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Sample records for embolization controls intractable

  1. Superselective embolization of the inferior vesical artery for the treatment of intractable hematuria from pelvic malignancy: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jeon, Eui Yong [Hallym Univ. Sacred Heart Hospital/Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Anyang, (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sun Young [Ewha Womans Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kum Hyun [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Intractable hematuria in from pelvic malignancy can be managed with conservative treatment in most patients. However, when treatment fails, surgical intervention may be required. Unfortunately, in most cases, the general condition of most patients is unfavorable for major surgery, with many patients having an inoperable status. We present two cases where intractable hematuria was successfully controlled by bilateral embolization of the inferior vesical artery with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Hematuria did not recur during the subsequent period and no complication was observed. Thus, bilateral embolization of the inferior vesical artery should be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of massive intractable hematuria caused by pelvic malignancy.

  2. Selective embolization in the treatment of intractable epistaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Juul; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: In skilled hands, selective embolization is a safe procedure and represents an effective treatment for prolonged epistaxis. Embolization therapy can be repeated if necessary. OBJECTIVE: Severe posterior epistaxis is a common clinical problem in an ENT department and controlling the b...

  3. Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage

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    Hong, T.-M.; Tseng, H.-S. E-mail: hstseng@vghtpe.gov.tw; Lee, R.-C.; Wang, J.-H.; Chang, C.-Y

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To present the findings of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 1999 to February 2003, 10 women with postpartum haemorrhage (n=7) and post-abortion haemorrhage with placenta accreta (n=3), were referred to our department for pelvic angiography and possible arterial embolization. RESULTS: Angiography revealed engorged and tortuous uterine arteries in all patients; and contrast medium extravasation in three patients. Eight patients (three with and five without detectable active bleeding) then underwent bilateral UAE. Medium-sized (250-355 {mu}m) polyvinyl alcohol particles were injected via a coaxial catheter into the uterine arteries, followed by gelatin sponge pieces via a 4 F Cobra catheter. Microcoil devascularization was also performed in the two patients with visible, active bleeding. The vaginal bleeding resolved in all patients, without any ischaemic complications. At follow-up, all patients who underwent UAE had normal menstruation; three of them subsequently gave birth to full-term healthy babies. CONCLUSION: Selective UAE by the coaxial method is safe and effective to control obstetric haemorrhage, with the potential to preserve fertility.

  4. Selective embolization of the internal iliac arteries for the treatment of intractable hemorrhage in children with malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sul Hee Bae

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Acute internal hemorrhage is an occasionally life-threatening complication in pediatric cancer patients. Many therapeutic approaches have been used to control bleeding with various degrees of success. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of selective internal iliac artery embolization for controlling acute intractable bleeding in children with malignancies. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated the cases of 6 children with various malignancies (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and rhabdomyosarcoma, who had undergone selective arterial embolization (SAE of the internal iliac artery at the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital between January 2004 and December 2009. SAE was performed by an interventional radiologist using GelfoamⓇ and/or TornadoⓇ coils. Results : The patients were 5 boys and 1 girl with median age of 6.9 years (range, 0.7–14.8 years at the time of SAE. SAE was performed once in 4 patients and twice in 2, and the procedure was unilateral in 2 and bilateral in 4. The causes of hemorrhage were as follows: hemorrhagic cystitis (HC in 3 patients, procedure-related internal iliac artery injuries in 2 patients, and tumor rupture in 1 patient. Initial attempt at conservative management was unsuccessful. Of the 6 patients, 5 (83.3% showed improvement after SAE without complications. Conclusion : SAE may be a safe and effective procedure for controlling acute intractable hemorrhage in pediatric malignancy patients. This procedure may obviate the need for surgery, which carries an attendant risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with critical conditions.

  5. Intractable Postpartum Bleeding: A Comparison of the Retrospective Analysis of Angiographic Findings and Transcatheter Arterial Embolization According to Delivery Pattern

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    Ahn, Eun Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Si Hyung; Choi, Jin Soo; Park, Jun Cheol; Kwon, Sang Hun; Jo, Chi Heum; Cha, Soon Do [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We evaluated the technical aspect and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in cases of intractable postpartum bleeding by comparing the angiographic findings women patients according to their delivery pattern. Between July of 2003 and March of 2008, 55 female patients were enrolled in this study. Of the 55 patients, 36 underwent a vaginal delivery (group 1), whereas 19 underwent a cesarean section delivery (group 2). We retrospectively evaluated the angiographic findings and the embolization technique between groups, using a Pearson Chi-Square test. Medical records and telephone interview findings were also reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of TAE and the outcome of fertility. Significantly greater positive angiographic findings were found in group 2 (63.2%) relative to group 1 (30.6%). For positive angiographic findings, except for AVM, the embolization was performed using coil or glue with gelfoam. For the negative angiographic findings or AVM, the gelfoam was the only embolic agent used. In all patients except for one, bleeding stopped after embolization. Major complications occurred in 2 patients only, and included uterine synechia and perforation. All patients except for one recovered after menstruation. In total, four patients became pregnant and one patient delivered a healthy infant. Positive angiographic findings requiring embolization with coil or glue, as well as gelfoam, were more commonly encountered in group 2 than in group 1. Based on the outcome of the study group, TAE is a safe and effective treatment for intractable postpartum bleeding and is also useful for preserving fertility.

  6. Renal Embolization and Urothelial Sclerotherapy for Recurrent Obstructive Urosepsis and Intractable Haematuria from Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

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    Brown, Nicholas, E-mail: nibrown@cantab.net [St Vincent’s Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Australia); Olayos, Elizabeth; Elmer, Sandra; Wong, Lih-Ming [St Vincent’s Hospital, Department of Urology (Australia); Brooks, Duncan M; Jhamb, Ashu [St Vincent’s Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Management of intractable haematuria and obstructive urosepsis from upper tract urothelial carcinoma can be problematic in patients not suitable for surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Interventional radiology techniques provide alternative approaches in this setting, such as complete kidney embolization to cease urine output, percutaneous nephrostomy, antegrade injection of sclerotherapy agents and sterilisation of the upper collecting system. Related approaches have been successfully employed to sclerose renal cysts, lymphoceles, chyluria and intractable lower tract haemorrhage. No reports of percutaneous, antegrade sclerotherapy in the upper urinary tract have previously been published. We present a case of recurrent haematuria and obstructive urosepsis caused by invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma in a non-operative patient, which was treated with renal embolisation and percutaneous upper tract urothelial sclerotherapy.

  7. Selective arterial embolization for control of haematuria secondary to advanced or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2014-05-02

    Haematuria is a common symptom in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. We report our experience of selective pelvic embolization using gelfoam as an embolic agent to treat intractable haematuria in these patients.

  8. Growth hormone used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang

    2015-08-21

    Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

  9. A sterile-female technique proposed for control of Striga hermonthica and other intractable weeds: Advantages, shortcomings, and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds have posed intractable challenges to farmers since the dawn of agriculture. This article describes in detail a proposed control strategy based on the introduction of genes conferring female-sterility into the genomes of intractable target weeds. Spread of these genes through target populations...

  10. Quality of life after surgery for intractable partial epilepsy in children: a cohort study with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikati, Mohamad A; Ataya, Nour; Ferzli, Jessica; Kurdi, Rana; El-Banna, Diana; Rahi, Amal; Shamseddine, Alhan; Sinno, Durriyah; Comair, Youssef

    2010-08-01

    Investigate if quality of life (QOL) normalizes on long-term follow-up after surgery for partial epilepsy in children. This is a cohort study with controls in which a consecutive cohort of nineteen 2-14-year-old children who underwent focal resections for intractable partial seizures between 1996 and 2006, were matched with 19 non-surgery intractable partial epilepsy patients, and with 19 healthy subjects. The two epilepsy groups were matched for age, sex, socio-economic status (SES), cognitive level, seizure type, and seizure frequency. The healthy group was matched with the two epilepsy groups for age, sex, SES, and cognitive level. QOL was assessed using the QOLCE (Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire). In the surgery group (follow-up 3.84+/-2.26 years), 78.9% had Engel class-I versus 21.1% in non-surgery (p=0.01) (follow-up 3.44+/-2.95 years). Surgery patients were similar to healthy subjects in the social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and overall QOL (p>0.05) but had lower scores in the total QOL, physical, and health domains (p0.05, power>0.8). Our data indicate that epilepsy surgery for partial seizures in children is associated with better QOL as compared to children with intractable epilepsy who are not operated on, and suggest that in those who achieve seizure freedom normal QOL may at least potentially be possible.

  11. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic intractable angina pectoris : A randomized, controlled efficacy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, RWM; DeJongste, MJL; Staal, MJ; van Gilst, WH; Lie, KI

    1998-01-01

    Background Spinel cord stimulation is known to be a successful treatment for chronic intractable angina pectoris. its effect may be anti-ischemic. It is uncertain if the clinical effect is partly caused by a placebo effect of surgery For implantation of a stimulator. In this study, clinical efficacy

  12. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations after Onyx embolization: a case-control study.

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    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Ching-Jen; Ball, Benjamin; Schlesinger, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Yen, Chun-Po; Sheehan, Jason

    2015-07-01

    Onyx, an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed in a dimethyl sulfoxide solvent, is currently one of the most widely used liquid materials for embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The goal of this study was to define the risks and benefits of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients who have previously undergone partial AVM embolization with Onyx. Among a consecutive series of 199 patients who underwent SRS between January 2007 and December 2012 at the University of Virginia, 25 patients had Onyx embolization prior to SRS (the embolization group). To analyze the obliteration rates and complications, 50 patients who underwent SRS without prior embolization (the no-embolization group) were matched by propensity score method. The matched variables included age, sex, nidus volume before SRS, margin dose, Spetzler-Martin grade, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale score, and median imaging follow-up period. After Onyx embolization, 18 AVMs were reduced in size. Total obliteration was achieved in 6 cases (24%) at a median of 27.5 months after SRS. In the no-embolization group, total obliteration was achieved in 20 patients (40%) at a median of 22.4 months after SRS. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated obliteration rates of 17.7% and 34.1% in the embolization group at 2 and 4 years, respectively. In the no-embolization group, the corresponding obliteration rates were 27.0% and 55.9%. The between-groups difference in obliteration rates after SRS did not achieve statistical significance. The difference in complications, including adverse radiation effects, hemorrhage episodes, seizure control, and patient mortality also did not reach statistical significance. Onyx embolization can effectively reduce the size of many AVMs. This case-control study did not show any statistically significant difference in the rates of embolization or complications after SRS in patients who had previously undergone Onyx embolization and those who had not.

