integrate data for each heavy metal separately and together. We found distinctive signaling networks associated with subchronic low-dose exposure to cadmium and nickel, and identified pathways common to both. ACTB, HSP90AA1, HSPA5 and HSPA8, which are key mediators of pathways related to apoptosis, proliferation and neoplastic processes, were key mediators of the same pathways in low-dose nickel and cadmium exposure in particular. CASP-associated signaling pathways involving CASP3, CASP7 and CASP9 were observed in cadmium-exposed cells. We found that HSP90AA1, one of the main modulators, interacted with HIF1A, AR and BCL2 in nickel-exposed cells. Interestingly, we found that HSP90AA1 was involved in the BCL2-associated apoptotic pathway in the nickel-only data, whereas this gene interacted with several genes functioning in CASP-associated apoptotic signaling in the cadmium-only data. Additionally, JUN and FASN were main modulators in nickel-responsive signaling pathways. Our

  10. Cytochemical study of carp neutrophil granulocytes after acute exposure to cadmium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Švestková, E.; Lusková, Věra; Svobodová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2005), s. 215-219 ISSN 0175-8659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : peripheral- blood leukocytes * cadmium * common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2005

  11. Urinary trehalase activity as an indicator of kidney injury due to environmental cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Kohkichi; Katoh, Terutaka; Morikawa, Yuuko; Aoshima, Keiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Teranishi, Hidetoyo; Kasuya, Minoru

    1988-12-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight subjects, patients with Itai-itai disease and their family members, aged 12-87 years living in a cadmium (Cd)-polluted area in the Jinzu River basin (Cd-exposed group) and 176 controls (control group) were examined. In the Cd-exposed group urinary trehalase increased with increasing age, urinary /beta/2-microglobulin (/beta/2-m) and retinol-binding protein. Although urinary cadmium was higher in the Cd-exposed group, no particular correlation was found between urinary trehalase and urinary cadmium. Seventeen men and 11 women showed raised urinary trehalase activities despite normal values of urinary /beta/2-m (<300 /mu/g/g.creatinine), suggesting that urinary trehalase increases earlier than urinary /beta/2-m. In 19 patients with Itai-itai disease included in the Cd-exposed group, urinary trehalase decreased with decreasing reciprocal of serum creatinine, suggesting that urinary trehalase decreases in the most advanced cases of chronic cadmium nephropathy due to reduced tubular cell mass. (orig.).

  12. Effects of cadmium exposure on glycogen phosphorylase activity in rat placenta as demonstrated by histochemical means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Hacker, H. J.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (PHO) activity was demonstrated histochemically in unfixed cryostat sections of placentae from cadmium-treated and control rats with the use of the semipermeable membrane technique. Staining of the newly synthesized glycogen was performed by lugol. A high activity was present

  13. Bisphenol A exposure induces increased microglia and microglial related factors in the murine embryonic dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mifumi; Komada, Munekazu; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Ikeda, Yayoi

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used compound in the food packaging industry. Prenatal exposure to BPA induces histological abnormalities in the neocortex and hypothalamus in association with abnormal behaviors. Yet, the molecular and cellular neurodevelopmental toxicological mechanisms of BPA are incompletely characterized on neuroinflammatory-related endopoints. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure in mouse embryos, we examined microglial numbers as well as the expression of microglial-related factors in the E15.5 embryonic brain. BPA-exposed embryos exhibited significant increases in Iba1-immunoreactive microglial numbers in the dorsal telencephalon and the hypothalamus compared to control embryos. Further, the expression levels of microglial markers (Iba1, CD16, iNOS, and CD206), inflammatory factors (TNFα and IL4), signal transducing molecules (Cx3Cr1 and Cx3Cl1), and neurotrophic factor (IGF1) were altered in BPA-exposed embryos. These findings suggest that BPA exposure increases microglial numbers in the brain and alters the neuroinflammatory status at a transcriptional level. Together, these changes may represent a novel target for neurodevelopmental toxicity assessment after BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of neonicotinoid exposure on embryonic development and organ mass in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Amanda; Crossley, Dane; Johnson, Jeff; Reyna, Kelly

    2017-05-01

    Since their emergence in the early 1990s, neonicotinoid use has increased exponentially to make them the world's most prevalent insecticides. Although there has been considerable research concerning the lethality of neonicotinoids, their sub-lethal and developmental effects are still being explored, especially with regard to non-mammalian species. The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the morphological and physiological development of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Bobwhite eggs (n=390) were injected with imidacloprid concentrations of 0 (sham), 10, 50, 100, and 150mg/kg of egg mass, which was administered at day 0 (pre-incubation), 3, 6, 9, or 12 of growth. Embryos were dissected, weighed, staged, and examined for any overt structural deformities after 19days of incubation. The mass of the embryonic heart, liver, lungs and kidneys was also recorded. The majority of treatments produced no discernible differences in embryo morphology; however, in some instances, embryos were subject to increased frequency of anatomical deformity and altered organ masses. Some impacts were more pronounced in specific dosing periods, implying that there may be critical windows of development when embryos are more susceptible to neonicotinoid exposure. This investigation suggests that imidacloprid has the potential to impact bobwhite quail embryonic development and chick survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of chronic cadmium exposure on the tissue distribution of copper and zinc and oxidative stress parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Onur; Yazihan, Nuray; Kocak, Mehtap Kacar; Sayal, Ahmet; Akcil, Ethem

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral cadmium (Cd) intoxication on the antioxidant response and its relationship with essential bioelements like copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). The experimental group was chronically exposed to Cd daily for 8 weeks via consumption of water containing 15 ppm cadmium chloride. Cu, Zn, and Cd concentrations and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in liver, kidney, and heart tissues. Exposure to Cd led to a significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase in all considered samples while a significant increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase except for the kidney. We found a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration in the tissues except for heart. Also oral administration of Cd caused a significant reduction of Zn and Cu in the tissues. Our results allow us to hypothesize that higher Cd concentration in the tissues causes oxidative stress by increasing malondialdehyde as a means of altering antioxidant defense system and deterioration of bioelements in rat liver, kidney, and heart. In addition, further studies are needed to explain the effect of long-term, low-dose exposure to Cd on distribution of bioelements and its relationship with oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.

  17. Accumulation and tolerance to cadmium heavy metal ions and induction of 14-3-3 gene expression in response to cadmium exposure in Coprinus atramentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chengjian; Hu, Liujie; Yang, Yongzhu; Liao, Dunxiu; Yang, Xingyong

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy-metal pollutants, has a strong and irreversible tendency to accumulate. Bioremediation is a promising technology to remedy and control heavy metal pollutants because of its low cost and ability to recycle heavy metals. Coprinus atramentarius is recognized as being able to accumulate heavy metal ions. In this work, C. atramentarius is cultivated on a solid medium containing Cd 2+ ions to analyze its ability to tolerate different concentrations of the heavy metal ion. It is found that the growth of C. atramentarius is not significantly inhibited when the concentration of Cd 2+ is less than 0.6mgL -1 . The accumulation capacity of C. atramentarius at different Cd 2+ concentrations also was determined. The results show that 76% of the Cd 2+ present can be accumulated even when the concentration of the Cd 2+ is 1mgL -1 . The different proteins of C. atramentarius exposed to Cd 2+ were further analyzed using gel electrophoresis. A 14-3-3 protein was identified and shown to be significantly up-regulated. In a further study, a full-length 14-3-3 gene was cloned containing a 759bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide consisting of 252 amino acids and 3 introns. The gene expression work also showed that the 14-3-3 was significantly induced, and showed coordinated patterns of expression, with Cd 2+ exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) extract ameliorates ovarian damage induced by subchronic cadmium exposure in mice: Potential δ-ALA-D involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirry, Aryele Pinto; Soares, Melina Bucco; Vargas, Laura Musacchio; Spiazzi, Cristiano Chiapinotto; Dos Santos Brum, Daniela; Noremberg, Simone; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Santos, Francielli Weber

    2017-01-01

    Females are born with a finite number of oocyte-containing follicles and ovary damage results in reduced fertility. Cadmium accumulates in the reproductive system, damaging it, and the cigarette smoke is a potential exposure route. Natural therapies are relevant to health benefits and disease prevention. This study verified the effect of cadmium exposure on the ovaries of mice and the blueberry extract as a potential therapy. Blueberry therapy was effective in restoring reactive species levels and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity, and partially improved the viability of cadmium-disrupted follicles. This therapy was not able to restore the 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Extract HPLC evaluation indicated the presence of quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercetin, and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid was the major substance and its concentration was 620.24 µg/mL. Thus, cadmium accumulates in the ovaries of mice after subchronic exposure, inducing cellular damage, and the blueberry extract possesses antioxidant properties that could protect, at least in part, the ovarian tissue from cadmium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 188-196, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  20. Alteration of cellular immune responses in the seastar Asterias rubens following dietary exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coteur, G.; Gillan, D.; Pernet, Ph.; Dubois, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Several parameters of cellular immunity in seastars fed Cd-contaminated mussels were analyzed. The accumulation of cadmium in the seastars did not alter the concentration of amoebocytes in the coelomic fluid. On the contrary, the immune cells showed a reduced phagocytic activity and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. These effects may lead to an inability of the seastars to cope with bacterial infections and to oxidative damages to self tissue that could threaten the survival of the animals

  1. Cigarette smoking, cadmium exposure, and zinc intake on obstructive lung disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective This study examined whether zinc intake was associated with lower risk of smoking-induced obstructive lung disorder through interplay with cadmium, one of major toxicants in cigarette smoke. Methods Data were obtained from a sample of 6,726 subjects aged 40+ from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC were measured using spirometry. Gender-, ethnicity-, and age-specific equations were used to calculate the lower limit of normal (LLN to define obstructive lung disorder as: observed FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 below respective LLN. Zinc intake was assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations of interest. Results The analyses showed that an increased prevalence of obstructive lung disorder was observed among individuals with low zinc intake regardless of smoking status. The adjusted odds of lung disorder are approximately 1.9 times greater for subjects in the lowest zinc-intake tertile than those in the highest tertile (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-2.93. The effect of smoking on lung function decreased considerably after adjusting for urinary cadmium. Protective association between the zinc-to-cadmium ratio (log-transformed and respiratory risk suggests that zinc may play a role in smoking-associated lung disorder by modifying the influence of cadmium. Conclusions While zinc intake is associated with lower risk of obstructive lung disorder, the role of smoking cession and/or prevention are likely to be more important given their far greater effect on respiratory risk. Future research is warranted to explore the mechanisms by which zinc could modify smoking-associated lung disease.

  2. Comparative analysis of proteomic changes in contrasting flax cultivars upon cadmium exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradilová, Jana; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Vrbová, M.; Griga, M.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2010), s. 421-431 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : 2-DE analysis * proteomic identification * cadmium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.569, year: 2010

  3. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  4. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  5. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  6. Effects of exposure to cadmium in sperm cells of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izani Bonel Acosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a natural element found in the earth’s crust; it is usually associated with other metals, but due to the impacts caused by human activity, its concentration has increased in the aquatic environment. This metal may damage aquatic animal reproduction, decreasing the rate of fertilization of organisms such as fish. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of different concentrations of cadmium (0 (control, 0.5, 5, and 10 μg/L using sperm cells of model organism zebrafish, Danio rerio. Structural parameters, including integrity and fluidity of the plasma membrane, concentration of oxygen species, mitochondrial function and DNA fragmentation were measured by flow cytometry. The following sperm movement parameters were also measured using the computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA system: motility, time of motility, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and straight line velocity in μm/s. Significant effects were observed on path speed, straight speed, curvilinear velocity, motility time, progressive and total motility, and plasma and DNA integrity. The results showed that cadmium can negatively affect some reproductive parameters in D. rerio, which may reduce the fertility rate of these animals.

  7. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  8. Effect of silver nanoparticles on Mediterranean sea urchin embryonal development is species specific and depends on moment of first exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burić, Petra; Jakšić, Željko; Štajner, Lara; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Jurašin, Darija; Cascio, Claudia; Calzolai, Luigi; Lyons, Daniel Mark

    2015-10-01

    With the ever growing use of nanoparticles in a broad range of industrial and consumer applications there is increasing likelihood that such nanoparticles will enter the aquatic environment and be transported through freshwater systems, eventually reaching estuarine or marine waters. Due to silver's known antimicrobial properties and widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP), their environmental fate and impact is therefore of particular concern. In this context we have investigated the species-specific effects of low concentrations of 60 nm AgNP on embryonal development in Mediterranean sea urchins Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of urchin embryos was tested by exposing embryos to nanoparticle concentrations in the 1-100 μg L(-1) range, with times of exposure varying from 30 min to 24 h (1 h-48 h for S. granularis) post-fertilisation which corresponded with fertilized egg, 4 cell, blastula and gastrula development phases. The most sensitive species to AgNP was A. lixula with significant modulation of embryonal development at the lowest AgNP concentrations of 1-10 μg L(-1) with high numbers of malformed embryos or arrested development. The greatest impact on development was noted for those embryos first exposed to nanoparticles at 6 and 24 h post fertilisation. For P. lividus, similar effects were noted at higher concentrations of 50 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1) for all times of first exposure. The S. granularis embryos indicated a moderate AgNP impact, and significant developmental abnormalities were recorded in the concentration range of 10-50 μg L(-1). As later post-fertilisation exposure times to AgNP caused greater developmental changes in spite of a shorter total exposure time led us to postulate on additional mechanisms of AgNP toxicity. The results herein indicate that toxic effects of AgNP are species-specific. The moment at which embryos first encounter AgNP is also shown to be

  9. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  10. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl 2 , 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  11. De novo characterization of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression following cadmium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lin Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Japanese scallop has been cultured on a large-scale in China for many years. However, serious marine pollution in recent years has resulted in considerable loss to this industry. Moreover, due to the lack of genomic resources, limited research has been carried out on this species. To facilitate the understanding at molecular level immune and stress response mechanism, an extensive transcriptomic profiling and digital gene expression (DGE database of Japanese scallop upon cadmium exposure was carried out using the Illumina sequencing platform. RESULTS: RNA-seq produced about 112 million sequencing reads from the tissues of adult Japanese scallops. These reads were assembled into 194,839 non-redundant sequences with open reading frame (ORF, of which 14,240 putative amino acid sequences were assigned biological function annotation and were annotated with gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous group terms. In addition, we identified 720 genes involved in response to stimulus and 302 genes involved in immune-response pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptomic changes in the gill and digestive gland of Japanese scallops following cadmium exposure using a tag-based DGE system. A total of 7,556 and 3,002 differentially expressed genes were detected, respectively, and functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotations. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive transcripts sequence resource for the Japanese scallop and presents a survey of gene expression in response to heavy metal exposure in a non-model marine invertebrate via the Illumina sequencing platform. These results may contribute to the in-depth elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in bivalve responses to marine pollutants.

  12. Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Permenter

    Full Text Available Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and chromium (Cr are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells.