  13. Behavioural and cognitive effects during vagus nerve stimulation in children with intractable epilepsy - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Sylvia; van den Bosch, Charlotte N C J; Majoie, H J Marian; Aalbers, Marlien W; Leenen, Loes; Hendriksen, Jos; Cornips, Erwin M J; Rijkers, Kim; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2013-01-01

    In addition to effects on seizure frequency in intractable epilepsy, multiple studies report benefits of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on behavioural outcomes and quality of life. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VNS on cognition, mood in general, depression, epilepsy-related restrictions and psychosocial adjustment in children with intractable epilepsy, as well as the relation between these effects and seizure reduction. We conducted a randomized, active-controlled, double-blinded, add-on study in 41 children (age 4-18) with medically refractory epilepsy. We performed cognitive and behavioural testing at baseline (12 weeks), at the end of the blinded phase (20 weeks) in children receiving either high-output or low-output (active control) stimulation, and at the end of the open label phase (19 weeks) with all children receiving high-output stimulation. Seizure frequency was recorded using seizure diaries. VNS did not have a negative effect on cognition nor on psychosocial adjustment. At the end of the follow-up phase we noted an improvement of mood in general and the depression subscale for the entire group, unrelated to a reduction of seizure frequency. At the end of the blinded phase a ≥50% reduction of seizure frequency occurred in 16% of the high-stimulation group and 21% of the low-stimulation group. At the end of the open-label follow-up phase, 26% of the children experienced a seizure frequency reduction of 50% or more (responders). VNS has additional beneficial effects in children with intractable epilepsy. As opposed to anti-epileptic drugs, there are no negative effects on cognition. Moreover, we observed an improvement of mood in general and depressed feelings in particular, irrespective of a reduction in seizure frequency. These beneficial effects should be taken into account when deciding whether to initiate or continue VNS treatment in these children. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier

  14. Endovascular Management of Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Vaginal Laceration

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    Koganemaru, Masamichi, E-mail: mkoganemaru@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nonoshita, Masaaki, E-mail: z2rs-1973@yahoo.co.jp; Iwamoto, Ryoji, E-mail: iwamoto-ryouji@kurume-u.ac.jp; Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nabeta, Masakazu, E-mail: nabeta-masakazu@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kusumoto, Masashi, E-mail: kusumoto-masashi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kugiyama, Tomoko, E-mail: kugiyama-tomoko@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kozuma, Yutaka, E-mail: kouduma-yutaka@kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Japan); Nagata, Shuji, E-mail: sn4735@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Abe, Toshi, E-mail: toshiabe@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeWe evaluated the management of transcatheter arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage caused by vaginal laceration.Materials and MethodsWe reviewed seven cases of patients (mean age 30.9 years; range 27–35) with intractable hemorrhages and pelvic hematomas caused by vaginal lacerations, who underwent superselective transcatheter arterial embolization from January 2008 to July 2014. Postpartum hemorrhage was evaluated by angiographic vascular mapping to determine the vaginal artery’s architecture, technical and clinical success rates, and complications.ResultsThe vaginal artery was confirmed as the source of bleeding in all cases. The artery was found to originate from the uterine artery in three cases, the uterine and obturator arteries in two, or the internal pudendal artery in two. After vaginal artery embolization, persistent contrast extravasation from the inferior mesenteric artery as an anastomotic branch was noted in one patient. Nontarget vessels (the inferior vesical artery and nonbleeding vaginal arterial branches) were embolized in one patient. Effective control of hemostasis and no post-procedural complications were confirmed for all cases.ConclusionPostpartum hemorrhages caused by vaginal lacerations involve the vaginal artery arising from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery with various branching patterns. Superselective vaginal artery embolization is clinically acceptable for the successful treatment of vaginal laceration hemorrhages, with no complications. After vaginal artery embolization, it is suggested to check for the presence of other possible bleeding vessels by pelvic aortography with a catheter tip at the L3 vertebral level, and to perform a follow-up assessment.

  15. Successful Control of Liver Metastases From Pancreatic Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN) Using Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violari, Elena G., E-mail: eviolari@live.com; Brody, Lynn A.; Covey, Anne M.; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Getrajdman, George I.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States); Reidy, Diane L. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service (United States); Jarnagin, William R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Hepatopancreatobiliary Service (United States); Brown, Karen T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States)

    2015-04-15

    No systemic agents that are known to be effective for the treatment of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) are available. We report the prolonged and sustained control of metastatic pancreatic SPN to the liver using hepatic arterial embolization (HAE), where a total of 13 HAE sessions were performed over a 6-year period.

  16. Amenorrhea due to partial uterine necrosis after uterine artery embolization for control of refractory postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrit, Yvon; Zafy, Sylvie; Pelage, Jean P; Ledref, Olivier; Khoury, Rames; Caubel, Patrick

    2006-07-01

    We report a case of a woman in whom selective embolization of both uterine arteries was performed using gelatin sponge for control of refractory postpartum hemorrhage. Ten months after delivery, the women had not resumed noticeable menstruation. Examination and investigation were consistent with partial uterine necrosis and complete obliteration of the cavity.

  17. No morphine sparing effect of ketamine added to morphine for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after uterine artery embolization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Luana Leonora; Handberg, Gitte; Helbo-Hansen, H S

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain following embolization of the uterine arteries (UAEs) is variable and may be very severe requiring large doses of parenteral opioids for relief. The present study tested the hypothesis that the addition of ketamine to i.v. patient-controlled morphine reduces the amount of morphine...... required for pain-control during the first 24 h after UAE embolization. METHODS: Fifty-six patients undergoing UAE embolization for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were randomized to receive either 2 mg/ml of morphine (Control group, n=30) or 2 mg/ml of both morphine and ketamine (Ketamine......, visual disturbances, anxiety, dreaming and hallucinations, if any, were recorded for 24 h after embolization. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD 24-h consumption of patient-controlled morphine was 38.3 +/- 21.0 mg in the Ketamine group vs. 33.3 +/- 18.3 mg in the Control group (NS). The difference between...

  18. Endovascular embolization of intermittent massive epistaxis secondary to posttraumatic carotid artery pseudoaneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkan, O; Akgül, E; Cekiç, E; Erdoğan, M; Ozdemir, S; Kiroğlu, M

    2012-01-01

    Epistaxis is a very common medical problem in otolaryngology practice and can usually be controlled with conservative interventions. Rarely, uncontrolled and life threatening epistaxis occurs. We present the case of a 29-year-old male who developed intractable intermittent epistaxis due to post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms arising from the cavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular embolization.

  19. "Endovascular embolic hemispherectomy": a strategy for the initial management of catastrophic holohemispheric epilepsy in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima; Pearl, Monica S; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Chang, Taeun; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Gaillard, William D

    2017-03-01

    Conflicting challenges abound in the management of the newborn with intractable epilepsy related to hemimegalencephaly. Early hemispherectomy to stop seizures and prevent deleterious consequences to future neurocognitive development must be weighed against the technical and anesthetic challenges of performing major hemispheric surgery in the neonate. We hereby present our experience with two neonates with hemimegalencephaly and intractable seizures who were managed using a strategy of initial minimally invasive embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere. Immediate significant seizure control was achieved after embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere followed by delayed ipsilateral hemispheric resection at a later optimal age. The considerations and challenges encountered in the course of the management of these patients are discussed, and a literature review is presented.

  20. Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the ... and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can cause Permanent ...

  1. Intraarterial Lidocaine for Pain Control in Uterine Artery Embolization: A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Lamy, Maxime; Tan, Kong T; Simons, Martin E; Sniderman, Kenneth W; Mironov, Oleg; Rajan, Dheeraj K

    2017-01-01

    To assess efficacy of two different techniques of lidocaine injection in the uterine arteries to reduce pain following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for leiomyomas. This prospective randomized single-blinded study was performed with 60 patients enrolled between November 2014 and December 2015 equally randomized to 3 arms. Group A received 10 mL lidocaine 1% (100 mg) mixed with polyvinyl alcohol particles (355-500 μm). Group B received the same dose of lidocaine injected after embolization. Group C was a control group. Pain was assessed on a 100-point visual analog scale at 4, 7, and 24 hours after the procedure. Narcotic agent dose to 24 hours was recorded. Outcomes were examined by analysis of variance and pairwise comparison. Leiomyoma infarction was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging 3 months after the procedure. Technical success rate of UAE was 100%. Mean pain score at 4 hours was significantly lower in the lidocaine groups (group A, 28.6; group B, 35.8) compared with the control group (59.4; P = .001). Pain scores at 7 and 24 hours were not statistically different among the 3 arms. The mean in-hospital narcotic agent dose was significantly lower in both lidocaine groups than in the control group (group A, 8.5 mg [P = .002]; group B, 11.1 mg [P = .03]; group C, 17.4 mg). There were no adverse events related to the use of lidocaine. The number of patients with complete infarction of leiomyomas at 3 months was significantly lower in group A at 38.9% (group B, 77.8%; group C, 75%; P = .0451). Lidocaine injected in the uterine arteries reduced postprocedural pain and narcotic agent dose after UAE. There were more cases of incomplete necrosis when lidocaine was mixed with the particles. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Control of Hematuria in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jhih-Wei; Shin, Ji Hoon; Tsao, Teng-Fu; Ko, Heung-Gyu; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Han, Ki-Chang; Thamtorawat, Somrach; Hong, Bumsik

    2017-02-01

    Nine patients with advanced prostate cancer (stage T4) underwent prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for refractory prostatic hematuria. Angiograms showed prostatic neovascularity in all cases, and complete PAE was achieved in 8 cases (89% technical success rate). Gross hematuria ceased after PAE in 6 cases, translating to a 67% clinical success rate. There were no PAE-related complications. At 3-month follow-up, 2 cases showed recurrent hematuria, 4 patients had died from PAE-unrelated etiologies, and only 3 patients survived and were without gross hematuria. PAE could represent an alternative option for patients with advanced prostate cancer to control hematuria. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmorif@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshito [National Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sato, Hideki [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Taniguchi, Fumihiro [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  4. Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fat embolism ranges from 0.5 to 30% in injuries with long and pelvic bone fractures; it also occurs in other diseases and conditions. Moreover, mortality accounts for 3 to 67%. There is still no clear idea on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of fat embolism. This review gives current views on this problem. Key words: fat embolism, poly-trauma.

  5. An Experimental Model of Large Pulmonary Embolism Employing Controlled Release of Subacute Caval Thrombus in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Israel M.; Schenke, William H.; Halabi, Majdi; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Lederman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to develop a catheter based model of large pulmonary embolism in swine based on in situ venous thrombus formation. Materials and Methods Ten Yorkshire swine underwent transjugular implantation of a retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. A thrombin and collagen mixture was injected into a confined space created by two inflated balloons proximal and distal to the IVC filter. Animals were survived for 7±3 days to allow the thrombus to organize in situ. The caval thrombus was released upon transcatheter retrieval of the IVC filter and embolized into the main and branch pulmonary arteries. The severity of pulmonary embolism was scored by digital subtraction angiography (Miller index). At necropsy thrombi were recovered and analyzed by histopathology. Results Large pulmonary embolism was induced in all animals (average Miller index score of 15±5). Two animals developed saddle embolus with bilateral pulmonary artery occlusion and five developed proximal occlusion of either the left or right pulmonary arteries. Nevertheless no animal exhibited significant hemodynamic compromise. Large tubular thrombi were explanted in the size range of 5–10 cm long and .5–1 cm wide. Histology indicated an organized thrombus with infiltration of white blood cells and fibrin deposition. Conclusions Large caval thrombi can be formed in vivo and released at a predetermined time to induce large pulmonary embolism in a large animal model. This may help developing and testing new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary embolism. PMID:21802315

  6. Short- and long-term results of transcatheter embolization for massive arterial hemorrhage from gastroduodenal ulcers not controlled by endoscopic hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffroy, Romaric; Guiu, Boris; Mezzetta, Lise; Minello, Anne; Michiels, Christophe; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Cheynel, Nicolas; Rat, Patrick; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krausé, Denis

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Severe bleeding from gastrointestinal ulcers is a life-threatening event that is difficult to manage when endoscopic treatment fails. Transcatheter embolization has been suggested as an alternative treatment in this situation. The present study reports on the efficacy and long-term outcomes of transcatheter embolization after failed endoscopic treatments were assessed in high-operative-risk patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of 60 consecutive emergency embolization procedures in hemodynamically unstable patients (41 men, 19 women; mean [±SD] age 69.4±15 years) was conducted. Patients were referred for selective angiography between 1999 and 2008 after failed endoscopic treatment of massive bleeding from gastrointestinal ulcers. Mean follow-up was 22 months. RESULTS: Embolization was feasible and successful in 57 patients. Sandwich coiling of the gastroduodenal artery was used in 34 patients, and superselective occlusion of the terminal feeding artery (with glue, coils or gelatin particles) was used in 23 patients. Early rebleeding occurred in 16 patients and was managed with endoscopy (n=8), reembolization (n=3) or surgery (n=5). No major embolization-related complications occurred. Sixteen patients died within 30 days after embolization (including three who died from rebleeding) and 11 died thereafter. No late bleeding recurrences were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Selective angiographic embolization is safe and effective for controlling life-threatening bleeding from gastroduodenal ulcers. The procedure usually obviates the need for emergency surgery in these high-risk patients. Survival depends chiefly on underlying conditions. PMID:19214287

  7. [Pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, M; Sommer, N; Hecker, A; Bandorski, D; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Mayer, E; Walmrath, D

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal disorder and frequently seen in critical care and emergency medicine. Due to a high mortality rate within the first few hours, the accurate initiation of rational diagnostic pathways in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and timely consecutive treatment is essential. In this review, the current European guidelines on the diagnosis and therapy of acute pulmonary embolism are presented. Special focus is put on a structured patient management based on the individual risk of early mortality. In particular risk assessment and new risk-adjusted treatment recommendations are presented and discussed in this article.

  8. Periprocedural outcomes comparing fibroid embolization and focused ultrasound: a randomized controlled trial and comprehensive cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Emily P; AbdElmagied, Ahmed M; Vaughan, Lisa E; Weaver, Amy L; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K; Hesley, Gina K; Woodrum, David A; Jacoby, Vanessa L; Kohi, Maureen P; Price, Thomas M; Nieves, Angel; Miller, Michael J; Borah, Bijan J; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Leppert, Phyllis C; Peterson, Lisa G; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    Uterine fibroids are a common problem for reproductive-aged women, yet little comparative effectiveness research is available to guide treatment choice. Uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery are minimally invasive therapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. The Fibroid Interventions: Reducing Symptoms Today and Tomorrow study is the first randomized controlled trial to compare these 2 fibroid treatments. The objective of the study was to summarize treatment parameters and compare recovery trajectory and adverse events in the first 6 weeks after treatment. Premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine fibroids seen at 3 US academic medical centers were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial (n = 57). Women meeting identical criteria who declined randomization but agreed to study participation were enrolled in a nonrandomized parallel cohort (n = 34). The 2 treatment groups were analyzed by using a comprehensive cohort design. All women undergoing focused ultrasound and uterine artery embolization received the same postprocedure prescriptions, instructions, and symptom diaries for comparison of recovery in the first 6 weeks. Return to work and normal activities, medication use, symptoms, and adverse events were captured with postprocedure diaries. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test or χ2 test. Multivariable regression was used to adjust for baseline pain levels and fibroid load when comparing opioid medication, adverse events, and recovery time between treatment groups because these factors varied at baseline between groups and could affect outcomes. Adverse events were also collected. Of 83 women in the comprehensive cohort design who underwent treatment, 75 completed postprocedure diaries. Focused ultrasound surgery was a longer procedure than embolization (mean [SD], 405 [146] vs 139 [44] min; P focused ultrasound (n = 43), 23

  9. Varicocele Embolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How is the procedure performed? Image-guided, minimally invasive procedures such as varicocele embolization are most often ...

  10. Imaging of intractable paediatric epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-09

    Dec 9, 2015 ... as refractory and intractable epilepsy. Neuroimaging plays an important role in identifying epileptogenic foci that can be surgically resected. Advances in neuroimaging, including advances in scanner hardware and software, have allowed improved signal-to-noise ratio and achieve faster scan times and ...

  11. Arming embolic beads with anti-VEGF antibodies and controlling their release using LbL technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, O S; Berndt, S; Carpentier, G; Cuendet, M; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-02-28

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is used to treat various types of hypervascular tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cancer. However, embolization and blocking of blood vessels nourishing a tumor mass evokes an angiogenic response due to the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which results in the formation of new blood vessels and eventually limitation in therapeutic efficacy. The presented work investigates the feasibility of loading the clinically used embolic beads (DC Bead®) with Bevacizumab (BEV), an anti-VEGF antibody, and control its release kinetics via Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating. This strategy has the aim to achieve high, localized and sustained concentrations of BEV at the tumor site and reduce drug exposure in the systemic circulation. High loading of BEV on lyophilized beads of about 76mg BEV/bead vial was achieved. LbL coating was carried out by depositing alternating layers of the biocompatible polymers alginate and poly-L-lysine. Coating was proven successful by monitoring the reversal of zeta potential after addition of each layer. Morphological changes of the bead surface before and after coating were illustrated using SEM imaging. Moreover, release profiles from different formulations were studied and results showed that optimizing the number of deposited layers effectively slows the release of BEV for three days. Activity of released BEV was studied in different 2D and 3D cell based assays. Released BEV fractions showed comparable activity to fresh BEV solution used as control after 3days. In conclusion, our results suggest the opportunity for loading anti-VEGF antibodies on commercially available embolic beads to increase the efficacy of TACE of hypervascular tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Retroperitoneoscopic management of intractable chyluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present our experience with retroperitoneoscopic lymphatic disconnection for the treatment of patients with intractable chyluria. Materials and Methods: From November 1996 to March 2003, 12 patients (three females and nine males, with intractable chyluria were treated at our department with the retroperitoneoscopic technique. Diagnosis was based on urine examination for the presence of chyle and fat globules, cystoscopy, excretory urogram and retrograde ureteropyelography. The technique of retroperitoneoscopic management of chyluria consisted of nephrolympholysis, ureterolympholysis, hilar vessel stripping, fasciectomy and nephropexy. The first three procedures were done in all cases, whereas fasciectomy was only done in four cases and nephropexy in three as required. Results: Chyluria disappeared in all ipsilateral renal units of the patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic management but it recurred in two patients at 1 and 9 months of follow up from the contralateral side. Both the cases have since been successfully treated with contralateral retroperitoneoscopic management. Complications included lymphatic leak through the drain, which persisted for 5 days in one case and an inadvertent clipping of a branch of the posterior segmental artery of the kidney in one. The latter patient did not have pain or hypertension and the renal scan did not reveal any focal deficit at follow up. All patients were followed periodically from 6 to54 months (mean of 31 months. Conclusion: Retroperitoneoscopic chylolymphatic disconnection is a safe and effective management of intractable chyluria. The reroperitoneoscopic approach provides direct access to the kidney without transgressing the peritoneum.

  13. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Upper Gastrointestinal Nonvariceal Hemorrhage: Is Empiric Embolization Warranted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Fidelman, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.fidelman@ucsf.edu; Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology (United States); Klimov, Alexander; Bloom, Allan I. [Hadassah Hospital, Department of Radiology (Israel)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether transcatheter arterial embolization performed in the setting of active gastric or duodenal nonvariceal hemorrhage is efficacious when the bleeding source cannot be identified angiographically. Methods: Records of 115 adult patients who underwent visceral angiography for endoscopically documented gastric (50 patients) or duodenal (65 patients) nonvariceal hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to whether angiographic evidence of arterial hemorrhage was present and whether embolization was performed (group 1 = no abnormality, no embolization; group 2 = no abnormality, embolization performed [empiric embolization]; and group 3 = abnormality present, embolization performed). Thirty-day rates and duration of primary hemostasis and survival were compared.ResultsFor patients with gastric sources of hemorrhage, the rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after embolization was greater when embolization was performed in the setting of a documented angiographic abnormality than when empiric embolization was performed (67% vs. 42%). The rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after angiography was greater for patients with duodenal bleeding who either underwent empiric embolization (60%) or embolization in the setting of angiographically documented arterial hemorrhage (58%) compared with patients who only underwent diagnostic angiogram (33%). Patients with duodenal hemorrhage who underwent embolization were less likely to require additional invasive procedures to control rebleeding (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Empiric arterial embolization may be advantageous in patients with a duodenal source of hemorrhage but not in patients with gastric hemorrhage.

  14. Transcatheter embolization of the liver for control of massive hemobilia in a patient with adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder invading the intrahepatic biliary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, P; Beckmann, C F

    1983-11-01

    Successful control of massive hemobilia by combined peripheral and proximal transcatheter embolization of the liver is described. Our patient had adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extension to the liver and invasion of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This caused hemobilia which became uncontrollable after percutaneous exchange of biliary drainage catheter that had been placed previously for relief of obstructive jaundice.

  15. Selective bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for controlling refractory hematuria due to the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC may lead to gross hematuria. However, the metastasis of head and neck cutaneous SCC to the urinary bladder has not been described in literature. Nowadays, noninvasive methods such as embolization, are considered as an appropriate choice for controlling life-threatening hematuria in patients with high operative risk. However, few reports exist on the effectiveness of this approach in managing the hematuria secondary to metastatic bladder SCC. Here we report a case of bladder SCC originating from the forehead cutaneous SCC. An 83-year-old man, a known case of forehead cutaneous SCC with distant metastasis, referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of hematuria. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic urinary bladder SCC. Angiography and embolization were undertaken and resulted in complete alleviation of the symptoms. The recurrence of hematuria or embolization-related complications were not observed during 3-month follow-up. Selective embolization of the bilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and efficient procedure for controlling severe hematuria in patients with primary or metastatic bladder SCC.

  16. Oral azithromycin for treatment of intractable rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Yoon Seok; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-05-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder that primarily occurs on the convex surfaces of the central face and is often characterized by exacerbations and remissions. A case of a 52-yr-old woman visited our clinic in February 2008 complaining typical features of rosacea including multiple pinhead to rice-sized erythematous papules. We applied various conventional treatments including topical benzoyl peroxide and metronidazole as well as oral metronidazole, isotretinoin, and doxycycline. The lesions were not controlled but were rather aggravated by complications from these treatments. Therefore, we prescribed oral azithromycin, which has anti-inflammatory effects and reduces reactive oxygen species. Ten weeks after the administration of oral azithromycin, 500 mg per day for 2 weeks, the lesions had mostly disappeared and no specific side effects related to the azithromycin were noted. Oral azithromycin dosing 500 mg/day for 2 weeks is effective for treatment of intractable rosacea.

  17. Estenose retal secundária à embolização arterial em trauma pélvico: relato de caso Rectum stenosis secondary to arterial embolization for pelvic fracture: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Palma Abrão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A embolização de ramos da artéria ilíaca interna é uma técnica empregada no controle da hemorragia secundária à fratura pélvica. Apesar de largamente utilizada, são poucas as complicações relatadas relacionadas ao uso dessa técnica. Apresentamos um caso de estenose isquêmica de reto secundária à embolização da artéria sacral lateral para controle de hemorragia em uma paciente com fratura pélvica.Transcatheter arterial embolization of the internal iliac artery branches is an accepted technique for the control of the hemorrhage due to pelvic fracture. Despite its widespread use, complications of the technique are rarely described. We reported a rectum ischemic stenosis following embolization of lateral sacral artery to control intractable hemorrhage from a pelvic fracture.