  13. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  14. Effects of embryonic and fetal exposure to x-ray, microwaves, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many professionals are unfamiliar with radiation biology or the quantitative nature of the risks. Frequently, microwave, ultrasound, and ionizing radiation risks are confused. Although it is impossible to prove no risk for any environmental hazard, it appears that exposure to microwave radiation below the maximal permissible levels present no measurable risk to the embryo. Ultrasound exposure from diagnostic ultrasonographic imaging equipment also is quite innocuous. It is true that continued surveillance and research into potential risks of these low-level exposures should continue, but at present ultrasound not only improves obstetric care but also reduces the necessity of diagnostic x-ray procedures. In the field of ionizing radiation, we have as good a comprehension of the biologic effects and the quantitative maximum risks as of any other environmental hazard. Although the animal and human data support the conclusion that no increases in the incidence of gross congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, or abortion will occur with exposures less than 5 rad, that does not mean that there are definitely no risks to the embryo exposed to lower doses of radiation. Whether there exists a linear or exponential dose-response relationship or a threshold exposure for genetic, carcinogenic, cell-depleting, and life-shortening effects has not been determined. In establishing maximum permissible levels for the embryo at low exposures, refer to Tables 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9. It is obvious that the risks of 1-rad or 5-rad acute exposure are far below the spontaneous risks of the developing embryo because 15 per cent of human embryos abort, 2.7 to 3.0 per cent of human embryos have major malformations, 4 per cent have intrauterine growth retardation, and 8 to 10 per cent have early- or late-onset genetic disease. 98 references

  15. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  16. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  17. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl 2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 + CD25 − (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 − CD25 + (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1 + ). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell

  18. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  19. Cadmium exposure in newborn rats ovary induces developmental disorders of primordial follicles and the differential expression of SCF/c-kit gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchang; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Chenyun; Luo, Lingfeng; Xie, Meimei; Huang, Huiling

    2017-10-05

    Since the 1990s, the rising problem that gonad reproductive toxicity on adult female after exposing to cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted high attention at home and abroad,and was systematically studied. Our research focuses on a further problem is that early cadmium exposure (during birth to before puberty) impact on development and function of ovarian cells and its possible mechanism. Our research focuses on the changes of ovarian cells growth and development after the newborn rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status. We obtained ovaries from 4-day-old SD rats and cultured them in DMEM/F12 mixed with α-MEM media in vitro. Different doses of cadmium were designed as control, 0.5, 5, 10 and 50μM, and then the constituent ratio of ovarian follicle and follicular oocytes diameter were observed with microscope after 4-h exposure. We found that the increased constituent ratio of original follicle and decreased diameter of all levels of follicular oocytes(compared with control, with statistically significant differences, Pcadmium, which is associated with DNA hypomethylation of SCF/c-kit promoter region may be worthy of further study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, Teresa; Fabbri, Marco; Roda, Elisa; Grazia Sacco, Maria; Manzo, Luigi; Gribaldo, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl2 (400 μg/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil™ T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m2/g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4×44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  1. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Roda, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl 2 (400 μg/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil T M T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m 2 /g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  2. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi [Toxicology Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Pavia (Italy); Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IHCP- 21027 Ispra (Italy); Roda, Elisa [European Centre for Nanomedicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-07-06

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl{sub 2} (400 {mu}g/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil{sup TM} T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m{sup 2}/g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  3. Embryonic caffeine exposure acts via A1 adenosine receptors to alter adult cardiac function and DNA methylation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L Buscariollo

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg or vehicle (0.09% NaCl i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2-4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8-10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation.

  4. Embryonic Caffeine Exposure Acts via A1 Adenosine Receptors to Alter Adult Cardiac Function and DNA Methylation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A.; Wendler, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2–4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8–10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation. PMID:24475304

  5. In vivo exposure to northern diatoms arrests sea urchin embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimova, Elena; Eilertsen, Hans C; Jørgensen, Trond Ø; Hansen, Espen

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous reports indicating that marine diatoms may act harmful to early developmental stages of invertebrates. It is believed that the compounds responsible for these detrimental effects are oxylipins resulting from oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, and that they may function as grazing deterrents. Most studies reporting these effects have exposed test organisms to diatom extracts or purified toxins, but data from in vivo exposure to intact diatoms are scarce. We have conducted sea urchin egg incubation and plutei feeding experiments to test if intact diatom cells affected sea urchin embryo development and survival. This was done by exposing the common northern sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and Echinus acutus to northern strains of the diatoms Chaetoceros socialis, Skeletonema marinoi, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Attheya longicornis, Thalassiosira gravida and Porosira glacialis. The intact diatom cell suspensions were found to inhibit sea urchin egg hatching and embryogenesis. S. marinoi was the most potent one as it caused acute mortality in S. droebachiensis eggs after only four hours exposure to high (50 μg/L Chla) diatom concentrations, as well as 24 h exposure to normal (20 μg/L Chla) and high diatom concentrations. The second most potent species was T. gravida that caused acute mortality after 24 h exposure to both diatom concentrations. A. longicornis was the least harmful of the diatom species in terms of embryo development arrestment, and it was the species that was most actively ingested by S. droebachiensis plutei. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium exposure decreases androgen-dependent metabolism of acetohexamide in liver microsomes of male rats through its testicular toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, H. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Yamaguchi, S.; Murata, H.; Otagiri, M.; Imamura, Y. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    2002-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) at a dose of 1.23 mg/kg (2.0 mg/kg as CdCl2) markedly decreased the activity of an enzyme (acetohexamide reductase) catalysing the ketone-reduction of acetohexamide, an oral antidiabetic drug, in liver microsomes of male rats. However, the decreased enzyme activity was increased by repeated treatment with testosterone propionate (TP). When male rats were castrated and TP was given to the castrated ones, a similar decrease and increase, as described above, were observed in the microsomal enzyme activity. Cd exposure to male rats induced haemorrhage and atrophy of the testes and significantly diminished serum testosterone levels. There was no possibility that Cd accumulated in liver microsomes of male rats causing direct inhibition of the microsomal enzyme activity. We conclude that Cd exposure decreases androgen-dependent metabolism of acetohexamide in liver microsomes of male rats through its testicular toxicity. Cd exposure had no effect on acetohexamide reductase activity in liver cytosol of male rats. (orig.)

  7. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  8. Transcriptional changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after embryonic exposure to road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Song, You; Kleiven, Merethe; Mahrosh, Urma; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2015-12-01

    Road salt is extensively used as a deicing chemical in road maintenance during winter and has in certain areas of the world led to density stratifications in lakes and ponds, and adversely impacted aquatic organisms in the recipients of the road run-off. Aquatic vertebrates such as fish have been particularly sensitive during fertilisation, as the fertilisation of eggs involves rapid uptake of the surrounding water, reduction in egg swelling and in ovo exposure to high road salt concentrations. The present study aimed to identify the persistent molecular changes occurring in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs after 24h exposure to high concentrations (5000 mg/L) of road salt at fertilisation. The global transcriptional changes were monitored by a 60k salmonid microarray at the eyed egg stage (cleavage stage, 255 degree days after fertilisation) and identified a high number of transcripts being differentially regulated. Functional enrichment, pathway and gene-gene interaction analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly associated with toxiciologically relevant processes involved in osmoregulation, ionregulation, oxidative stress, metabolism (energy turnover), renal function and developmental in the embryos. Quantitative rtPCR analysis of selected biomarkers, identified by global transcriptomics, were monitored in the eggs for an extended range of road salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 500 and 5000 mg/L) and revealed a positive concentration-dependent increase in cypa14, a gene involved in lipid turnover and renal function, and nav1, a gene involved in neuraxonal development. Biomarkers for osmoregulatory responses such as atp1a2, the gene encoding the main sodium/potassium ATP-fueled transporter for chloride ions, and txdc9, a gene involved in regulation of cell redox homeostasis (oxidative stress), displayed apparent concentration-dependency with exposure, although large variance in the control group precluded robust statistical

  9. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-01-01

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 μg/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 μg/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  10. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Meer, Berend van; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Passier, Robert [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); MIRA, University of Twente (Netherlands); Tertoolen, Leon G.J.; Mummery, Christine L. [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Casini, Simona, E-mail: s.casini@amc.uva.nl [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-27

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. - Highlights: • Dexamethasone accelerates Ca{sup 2+} transient decay in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone enhances SERCA and NCX function in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone increases force of contraction and sarcomere length in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone does not alter I{sub Ca,L} and action potential characteristics in hESC-CMs.

  11. Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposures on Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of uncertainty on how low (≤0.1 Gy doses of ionizing radiation (IR affect human cells, partly due to a lack of suitable experimental model systems for such studies. The uncertainties arising from low-dose IR human data undermine practical societal needs to predict health risks emerging from diagnostic medical tests’ radiation, natural background radiation, and environmental radiological accidents. To eliminate a variability associated with remarkable differences in radioresponses of hundreds of differentiated cell types, we established a novel, human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based model to examine the radiobiological effects in human cells. Our aim is to comprehensively elucidate the gene expression changes in a panel of various hESC lines following low IR doses of 0.01; 0.05; 0.1 Gy; and, as a reference, relatively high dose of 1 Gy of IR. Here, we examined the dynamics of transcriptional changes of well-established IR-responsive set of genes, including CDKN1A, GADD45A, etc. at 2 and 16 h post-IR, representing “early” and “late” radioresponses of hESCs. Our findings suggest the temporal- and hESC line-dependence of stress gene radioresponses with no statistically significant evidence for a linear dose-response relationship within the lowest doses of IR exposures.

  12. Retinoic Acid Protects and Rescues the Development of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Photoreceptor Cells from Exposure to Paclobutrazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Der Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paclobutrazol (PBZ is a widely used fungicide that shows toxicity to aquatic embryos, probably through rain-wash. Here, we specifically focus on its toxic effect on eye development in zebrafish, as well as the role of retinoic acid (RA, a metabolite of vitamin A that controls proliferation and differentiation of retinal photoreceptor cells, in this toxicity. Embryos were exposed to PBZ with or without RA from 2 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf, and PBZ-treated embryos (2–72 hpf were exposed to RA for additional hours until 120 hpf. Eye size and histology were examined. Expression levels of gnat1 (rod photoreceptor marker, gnat2 (cone photoreceptor marker, aldehyde dehydrogenases (encoding key enzymes for RA synthesis, and phospho-histone H3 (an M-phase marker in the eyes of control and treated embryos were examined. PBZ exposure dramatically reduces photoreceptor proliferation, thus resulting in a thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer and leading to a small eye. Co-treatment of PBZ with RA, or post-treatment of PBZ-treated embryos with RA, partially rescues photoreceptor cells, revealed by expression levels of marker proteins and by retinal cell proliferation. PBZ has strong embryonic toxicity to retinal photoreceptors, probably via suppressing the production of RA, with effects including impaired retinal cell division.

  13. Study on association between genetic polymorphisms of haem oxygenase-1, tumour necrosis factor, cadmium exposure and malaria pathogenicity and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangweerayut Ronnatrai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most important public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Haem oxygenase (HO enzyme and the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF have been proposed as one of the factors that may play significant role in pathogenicity/severity of malaria infection. HO is the enzyme of the microsomal haem degradation pathway that yields biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. In this study, the association between malaria disease pathogenicity/severity and (GTn repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the inducible HO-1 including the effect of cadmium exposure (potent inducer of HO-1 transcription as well as polymorphism of TNF were investigated. Methods Blood samples were collected from 329 cases non-severe malaria with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (UM and 80 cases with Plasmodium vivax malaria (VM, and 77 cases with severe or cerebral malaria (SM for analysis of genetic polymorphisms of HO-1 and TNF and cadmium levels. These patients consisted of 123 (25.3% Thai, 243 (50.0% Burmese and 120 (24.7% Karen who were present at Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Results The number of (GTn repeats of the HO-1 gene in all patients varied between 16 and 39 and categorized to short (S, medium (M and long (L GTn repeats. The genotype of (GTn repeat of HO-1 was found to be significantly different among the three ethnic groups of patients. Significantly higher frequency of S/L genotype was found in Burmese compared with Thai patients, while significantly lower frequencies of S/S and M/L but higher frequency of M/M genotype was observed in Burmese compared with Karen patients. No significant association between HO-1 and TNF polymorphisms including the inducing effect of cadmium and malaria pathogenicity/severity was observed. Conclusions Difference in the expression of HO-1 genotype in different ethnic groups may contribute to different severity of malaria

  14. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling; Lau, Andy T.Y.; Xu, Xijin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  16. Bioaccumulation and metallothionein response in the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) after experimental exposure to cadmium and inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrimont, M.; Metivaud, J.; Maury-Brachet, R.; Ribeyre, F.; Boudou, A. [Univ. Bordeaux I/CNRS, Talence (France). Lab. d`Ecotoxicologie

    1997-10-01

    The involvement of metallothioneins (MTs) in cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg[II]) bioaccumulation by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was experimentally investigated after 0, 15, 30 and 45 d of exposure from the water column source. Three levels of contamination were studied for each metal: 0, 5, and 35 {micro}g Cd/L and 0, 1.45, and 5 {micro}g Hg/L, with two replicates per condition. Forty eight experimental units (EUs) were conducted simultaneously. The mollusks were fed twice a week by additions of phytoplanktonic algae. Quantification of MTs was done by Hg-saturation assay, using cold Hg(II). A partial purification of these proteins was conducted by gel-filtration chromatography, followed by Cd determinations in the different eluted fractions. Results at the whole organism (soft tissues) and organ or tissue group (gills, mantle, foot, visceral mass) levels show high metal concentrations, with a fourfold greater accumulation of inorganic Hg than Cd after 30 d exposure at the same concentration of 5 {micro}g/L. Gills and visceral mass were the principal storage compartments. A significant increase in MT concentrations was revealed in these two organs after exposure to Cd: ratios between the MT concentrations in contaminated and control mollusks were 2.4 and 2.8, respectively, for 5 and 35 {micro}g Cd/L. Cd burdens in the cytosol and in {le}18-kDa protein fractions, similar to purified mammal MTs, correspond to 30 and 14% of the total Cd accumulated in the whole organisms. No significant increase in MT biosynthesis was observed after exposure to inorganic Hg, despite the high metal concentrations in the organs.

  17. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y. [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  18. Immunotoxicological effects of repeated combined exposure by cypermethrin and the heavy metals lead and cadmium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institóris, L; Siroki, O; Undeger, U; Dési, I; Nagymajtenyi, L

    1999-11-01

    The immunotoxic effect of a 28 days oral exposure by 55.4, 22.2, and 11.1 mg/kg cypermethrin (CY) was investigated in 4 weeks old male Wistar rats. The applied test system involved the determination of general toxicological parameters (body weight gain, organ weight of thymus, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenals and the popliteal lymph node), haematological parameters (white blood cell count, red blood cell count, haematocrit, mean cell volume of red blood cells, cellularity of the femoral bone marrow), as well as immune function assays (splenic plaque forming cell assay, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction). The highest dose resulted in a significant increase of the relative liver weight, and all three doses resulted in (although inconsistent) changes in the haematocrit and MCV values. The maximum of DTH reaction decreased at all three doses. On combination of the highest CY dose with non-effective doses of lead or cadmium the immunotoxic effects of the former were modified. When immunotoxic doses of Cd or Pb were combined with the lowest CY dose, further interactions were observed on the examined parameters. The alterations of the immunotoxic effects of CY by simultaneous exposure with Cd or Pb, as described here, can lead to unexpected health consequences and/or can lead to false positive or negative results in human epidemiological studies.