  18. "Surgery For Intractable Epilepsy, Loghman Hakim hospital, 1997-2003 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddadian K

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the complications of chronic intractable epilepsy, the presence of respectable lesions in many these patients that can be diagnosed with noninvasive sensitive techniques such as MRI and SPECT and the unrecognized significance of epilepsy surgery in our country, we have decided to review the management of medically intractable epilepsy in patients, who underwent epilepsy surgery in neurosurgery department of Loghman Hakim hospital between 1997-2003. Materials and Methods: In this study we retrospectively review 30 cases of medically intractable epilepsy that had underwent epilepsy surgery. All patients before surgery were investigated with brain MRI, brain SPECT, EEG and IQ test. Type of surgery was determined by MRI, SPECT and EEG findings. Pre - and postoperative seizure frequency and surgery complications studied. Seizure control was measured with Engel criteria. Results: Patients mean age was 22.4 years. Three cases (10% were females that all underwent temporal mesial lobectomy. In 18 cases (60% there were concordant brain lesion with seizure origin that 9 cases (30% underwent mesial temporal lobectomy and remainder 9 cases (30% underwent lesionectomy.other12 cases (40% that have uncertain brain lesion but suffer from drop attack due to one or combination of atonic, tonic, tonic clonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence or clonic underwent anterior callosotomy. patients that underwent mesial temporal lobectomy, anterior callosotomy and lesionectomy were seizure-free in 77.7%, 58.3% and 55.5% of cases respectively. Conclusions: Provided to correct patient selection for epilepsy surgery we can manage intractable epilepsy properly. Regarding to the complication of intractable epilepsy, acceptable epilepsy surgery results and available sensitive noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MRI in our country, epilepsy surgery should be considered seriously in our country and promoted.

  19. Use of an Oral Elemental Diet in Infants with Severe Intractable Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Joseph O.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Evaluated was the use of an oral elemental diet consisting of crystalline amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins to control severe intractable diarrhea in 27 infants (1-day to 9-months of age). (DB)

  20. Transarterial RAdioembolization versus ChemoEmbolization for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (TRACE: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinstra Beatrijs A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary malignant tumor of the liver that accounts for an important health problem worldwide. Only 10 to 15% of hepatocellular carcinoma patients are suitable candidates for treatment with curative intent, such as hepatic resection and liver transplantation. A majority of patients have locally advanced, liver restricted disease (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging system intermediate stage. Transarterial loco regional treatment modalities offer palliative treatment options for these patients; transarterial chemoembolization (TACE is the current standard treatment. During TACE, a catheter is advanced into the branches of the hepatic artery supplying the tumor, and a combination of embolic material and chemotherapeutics is delivered through the catheter directly into the tumor. Yttrium-90 radioembolization (90Y-RE involves the transarterial administration of minimally embolic microspheres loaded with Yttrium-90, a β-emitting isotope, delivering selective internal radiation to the tumor. 90Y-RE is increasingly used in clinical practice for treatment of intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma, but its efficacy has never been prospectively compared to that of the standard treatment (TACE. In this study, we describe the protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effectiveness of TACE and 90Y-RE for treatment of patients with unresectable (BCLC intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods/design In this pragmatic randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with unresectable (BCLC intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1 and Child-Pugh A to B will be randomly assigned to either 90Y-RE or TACE with drug eluting beads. Patients assigned to 90Y-RE will first receive a diagnostic angiography, followed by the actual transarterial treatment, which can be divided into two sessions in case

  1. Pulmonary Embolism in Pneumonia: Still a Diagnostic Challenge? Results of a Case-Control Study in 100 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paparoupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the diagnostic value of D-dimer, CRP, and leucocytes count to detect an underlying pulmonary embolism (PE in patients with pneumonia. A predictive model of an underlying PE, based on laboratory markers and clinical symptoms, was our ultimate objective. Overall 100 patients underwent a computed tomography angiography (CTA of the lung: 54 with coexistence of PE and pneumonia (cases and 46 with pneumonia without PE (controls. Cases and controls were matched 1 : 1. Symptoms and paraclinical findings were registered on admission. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, search for an optimal threshold, and conditional logistic regression analysis were conducted. D-dimer has a moderate ability to detect PE in pneumonia. Sensitivity of D-dimer was estimated at 97.78% and specificity at 11.11%. No optimal cut-point has acceptable diagnostic ability. After excluding patients with sepsis, sensitivity was reduced to 96.97%, whereas specificity increased to 16.13%. Consolidation in chest X-ray and positive D-dimer predict better an underlying PE as D-dimer itself. Thus, discriminatory power of the prediction model (AUC of 0.740 is not much greater than D-dimer (AUC of 0.703. No threshold that could increase the diagnostic value of D-dimer or a prediction model which is significantly better than D-dimer itself was identified.

  2. Imaging of intractable paediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Prabhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of paediatric patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical therapies. In this subgroup of patients, neuroimaging plays an important role in identifying an epileptogenic focus. Successful identification of a structural lesion results in a better outcome following epilepsy surgery. Advances in imaging technologies, methods of epileptogenic region localisation and refinement of clinical evaluation of this group of patients in epilepsy centres have helped to widen the spectrum of children who could potentially benefit from surgical treatment. In this review, we discuss ways to optimise imaging techniques, list typical imaging features of common pathologies that can cause epilepsy, and potential pitfalls to be aware of whilst reviewing imaging studies in this challenging group of patients. The importance of multidisciplinary meetings to analyse and synthesise all the non-invasive data is emphasised. Our objectives are: to describe the four phases of evaluation of children with drug-resistant localisation-related epilepsy; to describe optimal imaging techniques that can help maximise detection of epileptogenic foci; to describe a systematic approach to reviewing magnetic resonance imaging of children with intractable epilepsy; to describe the features of common epileptogenic substrates; to list potential pitfalls whilst reviewing imaging studies in these patients; and to highlight the value of multimodality and interdisciplinary approaches to the management of this group of children.

  3. Patients with intractable epilepsy have low melatonin, which increases following seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Bazil, Carl W.; Short, Douglas; Crispin, David; Zheng, Wei

    2000-01-01

    Melatonin, which is used to treat sleep disorders, has anticonvulsant properties. The authors measured salivary melatonin and cortisol, at baseline and following seizures, in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and controls. Melatonin was reduced in patients with epilepsy at baseline compared with controls, and increased threefold following seizures. Cortisol also increased following seizures. Patients with intractable epilepsy have low baseline melatonin levels that increase dra...

  4. Patients with intractable epilepsy have low melatonin, which increases following seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazil, Carl W.; Short, Douglas; Crispin, David; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, which is used to treat sleep disorders, has anticonvulsant properties. The authors measured salivary melatonin and cortisol, at baseline and following seizures, in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and controls. Melatonin was reduced in patients with epilepsy at baseline compared with controls, and increased threefold following seizures. Cortisol also increased following seizures. Patients with intractable epilepsy have low baseline melatonin levels that increase dramatically following seizures. PMID:11113238

  5. Surgical dissection of the internal carotid artery under flow control by proximal vessel clamping reduces embolic infarcts during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ishii, Akira; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flow control of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by the clamping of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and superior thyroid artery during surgical ICA dissection to reduce ischemic complications after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-seven patients (59 men; age, 70.5 ± 6.2 years) who underwent CEA by the same surgeon were retrospectively studied. Both conventional CEA (n = 29) and flow-control CEA (n = 38) were performed with the patient under general anesthesia and with the use of somatosensory-evoked potential and near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring as a guide for selective shunting. The number of new postoperative infarcts was assessed with preoperative and postoperative diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained within 3 days of surgery. In addition to surgical technique, the effects of the following factors on new infarcts also were examined: age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and application of shunting. New postoperative DWI lesions were observed in 7 of 67 patients (10.4%), and none of them was symptomatic. With respect to operative technique, the incidence rate of DWI spots was significantly lower in the flow-control group (2.6%) than in the conventional group (20.7%), odds ratio: 0.069; 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.779; P = 0.031). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and the use of internal shunting did not have significant effects on new postoperative DWI lesions, whereas technique did have an effect. The proximal flow-control technique for CEA helps avoid embolic complications during surgical ICA dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extensive bilateral arteriovenous malformations of the mandible successfully controlled by combined endovascular and transcutaneous angio-embolization: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Cortes, Maria; Dolev, Yalon; H P Nguyen, Lily

    2013-01-01

    We report a unique case of extensive bilateral arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) in a child's mandible, discuss treatment options and review literature. A healthy 8 year-old girl presented with bright blood of unknown source found on her pillow. Three large AVMs involving the symphyseal region and bilateral mandibular bodies were found on angiography. Due to the extent of surgical resection required, the patient underwent a series of endovascular and transcutaneous angio-embolization. In cases of extensive intraosseous AVMs, serial embolization procedures can be successful in controlling episodes of hemorrhage and allow for bone remineralization. A multidisciplinary approach by otolaryngologists and neurointerventional radiologists can optimize the results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of acupuncture in chronic intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloster, R; Larsson, P G; Lossius, R; Nakken, K O; Dahl, R; Xiu-Ling, X; Wen-Xin, Z; Kinge, E; Edna Røssberg

    1999-05-01

    We examined the effect of acupuncture on epileptic seizures in humans in a controlled clinical setting. Treatment was administered by two Chinese professors of acupuncture. Effect was measured by change in seizure frequency. Twenty-nine patients with chronic intractable epilepsy completed the study. They were randomized in two groups; 15 were given classical acupuncture and 14 were given sham acupuncture. There was a reduction in seizure frequency in both groups, which did not reach a level of statistical significance. There was also an increase in the number of seizure-free weeks in both groups, which reached a level of significance in the sham group. Thus, we have not been able to prove a beneficial effect of acupuncture in chronic intractable epilepsy. Copyright 1999 BEA Trading Ltd.

  8. Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazhath SS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sony S Thazhath, Mazhar Haque, Timothy H FlorinUniversity of Queensland and Mater Adult Hospital, South Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaObjective: Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea.Method: We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months.Results: Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks, were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ≥1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74% had an initial clinical response and 12 (39% who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5 responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS had an initial response and two (50% had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea.Conclusion: This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in

  9. Transarterial embolization of acute intercostal artery bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Ik; Park, Auh Whan; Lee, Seon Joo [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chang Jin [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae Beom [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan [Kyimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    To report our experiences of transarterial embolization for acute intercostal artery bleeding. A retrospectively analysis of the causes, clinical manifestations, angiographic findings and transarterial embolization technique in 8 patients with acute intercostal artery bleeding, with a review of the anatomical basis. The causes of intercostal artery bleeding were iatrogenic and traumatic in 88 and 12% of cases, respectively. Active bleeding from the collateral intercostal or posterior intercostal arteries was angiographically demonstrated in 75 and 25% of cases, respectively. Transarterial embolization successfully achieved hemostasis in all cases. However, two patient with hypovolemic shock expired due to a massive hemothorax, despite successful transarterial embolization. Intercostal access should be performed through the middle of the intercostal space to avoid injury to the collateral intercostal artery. Transarterial embolization is an effective method for the control of intercostal artery bleeding.