  19. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  20. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre Superior d' Investigació en Salut Pública, Conselleria de Sanitat, Valencia (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Rojas-García, Antonio [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  1. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Akesson, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergdahl, Ingvar A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Shifang [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Liang, Yihuai [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

  2. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological and behavioral responses of zebrafish after 24h of ketamine embryonic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Martins, Maria J; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    Ketamine, one anesthetic used as an illicit drug, has been detected both in freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, knowledge of its impact on aquatic life is still limited. This study aimed to test its effects in zebrafish embryos by analyzing its time- and dose-dependent developmental toxicity and long-term behavioral changes. The 24h-LC 50 was calculated from percent survival using probit analysis. Based on the 24h-LC 50 (94.4mgL -1 ), embryos (2hour post-fertilization - hpf) were divided into four groups, including control, and exposed for 24h to ketamine concentrations of 50, 70 or 90mgL -1 . Developmental parameters were evaluated on the course of the experimental period, and anatomical abnormalities and locomotor deficits were analyzed at 144hpf. Although the portion of ketamine transferred into the embryo was higher in the lowest exposed group (about 0.056±0.020pmol per embryo), the results showed that endpoints such as increased mortality, edema, heart rate alterations, malformation and abnormal growth rates were significantly affected. At 144hpf, the developmental abnormalities included thoracic and trunk abnormalities in the groups exposed to 70 and 90mgL -1 . Defects in cartilage (alcian blue) and bone (calcein) elements also corroborated the craniofacial anomalies observed. A significant up-regulation of the development-related gene nog3 was detected by qRT-PCR at 8 hpf. Early exposure to ketamine also resulted in long-term behavioral changes, such as an increase in thigmotaxis and disruption of avoidance behavior at 144 hpf. Altogether, this study provides new evidence on the ketamine teratogenic potential, indicating a possible pharmacological impact of ketamine in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of cadmium on hypoxia-induced expression of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangre, A.J.; Manning, S.; Brouwer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia and toxic metals are two common stressors found in the estuarine environment. To date little information is available on the combined effects of these stressors on early larval development in fish. We investigated the effect of cadmium and hypoxia exposure alone as well in combination on larval Cyprinodon variegatus. The LC 10 for cadmium was determined to be 0.3 ppm in a 96 h acute exposure. This concentration was used in all studies. Cadmium in larvae increased significantly with exposure time (1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch). The increase was proportional to body weight and not affected by hypoxia. Cadmium responsive genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Cyprinodonvariegatus larvae after exposure to cadmium for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. We obtained over 700 sequences from the cadmium cDNA library. Blast search of ESTs suggested that cadmium modulates multiple physiological processes. Pertinent to this study, cadmium was found to down-regulate both embryonic α and β globin, which are expressed in erythrocytes generated during the first, or primitive, wave of erythropoiesis in teleosts. Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoietin (Epo) (the hormone that promotes red blood cell production) are known hypoxia-inducible genes. To explore the possibility that cadmium might offset the hypoxia-induced expression of Hb and Epo, we investigated the expression of both genes following hypoxia, cadmium and combined exposures for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch. Since Epo had not yet been identified in C. variegatus we first successfully cloned a partial coding sequence of the C. variegatus hormone. Subsequent studies revealed that expression levels of Hb and Epo remained unchanged in the normoxic controls during the time course of the study. Hypoxia increased Epo expression relative to normoxic controls, on days 3, 5 and 7, while cadmium in hypoxia inhibited the increase. Only the changes on days 5 and 7 were statistically significant. Hypoxia also

  5. Evidence of immunocompetence reduction induced by cadmium exposure in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polykretis, P; Delfino, G; Petrocelli, I; Cervo, R; Tanteri, G; Montori, G; Perito, B; Branca, J J V; Morucci, G; Gulisano, M

    2016-11-01

    In the last decades a dramatic loss of Apis mellifera hives has been reported in both Europe and USA. Research in this field is oriented towards identifying a synergy of contributing factors, i.e. pathogens, pesticides, habitat loss and pollution to the weakening of the hive. Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous anthropogenic pollutant whose effects are proving to be increasingly lethal. Among the multiple damages related to Cd contamination, some studies report that it causes immunosuppression in various animal species. The aim of this paper is to determine whether contamination by Cd, may have a similar effect on the honey bees' immunocompetence. Our results, obtained by immune challenge experiments and confirmed by structural and ultrastructural observations show that such metal causes a reduction in immunocompetence in 3 days Cd exposed bees. As further evidence of honey bee response to Cd treatment, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (X-EDS) has revealed the presence of zinc (Zn) in peculiar electron-dense granules in fat body cells. Zn is a characteristic component of metallothioneins (MTs), which are usually synthesized as anti-oxidant and scavenger tools against Cd contamination. Our findings suggest that honey bee colonies may have a weakened immune system in Cd polluted areas, resulting in a decreased ability in dealing with pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    Full Text Available Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid, four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid, and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  7. Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Prostate Organoids In Vitro and its Perturbation by Low-Dose Bisphenol A Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther L Calderon-Gierszal

    Full Text Available Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.

  8. Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Prostate Organoids In Vitro and its Perturbation by Low-Dose Bisphenol A Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Gierszal, Esther L; Prins, Gail S

    2015-01-01

    Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA) can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.

  9. Impact of cadmium on the ecdysteroids production in Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Sondes; Abbaci, Khedidja Tair; Geffard, Olivier; Boumaiza, Moncef; Dumet, Adeline; Garric, Jeanne; Mondy, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism which is currently used as a bio-indicator as well as in ecotoxicological tests. Nevertheless, data on ecdysteroids in endocrine toxicity test are not yet available for these species, despite its crucial role in molting and reproduction. In the present paper, ecdysteroids concentrations were studied during the molt cycle (in females) and embryonic development in G. fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in order to propose an ecdysteroids toxicity test. Ecdysteroids levels in G. fossarum showed a single peak during premolt at stage Dl-D2. In embryos, ecdysteroids levels progressively increased over stages 3 and 4, with peak levels at stage 4. A Cadmium toxicity test was proposed to examine if the molting and embryogenesis disturbances previously observed after cadmium exposure (Geffard et al. 2010) could be attributed to changes in ecdysteroids titers. Exposure to the different cadmium concentrations (3; 9; 300; 900 µg/l) increased ecdysteroids secretion by Y-organs in vitro, but it had no significant effect on exposed embryos (in vivo). Based on previous findings, we are led to conclude that the molting impairments in cadmium-exposed females of G. fossarum is connected to the changes in ecdysteroids concentrations.

  10. The brown seaweed Sargassum cymosum: changes in metabolism and cellular organization after long-term exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Pereira, Débora T; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Chow, Fungyi; Horta, Paulo A; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Schmidt, Éder C

    2017-03-01

    Sargassum cymosum was exposed to cadmium (Cd) to determine any physiological and ultrastructural effects. To accomplish this, S. cymosum samples were cultivated under photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and Cd (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg L -1 ) during 7 and 14 days in laboratory-controlled conditions (0 mg L -1 Cd at both exposure times as control). Seaweeds had high retention capacity (over 90 %) for both exposure times. Growth rates showed significant increases by 14 days, especially for 0.1 and 0.4 mg L -1 Cd. Photosynthetic parameters were unaffected by Cd treatments. Chlorophyll contents were present in higher concentrations for all Cd treatments compared to respective control. Carotenoid profile showed significant differences in total composition and proportion of fucoxanthin and β-carotene, and no lutein was detected at 14 days. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds showed major accumulation at 14 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses presented major alterations in Cd-treated samples, when compared with respective control, in particular disorganization of cell wall fibrils. When compared to respective control samples, multivariate analyses showed disparate and complex interactions among metabolites in Cd-exposed seaweeds, giving evidence of physiological defence response. Thus, it can be concluded that Cd is a stressor for S. cymosum, resulting in physiological and structural alterations related to defence mechanisms against oxidative stress and toxicological effects resulting from long-term metal exposure. However, in the present paper, some observed changes also appear to result from acclimation mechanisms under lower concentration of Cd relative to the tolerance of S. cymosum to experimental conditions.

  11. Effects of embryonic ethanol exposure at low doses on neuronal development, voluntary ethanol consumption and related behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish: Role of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, M.E.; Chang, G.-Q.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, S.Y.; Leibowitz, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic exposure to ethanol is known to affect neurochemical systems in rodents and increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors in humans and rodents. With zebrafish emerging as a powerful tool for uncovering neural mechanisms of numerous diseases and exhibiting similarities to rodents, the present report building on our rat studies examined in zebrafish the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on hypothalamic neurogenesis, expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, and voluntary ethanol consumption and locomotor behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish, and also effects of central neuropeptide injections on these behaviors affected by ethanol. At 24 h post-fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 2 h to ethanol, at low concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%, in the tank water. Embryonic ethanol compared to control dose-dependently increased hypothalamic neurogenesis and the proliferation and expression of the orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), in the anterior hypothalamus. These changes in hypothalamic peptide neurons were accompanied by an increase in voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin and in novelty-induced locomotor and exploratory behavior in adult zebrafish and locomotor activity in larvae. After intracerebroventricular injection, these peptides compared to vehicle had specific effects on these behaviors altered by ethanol, with GAL stimulating consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin more than plain gelatin food and OX stimulating novelty-induced locomotor behavior while increasing intake of food and ethanol equally. These results, similar to those obtained in rats, suggest that the ethanol-induced increase in genesis and expression of these hypothalamic peptide neurons contribute to the behavioral changes induced by embryonic exposure to ethanol. PMID:26778786

  12. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kim H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Schultz, Irvin R. [Battelle PNNL, Sequin, WA (United States). Marine Science Lab; Nagler, James J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of fishes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, fish were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, fish have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Significant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was significantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a significant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these fish exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  13. Early-life cadmium exposure and child development in 5-year-old girls and boys: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Hamadani, Jena D; Gardner, Renee M; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Bottai, Matteo; Vahter, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium is a commonly occurring toxic food contaminant, but health consequences of early-life exposure are poorly understood. We evaluated the associations between cadmium exposure and neurobehavioral development in preschool children. In our population-based mother-child cohort study in rural Bangladesh, we assessed cadmium exposure in 1,305 women in early pregnancy and their children at 5 years of age by measuring concentrations in urine (U-Cd), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Children's IQ at 5 years of age, including Verbal (VIQ), Performance (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), were measured by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Behavior was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In multiple linear regression models, adjusted for sex, home stimulation, socioeconomic status (SES), and maternal and child characteristics, a doubling of maternal U-Cd was inversely associated with VIQ (-0.84 points; 95% confidence interval: -1.3, -0.40), PIQ (-0.64 points; -1.1, -0.18), and FSIQ (-0.80 points; -1.2, -0.39). Concurrent child U-Cd showed somewhat weaker association with VIQ and FSIQ, but not PIQ. Stratification by sex and SES indicated slightly stronger associations with PIQ and FSIQ in girls than in boys and in higher-income compared with lower-income families. Concurrent U-Cd was inversely associated with SDQ-prosocial behavior and positively associated with SDQ-difficult behavior, but associations were close to the null after adjustment. Quantile regression analysis showed similar associations across the whole range of each developmental outcome. Early-life low-level cadmium exposure was associated with lower child intelligence scores in our study cohort. Further research in this area is warranted.

  14. Effects of cadmium exposure on phytochelatin and the synthesis of abscisic acid in funalia trogii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuerekli, F.; Porgali, Z.B. [Inonu University, Arts and Science Faculty, Department of Biology, 44069 Malatya (Turkey); Uenyayar, A.; Mazmanci, M.A. [Mersin University, Engineering Faculty, Engineering Faculty, 33000 Mersin (Turkey)

    2004-08-01

    Heavy metal toxicity poses major environmental and health problems as heavy metals are more difficult to remediate than chemical contaminants, which can be degraded by microorganisms. Phytochelatins are formed in plants and some fungi upon exposure to a range of different heavy metals. Fungi show sensitivity to many environmental factors, including nutrient limitation, changes in carbon sources and heavy metal exposure. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Cloning metallothionein gene in Zacco platypus and its potential as an exposure biomarker against cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem.

  16. Impact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the 'C-start' response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardere, Jean Paul

    2006-01-01

    Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s -1 analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 μg l -1 , which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 ± 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 ± 9.79% of stimulations (χ 2 = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 μg l -1 , which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 ± 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 ± 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (χ 2 = 24.562, p 2 = 2.876, p = 0

  17. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  18. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S.; Baer, Christine E.; Dennis, William E.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Leonard, Stephen S.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Lewis, John A.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na2Cr2O7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers. PMID:25993096

  19. Global transcriptomic analysis of zebrafish in response to embryonic exposure to three antidepressants, amitriptyline, fluoxetine and mianserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong; Liu, Shuai; Hu, Lei; Qu, Haidong; Pan, Chenyuan; Lei, Penghui; Shen, Yingjia; Yang, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Antidepressants are among the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in aqueous systems, and, as emerging organic pollutants, may exert negative effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Previously, it has been revealed that antidepressant exposure significantly inhibits the growth and development of fish during their early developmental stages. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to identify and compare the underlying mechanisms of action of different antidepressants at the transcriptional level using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Through high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data analysis, 32, 34, and 130 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from zebrafish larvae after 120h of embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and mianserin, respectively. The expression profiles of the identified DEGs showed similar trends in response to the three antidepressant treatments, suggesting consistent toxic effects of low concentrations of these three drugs on the regulation of gene expression in fish. Several metabolic and signaling pathways, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the insulin pathway, were affected in the exposed fish larvae. The expression profiles of selected DEGs were then verified by the qRT-PCR method, which indicated significant positive correlations with the RNA-Seq results. Next, we determined the concentration-dependent expression patterns of 6 selected DEGs in fish larvae exposed to three antidepressants at a series of environmentally relevant concentrations. The results revealed a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the levels of dual-specificity phosphatase 5 (dusp5) mRNA, as well as a non-concentration-dependent gene expression inhibition of prostaglandin D2 synthase b (ptgdsb); the circadian rhythm-related genes, i.e. those encoding nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1) and period 2 (per2); and genes encoding early growth response factors (egr1 and egr4), in

  20. De novo characterization of the Iris lactea var. chinensis transcriptome and an analysis of genes under cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health effects of environmental exposure to cadmium: objectives, design and organization of the Cadmibel Study: a cross-sectional morbidity study carried out in Belgium from 1985 to 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwerys, R; Amery, A; Bernard, A; Bruaux, P; Buchet, J P; Claeys, F; De Plaen, P; Ducoffre, G; Fagard, R; Lijnen, P

    1990-07-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative environmental pollutant. For the general population mainly exposed by the oral route and through tobacco smoke inhalation, the kidney is the critical organ. Belgium is the principal producer of cadmium in Europe, and certain areas of the country are polluted by cadmium mainly because of past emissions from nonferrous industries. Preliminary studies carried out in one polluted area have suggested that environmental pollution might lead to an increased uptake of cadmium by the human body and possibly to health effects. Thus, a large-scale morbidity study has been initiated to assess the validity of this hypothesis. The present paper describes the protocol of this study. Its main objectives are to determine to what extent environmental exposure to cadmium resulting from industrial emissions may lead to accumulation of the metal in the human organism; to establish whether or not environmental exposure may induce renal changes and/or influence blood pressure; and to assess the acceptable internal dose of cadmium for the general population. The study design takes advantage of the fact that biological indicators of exposure, body burden, and early nephrotoxic effects of cadmium are available, which increase the likelihood of detecting a cause-effect relationship.

  2. Connecting gastrointestinal cancer risk to cadmium and lead exposure in the Chaoshan population of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueqiong; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Chen, Yanrong; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2018-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pose a serious threat to human health because of its carcinogenicity. China ranks first according to the Global Cancer Report for 2014 in newly diagnosed gastrointestinal cancers and cancer deaths. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Cd and Pb burden with the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a hospital-based case-control study from southern regions of China, Chaoshan area. A total of 279 hospitalized patients were recruited in this study, of which 167 were gastrointestinal cancer cases (70 esophageal cancer, 51 gastric cancer, and 46 colorectal cancer), and 112 controls were recruited from two hospitals in the Chaoshan area of southeast China. Basic clinical data and information on gender, age, and other demographic characteristics were collected from medical records. Blood Cd and Pb levels were detected by graphite furnace atomizer absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). Blood Cd/Pb levels and over-limit ratios between cases and controls were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as measures of relative risk and explored the relationships between blood Cd/Pb levels and gastrointestinal cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Median levels of blood Cd and Pb in cases (2.12 and 60.03 μg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (1.47 and 53.84 μg/L, respectively). The over-limit ratios for Cd (≥ 5 μg/L) and Pb (≥ 100 μg/L) in the cases were both higher than that of controls. Blood Cd levels had a tendency to accumulate in the human body with gender, age, and tobacco smoking, while blood Pb levels only were associated with tobacco smoking. The logistic regression model illustrated that gastrointestinal cancers were significantly associated with blood Cd levels and blood Pb levels. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in patients with T3 + T4 stage were markedly higher than in patients

  3. Cadmium exposure and age-associated DNA methylation changes in non-smoking women from northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanelis, Kathryn; Virani, Shama; Colacino, Justin A; Basu, Niladri; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Nambunmee, Kowit; Rozek, Laura S

    2017-05-01

    DNA methylation changes with age, and may serve as a biomarker of aging. Cadmium (Cd) modifies cellular processes that promote aging and disrupts methylation globally. Whether Cd modifies aging processes by influencing establishment of age-associated methylation marks is currently unknown. In this pilot study, we characterized methylation profiles in > 450 000 CpG sites in 40 non-smoking women (age 40-80) differentially exposed to environmental Cd from Thailand. Based on specific gravity adjusted urinary Cd, we classified them as high (HE) and low (LE) exposed and age-matched within 5 years. Urinary Cd was defined as below 2 µg/l in the LE group. We predicted epigenetic age (DNAm-age) using two published methods by Horvath and Hannum and examined the difference between epigenetic age and chronologic age (Δage). We assessed differences by Cd exposure using linear mixed models adjusted for estimated white blood cell proportions, BMI, and urinary creatinine. We identified 213 age-associated CpG sites in our population ( P LE (Hannum: 3.6 vs. 7.6 years, P = 0.0093; Horvath: 2.4 vs. 4.5 years, P = 0.1308). The Cd exposed group was associated with changes in methylation ( P < 0.05) at 12, 8, and 20 age-associated sites identified in our population, Hannum, and Horvath. From the results of this pilot study, elevated Cd exposure is associated with methylation changes at age-associated sites and smaller differences between DNAm-age and chronologic age, in contrast to expected age-accelerating effects. Cd may modify epigenetic aging, and biomarkers of aging warrant further investigation when examining Cd and its relationship with chronic disease and mortality.