  10. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der, E-mail: s.m.vanderkooij@amc.uva.nl; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mol, Ben Willem J. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analogue score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.

  11. Modified Atkins diet vs classic ketogenic formula in intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, O F; Nassar, M F; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Shatla, R H; Abdel-Hamid, M H; Gabr, S S; Mohamed, S G; El-Sayed, W S; Shaaban, S Y

    2013-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) whether classic 4:1 formula or the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in intractable childhood epilepsy. Anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile were measured upon enrollment and after 3 and 6 months in 40 patients with symptomatic intractable epilepsy. Fifteen were given MAD diet, ten were kept on classic 4:1 ketogenic liquid formula, and the rest were allowed to eat as desired. The liquid ketogenic formula group showed significantly higher body mass index compared with those who did not receive KD after 6 months. The lipid profile of KD patients was within normal limits for age and sex during the study period. The rate of change of frequency and severity of seizures showed best improvement in ketogenic liquid formula patients followed by the MAD group than the patients on anti-epileptic medications alone. The KD whether classic 4:1 or MAD is a tolerable, safe, and effective adjuvant therapy for intractable symptomatic childhood epilepsy with limited adverse effects on the growth parameters and accepted changes in the lipid profile. The liquid ketogenic formula patients showed better growth pattern and significantly more seizure control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase 'filter problem' changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the 'filter problem' derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with 'satisfaction' are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products.

  13. Sequencing intractable DNA to close microbial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Hurt

    Full Text Available Advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies has supported a rapid proliferation of microbial genome sequencing projects, providing the genetic blueprint for in-depth studies. Oftentimes, difficult to sequence regions in microbial genomes are ruled "intractable" resulting in a growing number of genomes with sequence gaps deposited in databases. A procedure was developed to sequence such problematic regions in the "non-contiguous finished" Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 genome (6 intractable gaps and the Desulfovibrio africanus genome (1 intractable gap. The polynucleotides surrounding each gap formed GC rich secondary structures making the regions refractory to amplification and sequencing. Strand-displacing DNA polymerases used in concert with a novel ramped PCR extension cycle supported amplification and closure of all gap regions in both genomes. The developed procedures support accurate gene annotation, and provide a step-wise method that reduces the effort required for genome finishing.

  14. Diurnal and seasonal variation in root xylem embolism in neotropical savanna woody species: impact on stomatal control of plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J-C. Domec; F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; F.C. Meinzer; G. Goldstein; R. Villalobos-Vega

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerability to water-stress-induced embolism and variation in the degree of native embolism were measured in lateral roots of four co-occuring neotropical savanna tree species. Root embolism varied diurnally and seasonally. Late in the dry season, loss of root xylem conductivity reached 80% in the afternoon when root water potential (ψroot...

  15. Age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Intractable epileptic adolescents have higher scores for physical functioning and health perception, but lower scores for social stigmatization. Social support has extremely low scores. Increasing age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy.

  16. Emergent embolization for control of massive hemorrhage from a splanchnic artery with a new coaxial catheter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, M.; Higashihara, H.; Koganemaru, F.; Ono, H.; Fujimitsu, R.; Yamasaki, S.; Toyoshima, H.; Sato, S.; Hoashi, T.; Kimura, T. (Fukuoka Univ. Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1992-01-01

    Emergent superselective embolization with a 3.0 F (1 mm) coaxial catheter and a steerable guidewire was performed in 27 patients with massive hemorrhage from a small-caliber splanchnic artery. Eight patients had intraperitoneal hemorrhage, 3 had hemobilia, 9 had gastric hemorrhage, and 7 had intestinal hemorrhage. Out of 27 patients, 7 had hemorrhage from a splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysm. Complete cessation of bleeding was obtained in all patients initially, but in 3 patients gastric hemorrhage recurred later. Otherwise, there was no rebleeding nor any major complication such as marked infarction of tissue or misplacement of embolic materials. This coaxial catheter system was highly reliable for achieving superselective catheterization in small-caliber arteries, minimizing the volume of infarcted tissue and allowing maximal preservation of splanchnic organic function. We conclude that this system represents a major advance in interventional radiology. (orig.).

  17. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  18. Arterial Embolization for Prophylaxis and Treatment in Severe Obstetric and Gynecologic Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdee Prabhasavat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of arterial embolization for prophylaxis and treatment in severe obstetric and gynecologic hemorrhage. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among 17 patients who undergone arterial embolization for prophylaxis and treatment in severe obstetric and gynecologic hemorrhage between 2008 and 2013 at Siriraj Hospital. Efficacy of embolization, embolization procedure details, clinical outcomes and complications were collected and analyzed. Results: The obstetric causes were abnormal placentation (n=6, 35.2%, postpartum hemorrhage (n=5, 29.4%, and intractable bleeding from gynecologic cause (n=6, 35.2%. The median age of the patients in prophylaxis for severe obstetric hemorrhage group, postpartum hemorrhage group and in the gynecologic group were 35 (range, 32-37 years, 31 (range 25-38 years, and 45 (range 28-61 years, respectively. Out of 17 patients, a total of 21 embolization procedures were performed. The technical success rate was 95.6%. Superselection into ovarian artery for embolization of arteriovenous shunting was unsuccessful in one patient. The clinical success rate was 82.6%. Second embolization was done in one patient. Major complication occurred in 3 patients which were microembolism of first dorsal metatarsal artery, pseudoaneurysm at the puncture site and lumbosacral plexopathy. Conclusion: Arterial embolization has an important role in management of obstetric and gynecologic hemorrhage which is safe, effective and has a low rate of complications.

  19. Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Mungan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  1. Topiramate as an adjunctive therapy in children with intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a chronic disease that requires antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Only 60-70% of new patients could be controlled effectively by standard AEDs and this stimulates the search for new, more effective and well-tolerated AEDs. Objective To asses the efficacy and safety of topiramate, as an adjunctive therapy to standard AEDs for children with intractable epilepsy. Methods This was an open label, parallel group study. Forty children with at least 4 seizures during a 4-week baseline period were randomly assigned to topiramate (n=20 or control group (n=20. In the topiramate group, the drug was given in adjunct to AEDs for  2-week titration dosage continued with a 12-week stabilization period, while the control group received only AEDs adjusted to their clinical responses. Results Mean reduction from baseline in monthly seizures frequency was significantly greater in the topiramate group (88.6% vs. 25%; P=0.030. Other variable of efficacy was significantly different (e"50% reduction in seizures: 14/20 vs. 6 /20; P=0.049. Adverse effects of topiramate, such as decreased weight, paresthesia, somnolence, diarrhea, fever, aggressive reaction and flushing, were temporary and mild. Conclusion Results of this trial strongly suggested that topiramate is effective and well tolerated in reducing seizures of intractable epilepsy.

  2. Cellular injury and neuroinflammation in children with chronic intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenow Joshua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferation, microglial activation and cytokine release in brain tissue from patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Methods Cortical tissue was collected from thirteen patients with intractable epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (6, encephalomalacia (5, Rasmussen's encephalitis (1 or mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (1. Sections were processed for immunohistochemistry using markers for neuron, astrocyte, microglia or cellular injury. Cytokine assay was performed on frozen cortices. Controls were autopsy brains from eight patients without history of neurological diseases. Results Marked activation of microglia and astrocytes and diffuse cell death were observed in epileptogenic tissue. Numerous fibrillary astrocytes and their processes covered the entire cortex and converged on to blood vessels, neurons and microglia. An overwhelming number of neurons and astrocytes showed DNA fragmentation and its magnitude significantly correlated with seizure frequency. Majority of our patients with abundant cell death in the cortex have mental retardation. IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-12p70 and MIP-1beta were significantly increased in the epileptogenic cortex; IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly higher in patients with family history of epilepsy. Conclusions Our results suggest that active neuroinflammation and marked cellular injury occur in pediatric epilepsy and may play a common pathogenic role or consequences in childhood epilepsy of diverse etiologies. Our findings support the concept that immunomodulation targeting activated microglia and astrocytes may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce neurological morbidity and prevent intractable epilepsy.

  3. Cellular injury and neuroinflammation in children with chronic intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Nordli, Douglas R; Alden, Tord D; DiPatri, Arthur; Laux, Linda; Kelley, Kent; Rosenow, Joshua; Schuele, Stephan U; Rajaram, Veena; Koh, Sookyong

    2009-12-19

    To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferation, microglial activation and cytokine release in brain tissue from patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Cortical tissue was collected from thirteen patients with intractable epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (6), encephalomalacia (5), Rasmussen's encephalitis (1) or mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (1). Sections were processed for immunohistochemistry using markers for neuron, astrocyte, microglia or cellular injury. Cytokine assay was performed on frozen cortices. Controls were autopsy brains from eight patients without history of neurological diseases. Marked activation of microglia and astrocytes and diffuse cell death were observed in epileptogenic tissue. Numerous fibrillary astrocytes and their processes covered the entire cortex and converged on to blood vessels, neurons and microglia. An overwhelming number of neurons and astrocytes showed DNA fragmentation and its magnitude significantly correlated with seizure frequency. Majority of our patients with abundant cell death in the cortex have mental retardation. IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-12p70 and MIP-1beta were significantly increased in the epileptogenic cortex; IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly higher in patients with family history of epilepsy. Our results suggest that active neuroinflammation and marked cellular injury occur in pediatric epilepsy and may play a common pathogenic role or consequences in childhood epilepsy of diverse etiologies. Our findings support the concept that immunomodulation targeting activated microglia and astrocytes may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce neurological morbidity and prevent intractable epilepsy.

  4. [Massive pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Olivier; Planquette, Benjamin; Wermert, Delphine; Marié, Elisabeth; Meyer, Guy

    2008-10-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism is defined by systemic hypotension or cardiogenic shock. Clinically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, elevated brain natriuretic peptide or troponin are usually considered as having sub-massive pulmonary embolism, but this definition is not universally accepted. The time-lag to confirm massive pulmonary embolism should be kept as short as possible and every effort should be done to rely on bedside tests and to avoid patient transfer to the radiology department. D-dimer tests are useless in this setting and the diagnosis is mainly based on clinical probability and bedside echocardiography. When clinical probability is high, right ventricular dilatation assessed by echocardiography allows confirming the diagnosis without additional testing. On the other hand a normal echocardiography does not allow excluding pulmonary embolism. In this setting, a spiral computed tomography is mandatory after the patient has been stabilized. Anticoagulant treatment should be started as soon as pulmonary embolism has been suspected. Supportive care includes oxygen, fluid loading and inotropes. There is little doubt that thrombolytic treatment is of value in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Conversely, the use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with so-called sub-massive pulmonary embolism remains controversial. Current data do not confirm that thrombolytic therapy decreases mortality in those patients but cannot exclude a clinically significant benefit. A large randomised comparison of heparin and thrombolysis in patients with sub-massive pulmonary embolism is underway to answer this question. Surgical or catheter embolectomy is nowadays only rarely performed in patients with pulmonary embolism. This method can be undertaken in the few patients with persisting shock despite supportive care and who have an absolute contraindication for thrombolytic therapy. Before new data are available there is no special

  5. Adenomatous-Dominant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (AdBPH) as a Predictor for Clinical Success Following Prostate Artery Embolization: An Age-Matched Case–Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M. W., E-mail: m.little@doctors.org.uk; Boardman, P.; Macdonald, A. C.; Taylor, N.; Macpherson, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom); Crew, J. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom); Tapping, C. R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo investigate the clinical impact of performing prostate artery embolization (PAE) on patients with adenomatous-dominant benign prostatic hyperplasia (AdBPH).Materials and MethodsTwelve patients from the ongoing proSTatic aRtery EmbolizAtion for the treatMent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (STREAM) trial were identified as having AdBPH; defined as two or more adenomas within the central gland of ≥1 cm diameter on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI). These patients were age-matched with patients from the STREAM cohort, without AdBPH. Patients were followed up with repeat MP-MRI at 3 months and 1 year. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), international index for erectile function (IIEF), and quality of life assessment from the IPSS and EQ-5D-5S questionnaires were recorded pre-PAE and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 68 (61–76). All patients had PAE as a day-case procedure. The technical success in the cohort was 23/24 (96%). There was a significant reduction in prostate volume following embolization with a median reduction of 34% (30–55) in the AdBPH group, compared to a mean volume reduction of 22% (9–44) in the non-AdBPH group (p = 0.04). There was a significant reduction in IPSS in the AdBPH group following PAE when compared with the control group [AdBPH median IPSS 8 (3–15) vs. non-AdBPH median IPSS 13 (8–18), p = 0.01]. IPSS QOL scores significantly improved in the AdBPH group (p = 0.007). There was no deterioration in sexual function in either group post-PAE.ConclusionsThis is the first time that AdBPH has been identified as being a predictor of clinical success following PAE.