  4. Chronic Low-Dose Cadmium Exposure Impairs Cutaneous Wound Healing With Defective Early Inflammatory Responses After Skin Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yao, Pengle; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Na; Zhu, Tengfei; Chen, Xiaofang; Yang, Mengmei; Zhuo, Shu; Chen, Shiting; Wang, Ji Ming; Wang, Hui; Xie, Dong; Wu, Yongning; Le, Yingying

    2017-10-01

    Impairment of the immune system is a developing concern in evaluating the toxicity of cadmium (Cd). In the present study, we investigated if Cd could impair cutaneous wound healing through interfering with inflammation after injury. We found that exposure of mice to CdCl2 through drinking water at doses of 10, 30, and 50 mg/l for 8 weeks significantly impaired cutaneous wound healing. Chronic 30 mg/l CdCl2 treatment elevated murine blood Cd level comparable to that of low dose Cd-exposed humans, had no effect on blood total and differential leukocyte counts, but reduced neutrophil infiltration, chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2), and proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) expression in wounded tissue at early stage after injury. Wounded tissue homogenates from CdCl2-treated mice had lower chemotactic activity for neutrophils than those from untreated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that chronic Cd treatment suppressed ERK1/2 and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in wounded tissue at early stage after injury. Compared with neutrophils isolated from untreated mice, neutrophils from CdCl2 treated mice and normal neutrophils treated with CdCl2 invitro both had lower chemotactic response, calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon chemoattractant stimulation. Collectively, our study indicate that chronic low-dose Cd exposure impaired cutaneous wound healing by reducing neutrophil infiltration through inhibiting chemokine expression and neutrophil chemotactic response, and suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression. Cd may suppress chemokine and proinflammatory expression through inactivating ERK1/2 and NF-κB, and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis by attenuating calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to chemoattractants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  6. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  7. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    CD intake (entire CTS), environmental CD  exposure (entire CTS),  case ‐control status and relevant covariate  information (entire CTS), and urinary Cd...or Chili with beans  0.233  Sausage  or Bacon, regular meat  0.200  Peaches, Apricots (Canned or Dried)  0.200  Peaches, Apricots (Fresh, in season...probable human carcinogen, demonstrated to have estrogenic  properties, and associated with breast cancer in previous  case ‐control studies.  Exposure to

  8. Stimulation of a Cd-binding protein, and inhibition of the vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, by zinc or cadmium in organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradino, R.A.; Fullmer, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Embryonic chick duodenum maintained in organ culture responds to 1 α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 in the culture medium by de novo synthesis of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP). The addition of Cd 2+ (3-5 x 10 -5 M) or Zn 2+ (10 -5 -10 -4 M) to the medium inhibited CaBP, but stimulated biosynthesis of a Cd-binding protein (CdBP). CdBP in duodenal homogenate supernatants was assessed in two ways: first, by its 109 Cd-binding activity ( 109 CdBA) using a competitive ion exchange procedure; and, second, by the extent of [ 35 S]-cystine incorporation into a specific peak or band after gel filtration or analytical polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, respectively. Regardless of whether cadmium- or zinc-stimulated, the 35 S-labeled CdBP - the only protein significantly labeled under the conditions employed - migrated identically upon gel filtration and electrophoresis, and comigrated with purified chick liver Cd-metallothionein. Neither actinomycin D nor α-amanitin, in concentrations sufficient to severely inhibit CaBP, significantly reduced CdBP production. However, cycloheximide did inhibit either Cd 2+ - or Zn 2+ -stimulated CdBP by about 50% at an inhibitor concentration which abolished CaBP. The inhibitor studies, coupled with the observations of extensive incorporation of [ 35 S]cystine into CdBP, suggest that the metals stimulated biosynthesis by a mechanism operating at the translational level. The organ-cultured duodenum seems well suited for studies of the regulation of CdBP biosynthesis especially since it responds predictably to the steroid hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 , in the induction of another specific protein, CaBP, at the transcriptional level. The biosynthesis of CaBP thus may serve as a convenient control in studies of CdBP production under various experimental conditions

  9. Nucleo-mitochondrial interaction of yeast in response to cadmium sulfide quantum dot exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, Francesco; Agrimonti, Caterina [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Pagano, Luca [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Stockbridge school of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Zappettini, Andrea; Villani, Marco [IMEM-CNR - Istituto dei Materiali per l' Elettronica ed il Magnetismo, Parma (Italy); Marmiroli, Marta [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); White, Jason C. [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Marmiroli, Nelson, E-mail: nelson.marmiroli@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); CINSA - Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per le Scienze Ambientali, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • CdS QDs induce oxidative stress in yeast. • CdS QDs disrupt mitochondrial membrane potentials and morphology. • CdS QDs do not affect mtDNA content. • CdS QDs modify the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function. • Deletion of some of these genes induces either tolerant or sensitive phenotypes to CdS QDs. - Abstract: Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out. The results showed that QDs: increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the level of reduced vs oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG); reduced oxygen consumption and the abundance of respiratory cytochromes; disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials and affected mitochondrial morphology. Exposure affected the capacity of cells to grow on galactose, which requires nucleo-mitochondrial involvement. However, QDs exposure did not materially induce respiratory deficient (RD) mutants but only RD phenocopies. All of these cellular changes were correlated with several key nuclear genes, including TOM5 and FKS1, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial organization and function. The consequences of these cellular effects are discussed in terms of dysregulation of cell function in response to these “pathological mitochondria”.

  10. Mercury accumulation profiles and their modification by interaction with cadmium and lead in the soft tissues of the Cichlid Oreochromis aureus during chronic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P.

    1994-11-01

    Mercury, cadmium and lead have no well known biological functions in the animal body and are described as ultratrace elements. Their toxicity is due in part to competition with essential metals for binding sites and interference with sulfhydryl groups, essential for the normal functioning of enzymes and structural proteins. Cadmium blocks sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and competes for sites with zinc and calcium. To a lesser extent, lead may replace calcium in structures and react with sulfhydryl groups, while mercury has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and is lipid soluble in its methylated form. The chloroalkali industry is a major source of mercury pollution. When fish take up mercury, whether organic or inorganic, most of it accumulates in tissues in the organic form. Minamata disease in humans was first reported in 1956. The form of mercury responsible was found to be methylmercury, which being lipid soluble is much more toxic than inorganic mercury. It is important to monitor and assess the mercury content of fish which are caught, or farmed, for human consumption. Since many commercial animal feeds contain a fishmeal component, there is a risk of contamination of farm animals intended for human consumption. Since Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) is cultured in North and Latin America, and other regions, it is a suitable model to use for studying the distribution of mercury in different tissues of food fish. Tilapias have been used effectively an constituents of pig food either directly or through fish silage or fishmeal. Laboratory studies of heavy metal pollution often overlook the effects of exposure to more than one heavy metal at the same time and often heavy metals occur in combination. In Jakarta Bay, high levels of cadmium were found together with mercury. The present study Investigates the effects of exposure to combinations of mercury with cadmium or lead on tissue accumulation of mercury. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  12. Dietary exposure to cadmium at close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake does not affect renal function among female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    Dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure and renal tubular function were investigated in 1381 female farmers from five districts in Japan (Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study project; JMETS). Dietary Cd exposure of the five populations was assessed from the individual Cd concentrations of the rice consumed by the study participants and the quantities of rice consumed daily. The populations showed a sequential difference in dietary Cd exposure, ranging from a level as low as that of the general Japanese population to one close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The levels of urinary Cd excretion, an indicator of Cd accumulation in the kidneys, increased along the same sequential pattern as dietary Cd exposure. However, no differences were observed among the populations in levels of urinary α 1 -microglobulin and β 2 -microglobulin excretion, which are indicators of renal tubular function. These results indicate that the current PTWI is sufficient to prevent Cd-induced renal dysfunction among the general population

  13. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; van Meer, Berend; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G. J.; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes

  14. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, C.L.S.; Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D.; Archbold, J.; Zawar, N.; Copes, R.; Cole, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R 2 adj =0.11) and country of origin (R 2 adj =0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion: Blood Cd

  15. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduabuchi, J-M U; Nzegwu, C N; Adigba, E O; Aloke, R U; Ezomike, C N; Okocha, C E; Obi, E; Orisakwe, O E

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 microg) and 0.177 mg (177 microg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  16. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  17. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U.; Nzegwu, C.N.; Adigba, E.O.; Aloke, R.U.; Ezomike, C.N.; Okocha, C.E.; Obi, E.; Orisakwe, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 μg) and 0.177 mg (177 μg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products

  18. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 μg L -1 Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate

  19. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity by the generation of ROS. • The toxic effects depended on exposure time and different tissues. • Nrf2 and NF-κB mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses. • Gene changed at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1 mg L{sup −1} Cd for 24 h and 96 h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24 h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained

  20. Circadian time-dependent antioxidant and inflammatory responses to acute cadmium exposure in the brain of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Ai-Yi

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Gene changed at mRNA, protein and activity levels between exposure time points. • ROS mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses by Nrf2 and NF-κB. • The effect of time of day on Cd-induced toxicity should not be neglected in fish. - Abstract: Up to date, little information is available on effects of circadian rhythm on metal-induced toxicity in fish. In this study, zebrafish were acutely exposed to 0.97 mg L{sup −1} cadmium for 12 h either at ZT0 (the light intensity began to reached maximum) or at ZT12 (light intensity began to reached minimum) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the brain of zebrafish. Profiles of responses of some genes at mRNA, protein and activity levels were different between ZT0 and ZT12 in the normal water. Exposure to Cd induced contrary antioxidant responses and similar inflammatory responses between ZT0 and ZT12. However, the number of inflammatory genes which were up-regulated was significantly greater at ZT12 than at ZT0. And, the up-regulated inflammatory genes were more responsive at ZT12 than at ZT0. At ZT12, antioxidant genes were down-regulated at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Contrarily, antioxidant genes were not affected at mRNA levels but activated at the protein and/or activity levels at ZT0. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) sharply increased and remained relatively stable when fish were exposed to Cd at ZT12 and ZT0, respectively. Positive correlations between ROS levels and mRNA levels of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and between mRNA levels of NF-κB and its target genes were observed, suggesting that ROS may play an essential role in regulating the magnitude of inflammatory responses. Taken together, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain were more serious when fish were exposed to Cd in the evening than in the morning, highlighting the importance of circadian rhythm in Cd-induced neurotoxicity in fish.

  1. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity by the generation of ROS. • The toxic effects depended on exposure time and different tissues. • Nrf2 and NF-κB mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses. • Gene changed at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1 mg L −1 Cd for 24 h and 96 h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24 h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained

  2. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  3. Studies on cadmium exposure in the population of the Federal Republic of Germany. Untersuchungen zur Cadmiumbelastung der Bevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a number of studies performed on cadmium exposure in the population of the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular that of the Rhine-Ruhr region. The studies covered: - the examinations for Cd concentrations in full blood (CdB), in urine (CdU) in different population groups, and the analysis of various influencing factors; - an autopsy study involving 388 corpses from the Duesseldorf and Duisburg regions to determine the concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in the renal cortex - an epidemiological study on the occurrence and incidence of cadmium-induced renal function disorders in inhabitants of areas exposed to high Cd immission levels (Stolberg, Duisburg). The studies indicate CdB concentrations to be influenced by the following factors: - smoking; - age; - sex; - Cd immission level. Measurements of CdU concentrations were performed in children from Duisburg and Goch, and in women aged 65 and 66 from Stolberg, Duisburg and Duesseldorf. The results of the study performed in children did not reveal any influence of Cd immission levels. The results of the autopsy study showed that Cd concentrations in the renal cortex of persons not exposed to heavy metals occupationally, are well below the critical CdKc concentration on an average. The results of the epidemiological study on cadmium-induced renal function disorders in 286 women aged 65 and 66 from the cities of Stolberg, Duisburg and Duesseldorf revealed that no indications for renal dysfunctions clearly attributable to excessive Cd accumulation in the kidney, were verified even in a population group which had been exposed to relatively high Cd levels from the environment. (orig./MG).

  4. Oxidative stress parameters induced by exposure to either cadmium or 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. The role of signaling molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Oxidative parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes were measured. •Comparison between cadmium and 17β-estradiol cytotoxicity is discussed. •NHE, PKC, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, NO synthase, JNK involvement was observed. •Protective role of cAMP is suggested. •Signaling molecules studied could constitute novel biomarkers. -- Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the possible effects of exposure to an estrogen, 17β-estradiol and to a metal, cadmium on oxidative parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and to elucidate the signaling pathways that probably mediate the studied effects exerted by these two chemicals. In addition, it was of interest to investigate if the studied parameters could constitute biomarkers for aquatic pollution monitoring. Our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol affected the redox status of mussels by modulating oxidative parameters and antioxidant enzymes gene expression in mussel M. galloprovincialis hemocytes. In particular, our results showed that treatment of hemocytes with either 5 μM of cadmium chloride or with 25 nM of 17β-estradiol for 30 min caused significant increased ROS production; this led to oxidative damage exemplified by significant increased DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismoutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Furthermore, our results suggest that either cadmium or 17β-estradiol signal is mediated either through one of the already known pathways initiated by photatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) and reaching Na + /H + exchanger (NHE) probably through protein kinase C (PKC) or a kinase-mediated signaling pathway that involves in most of the cases NHE, PKC, Ca 2+ -dependent PKC isoforms, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclic adenosine

  5. Oxidative stress parameters induced by exposure to either cadmium or 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. The role of signaling molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Franzellitti, Silvia [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Fabbri, Elena [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy); Kaloyianni, Martha, E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Oxidative parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes were measured. •Comparison between cadmium and 17β-estradiol cytotoxicity is discussed. •NHE, PKC, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, NO synthase, JNK involvement was observed. •Protective role of cAMP is suggested. •Signaling molecules studied could constitute novel biomarkers. -- Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the possible effects of exposure to an estrogen, 17β-estradiol and to a metal, cadmium on oxidative parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and to elucidate the signaling pathways that probably mediate the studied effects exerted by these two chemicals. In addition, it was of interest to investigate if the studied parameters could constitute biomarkers for aquatic pollution monitoring. Our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol affected the redox status of mussels by modulating oxidative parameters and antioxidant enzymes gene expression in mussel M. galloprovincialis hemocytes. In particular, our results showed that treatment of hemocytes with either 5 μM of cadmium chloride or with 25 nM of 17β-estradiol for 30 min caused significant increased ROS production; this led to oxidative damage exemplified by significant increased DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismoutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Furthermore, our results suggest that either cadmium or 17β-estradiol signal is mediated either through one of the already known pathways initiated by photatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) and reaching Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) probably through protein kinase C (PKC) or a kinase-mediated signaling pathway that involves in most of the cases NHE, PKC, Ca{sup 2+}-dependent PKC isoforms, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and

  6. Effects of cadmium exposure on critical temperatures of aerobic metabolism in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwe, Rita [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Great Basin College, Pahrump Valley Center, Elko, NV (United States); Beniash, Elia [Department of Oral Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sokolova, Inna M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd exposure on thermal tolerance of oysters were studied. • Temperature rise (20–36 °C) led to transition to partial anaerobiosis at critical temperature T{sub c}II. • Exposure to Cd reduced thermal tolerance indicated by a downward shift of T{sub c}II. • Cellular energy status was maintained but oxidative stress occurred at extreme temperatures. • Onset of anaerobiosis is a sensitive biomarker of temperature- and Cd-induced energetic stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and elevated temperatures are common stressors in estuarine and coastal environments. Elevated temperature can sensitize estuarine organisms to the toxicity of metals such as Cd and vice versa, but the physiological mechanisms of temperature–Cd interactions are not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that interactive effects of elevated temperature and Cd stress involve Cd-induced reduction of the aerobic scope of an organism thereby narrowing the thermal tolerance window of oysters. We determined the effects of prolonged Cd exposure (50 μg Cd l{sup −1} for 30 days) on the upper critical temperature of aerobic metabolism (assessed by accumulation of anaerobic end products L-alanine, succinate and acetate), cellular energy status (assessed by the tissue levels of adenylates, phosphagen/aphosphagen and glycogen and lipid reserves) and oxidative damage during acute temperature rise (20–36 °C) in the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. The upper critical temperature (T{sub c}II) was shifted to lower values (from 28 to 24 °C) in Cd-exposed oysters in spring and was lower in both control and Cd-exposed groups in winter (24 and <20 °C, respectively). This indicates a reduction of thermal tolerance of Cd-exposed oysters associated with a decrease of the aerobic scope of the organism and early transition to partial anaerobiosis. Acute warming had no negative effects on tissue energy reserves or parameters of cellular energy status of oysters (except a

  7. Does oral exposure to cadmium and lead mediate susceptibility to colitis? The dark-and-bright sides of heavy metals in gut ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Breton; Catherine Daniel; Cécile Vignal; Mathilde Body-Malapel; Anne Garat; Coline Plé; Benoît Foligné

    2016-01-01

    Although the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known environmental health concerns, their long-term impacts on gut ecology and susceptibility to gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases have not been extensively investigated. We sought to determine whether subchronic oral exposure to Cd or Pb is a risk factor for the development and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mice were exposed to various doses of CdCl2 or PbCl2 in drinking water for 1, 4 or 6 weeks prior to infecti...