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse...

  7. Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type, as well as a complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to evaluate your heart's ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amniotic-fluid-embolism/basics/definition/CON-20035462 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  8. Neuro-endovascular Embolic Agent for Treatment of a Renal Arteriovenous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal arteriovenous fistula is a known complication following a renal biopsy, and may require catheter based embolization. Distal location of these fistulas in the renal parenchyma in many a case may necessitate non-traditional embolic materials. Liquid embolic agents that allow a controlled delivery may be suitable in this situation, as demonstrated in this case report.

  9. Microsurgical salvage of the intractable oral vestibule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Hugo; Mithani, Suhail K; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2009-01-01

    The significance of the oral vestibule is often underappreciated in composite craniomaxillofacial reconstruction, and its deficiency results in considerable incompetence. Results of traditional vestibuloplasty techniques are unpredictable when the recipient bed is compromised in the setting of trauma or irradiation. The authors present an alternative approach for restoring the intractable oral vestibule with free tissue transfer. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients who underwent oral vestibular reconstruction was conducted at R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center and Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2002 to 2007. Thirteen patients were identified: six defects resulted from tumor extirpation, six resulted from traumatic injury, and one resulted from infection. There were eight men and five women, with a mean age of 46 years. Thirteen free tissue transfers of the oral vestibule were conducted: six ulnar forearm and seven anterolateral thigh perforator flaps. The average follow-up was 17 months. There were no flap failures and only one complication noted, which did not result in negative sequelae. The functional results were good, with all patients experiencing increased labial excursion and subjective improvement in the handling of food bolus and saliva. Preservation of oral vestibular height, width, and volume is essential for aesthetic appearance and functional competence. Free tissue transfer provides an innovative alternative in the management of the intractable and obliterated oral vestibule. It can be performed successfully, providing excellent results predictably.

  10. Uterine artery embolization vs hysterectomy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids : 10-year outcomes from the randomized EMMY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Annefleur M.; Ankum, Willem M.; Reekers, Jim A.; Birnie, Erwin; van der Kooij, Sanne M.; Volkers, Nicole A.; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1995 uterine artery embolization has been described as an alternative for hysterectomy in patients with symptomatic fibroids. Many studies including several randomized controlled trials established uterine artery embolization as a valuable treatment. These randomized controlled

  11. [Transarterial embolization for acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Li, Xiao-guang; Shi, Hai-feng; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-bo; Yang, Ning; Jin, Zheng-yu

    2014-10-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transarterial embolization for management of acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer. Twenty-two patients with duodenal ulcer underwent transarterial embolization for acute massive hemorrhage in our hospital between January 2007 and December 2012. Embolic agents were coils and gelatin sponge. The clinical data and embolization procedures of these patients were retrospective analyzed. Bleeding was controlled in 20 of 23 patients after the first embolization procedures. In the other 3 patients with rebleeding, one patient was successfully managed by repeat embolization and two patient underwent surgical treatment. The overall clinical success rate for acute hemorrhage after transarterial embolization was 91% (21/23). No severe complication occurred. Transarterial embolization is safe and effective for acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer.

  12. Pelvic embolization for treatment of hemorrhage related to spontaneous and induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, L; Chen, A Y; Reid, S K; Stubblefield, P G; Christensen, D D; Rashbaum, W K

    2001-09-01

    Presentation of outcomes of pelvic arterial embolization for hemorrhage after spontaneous or induced abortion. We collected case reports of embolization after spontaneous or induced abortion from oral presentations and from members of the National Abortion Federation. Pelvic arterial embolization was performed for 11 women who had hemorrhage after spontaneous or induced abortion, and it was initially successful for all women. One woman ultimately required a hysterectomy after unsuccessful repeated embolization. Prophylactic embolization was done for 8 women who were at risk for hemorrhage from placenta accreta; 4 of these women had subsequent hysterectomies. Selective pelvic arterial embolization may be a successful treatment for hemorrhage associated with spontaneous and induced abortion. Embolization can be considered before hysterectomy is undertaken for control of hemorrhage. There may be a role for prophylactic catheterization or embolization when there is a risk of severe hemorrhage.

  13. Modified laryngotracheal separation for intractable aspiration pneumonia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenbin; Chai, Liping; Guo, Jiebo; Zhu, Yuan-Ping; Zhu, Xiaolin; Jiang, Aiyun; Wen, Weiping; Su, Zhenzhong

    2013-06-01

    Intractable aspiration pneumonia in patients with post-radiotherapeutic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PNC) is a formidable complication, but has not attracted enough attention in clinical practice. Modified laryngotracheal separation (MLTS) was applied for these patients in our hospital, the surgical effects of which were assessed. Retrospective analysis of 9 PNC cases complicated by intractable aspiration pneumonia in our hospital was carried out. All cases were diagnosed as lower cranial nerve palsy. Their aspiration pneumonia was not effectively prevented or controlled after a series of previous treatments, including active anti-infectives, neurotrophy, acupuncture, nutrition support, nasogastric feeding and tracheotomy. Ultimately all of them received modified laryngotracheal separation (MLTS) surgery. Efficacy of the operation was assessed. In all patients, aspiration pneumonia was effectively controlled after the operation, body weights increased more than 6kg six months later, and nutrition status, swallowing function and quality of life were all improved. Intractable post-radiotherapeutic aspiration pneumonia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was possibly caused by lower cranial nerve palsy, which might be related to radiation fields overlapped. Modified laryngotracheal separation is effective in eliminating intractable aspiration in PNC. Suitable patients should be carefully selected although the procedure is potentially reversible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wayne K; Alterman, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has virtually replaced ablative neurosurgery for use in medication-refractory movement disorders. DBS is now being studied in severe psychiatric conditions, such as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Effects of DBS have been reported in ∼100 cases of OCD and ∼50 cases of TRD for seven (five common) anatomic targets. Although these published reports differ with respect to study design and methodology, the overall response rate appears to exceed 50% in OCD for some DBS targets. In TRD, >50% of patients responded during acute and long-term bilateral electrical stimulation in a different target. DBS was generally well tolerated in both OCD and TRD, but some unique, target- and stimulation-specific adverse effects were observed (e.g., hypomania). Further research is needed to test the efficacy and safety of DBS in psychiatric disorders, compare targets, and identify predictors of response.

  15. Uterine artery embolization to treat uterine fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machan, L.; Martin, M. [Univ. of British Columbia Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    The first reported application of uterine artery embolization, in 1979, was to treat life-threatening hemorrhage after a failed hysterectomy. Since then, uterine artery embolization has been used very successfully to control acute or delayed post-partum hemorrhage, post-surgical hemorrhage and hemorrhage from ectopic pregnancy, to treat uterine arteriovenous malformations and as prophylaxis before high-risk surgery, such as cesarean delivery in women with placenta previa. In contrast to these proven but underutilized applications, uterine embolization for fibroids has, in a short time, achieved significant notice in the lay press and is being widely offered. Ravina and colleagues, first reported uterine fibroid shrinkage after embolization for the treatment of acute bleeding. Since then, his group has performed over 100 procedures with up to a 6-year follow-up. The cumulative clinical success rate for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding due to fibroids is reported to be approximately 85% and for treatment of pain or pressure symptoms, about 75%. Six-month follow-up sonography reveals an average reduction of fibroid size of approximately 40%. However, to date, no studies have compared patients who undergo embolization with a nontreatment cohort or with surgical intervention. (author)

  16. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  17. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  18. Prognostic factors in bronchial arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Yup; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    To find the rebleeding factors in bronchial arterial embolization for treatment of hemoptysis, a retrospective study was performed. Medical records, angiographic findings and embolic materials of 35 patients who had undertaken arterial embolization for control of hemoptysis were reviewed. The period of follow-up for rebleeding was from 3 to 32 months after arterial embolization. We investigated the angiographic findings of extravasation, neovascularity, intervascular shunt, aneurysm and periarterial diffusion. Neovascularity was classified as mild(numerable neovascularity) and severe(innumerable). Rebleeding occurred in 15(43%) among 35 cases. Only two of 11 cases with no past episode of hemoptysis showed recurrence, while 9 of 15 cases who had more than three episodes did. Severe neovascularity were seen in 11 of 15 recurred cases, but seven of 20 non- recurred cases showed severe neovascularity. More than three angiographic findings representing hemoptysis were seen on 11(73%) among recurred 15 cases and seven(35%) among non- recurred 20 cases. The lesion was supplied by more than two different arteries on 8(54%) of the recurred cases, but only three(15%) of the non- recurred cases. Six of seven cases persistent neovascularity after arterial embolization were recurred. The history of repeated hemoptysis, severe neovascularity, variable angiographic findings, and post-embolization persistency of neovascularity were the factors related with the rebleeding after arterial embolization for hemoptysis. Careful and active arterial embolization are required on these conditions.

  19. Embolia gasosa Gas embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagionato Locali

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A embolia gasosa é uma lesão iatrogênica que possui alta morbimortalidade. É uma complicação decorrente de procedimentos clínico-cirúrgicos, sendo necessário o conhecimento dessa entidade pelos profissionais de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão dessa entidade, abrangendo seus aspectos fisiopatológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos. CONTEÚDO: Este artigo revisa conceitualmente a embolia gasosa, separando-a em arterial e venosa. Relata as principais características fisiopatológicas, diagnósticas e terapêuticas das embolias arterial e venosa. Além disso, aborda-se a embolia paradoxal, evento advindo da conversão de embolia venosa em arterial. CONCLUSÕES: A embolia gasosa é uma complicação relevante e presente em muitas especialidades médicas. Uma compreensão acerca da sua fisiopatologia e dos métodos diagnósticos e terapêuticos é essencial para garantir maior segurança aos pacientes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gas embolism is an iatrogenic injury that has high morbidity and mortality. It's a complication of clinical-surgical procedures, and it's necessary that the health professionals know this entity. The aim of this study was to realize a review of the gas embolism, considering its pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics aspects. CONTENTS: This article revises conceptually the gas embolism, dividing it in arterial and venous. Relate the mains physiopathology, diagnosis and therapeutics characteristics of the arterial and venous embolism. In addition, it's also approach the paradoxical embolism, event that occurs by conversion of a venous embolism to an arterial embolism. CONCLUSIONS: Gas embolism is an important complication, and it's present in many medical specialties. Knowledge about its physiopathology, and its diagnosis and therapeutic methods is essential to guarantee higher safety to the patients.

  20. A predictive risk model for medical intractability in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lisu; Li, Shi; He, Dake; Bao, Weiqun; Li, Ling

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate early predictors (6 months after diagnosis) of medical intractability in epilepsy. All children models were performed to determine the risk factors for developing medical intractability. Receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to fit the best compounded predictive model. A total of 649 patients were identified, out of which 119 (18%) met the study definition of intractable epilepsy at 2 years after diagnosis, and the rate of intractable epilepsy in patients with idiopathic syndromes was 12%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that neurodevelopmental delay, symptomatic etiology, partial seizures, and more than 10 seizures before diagnosis were significant and independent risk factors for intractable epilepsy. The best model to predict medical intractability in epilepsy comprised neurological physical abnormality, age at onset of epilepsy under 1 year, more than 10 seizures before diagnosis, and partial epilepsy, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.7797. This model also fitted best in patients with idiopathic syndromes. A predictive model of medically intractable epilepsy composed of only four characteristics is established. This model is comparatively accurate and simple to apply clinically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical and radiological long-term follow-up after embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2005-01-01

    and subjective effect of treatment on physical and social functioning. A significant rise in oxygenation of the blood after embolization was measured. In 77% of the patients symptoms improved, and 71% felt better performance. In eight patients, one of the PAVMs was found insufficiently embolized or recanalized...... at follow-up angiography and therefore were re-embolized. Endovascular embolization for PAVMs is effective. Clinical parameters and quality of life improved significantly. Regular clinical controls after therapy are necessary to discover insufficiently embolized, recanalized or new PAVMs....

  2. Metabolomic analysis of 92 pulmonary embolism patients from a nested case-control study identifies metabolites associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, O A; Poole, E M; Lindstrom, S; Kraft, P; Van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Lasky-Su, J A; Harrington, L B; Hagan, K; Kim, J; Parry, B A; Giordano, N; Kabrhel, C

    2017-12-29

    Essentials Risk-stratification often fails to predict clinical deterioration in pulmonary embolism (PE). First-ever high-throughput metabolomics analysis of risk-stratified PE patients. Changes in circulating metabolites reflect a compromised energy metabolism in PE. Metabolites play a key role in the pathophysiology and risk stratification of PE. Background Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) exhibit wide variation in clinical presentation and outcomes. Our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms differentiating low-risk and high-risk PE is limited, so current risk-stratification efforts often fail to predict clinical deterioration and are insufficient to guide management. Objectives To improve our understanding of the physiology differentiating low-risk from high-risk PE, we conducted the first-ever high-throughput metabolomics analysis (843 named metabolites) comparing PE patients across risk strata within a nested case-control study. Patients/methods We enrolled 92 patients diagnosed with acute PE and collected plasma within 24 h of PE diagnosis. We used linear regression and pathway analysis to identify metabolites and pathways associated with PE risk-strata. Results When we compared 46 low-risk with 46 intermediate/high-risk PEs, 50 metabolites were significantly different after multiple testing correction. These metabolites were enriched in the following pathways: tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine) and purine metabolism, (hypo)xanthine/inosine containing. Additionally, energy, nucleotide and amino acid pathways were downregulated in intermediate/high-risk PE patients. When we compared 28 intermediate-risk with 18 high-risk PE patients, 41 metabolites differed at a nominal P-value level. These metabolites were enriched in fatty acid metabolism (acyl cholines), and hemoglobin and porphyrin metabolism. Conclusion Our results suggest that high-throughput metabolomics can provide insight into the

  3. Treating Intractable Post Amputation Phantom Limb Pain with Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    this is a randomized , double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial; and, treatment group assignment will not be unmasked until the completion of...controlled clinical trial; and, treatment group assignment will not be unmasked until the completion of enrollment. Conclusion: This is a randomized , triple...Award Number: W81XWH-13-2-0009 TITLE: Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain with Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

  4. Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hysterectomy , which is the operation to remove the uterus. top of page What are some common uses of the UAE procedure? Uterine artery embolization has been used for decades to stop severe pelvic bleeding caused by: trauma malignant gynecological tumors hemorrhage after childbirth Uterine fibroid ...

  5. Caring for Patients With Intractable Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nagase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative descriptive study examining nurses’ attitudes about caring for patients with intractable neurological diseases, with a focus on dedication and conflicts. Semistructured interviews were conducted on 11 nurses with more than 5 years of clinical experience in addition to more than 3 years of experience in neurology wards. Senior nursing officers from each hospital selected the participants. In general, these nurses expressed distress over the inevitable progression of disease. Nurses talked about the “basis of dedication,” “conflicts with dedication,” “reorganization for maintaining dedication,” and “the reason for the change from conflict to commitment.” “Reorganization for maintaining dedication” meant that nurses were able to handle the prospect of rededicating themselves to their patients. Furthermore, “the reason for the change from conflict to commitment” referred to events that changed nurses’ outlooks on nursing care, their pride as nurses, or their learning experiences. They felt dedicated and conflicted both simultaneously and separately. While committing to their patients’ physical care, nurses were empowered to think positively and treat patients with dignity in spite of the care taking much time and effort, as well as entailing considerable risk.

  6. Surgery for Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of temporal resection for medically intractable epilepsy in 20 children less than age 5 years with at least 2 years follow-up are reported from Miami Children's Hospital, Florida.

  7. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Massive Hemoptysis: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: To assess the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis.   Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on 46 patients (26 males and 20 females who were referred to the Razavi Hospital from April 2009 to May 2012 with massive hemoptysis and had bronchial artery embolization procedures. General characteristics of the patients including age, gender, etiology, and thorax computed tomograms, findings of bronchial angiographic, results of the embolization, complications related to bronchial artery embolization and clinical outcome during follow-up were reviewed. Results: The etiology included previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 20 cases, previous tuberculosis with bronchiectasis in 16 cases, bronchiectasis in 6 cases, and active pulmonary tuberculosis in one case. No identifiable causes could be detected in three patients. Moreover, massive hemoptysis was successfully and immediately controlled following the embolization procedure in all patients. One patient developed recurrent hemoptysis during one month following the procedure and was treated by re-embolization. No major procedure–related complication such as bronchial infarction was identified However none of the patientsexperienced neurological complications. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective means of controlling massive hemoptysis and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for this condition.

  8. Cellular injury and neuroinflammation in children with chronic intractable epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenow Joshua; Kelley Kent; Laux Linda; DiPatri Arthur; Alden Tord D; Nordli Douglas R; Choi Jieun; Schuele Stephan U; Rajaram Veena; Koh Sookyong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferation, microglial activation and cytokine release in brain tissue from patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Methods Cortical tissue was collected from thirteen patients with intractable epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (6), encephalomalacia (5), Rasmussen's e...

  9. [Elective cerebral arteriovenous malformation treatment with onyx after coil embolization of ruptured, flow-realeted aneurysm of the posterior circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rać, Monika; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous posterior circulation malformation was planned to embolize by onyx injection after acute coil embolization of ruptured flow-realeted aneurysm of posterior cerebral artery. Control angiography revealed completely embolized malformation with normal vessel patency at the end of procedure. There were no adverse events related to this procedure and no neurologic deficit at the discharge.

  10. Cyclodialysis ab interno as a surgical approach to intractable glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jens F; Dietlein, Thomas S; Dinslage, Sven; Lüke, Christoph; Konen, Walter; Krieglstein, Günter K

    2007-08-01

    In glaucoma filtration surgery, the problem of subconjunctival scarring has still not been satisfactorily solved. Suprachoroidal drainage of aqueous humour offers a promising, alternative option for intractable glaucoma. We here present a clinical study on the surgical approach of gonioscopic cyclodialysis ab interno. Twenty-eight eyes of 20 patients with intractable glaucoma were included in this prospective, consecutive, case-control study. The eyes had had a mean of 4.4 +/- 2.4 previous antiglaucomatous interventions. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 34.3 +/- 10.5 mmHg despite maximum therapy. Under gonioscopic control, cyclodialysis ab interno was performed over two clock times to gain access to the suprachoroidal space. No additional trabecular meshwork surgery was performed. Success was defined as a lowering of IOP to below 21 mmHg without the need for further medication or intervention. Mean postoperative IOP was 14.6 +/- 12.4 mmHg. Mean follow-up (FU) for all eyes was 121.8 days. After a mean of 60 days, 21 eyes (75%) needed further surgical intervention. Qualified success was seen in four eyes (14.3%), with a mean FU of 383.6 days. Three eyes (10.7%) showed absolute success after a mean FU period of 202.7 days. In our series, we obtained the best results for phakic eyes, followed by pseudophakic and aphakic eyes. The results of this study do not provide convincing evidence of the functional efficacy of cyclodialysis ab interno. Nevertheless, the technique is easy to perform and offers safe and atraumatic access to the resorptive capability of the choroid. Conjunctival manipulation is avoided. Contrary to reports in the current literature, in our series, the best results were obtained for phakic eyes, though the small number of eyes included does not allow reliable statistics. Further studies will need to focus on the use of different space-retaining substances or a widening of the cyclodialysis cleft to improve surgical outcome.

  11. Acquire uterine vascular malformation: Clinical outcome of transarterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Jae Myung; Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate clinical outcomes of transarterial embolization of bilateral uterine arteries (UAE) in patients with acquired uterine vascular malformation (UVM). This retrospective study was performed on the medical records of all 19 patients who underwent transarterial embolization of bilateral UAE for the treatment of symptomatic UVMs from January 2003 to June 2011. Embolization was performed via the unilateral femoral artery approach with a catheter and angiographic techniques. Clinical success was defined as definitive resolution of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Post-procedural complications included all adverse events related to the embolization procedure. A total of 20 procedures were performed in 19 patients. One patient required repeat embolization because of incomplete embolization related to prominent high flow malformation. Clinically, in all patients, bleeding was controlled immediately after embolization. No complications occurred in all patients during the follow up period. In all patients who underwent successful UAE, menstrual cycles were normally restored within 1-2 months. Normal pregnancy with term delivery was observed in two of the 19 cases. Transarterial bilateral UAE is a safe and effective treatment in patients with vaginal bleeding caused by acquired UVM, and it allows the possibility of future pregnancy.

  12. An interesting septic embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Uluorman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic pulmonary embolism is a rare disease but mortality and morbidity of it is high. Septic pulmonary emboli comes from infected heart valves, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary artery catheter or infected pacemaker wires as many sources [1,2]. In recent years, pacemaker is a common treatment of the bradiarrhythmia that is persisted in the etiology of septic embolism, its applications has started to pick up [3]. There is the growing number of patients with pacemaker, according to this the frequency of pacemaker lead infection and the number of patients at risk for right-sided endocarditis increase [4]. The patients don't have specific clinical and radiological features because of this it is very difficult to define, so the diagnosis is often delayed [5]. A detailed medical history, a detailed physical examination in diagnosis and evaluation of good additional imaging methods is very important. Early diagnosis and proper treatment, the implementation of the management, can provide good results.