  8. Human exposure to pollutants - part: 1 blood lead and cadmium in a sample of population of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousufzai, A.H.K.; Khalid, Q.; Sultana, L.

    1994-01-01

    A study was carried out to see the blood lead and cadmium levels in fifty employees working at PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi. These employees belonged to various socio-economic groups and had their residences in different areas of Karachi. Sixty two percent staff had blood lead level between 100-200 micro g/L. The highest blood lead level(>400 micro g/L) was found in volunteers working as garage staff. No significant difference was found between the blood lead levels of volunteers belonging to different socio-economic and age groups, only 8% of the staff had blood lead levels below 100 micro g/L. Lead in the dust collected from the residences of the volunteers was also estimated for lead and correlated with blood lead levels. Blood cadmium levels were also estimated. These were found to be higher in smokers and tobacco chewers. A definite correlation was observed between blood cadmium levels and smoking habits. (author)

  9. The L1 Retrotranspositional Stimulation by Particulate and Soluble Cadmium Exposure is Independent of the Generation of DNA Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Roy-Engel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to toxic metals is a concern of the highest priority, due to their vast array of biological effects, including carcinogenicity. The particulate (water insoluble form of several heavy metals presents a higher carcinogenic potential than its soluble counterparts. Our previous work demonstrates that the particulate forms of different heavy metals, such as nickel oxide, cadmium sulfide and mercury sulfide, stimulate human L1 mobile element activity leading to genomic instability. We present data demonstrating that the soluble form of CdCl2 also stimulates L1 retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner comparable to the insoluble carcinogenic form of this compound. Reproducible results demonstrated a 2 to 3 fold dose-dependent increase in L1 retrotransposition compared to control cells. Heavy metals may cause DNA breaks through the generation of reactive oxygen species. However, evaluation of DNA damage by comet assay revealed no differences between the negative controls and the CdS-treated cells. In addition, active L1 elements express a protein with endonuclease activity that can generate toxicity through the creation of double strand breaks. To determine the contribution of the L1 endonuclease to the toxicity observed in our metal treatment assays, we compared the wildtype L1 vector with an L1 endonuclease-mutant vector. The presence of an active L1 endonuclease did not contribute significantly to the toxicity observed in any of the CdCl2 or CdS doses evaluated. No correlation between the creation of DNA breaks and L1 activity was observed. Alternatively, heavy metals inhibit enzymatic reactions by displacement of cofactors such as Zn and Mg from enzymes. Concomitant treatment with Mg(Ac2 and Zn(Ac2 ppb suppresses the stimulatory effect on L1 activity induced by the 3.8 ppb CdS treatment. Overall, these results are consistent with our previous observations, suggesting that the mechanism of L1 stimulation by heavy metals is most

  10. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1mgL -1 Cd for 24h and 96h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained stable at 24 and 96h in the brain. Taken together, we demonstrated Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish, possibly through transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB and gene modifications at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels, which would greatly extend our understanding on the Cd

  11. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  12. Decreased lung function with mediation of blood parameters linked to e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Wu, Weidong; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and

  13. Perturbations in ROS-related processes of the fish Gambusia holbrooki after acute and chronic exposures to the metals copper and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno; Caldeira, Carina; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2015-03-01

    Metallic contamination is a widespread phenomena, particularly in areas impacted by human activities, and has become a relevant environmental concern. However, the toxicity of metals on fish requires full characterization in terms of short- and long-term effects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic oxidative stress response in liver and gills of Gambusia holbrooki exposed to copper and cadmium. To assess the effects of these two metals, we adopted a strategy of analyzing the pollution effects caused by salts of the two metallic elements, and we quantified the oxidative stress biomarkers catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, and lipid peroxidation after exposure (4 and 28 days) to ecologically relevant concentrations, thus simulating actual conditions of exposure in the wild. Our results showed that copper elicited strong effects in all tested biomarkers for both acute and chronic challenges. Cadmium caused a similar response and was shown to cause significant changes particularly in catalase and glutathione-S-transferases activities. These findings evidence that ecologically relevant concentrations of common anthropogenic contaminants are causative agents of serious imbalances (namely oxidative stress) that are likely to trigger life-threatening events.

  14. Association of internal exposure of cadmium and lead with periodontal disease: a study of the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Soon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Young-Soo; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2013-02-01

    This study was performed to examine the association of the internal exposure of cadmium and lead with periodontitis in a representative sample of adults, who were involved in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). One thousand nine hundred and sixty-six subjects over the age of 19 who participated in KNHANES were examined. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure were grouped into three categories: low (periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to get the adjusted odds ratio (OR), and subgroup analysis was also performed. All analyses considered a complex sampling design. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed associations of Cd with periodontitis. Subjects with a high Cd had a 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03-2.38) times higher OR for periodontitis than those with a low Cd. In the subgroup analysis, the association of Pb and Cd with periodontitis was different according to the strata of gender and smoking. High Cd could be associated with periodontitis in females and current smokers, and middle Pb showed associations in females and non-smokers among a representative sample of adults in Korea. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bulky PAH-DNA induced by exposure of a co-culture model of human alveolar macrophages and embryonic epithelial cells to atmospheric particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Imane; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Shirali, Pirouz; Andre, Veronique; Le Goff, Jeremie; Sichel, Francois; Roy Saint-Georges, Francoise; Mulliez, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Because of their deep penetration in human lungs, fine airborne particulate matter were described as mainly responsible for the deleterious effects of exposure to air pollution on health. Organic constituents are adsorbed on particles surface and, after inhalation, some (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) can be activated into reactive metabolites and can bind to DNA. The formation of bulky DNA adducts has been researched after exposure of mono-and co-cultures of alveolar macrophages (AM) and human embryonic human lung epithelial (L132), to fine air pollution particulate matter Air samples have been collected with cascade impactor and characterized: size distribution (92.15% 2 /g), inorganic (Fe, AI, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic compounds (PAHs, etc.). 32 P post-labeling method was applied to detect bulky DNA adducts in AM and L132, in mono-and co-cultures, 72 h after their exposure to atmospheric particles at their Lethals and Effects concentrations or (LC or CE) to 50% (i.e. MA: EC 50 = 74.63 μg/mL and L132: LC-5-0 = 75.36 μg/mL). Exposure to desorbed particles (MA: C1= 61.11 μg/mL and L132 : C2 = 61.71 μg/mL) and B[a]P (1 μM) were included. Bulky PAH-DNA adducts were detected in AM in mono-culture after exposure to total particles (Pt), to B[a]P and desorbed particles (Pd). Whatever the exposure, no DNA adduct was detected in L132 in mono-culture. These results are coherent with the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450 l Al in AM and L132. Exposure of co-culture to Pt, or Pd induced bulky adducts to DNA in AM but not in L132. Exposure to B[a]P alone has altered the DNA of AM and L132, in co-culture. Exposure to Pt is closer to the environmental conditions, but conferred an exposure to amounts of genotoxic agents compared to studies using organic extracts. The formation of bulky DNA adducts was nevertheless observed in AM exposed to Pt, in mono- or co-culture, indicating that they were competent in terms of metabolic activation of PAHs. The

  17. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  18. Bioaccumulation, morphological changes, and induction of metallothionein gene expression in the digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense after exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Li, Yingjun; Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan

    2015-08-01

    To study the responses of digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense to the exposure with cadmium (Cd), crabs were acutely exposed to 7.25, 14.50, and 29.00 mg/l Cd for 96 h and subchronically exposed to 0.725, 1.450, and 2.900 mg/l for 21 days. Cd bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas and digestive tract (esophagus and intestine) was examined. Furthermore, histopathological alterations of the esophagus, midgut, hindgut, and hepatopancreas were assessed in animals from the 29.0 and 2.90 mg/l Cd treatment groups, and expression of metallothionein messenger RNA (MT mRNA) in the hepatopancreas and intestine was measured in all treatment groups. The results showed difference in the middle and high concentrations between acute and subchronic treatment groups. Cd content in digestive tract after acute 14.5 and 29.0 mg/l Cd exposure was significantly higher than that at subchronic 1.45 and 2.90 mg/l exposure, but Cd levels in hepatopancreas were not significantly different under the same condition. Acute exposure to Cd induced greater morphological damage than subchronic exposure: large areas of epithelial cells were necrotic in hepatopancreas and midgut, which detached from the basal lamina. Vacuolated muscle cells were observed in the hindgut of animals from the acute exposure group, but the changes of esophageal morphology were not obvious after acute or subchronic treatments. The expression of MT mRNA increased with increasing Cd concentration, and MT mRNA level in acute exposure groups was significantly lower when compared to the subchronic exposure groups. Higher Cd content and lower MT mRNA expression in the acutely exposed groups may be responsible for more severe damage of digestive system in these exposure groups.

  19. Transient Downregulation of Nanog and Oct4 Induced by DETA/NO Exposure in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Leads to Mesodermal/Endodermal Lineage Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mora-Castilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of pluripotency genes in differentiation is a matter of investigation. We report here that Nanog and Oct4 are reexpressed in two mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC lines following exposure to the differentiating agent DETA/NO. Both cell lines express a battery of both endoderm and mesoderm markers following induction of differentiation with DETA/NO-based protocols. Confocal analysis of cells undergoing directed differentiation shows that the majority of cells expressing Nanog express also endoderm genes such as Gata4 and FoxA2 (75.4% and 96.2%, resp.. Simultaneously, mRNA of mesodermal markers Flk1 and Mef2c are also regulated by the treatment. Acetylated histone H3 occupancy at the promoter of Nanog is involved in the process of reexpression. Furthermore, Nanog binding to the promoter of Brachyury leads to repression of this gene, thus disrupting mesendoderm transition.

  20. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  1. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M.; Andres, Jose A.; Niyogi, Som

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  2. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  3. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Richter; Obaid Faroon; R. Steven Pappas

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use ...

  4. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: seawater and food exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhaënsli, François; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838+/-0.175 ng g(-1) (mean+/-asymptotic standard error, p food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F. [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Villamil, Luisa [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Thomas-Guyon, Hélène [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Ahrens, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ahrens@utadeo.edu.co [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Luna-Acosta, Andrea [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  6. Disconnect between alcohol-induced alterations in chromatin structure and gene transcription in a mouse embryonic stem cell model of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, Kylee J; Wang, Haiqing; Bedi, Yudhishtar S; Skiles, William M; Chang, Richard Cheng-An; Golding, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    Alterations to chromatin structure induced by environmental insults have become an attractive explanation for the persistence of exposure effects into subsequent life stages. However, a growing body of work examining the epigenetic impact that alcohol and other drugs of abuse exert consistently notes a disconnection between induced changes in chromatin structure and patterns of gene transcription. Thus, an important question is whether perturbations in the 'histone code' induced by prenatal exposures to alcohol implicitly subvert gene expression, or whether the hierarchy of cellular signaling networks driving development is such that they retain control over the transcriptional program. To address this question, we examined the impact of ethanol exposure in mouse embryonic stem cells cultured under 2i conditions, where the transcriptional program is rigidly enforced through the use of small molecule inhibitors. We find that ethanol-induced changes in post-translational histone modifications are dose-dependent, unique to the chromatin modification under investigation, and that the extent and direction of the change differ between the period of exposure and the recovery phase. Similar to in vivo models, we find post-translational modifications affecting histone 3 lysine 9 are the most profoundly impacted, with the signature of exposure persisting long after alcohol has been removed. These changes in chromatin structure associate with dose-dependent alterations in the levels of transcripts encoding Dnmt1, Uhrf1, Tet1, Tet2, Tet3, and Polycomb complex members Eed and Ezh2. However, in this model, ethanol-induced changes to the chromatin template do not consistently associate with changes in gene transcription, impede the process of differentiation, or affect the acquisition of monoallelic patterns of expression for the imprinted gene Igf2R. These findings question the inferred universal relevance of epigenetic changes induced by drugs of abuse and suggest that changes

  7. Does oral exposure to cadmium and lead mediate susceptibility to colitis? The dark-and-bright sides of heavy metals in gut ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jérôme; Daniel, Catherine; Vignal, Cécile; Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Garat, Anne; Plé, Coline; Foligné, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Although the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known environmental health concerns, their long-term impacts on gut ecology and susceptibility to gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases have not been extensively investigated. We sought to determine whether subchronic oral exposure to Cd or Pb is a risk factor for the development and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mice were exposed to various doses of CdCl2 or PbCl2 in drinking water for 1, 4 or 6 weeks prior to infection with Salmonella, the induction of colitis with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). In human cell-based models, exposure to Cd and Pb is associated with reduced transepithelial electric resistance and changes in bacteria-induced cytokine responses. Although 1- and 6-week exposures did not have clear effects on the response to Salmonella infectious challenges, 1-week short-term treatments with CdCl2 tended to enhance intestinal inflammation in mice. Unexpectedly, subchronic exposure to Cd and (to a lesser extent) Pb significantly mitigated some of the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis and reduced the severity of TNBS colitis in a dose-dependent manner. The possible adaptive and immunosuppressive mechanisms by which heavy metals might reduce intestinal inflammation are explored and discussed.

  8. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, Stephane; Rooney, Andrew A.; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl 2 ) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  9. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  10. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  11. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro; Houlbreque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109 Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109 Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109 Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g -1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109 Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109 Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  12. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  13. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C; Griffin, Julian L; Jones, Oliver A H

    2011-10-01

    The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes it more difficult to extrapolate laboratory results to the natural environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of chronic exposure to mercury and cadmium alone and in combination on the coagulation system of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbi, Sandra; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Rooy, Mia Jeanne; Venter, Chantelle; Bester, Megan Jean

    2017-01-01

    Water contamination with heavy metals may adversely affect our health. High metal levels lead to changes in blood coagulation processes, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Exposure is not limited to a single metal but usually involves a mixture of metals. In this study 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), alone and in combination, for 28 days at dosages equivalent to 1000 times the World Health Organization water limits. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that both metals caused platelet activation. Cd significantly increased fibrin fibers thickness and caused aggregation and formation of dense matted deposits (DMDs). Hg reduced fibrin network formation. In the combination group, Hg appeared to augment the effect of Cd, and the presence of extensive DMDs or aggregates between the fibers, with no changes to the actual fibrin thickness, was observed.

  15. Assessment of Polish population exposure to lead and cadmium with special emphasis to the Katowice Province on the basis of metal concentrations in environmental compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gzyl, J

    1997-06-01

    Polish data of lead and cadmium concentrations in such environmental compartments as: air, dust, soil, diet and drinking water were presented in the paper. Special emphasis was placed to the Upper Silesian industrial Region, the central part of the Katowice Province, the most polluted area in Poland. An attempt was made to assess human exposure to heavy metals. According to the available data it can be concluded that the WHO tolerable intake (ADI, PTWI) could be exceeded in an extremely disadvantageous situation occurring in the Katowice Province. Furthermore, a critical review of heavy metal standards in soil, dustfall and edible plants, obligatory in Poland, was presented. The author states that there are still some inconsistencies in current regulations in Poland. In order to remove them, an interdisciplinary board consisting of such disciplines representatives as: medicine, toxicology, nutritional science, law and protection of soils used for agricultural purposes should be appointed.

  16. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al. [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  17. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  18. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Affects Early- and Late-Added Cardiac Precursors and Produces Long-Lasting Heart Chamber Defects in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drinking mothers expose their fetuses to ethanol, which produces birth defects: craniofacial defects, cognitive impairment, sensorimotor disabilities and organ deformities, collectively termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Various congenital heart defects (CHDs are present in FASD patients, but the mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiogenesis defects are not completely understood. This study utilized zebrafish embryos and older larvae to understand FASD-associated CHDs. Ethanol-induced cardiac chamber defects initiated during embryonic cardiogenesis persisted in later zebrafish life. In addition, myocardial damage was recognizable in the ventricle of the larvae that were exposed to ethanol during embryogenesis. Our studies of the pathogenesis revealed that ethanol exposure delayed differentiation of first and second heart fields and reduced the number of early- and late-added cardiomyocytes in the heart. Ethanol exposure also reduced the number of endocardial cells. Together, this study showed that ethanol-induced heart defects were present in late-stage zebrafish larvae. Reduced numbers of cardiomyocytes partly accounts for the ethanol-induced zebrafish heart defects.

  19. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Affects Early- and Late-Added Cardiac Precursors and Produces Long-Lasting Heart Chamber Defects in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2017-12-01

    Drinking mothers expose their fetuses to ethanol, which produces birth defects: craniofacial defects, cognitive impairment, sensorimotor disabilities and organ deformities, collectively termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Various congenital heart defects (CHDs) are present in FASD patients, but the mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiogenesis defects are not completely understood. This study utilized zebrafish embryos and older larvae to understand FASD-associated CHDs. Ethanol-induced cardiac chamber defects initiated during embryonic cardiogenesis persisted in later zebrafish life. In addition, myocardial damage was recognizable in the ventricle of the larvae that were exposed to ethanol during embryogenesis. Our studies of the pathogenesis revealed that ethanol exposure delayed differentiation of first and second heart fields and reduced the number of early- and late-added cardiomyocytes in the heart. Ethanol exposure also reduced the number of endocardial cells. Together, this study showed that ethanol-induced heart defects were present in late-stage zebrafish larvae. Reduced numbers of cardiomyocytes partly accounts for the ethanol-induced zebrafish heart defects.

  20. Integrative analysis of genes and miRNA alterations in human embryonic stem cells-derived neural cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung-Hwa; Son, Mi-Young; Choi, Mi-Sun; Kim, Soojin; Choi, A-Young; Lee, Hyang-Ae; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Janghwan; Song, Chang Woo; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-05-15

    Given the rapid growth of engineered and customer products made of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), understanding their biological and toxicological effects on humans is critically important. The molecular developmental neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to Ag NPs were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels, using an alternative cell model: human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs (10-200μg/ml) were examined in these hESC-derived NPCs, which have a capacity for neurogenesis in vitro, at 6 and 24h. The results showed that Ag NPs evoked significant toxicity in hESC-derived NPCs at 24h in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Ag NPs induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following a significant increase in oxidative stress in these cells. To further clarify the molecular mechanisms of the toxicological effects of Ag NPs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, the global expression profiles of genes and miRNAs were analyzed in hESC-derived NPCs after Ag NP exposure. The results showed that Ag NPs induced oxidative stress and dysfunctional neurogenesis at the molecular level in hESC-derived NPCs. Based on this hESC-derived neural cell model, these findings have increased our understanding of the molecular events underlying developmental neurotoxicity induced by Ag NPs in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  2. In vitro effects of simultaneous exposure to platinum and cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage and potential protective effects of selenium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka; Živković, Tanja; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Gluščić, Valentina; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Peraica, Maja; Pizent, Alica

    2017-04-01

    Circulating platinum (Pt) is detectable in the blood of Pt-treated cancer patients for over a decade after the treatment. Prolonged exposure to Pt, in combination with adverse compounds from nutrition and lifestyle, such as cadmium (Cd), could increase the risk from second cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous exposure to Cd- and Pt-compounds on oxidative and DNA damage and the possible protective effects of zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). The aqueous solutions of PtCl 4 , CdCl 2  ×   H 2 O, ZnCl 2 and Na 2 SeO 3 were added, alone or in combination, to whole blood and isolated erythrocytes to produce the final concentrations of 2000 μg/L of Pt, 8 μg/L of Cd, 100 μg/L of Se, and 1000 μg/L of Zn. The activity of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in whole blood was determined after 1 h exposure in in vitro conditions. The induction of DNA strand-breaks in human peripheral blood leukocytes was determined with the alkaline comet assay after 24 h exposure. Exposure to Pt and/or Cd decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and elevated DNA damage compared to control. A statistically significant change in the activity of both enzymes and in the induction of DNA strand-breaks was observed in the cells treated with Pt + Cd combination, while the addition of Se and/or Zn resulted in partial recovery of these effects. The results indicate that combined exposure to Pt and Cd could disrupt antioxidant protection of the organism and increase DNA damage, whereas Se and Zn could partially ameliorate these harmful effects.

  3. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure assessment of cadmium and lead in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Su, Feng; Zhang, Chaosheng; Mo, Hui; Li, Zhian

    2016-12-01

    A systematic investigation into cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations and their oral bioaccessibility in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta region were carried out to assess their potential health risks to local residents. The average concentrations of Cd and Pb in six species of fresh vegetables varied within 0.09-37.7 and 2.3-43.4 μg kg -1 , respectively. Cadmium and Pb bioaccessibility were 35-66 % and 20-51 % in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be significantly higher than the cooked vegetables with 34-64 % for Cd and 11-48 % for Pb. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase (except for fruit vegetables). Cooking slightly reduced the total concentrations and bioaccessibility of Cd and Pb in all vegetables. The bioaccessible estimated daily intakes of Cd and Pb from vegetables were far below the tolerable limits.

  4. Exposure of spermatozoa to dibutyl phthalate induces abnormal embryonic development in a marine invertebrate Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonggang; Lin, Minjie; Aitken, Robert John

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on early embryogenesis in a sessile marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa. DBP was found to induce sperm dysfunction as well as impaired and defective embryogenesis characterised by a particular pattern of abnormality. Thus, after the first cleavage, one blastomere in these abnormal embryos was able to carry out further mitoses, while the other arrested. Analysis of microtubules, chromosomes and actin filaments demonstrated that the mitotic spindles in the abnormal embryos were irregularly bent, shortened and unable to anchor to the cortex, resulting in the defective segregation of chromosomes. Within the non-dividing blastomeres, karyokinesis was found to continue at a slow pace as indicated by the presence of multiple sets of abnormal mitotic spindles. However, cytokinesis had been disrupted in these arrested cells due to a failure to assemble the contractile actin ring, as a result of which one pole of the embryos remained as one large, undivided cell. DBP was found to suppress the activity of superoxide dismutase in spermatozoa and, in association with this change, DBP-treated cells experienced oxidative stress as indicated by the presence of lipid aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the sperm acrosome and neck. Adduction of lipid aldehydes at the level of the acrosome would be expected to impede the acrosome reaction and account for the significant decrease in fertilisation rates. 4-HNE generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation in the sperm neck resulted in alkylation of the sperm centrioles. Such paternally damaged centrioles were inherited by the embryos and disrupted cytoskeletal protein organisation during early cleavage, generating the observed abnormalities in embryonic development. This research emphasises the vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative damage and highlights novel potential mechanisms for reproductive toxicity involving the alkylation of

  5. Metabolomic Response of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Germ-like Cells after Exposure to Steroid Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential risks of human exposure to endocrine active compounds (EACs), the mechanisms of toxicity must first be identified and characterized. Currently, there are no robust in vitro models for identifying the mechanisms of toxicity in germ cells resulting from EAC ...

  6. Dyslipdemia induced by chronic low dose co-exposure to lead, cadmium and manganese in rats: the role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Mohammed, Bisalla; Aluwong, Tanang

    2017-07-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) have many potential adverse health effects in vitro and in animal models of clinical toxicity. The current study investigated the dyslipidaemic and oxidative stress effects of chronic low-dose oral exposure to Pb, Cd and Mn and the combination (Pb+Cd+Mn) in rats for 15 weeks. Chronic exposure to the metals did not significantly (P>0.05) alter serum lipid profiles. However, the atherogenic index decreased by 32.2% in the Pb+Cd+Mn group, relative to the control. The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by 39.4% in the Pb+Cd+Mn group, relative to the control, and elevated by 81.8, 94.8 and 20.8%, relative to the Pb, Cd and Mn groups, respectively. While the serum concentrations of malondialdehyde significantly increased in the Mn and Pb+Cd+Mn groups, that of glutathione peroxidase-1 decreased in the Pb+Cd+Mn group, and metallothionein-1 and zinc concentrations markedly decreased in all the metal treatment groups. The results suggest that long-term exposure of rats to Pb+Cd+Mn may result in hypolipidaemia, mediated via oxidative stress and metal interactions. Individuals who are constantly exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the metals may be at risk of hypolipidaemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dioxin induces genomic instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Korkalainen

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation and certain other exposures have been shown to induce genomic instability (GI, i.e., delayed genetic damage observed many cell generations later in the progeny of the exposed cells. The aim of this study was to investigate induction of GI by a nongenotoxic carcinogen, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (C3H10T1/2 were exposed to 1, 10 or 100 nM TCDD for 2 days. Micronuclei (MN and expression of selected cancer-related genes were assayed both immediately and at a delayed point in time (8 days. For comparison, similar experiments were done with cadmium, a known genotoxic agent. TCDD treatment induced an elevated frequency of MN at 8 days, but not directly after the exposure. TCDD-induced alterations in gene expression were also mostly delayed, with more changes observed at 8 days than at 2 days. Exposure to cadmium produced an opposite pattern of responses, with pronounced effects immediately after exposure but no increase in MN and few gene expression changes at 8 days. Although all responses to TCDD alone were delayed, menadione-induced DNA damage (measured by the Comet assay, was found to be increased directly after a 2-day TCDD exposure, indicating that the stability of the genome was compromised already at this time point. The results suggested a flat dose-response relationship consistent with dose-response data reported for radiation-induced GI. These findings indicate that TCDD, although not directly genotoxic, induces GI, which is associated with impaired DNA damage response.

  8. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA sub-lethal exposure to embryonic zebrafish have different toxicity profiles in terms of morphometrics, behavior and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Annunziato, Kate A; Bugel, Sean M; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a class of anthropogenic, persistent and toxic chemicals. PFCs are detected worldwide and consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and industrial uses. Previous zebrafish studies in the literature as well as our own studies have shown that exposure to these chemicals at a low range of concentrations (0.02-2.0μM; 20-2000ppb) resulted in chemical specific developmental defects and reduced post hatch survival. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal embryonic exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) would result in different responses with regard to morphometric, behavior, and gene expression in both yolk sac fry and larval zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (0.02, 0.2, 2.0μM) for the first five days post fertilization (dpf) and analyzed for morphometrics (5 dpf, 14 dpf), targeted gene expression (5 dpf, 14 dpf), and locomotive behavior (14 dpf). All three PFCs commonly resulted in a decrease in total body length, increased tfc3a (muscle development) expression and decreased ap1s (protein transport) expression at 5dpf, and hyperactive locomotor activity 14 dpf. All other endpoints measured at both life-stage time points varied between each of the PFCs. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA exposure resulted in significantly altered responses in terms of morphometric, locomotion, and gene expression endpoints, which could be manifested in field exposed teleosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pan, Bishu [Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taizhou 318000 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hepatotoxicity of TBBPA and Cd aerosol co-exposure was evaluated in CD-1 male mice. • Hepatic changes include focal necrosis, increased organ weight, and elevated enzymes. • TBBPA group exhibited highest hepatic toxicity followed by co-exposure and Cd groups. • We did not observe any synergistic effect of hepatic toxicity between TBBPA and Cd. • TBBPA/Cd suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8 μg/m{sup 3}), TBBPA (16 μg/m{sup 3}) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8 h/day and 6 days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  10. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Migliaccio

    Full Text Available Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6 and 3.6 x 10(-5 M, respectively on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  11. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  12. Selenium Preferentially Accumulates in the Eye Lens Following Embryonic Exposure: A Confocal X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Sanjukta; Thomas, Jith; Sylvain, Nicole J.; Ponomarenko, Olena; Gordon, Robert A.; Heald, Steve M.; Janz, David M.; Krone, Patrick H.; Coulthard, Ian; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2015-02-17

    Maternal transfer of elevated selenium (Se) to offspring is an important route of Se exposure for fish in the natural environment. However, there is a lack of information on the tissue specific spatial distribution and speciation of Se in the early developmental stages of fish, which provide important information about Se toxicokinetics. The effect of maternal transfer of Se was studied by feeding adult zebrafish a Se-elevated or a control diet followed by collection of larvae from both groups. Novel confocal synchrotron-based techniques were used to investigate Se within intact preserved larvae. Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging was used to compare Se distributions within specific planes of an intact larva from each of the two groups. The elevated Se treatment showed substantially higher Se levels than the control; Se preferentially accumulated to highest levels in the eye lens, with lower levels in the retina, yolk and other tissues. Confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine that the speciation of Se within the eye lens of the intact larva was a selenomethionine-like species. Preferential accumulation of Se in the eye lens may suggest a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to elevated Se and Se-induced ocular impairments reported previously. This study illustrates the effectiveness of confocal X-ray fluorescence methods for investigating trace element distribution and speciation in intact biological specimens

  13. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  14. Biomonitoring of the adverse effects induced by the chronic exposure to lead and cadmium on kidney function: Usefulness of alpha-glutathione S-transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, Guillaume [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Leleu, Bruno [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Marez, Thierry [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Zerimech, Farid [Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Huriez, 01, Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Haguenoer, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Sante Publique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 03, Rue du Pr. Laguesse, BP 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France); Furon, Daniel [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: Pirouz.Shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-05-15

    A successful prevention of renal diseases induced by occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd) largely relies on the capability to detect nephrotoxic effects at a stage when they are still reversible or at least not yet compromising renal function. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the usefulness of a set of early biological markers of oxidative stress or nephrotoxicity for the biomonitoring of workers occupationally exposed to Pb and/or Cd in a non-ferrous metal smelter, and gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, and drug use-matched control individuals. In exposed subjects, mean levels of Pb in blood and urine were also 387.1 {+-} 99.1 {mu}g Pb/L (1.868 {+-} 0.478 {mu}mol Pb/L) and 217.7 {+-} 117.7 {mu}g Pb/g creatinine (1.051 {+-} 0.568 {mu}mol Pb/g creatinine), and mean levels of Cd in blood and urine were 3.26 {+-} 2.11 {mu}g Cd/L (0.029 {+-} 0.019 {mu}mol Cd/L) and 2.51 {+-} 1.89 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine (0.022 {+-} 0.017 {mu}mol Cd/g creatinine), suggesting thereby relatively low occupational exposure levels. Statistically significant variations in zinc protoporphyrin, malondialdehyde, retinol binding protein, alpha-glutathione S-transferase, and urinary protein levels were reported between the two groups, and were closely correlated with Pb and/or Cd exposure levels. Variations in {alpha}GST levels were closely associated with Pb exposure. Taken together, these results suggest the use of alpha-glutathione S-transferase excretion in urine as a hallmark of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity.

  15. Effect of an Extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. Berries on the Body Status of Zinc and Copper under Chronic Exposure to Cadmium: An In Vivo Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Małgorzata M; Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, Małgorzata; Rogalska, Joanna

    2017-12-19

    In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements' apparent absorption, body retention, serum and tissue concentrations, total pool in internal organs, excretion, and the degree of binding to metallothionein were evaluated in female rats administered 0.1% aqueous AE or/and Cd in their diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3-24 months. The consumption of AE alone had no influence on the body status of Zn and Cu. The extract administration at both levels of Cd treatment significantly (completely or partially) protected against most of the changes in the metabolism of Zn and Cu caused by this xenobiotic; however, it increased or decreased some of the Cd-unchanged indices of their body status. Based on the findings, it seems that rational amounts of chokeberry products may be included in the daily diet without the risk of destroying Zn and Cu metabolisms; however, their potential prophylactic use under exposure to Cd needs further study to exclude any unfavourable impact of these essential elements on the metabolism.

  16. The biochemical effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in the blood of glazers in tile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nakhaee, Alireza; Izadi, Shahrokh; Dehghan Haghighi, Javid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on markers of oxidative stress in glazers in tile industries. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the blood of 80 subjects, including 40 glazers and 40 nonexposed subjects. Mean levels of blood Cd (8.90 ± 2.80 µg/L) and blood Pb (62.90 ± 38.10 µg/L) of glazers showed a significant increase compared with the control group. In the serum of glazers, the level of MDA was significantly higher and the level of TAC was significantly lower than the control group. We have noted a disturbance in the levels of antioxidants by a significant increase in the CAT activity and a significant decrease in the activities of SOD and GPx in the serum of glazers compared with the controls. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the serum MDA level and CAT activity were positively associated with the blood levels of Pb and Cd. Also, GPx and SOD were negatively correlated with blood Cd levels. The study clearly indicated that co-exposure to Cd and Pb can induce oxidative stress in glazers, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation and altered antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Identification, characterization and expression profiles of Chironomus riparius glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in response to cadmium and silver nanoparticles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Prakash M. Gopalakrishnan [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jinhee, E-mail: jinhchoi@uos.ac.kr [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, we report the identification and characterization of 13 cytosolic GST genes in Chironomus riparius from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database generated using pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae GSTs and 3 Delta, 4 Sigma, 1 each in Omega, Epsilon, Theta, Zeta and 2 unclassified classes of GSTs were identified and characterized. The relative mRNA expression levels of all of the C. riparius GSTs (CrGSTs) genes under different developmental stages were varied with low expression in the larval stage. The antioxidant role of CrGSTs was studied by exposing fourth instar larvae to a known oxidative stress inducer Paraquat and the relative mRNA expression to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for various time intervals were also studied. All the CrGSTs showed up- or down regulation to varying levels based upon the concentration, and duration of exposure. The highest mRNA expression was noticed in Delta3, Sigma4 and Epsilon1 GST class in all treatments. These results show the role of CrGST genes in defense against oxidative stress and its potential as a biomarker to Cd and AgNPs exposure.

  18. Integrative analysis of genes and miRNA alterations in human embryonic stem cells-derived neural cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung-Hwa; Son, Mi-Young; Choi, Mi-Sun; Kim, Soojin; Choi, A-young; Lee, Hyang-Ae; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Janghwan; Song, Chang Woo; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-01-01

    Given the rapid growth of engineered and customer products made of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), understanding their biological and toxicological effects on humans is critically important. The molecular developmental neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to Ag NPs were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels, using an alternative cell model: human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs (10–200 μg/ml) were examined in these hESC-derived NPCs, which have a capacity for neurogenesis in vitro, at 6 and 24 h. The results showed that Ag NPs evoked significant toxicity in hESC-derived NPCs at 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Ag NPs induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following a significant increase in oxidative stress in these cells. To further clarify the molecular mechanisms of the toxicological effects of Ag NPs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, the global expression profiles of genes and miRNAs were analyzed in hESC-derived NPCs after Ag NP exposure. The results showed that Ag NPs induced oxidative stress and dysfunctional neurogenesis at the molecular level in hESC-derived NPCs. Based on this hESC-derived neural cell model, these findings have increased our understanding of the molecular events underlying developmental neurotoxicity induced by Ag NPs in humans. - Highlights: • This system served as a suitable model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. • Ag NPs induce the apoptosis in human neural cells by ROS generation. • Genes for development of neurons were dysregulated in response to Ag NPs. • Molecular events during early developmental neurotoxicity were proposed.

  19. Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah Jo; Robien, Kim; Zota, Ami R

    2017-04-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999-2002). Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional associations between LTL and serum concentrations of vitamin A, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, folate, and vitamin B-12 (1999-2002; n = 7458) and α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene (2001-2002; n = 4018) in a nationally representative sample of US adults (≥20 y of age) with the use of multivariable linear regression. We further investigated whether vitamin and carotenoid concentrations modified associations between blood cadmium and LTL with models stratified by serum nutrient concentrations and the inclusion of an interaction term. Results: Blood cadmium was inversely associated with LTL (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = -3.74; 95% CI: -5.35, -2.10). Serum vitamin A was positively associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.26, 7.90) and γ-tocopherol was inversely associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/dL = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.21, -0.73) with LTL. Serum folate ( P -trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol ( P -trend = 0.10) were marginally positively associated with LTL, whereas vitamin B-12 ( P -trend = 0.78) was not associated with LTL. Serum carotenoids were generally positively associated with LTL. Serum vitamin and carotenoid concentrations did not modify blood cadmium and LTL associations ( P -interaction > 0.10). Conclusions: Results from this

  20. Time trends and exposure determinants of lead and cadmium in the adult population of northern Sweden 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2017-11-01

    This study follows cadmium and lead concentrations in blood in the adult population in northern Sweden over 24 years. Concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in single whole blood samples (B-Pb and B-Cd) from 619 men and 926 women participating in the Northern Sweden WHO MONICA Study on one occasion 1990-2014. Associations with smoking and dietary factors were investigated. Consumption of moose meat was asked for in 2014. In the adult population in northern Sweden, the median B-Pb in 2014 was 11.0µg/L in young (25-35 years) men and 9.69µg/L in young women. In an older age-group (50-60 years), the median B-Pb was 15.1µg/L in men and 13.1µg/L in women. B-Pb decreased from 1990 to 2009, after which time no further decrease was observed. B-Pb was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In never-smokers, positive associations were found between B-Pb and consumption of wine and brewed coffee (women only) in 2004-2014. Higher B-Pb with consumption of moose meat was demonstrated in men, but not in women. B-Cd was essentially stable over the whole period, but an increase in B-Cd, of 3% per year, was detected in never-smoking women between 2009 and 2014. In 2014, median B-Cd in never-smokers in the four groups was; 0.11µg/L in younger men, 0.15µg/L in younger women, 0.14µg/L in older men, and 0.21µg/L in older women. B-Cd was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The only positive association between B-Cd and food items in 2004-2014 was with consumption of brewed coffee (men only). The lack of a decrease in B-Cd from 1990 to 2014 and the absence of a further decrease in B-Pb after 2009 are unsatisfactory considering the health risks these metals pose in the general population at current concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of dietary cadmium exposure on fitness traits and its accumulation (with an overview on trace elements) in Lymantria dispar larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Mutić, Jelena; Trifković, Jelena; Đurđić, Slađana; Perić Mataruga, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    Bioaccumulation and excretion of heavy metals in insects is only partially clarified. We have investigated cadmium accumulation in the feces, head and integument of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae exposed to chronic dietary intake of cadmium. The aim of the experiment was to establish modalities of metal accumulation, primarily cadmium, as well as changes in fitness traits in two insect populations receiving 50 or 100μgCd/g dry food. The egg-masses originated from two localities: a protected nature reserve (unpolluted population) and an area near a busy highway (polluted population) in Serbia. At both added dietary levels cadmium concentration was highest in feces. Small alterations in metal concentrations after both cadmium treatments were detected in the integument. It was established that irrespective of population origin, the modality of decline of larval mass and relative growth rate (RGR) was similar. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in the integument were approximately the same regardless of dietary cadmium intake. However, cadmium accumulation in the examined tissues, as well as variability of fitness traits depended on population origin and cadmium concentration. In larvae from both populations not given contaminated food the head was the organ with the greatest accumulation of trace elements. Our results reveal how invasive phytophagous insects cope with high metal concentrations in their food by body mass (RGR) reduction and energy allocation towards processes that enable accumulation of cadmium and other trace elements in different tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination, and the name and social security number of each employee. (3) Monitoring frequency (periodic... cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo... future exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; reproductive history; current use of...

  3. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. © 2014 The Authors. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  5. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  6. Ultrastructural, Confocal and Viscoelastic Characteristics of Whole Blood and Plasma After Exposure to Cadmium and Chromium Alone and in Combination: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Venter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy metal pollution is increasing in the environment, contaminating water, food and air supplies. This can be linked to many anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals are absorbed through the skin, inhalation and/or orally. Irrespective of the manner of heavy metal entry in the body, the blood circulatory system is potentially the first to be affected following exposure and adverse effects on blood coagulation can lead to associated thrombotic disease. Although the plasma levels and the effects of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been described, the environmental exposure to heavy metals are not limited to a single metal and often involves metal mixtures, with each metal having different rates of absorption, different cellular, tissue, and organ targets. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the heavy metals Cd and Cr alone and whether Cr synergistically increases the effect of Cd on physiological important processes such as blood coagulation. Methods: Human blood was exposed to the heavy metals ex vivo, and thereafter morphological analysis was performed with scanning electron- and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in conjunction with thromboelastography®. Results: The erythrocytes, platelets and fibrin networks presented with ultrastructural changes, including varied erythrocytes morphologies, activated platelets and significantly thicker fibrin fibres in the metal-exposed groups. CLSM analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the membranes of the spherocytic erythrocytes exposed to Cd and Cr alone and in combination. The viscoelastic analysis revealed only a trend that indicates that clots that will form after heavy metal exposure, will likely be fragile and unstable especially for Cd and Cr in combination. Conclusion: This study identified the blood as an important target system of Cd and Cr toxicity.

  7. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Gonzalez, Patrice, E-mail: p.gonzalez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Baudrimont, Magalie, E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Nili, Hanane, E-mail: h.nili@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de, E-mail: x.de-montaudouin@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-05-05

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T{sub 168}, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of

  8. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid Rahman

    Full Text Available The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the Milky stork’s diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to assess heavy metal exposure risk to the population. Lead level (5.5–7.98 mg kg−1 in particular was relatively high compared to Cd (0.08–0.33 mg kg−1. This was probably related to the different niches occupied by the species in the aquatic environment. The results further show that the predicted exposure doses (through intake of both food and water for all metals are much lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI values. The total exposure dose for Cd was 0.11 mg kg−1 d−1 with TDI value of 0.54 mg kg−1 d−1 while Pb total exposure dose was 0.31 mg kg−1 d−1 with TDI value of 0.64 mg kg−1 d−1. Several possible factors that could lead to the observed pattern were discussed. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to improve the current habitat quality to protect the endangered species. The authors also emphasized on the protection of remaining Milky stork’s habitats i.e. mudflats and mangroves and the creation of buffer zone to mitigate the negative impacts that may arise from pollution activity. Keywords: Milky stork, Heavy metals, Exposure dose, Integrated assessment, Ecotoxicology, Pollution

  9. Study on damage of DNA in mice induced by mercury cadmium and/or lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaopan; Zhou Jianhua; Shi Xijing; Yan Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the joint injury actions of mercury, cadmium and/or lead on DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from mice at the 2 day after the peritoneal injections. DNA damages were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and 3 H-TdR incorporation. Results: Acquired by SCGE technique, tail movement of DNA in mercury-cadmium-lead group was significantly greater than that in the single exposure group, the difference was significant too between mercury-cadmium group and cadmium group, cadmium-lead group and cadmium group. The results of 3 H-TdR incorporation showed: the values of DPM in mercury-cadmium group and cadmium-lead group were lower than that in the single exposure group and the value of DPM lowered more significantly after exposure to mercury-cadmium-lead. Conclusion: The combined effects of mercury, cadmium, lead on DNA damage are more significant. (author)

  10. Decreased lung function with mediation of blood parameters linked to e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Wu, Weidong; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and the relationship among living area, the blood parameter levels, and the lung function levels, a total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (exposed area), and Haojiang and Xiashan (reference areas) were recruited and required to undergo blood tests and lung function tests during the study period. Preschool children living in e-waste exposed areas were found to have a 1.37 μg/dL increase in blood Pb, 1.18 μg/L increase in blood Cd, and a 41.00 × 10 9 /L increase in platelet counts, while having a 2.82 g/L decrease in hemoglobin, 92 mL decrease in FVC and 86 mL decrease in FEV 1 . Each unit of hemoglobin (1 g/L) decline was associated with 5 mL decrease in FVC and 4 mL decrease in FEV 1 . We conclude that children living in e-waste exposed area have higher levels of blood Pb, Cd and platelets, and lower levels of hemoglobin and lung function. Hemoglobin can be a good predictor for lung function levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gap junctional intercellular communication and endoplasmic reticulum stress regulate chronic cadmium exposure induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zehe; Diao, Haipeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Qingping; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Qing

    2018-05-15

    Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, is known to induce renal toxicity by primarily targeting at renal proximal tubule. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) regulate many pathophysiological processes. Yet, how ER stress and GJIC regulate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, we treated human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells with 1 μM CdCl 2 every other day for 12 days and found that Cd significantly increased cell apoptosis at 10 and 12 days. This cytotoxicity correlated with activation of ER stress and apoptotic signaling evidenced by upregulation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α), splice X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1s), and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) proteins. Interestingly, the AKT signaling was activated at 2- and 4-day and then inhibited at 10- and 12-day of Cd treatment; by contrast, Cd decreased GJIC levels at 2- and 4-day followed by a significant increase at 10- and 12-day treatment. Activation of AKT by SC79 or inhibition of GJIC by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) completely abolished Cd-induced AKT inhibition and IRE1α-ASK1 activation. Importantly, pretreatment with ER stress inhibitor or 18α-GA significantly mitigated Cd-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that GJIC collaborates with AKT signaling and ER stress in regulating prolonged Cd-treatment-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain): Risk assessment of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ricardo; García, M Ángeles; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2018-01-29

    Currently, metal bioaccumulation in fish is increasing and is a cause of concern due to toxicity. Total arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) were determined by ICP-MS spectrometry. The average concentrations of As and Cd, 3.78 and 0.024 mg kg -1 w.w., respectively, in fresh tuna were statistically significantly higher than those in processed tuna (p  natural > pickled sauce. Of the two species studied in canned tuna, Thunnus alalunga showed statistically significant higher levels both for As 1.28 mg kg -1 (p < 0.001) and Pb 0.013 mg kg -1 (p = 0.0496) than Thunnus albacares. No samples surpassed the limits set by the EU for Cd and Pb. The limit for As in fish has not been established, but the arsenic contents in fresh tuna reported here are important, as they are among the highest reported in the literature. Considering public health in children and adults with respect to the investigated metals, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) did not exceed the tolerable intakes. No chronic systemic risk was found since all the target hazard quotients (THQs-TTHQs) were far below 1 (critical value), and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for As did not exceed the acceptable value of 10 -5 . Thus, tuna consumption in the Galician diet does not pose a risk for different population groups in terms of these studied metals/metalloids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Differential susceptibility of horizontal and vertical swimming activity to cadmium exposure in a gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus lawrencianus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.G.; Estephan, A

    2004-08-25

    In this study two indices of swimming behavior (horizontal and vertical swimming activity) in a gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus lawrencianus) were examined for their sensitivity to Cd exposure. G. lawrencianus were exposed for 72 h to a variety of Cd concentrations [background ({approx}12), 62, 125, 250 and 500 {mu}g l{sup -1}] at 20 ppt. Subsequent to exposure, video surveillance of survivors held within grooved rings or clear boxes was used to assess horizontal swimming activity (percentage of time mobile) and vertical swimming activity (number of surfacings), respectively. Results show that control amphipods were quite active, being mobile {approx}61% of the time, with horizontal swimming activity decreasing (P < 0.01) to {approx}0.3% between a Cd exposure concentration of 125 and 500 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Vertical swimming activity in amphipods was also impacted by Cd exposure (P < 0.001), with the greatest decrease occurring between background ({approx}12 {mu}g l{sup -1}) and 62 {mu}g l{sup -1} (60 versus {approx}26 surfacings, respectively), which is approximately four-fold lower than the estimated 72 h LC{sub 50} (250 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for G. lawrencianus. Based on fluid dynamic considerations, it is speculated that of the two behaviors, vertical swimming activity is more sensitive to Cd exposure because of the presumed greater energetic costs associated with producing enough thrust to attain the lift required to make a vertical ascent into the water.

  14. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments.

  15. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: Effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rui; Wang Wenxiong

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments

  16. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  17. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-10-29

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure.

  18. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  19. Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to platinum group metals (platinum, palladium and rhodium): Comparison with lead and cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Christoph [Zoologisches Institut I-Oekologie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Geb. 07.01, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, Sonja [Zoologisches Institut I-Oekologie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Geb. 07.01, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sures, Bernd [Zoologisches Institut I-Oekologie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Geb. 07.01, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: dc11@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2005-10-05

    An increasing number of papers concentrate on the availability and uptake of platinum group elements (PGE) by different organisms. These metals are discharged into the environment from different anthropogenic sources, such as automobile catalytic converters, hospitals and other medical institutions. As the effects of these precious metals on organisms remain unclear, the induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to soluble salts of platinum, palladium and rhodium was compared with the hsp70 induction in mussels following exposure to cadmium and lead. Mussels were sampled weekly during a period of 10 weeks and analyzed for their metal concentration and their hsp70 level. Highest metal uptake was found for Cd, followed by Pt, Pb and Pd. Rh demonstrated the lowest uptake rate. A clear time-dependent increase of hsp70 levels occurred in all exposed mussels. Concentrations of hsp70 started to rise between days 18 and 25, except for the Pt-exposed group, where the initial increase was between days 25 and 32. All groups reached maximal hsp70 concentrations at day 39. Subsequently, hsp70 levels decreased to initial levels for the remaining exposure period. Threshold metal levels for the hsp70 induction varied among the metals and increased in the order: Rh < Pd {<=} Pb < Pt < Cd. Highest hsp70 values were found for mussels exposed to Pd, with a 25-fold higher level than in the controls, followed by Pt- and Rh-exposed mussels, which showed a 19-fold increase. The hsp70 levels of the mussels exposed to Cd and Pb were much lower, showing 6- and 12-fold higher values than the control, respectively. The clear induction of hsp70 due to exposure to Pt, Pd and Rh gives evidence for strong cellular effects of these metals, especially, when compared with lead and cadmium. Among the metals tested, Pd seems to have the highest potential as inducer for hsp70 production due to its low threshold level in combination with the

  20. Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to platinum group metals (platinum, palladium and rhodium): Comparison with lead and cadmium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Christoph; Zimmermann, Sonja; Sures, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of papers concentrate on the availability and uptake of platinum group elements (PGE) by different organisms. These metals are discharged into the environment from different anthropogenic sources, such as automobile catalytic converters, hospitals and other medical institutions. As the effects of these precious metals on organisms remain unclear, the induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to soluble salts of platinum, palladium and rhodium was compared with the hsp70 induction in mussels following exposure to cadmium and lead. Mussels were sampled weekly during a period of 10 weeks and analyzed for their metal concentration and their hsp70 level. Highest metal uptake was found for Cd, followed by Pt, Pb and Pd. Rh demonstrated the lowest uptake rate. A clear time-dependent increase of hsp70 levels occurred in all exposed mussels. Concentrations of hsp70 started to rise between days 18 and 25, except for the Pt-exposed group, where the initial increase was between days 25 and 32. All groups reached maximal hsp70 concentrations at day 39. Subsequently, hsp70 levels decreased to initial levels for the remaining exposure period. Threshold metal levels for the hsp70 induction varied among the metals and increased in the order: Rh < Pd ≤ Pb < Pt < Cd. Highest hsp70 values were found for mussels exposed to Pd, with a 25-fold higher level than in the controls, followed by Pt- and Rh-exposed mussels, which showed a 19-fold increase. The hsp70 levels of the mussels exposed to Cd and Pb were much lower, showing 6- and 12-fold higher values than the control, respectively. The clear induction of hsp70 due to exposure to Pt, Pd and Rh gives evidence for strong cellular effects of these metals, especially, when compared with lead and cadmium. Among the metals tested, Pd seems to have the highest potential as inducer for hsp70 production due to its low threshold level in combination with the

  1. Time-dependent changes in copper indium gallium (di)selenide and cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules due to outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Sato, Ritsuko; Ishii, Tetsuyuki; Chiba, Yasuo; Masuda, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules deteriorates with time due to outdoor exposure. We investigated the time-dependent changes in PV modules and evaluated the amount of power generated during their lifetime. Once a year, the exposed modules were removed and measured under standard test conditions using a solar simulator. Their outputs were measured indoors and normalized to nominal values. In addition, the relationship between the indoor measurement and the energy yield for thin-film PV modules will be reported. In CIGS PV modules, the normalized maximum power (P MAX) and performance ratio (PR) differ with the type of module. The P MAX and PR of CdTe PV modules significantly decrease after outdoor exposure for three years. These results help to determine the characteristics of the time-dependent changes in the P MAX of PV modules due to outdoor exposure.

  2. Experimental exposure to cadmium affects metallothionein-like protein levels but not survival and growth in wolf spiders from polluted and reference populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraly, Debbie; Hendrickx, Frederik; Bervoets, Lieven; Lens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Both local adaptation and acclimation in tolerance mechanisms may allow populations to persist under metal pollution. However, both mechanisms are presumed to incur (energetic) costs and to trade-off with other life-history traits. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) spiderlings originating from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites to a controlled cadmium (Cd) treatment, and compared contents of metal-binding metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), internal metal concentrations, and individual survival and growth rates with a reference treatment. While increased MTLP concentrations in offspring originating from both polluted and unpolluted populations upon exposure indicates a plastic tolerance mechanism, survival and growth rates remain largely unaffected, independent of the population of origin. However, MTLP and Cd concentrations were not significantly correlated. We suggest that MTLP production may be an important mechanism enabling P. saltans populations to persist in ecosystems polluted with heavy metals above a certain level. - Spiders from metal-polluted and unpolluted populations show a similar increase in MTLP production when exposed to Cd, with unaffected growth and survival.

  3. Effects of Long-term exposure of Gelatinated and Non-gelatinated Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots on Differentiated PC12 cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2012-01-20

    Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs) is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days) to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days).

  4. Estrogenic response in male bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) hepatocytes after single or combined exposure to cadmium (Cd) and 17beta-estradiol (E2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Woo; Chang, Ziwei; Oh, Beom-Seok; Lu, Ming; Park, Jang-Su

    2010-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals and sex hormones in a water environment is an important health issue. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic effects of cadmium (Cd) administration alone and in combination with 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the hepatocytes of male Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Their vitellogenin (VTG) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed upon exposure to Cd alone or to both Cd and E2. Our results suggest that the VTG levels induced by the co-treatment of 100 nM E2 and 100 nM CdCl(2) were significantly higher than those induced by 100 nM E2 alone (p < 0.05), and were comparable to vitellogenin induction observed with 1 μM E2. A similar result was observed by western blot analysis in the culture medium of hepatocytes. Meanwhile, Cd (but not E2) increased the ROS levels. These results suggest that Cd has a cooperative effect with E2 in the induction of VTG, thus acting as an estrogenic disruptor. Cd also causes oxidative stress that occurs with the enhanced vitellogenesis.

  5. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  7. Sex-dependent effects of developmental arsenic exposure on methylation capacity and methylation regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the embryonic mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that prenatal moderate arsenic exposure (50 ppb disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR programming and that these changes continue into adolescence in males. However, it was not clear what the molecular mechanisms were promoting these GR programming changes or if these changes occurred in arsenic-exposed females. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of arsenic on protein and mRNA of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd isozymes and compared the levels of methylation within the promoters of the Nr3c1 and Hsd11b1 genes in female fetal brain at embryonic days (E 14 and 18. Prenatal arsenate exposure produced sex specific effects on the glucocorticoid system. Compared to males, females were resistant to arsenic induced changes in GR, 11β-Hsd-1 and 11β-Hsd-2 protein levels despite observed elevations in Nr3c1 and Hsd11b2 mRNA. This sex-specific effect was not due to differences in the methylation of the GR promoter as methylation of the Nr3c1 gene was either unchanged (region containing the egr-1 binding site or similarly reduced (region containing the SP-1 transcription factor binding site in both males and females exposed to arsenic. Arsenic did produce sex and age-specific changes in the methylation of Hsd11b1 gene, producing increased methylation in females at E14 and decreased methylation at E18.These changes were not attributed to changes in DNMT levels. Since arsenate metabolism could interfere with the generation of methyl donor groups, we assessed glutathione (GSH, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and As 3 methyltransferase (As3MT. Exposed males and females had similar levels of As3MT and SAM; however, females had higher levels of GSH/GSSH. It is possible that this greater anti-oxidative capacity within the females provides protection against low to moderate arsenate. Our data suggest that the GR signaling system in female offspring was not as affected by prenatal arsenic

  8. Time-dependent inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase induced by single and simultaneous exposure to lead and cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, V.; Kojić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Čolović, M.; Vujačić, A.; Stojić, D.

    2007-09-01

    Time-dependent interactions of Na+/K+-ATPase, isolated from rat brain synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs), with Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions in a single exposure and in a mixture were investigated in vitro. The interference of the enzyme with these metal ions was studied as a function of different protein concentrations and exposure time. The aim of the work was to investigate the possibility of selective recognition of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions in a mixture, on the basis of the different rates of their protein-ligand interactions. Decreasing protein concentration increased the sensitivity of Na+/K+-ATPase toward both metals. The selectivity in protein-ligand interactions was obtained by variation of preincubation time (incubation before starting the enzymatic reaction).

  9. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while......Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...

  10. Co-exposure to lead increases the renal response to low levels of cadmium in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, R; Lison, D; D'Haese, P C; Weyler, J; De Graef, E; De Schryver, A; Lamberts, L V; van Sprundel, M

    2013-10-24

    Research on the effect of co-exposure to Cd and Pb on the kidney is scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of co-exposure to these metals on biomarkers of early renal effect. Cd in blood (Cd-B), Cd in urine (Cd-U), Pb in blood (Pb-B) and urinary renal biomarkers, i.e., microalbumin (μ-Alb), beta-2-microglobulin (β₂-MG), retinol binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were measured in 122 metallurgic refinery workers examined in a cross-sectional survey. The median Cd-B, Cd-U, Pb-B were: 0.8 μg/l (IQR = 0.5, 1.2), 0.5 μg/g creatinine (IQR = 0.3, 0.8) and 158.5 μg/l (IQR = 111.0, 219.3), respectively. The impact of Cd-B on the urinary excretion of NAG and IAP was only evident among workers with Pb-B concentrations ≥ 75th percentile. The association between Cd-U and the renal markers NAG and RBP was also evidenced when Pb-B ≥ 75th percentile. No statistically significant interaction terms were observed for the associations between Cd-B or Cd-U and the other renal markers under study (i.e., μ-Alb and β2-MG). Our findings indicate that Pb increases the impact of Cd exposure on early renal biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic waterborne zinc and cadmium exposures induced different responses towards oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com [National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022 (China); Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen [National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022 (China); Li, Wei-Ye [Zhoushan fisheries research institute, Zhoushan 316022 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Zn and Cd induced some differences in oxidative damage in the liver of zebrafish. • Zn and Cd enhanced expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT through Nrf2 pathway. • Zn and Cd did not affected protein levels of CAT. • Cd inhibited biological activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT proteins. • Zn stimulated activity and protein levels of Cu/Zn-SOD. - Abstract: Based on the same toxic level of 0.6% LC{sub 50} for 96-h and the severe situation of water pollution, we compared effects of chronic Zn (180 μg L{sup −1}) and Cd exposures (30 μg L{sup −1}) on growth, survival, histology, ultrastructure, and oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish for 5 weeks. Growth performance and survival rate remained relatively constant under Zn stress, but was reduced under Cd exposure. Cd exposure also induced severe pyknotic nuclei, evident ultrastructure damage, and considerable lipid inclusions in the hepatocytes. However, these phenomena were not pronounced under Zn exposure. The negative effects caused by Cd may be explained by an increase in hepatic oxidative damage, as reflected by the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC). The reduced activity of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) may result in the enhanced hepatic oxidative damage, though the mRNA and protein levels of both genes increased and remained unchanged respectively. On the contrary, Zn up-regulated the levels of mRNA, protein and activity of Cu/Zn-SOD, which may contribute to the decreased LPO levels. Nonetheless, the sharply up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT did not induce an increase in the protein and activity levels of CAT under Zn stress. Furthermore, transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression parelleled with its target genes, suggesting that Nrf2 is required for the protracted induction of antioxidant genes. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that essential and non-essential metals induced some differences in

  12. [Evaluation of human health risk for a population from Cali, Colombia, by exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and diuron associated with water and food consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Ghisliane; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Páez, Martha Isabel; Méndez, Fabián; Peña, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.

  13. Oral exposure of mice to cadmium (II), chromium (VI) and their mixture induce oxidative- and endoplasmic reticulum-stress mediated apoptosis in the livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Zhang, Songbin; Tao, Runhua; Huang, Jie; He, Xingzhi; Qu, Lanya; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-06-01

    Health concerns regarding the environmental heavy metals in wildlife and humans have increased in recent years. We evaluated the effects of exposure of mice to low doses of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and their mixtures on oxidative- and ER-stress. Male adult mice were orally exposed to Cd (0.5 and 2 mg kg(-1) ), Cr (1 and 4 mg kg(-1) ) and binary Cd+Cr mixtures (0.25 + 05 and 1 + 2 mg kg(-1) ) daily for 36 days. We observed that the bioaccumulation of Cd and Cr in the liver in a dose-dependent manner, and the Cd and Cr contents in the 2 mg kg(-1) Cd and 4 mg kg(-1) Cr treated groups reached 2.43 and 3.46 µg g(-1) liver weight. In addition, treatments with 2 mg kg(-1) Cd, 4 mg kg(-1) Cr or their mixture (1 + 2 mg kg(-1) ) significantly decreased body and liver weights, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver. Moreover, Cd and Cr exposures also elevated the transcription of the oxidative- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress related genes including Cat, Gpx, heme oxygenase 1 (Ho-1), regulated protein 78 (Grp78), activating transcription factor 6 (Atf6) and proaoptotic CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (Chop) in a dose dependent manner in the liver. And hepatic cytochrome c levels increased in all Cd, Cr or their mixture treated groups. Furthermore, the transcriptional status and the activities of Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 were increased significantly in the liver when exposed to high doses of Cd, Cr or their mixture. These results suggested that a long period exposure of mice to Cd or Cr has the potential to elicit oxidative- and ER-stress mediated apoptosis in their livers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 693-705, 2016. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Significance of the rapid increase in GSH levels in the protective response to cadmium exposure through phosphorylated Nrf2 signaling in Jurkat T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Takeda, Yuko; Takayama, Hazuki; Nishimoto, Shouichi; Ichikawa, Keisuke; Ueki, Maiko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2014-04-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is a redox system disruptor, the systematic defensive responses to Cd-induced oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we initially determined that when human T-cell-derived Jurkat cells were exposed to a low concentration of Cd, the glutathione (GSH) concentration rapidly increased via the transient nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Therefore, we hypothesized that this increase in the GSH levels was a significant event that occurred in response to the Cd toxicity in the Jurkat T-cells. To test this hypothesis, the expression of Nrf2 in the cells was silenced using siRNA transfection. These restricted expression conditions demonstrated that the sensitivity of the Jurkat T-cells to Cd toxicity was significantly higher in the knockdown cells. Whereas we could not find differences in the metallothionein (MT) expression responses, accumulation of Nrf2 in the nuclei and the GSH increase after Cd exposure were clearly suppressed in the Nrf2 knockdown cells. These findings strongly suggest that the Cd-induced activation of GSH synthesis is initiated as an acute response for Cd detoxification. Furthermore, the Cd remaining in the Jurkat T-cells did not cause a significant inhibition of cell growth after the rapid and transient increase in the GSH concentration returned to its basal level. Additionally, we found that MT expression induced by Cd occurred much later, with the expression seen at least 12h or more after the Nrf2-dependent immediate responses were almost completed. These results indicate that the rapid increase in GSH is an essential defensive response, with the subsequent induction of MT potentially chelating the Cd retained in the cell, thereby leading to continued suppression of Cd toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative transcriptomics reveals genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways in the digestive gland of scallop Chlamys farreri following cadmium exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yuxiu; Yao, Lin; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Fengling

    2017-05-01

    Chlamys farreri is an economically important mollusk that can accumulate excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Studying the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in bivalves is difficult because of the lack of genome background. Transcriptomic analysis based on high-throughput RNA sequencing has been shown to be an efficient and powerful method for the discovery of relevant genes in non-model and genome reference-free organisms. Here, we constructed two cDNA libraries (control and Cd exposure groups) from the digestive gland of C. farreri and compared the transcriptomic data between them. A total of 227 673 transcripts were assembled into 105 071 unigenes, most of which shared high similarity with sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. For functional classification, 24 493 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Additionally, EuKaryotic Ortholog Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses assigned 12 028 unigenes to 26 categories and 7 849 unigenes to five pathways, respectively. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified 3 800 unigenes that were differentially expressed in the Cd-treated group compared with the control group. Among them, genes associated with heavy metal accumulation were screened, including metallothionein, divalent metal transporter, and metal tolerance protein. The functional genes and predicted pathways identified in our study will contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic and immune system in the digestive gland of C. farreri. In addition, the transcriptomic data will provide a comprehensive resource that may contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that respond to marine pollutants in bivalves.

  16. Alteration in successional trajectories of bacterioplankton communities in response to co-