  13. Differential haemostatic risk factors for pregnancy-related deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergrem, Astrid; Dahm, Anders E A; Jacobsen, Anne Flem; Sandvik, Leiv; Sandset, Per Morten

    2012-12-01

    Limited data exist on thrombophilia and the risk of venous thrombosis (VT) during pregnancy and postpartum. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of haemostatic risk factors for pregnancy-related VT and their phenotypic expression in deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Total 313 cases with objectively verified first time VT and 353 controls were selected from a source population of 377,155 women with 613,232 pregnancies. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for pregnancy-related VT was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.8) for women with factor VIII >90th percentile. The aOR for VT for endogenous thrombin potential and D-dimer values >90th percentiles were 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-3.0) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.3), respectively. Factor IX >90th percentile or free protein S ≤the 5th percentile increased the risk for PE, and the aORs were 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.0) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.3-7.2), respectively. Women carrying the factor V Leiden (F5 rs6025) polymorphism, or who had reduced sensitivity to activated protein C (aPC) in the absence of F5 rs6025, had increased risk for DVT, with unadjusted ORs 7.7 (95% CI 4.7-12.7) and 3.5 (95% CI 2.2-5.4), respectively. Women with a history of pregnancy-related VT showed activation of coagulation and had elevated factor VIII. Furthermore, high levels of factor IX and low levels of free protein S were associated with increased risk for PE, whereas aPC resistance and F5 rs6025 were risk factors for DVT and not PE.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  15. [Selective percutaneous thermocoagulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve in intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T; Tanahashi, T; Iida, H; Ota, S; Yamamoto, M

    1990-02-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of glossopharyngeal nerve at the jugular foramen was employed for the treatment of intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia in three cases, one with essential and two with symptomatic pain from malignant tumor of the oropharyngeal area. Under radiological control, the thermocoagulation electrode was inserted through the lateral cervical route, and the electrode reached the jugular foramen with the tip toward the pars nervosa. The correct position of the electrode was confirmed by radiography and by electrophysiological stimulation test. Once the electrode was properly positioned, lesion was made with temperature of 60 degrees C to 70 degrees C for 1 approximately 2 minutes. Surgical results were satisfactory and no neurological and cardiovascular complications were noted. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of glossopharyngeal nerve is thought to be very useful for the treatment of intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

  16. Chronic herpes simplex type-1 encephalitis with intractable epilepsy in an immunosuppressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohathai, Christopher; Weber, Daniel J; Hayat, Ghazala; Thomas, Florian P

    2016-02-01

    Chronic herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis (HSE-1) is uncommon. Past reports focused on its association with prior documented acute infection. Here, we describe a patient with increasingly intractable epilepsy from chronic HSE-1 reactivation without history of acute central nervous system infection. A 49-year-old liver transplant patient with 4-year history of epilepsy after initiation of cyclosporine developed increasingly frequent seizures over 3 months. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging showed left temporoparietal cortical edema that gradually improved despite clinical decline. Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Cerebrospinal fluid HSV-1&2 IgM was negative. Seizures were controlled after acyclovir treatment, and the patient remained seizure free at 1-year follow-up. Chronic HSE is a cause of intractable epilepsy, can occur without a recognized preceding acute phase, and the clinical course of infection may not directly correlate with neuroimaging changes.

  17. Occipital nerve stimulation in medically intractable, chronic cluster headache. The ICON study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; Haan, Joost

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 10% of cluster headache patients have the chronic form. At least 10% of this chronic group is intractable to or cannot tolerate medical treatment. Open pilot studies suggest that occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) might offer effective prevention in these patients. Controlled...... neuromodulation studies in treatments inducing paraesthesias have a general problem in blinding. We have introduced a new design in pain neuromodulation by which we think we can overcome this problem. METHODS/DESIGN: We propose a prospective, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group international clinical study...... in medically intractable, chronic cluster headache patients of high- versus low-amplitude ONS. Primary outcome measure is the mean number of attacks over the last four weeks. After a study period of six months there is an open extension phase of six months. Alongside the randomised trial an economic evaluation...

  18. Expressions of glutathione S-transferase alpha, mu, and pi in brains of medically intractable epileptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qin-Jian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs play an important role in metabolizing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs in liver. Expressions of GSTs in brain, which may result in poor efficacy of AEDs, have not been well studied. Using clinical cortex specimen from 32 intractable epileptic subjects and 8 non-epileptic controls, the present study investigated the correlation between GSTs and intractable epilepsy. Results Three different GST isoforms (α, μ, and π were detected with immunohistochemistry. GST-α expression was not seen in any cortex specimens. Sixty three percent (63% of control and 53% of intractible epileptic specimens showed GST-μ immunoreactivity. No significant difference in intensity of GST-μ staining was observed between these two groups. GST-π expression was found in endothelial cells and glial cells/astrocytes. Fifty percent (50% of the control patients and 66% of the epileptic patients were GST-π positive. The grading of epileptic patients was significantly higher than that of control patients (p Conclusion High levels of GST-π in endothelial cells and glial cells/astrocyte correlate to medical intractable epilepsy, suggesting that GST-π contributes to resistance to AED treatment.

  19. Percutaneous embolization of bony pelvic neoplasms with tissue adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, F.S.; Rosch, J.; Bird, C.B.

    1983-04-01

    Eight patients with tumors of the bony pelvis underwent embolization with isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate (IBCA). Five patients had primary bone tumors, of which 2 were malignant and 3 were benign; 3 patients had metastases to the bony pelvis from the thyroid gland, kidney, and femur, respectively. Embolization was performed to minimize blood loss during resection of a giant-cell tumor in one patient and insertion of a hip prosthesis in another who had metastatic renal carcinoma. It was also done prior to scheduled surgery in one of the patients with aneurysmal bone cyst, but healing was sufficient to cancel the operation; in the other patient, embolization was the only therapy. Palliative embolization was performed in 4 patients with malignant tumors after other means failed to control pain or slow progression. IBCA appears to be an efficient means of occluding the vessels feeding selected primary bone tumors and metastases.

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Phrenic Nerve Block for Intractable Hiccups following Placement of Esophageal Stent for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanious, David; Khoury, Spiro; Martinez, Edgar; Nawras, Ali; Filatoff, Gregory; Ajabnoor, Hossam; Darr, Umar; Atallah, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Hiccups are actions consisting of sudden contractions of the diaphragm and intercostals followed by a sudden inspiration and transient closure of the vocal cords. They are generally short lived and benign; however, in extreme and rare cases, such as esophageal carcinoma, they can become persistent or intractable, up to and involving significant pain, dramatically impacting the patient's quality of life. This case involves a 60-year-old man with a known history of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. He was considered to have high surgical risk, and therefore he received palliative care through the use of fully covered metallic esophageal self-expandable stents due to a spontaneous perforated esophagus, after which he developed intractable hiccups and associated mediastinal pain. Conservative treatment, including baclofen, chlorpromazine, metoclopramide, and omeprazole, provided no relief for his symptoms. The patient was referred to pain management from gastroenterology for consultation on pain control. He ultimately received an ultrasound-guided left phrenic nerve block with bupivacaine and depomedrol, and 3 days later underwent the identical procedure on the right phrenic nerve. This led to complete resolution of his hiccups and associated mediastinal pain. At follow-up, 2 and 4 weeks after the left phrenic nerve block, the patient was found to maintain complete alleviation of the hiccups. Esophageal dilatation and/or phrenic or vagal afferent fiber irritation can be suspected in cases of intractable hiccups secondary to esophageal stenting. Regional anesthesia of the phrenic nerve through ultrasound guidance offers a long-term therapeutic option for intractable hiccups and associated mediastinal pain in selected patients with esophageal carcinoma after stent placement. Esophageal stent, esophageal stenting, intractable hiccups, intractable singultus, phrenic nerve block, phrenic nerve, ultrasound, palliative care, esophageal carcinoma.

  1. Mapping of cognitive functions in chronic intractable epilepsy: Role of fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, a non-invasive technique with high spatial resolution and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD contrast, has been applied to localize and map cognitive functions in the clinical condition of chronic intractable epilepsy. Purpose: fMRI was used to map the language and memory network in patients of chronic intractable epilepsy pre- and post-surgery. Materials and Methods: After obtaining approval from the institutional ethics committee, six patients with intractable epilepsy with an equal number of age-matched controls were recruited in the study. A 1.5 T MR scanner with 12-channel head coil, integrated with audio-visual fMRI accessories was used. Echo planar imaging sequence was used for BOLD studies. There were two sessions in TLE (pre- and post-surgery. Results: In TLE patients, BOLD activation increased post-surgery in comparison of pre-surgery in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and superior temporal gyrus (STG, during semantic lexical, judgment, comprehension, and semantic memory tasks. Conclusion: Functional MRI is useful to study the basic concepts related to language and memory lateralization in TLE and guide surgeons for preservation of important brain areas during ATLR. This will help in understanding future directions for the diagnosis and treatment of such disease.

  2. Lung Cancer Complicated With Asymptomatic Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Analysis of 84 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangsheng; Ma, Shuping

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Pulmonary embolism is potentially life-threatening in patients with lung cancer, but the clinical studies on patients with lung cancer having asymptomatic pulmonary embolism were barely reported. Methods: Clinical data of patients with lung cancer were obtained from the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Tianjin Chest Hospital during July 2012 and June 2015 and were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 28 patients with lung cancer having pulmonary embolism (LP group) were enrolled, and another 56 cases with lung cancer alone (LC group) were enrolled as controls. Results: Seventeen (60.7%) of 28 patients in the LP group developed adenocarcinoma, which was more frequent than that in the LC group (P pulmonary embolism among 17 asymptomatic cases in the LP group was 3.6 months postdiagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.0), showing a significant difference with that of other 11 patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism, which was 10.5 months (95% confidence interval, 8.88-12.12; P pulmonary embolism was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval, 5.86-8.56), while that of symptomatic pulmonary embolism was 2.8 months (95% confidence interval, 2.48-3.12). Log-rank examination showed that survival time of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism group was statistically longer than that of symptomatic pulmonary embolism group. Conclusion: Lung adenocarcinoma, chemotherapy, hyperleukocytosis, and d-dimer increment were the risk factors for lung cancer combined with asymptomatic pulmonary embolism. PMID:29332446

  3. Thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagi, D

    2010-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism carries a high mortality. Potential treatment includes anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy and embolectomy. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis leading to progressive massive pulmonary embolism despite appropriate anticoagulation, where thrombolysis with IVC filter placement resulted in a successful outcome.

  4. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, a number of new and exciting anticoagulant therapies are being developed for this disease. Definition. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic diseases can be either acute or chronic. Pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs with partial or complete obstruction of the central or peripheral pulmonary arteries by emboli. Incidence.

  5. Acute pulmonary embolism in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen, C. Heleen; Peters, Marjolein

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an uncommon, but potentially fatal disease in children. Most children with pulmonary embolism have underlying clinical conditions, of which the presence of a central venous catheter is the most frequent. The clinical presentation is often subtle, or masked by the underlying

  6. Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    Based on a literature search, an overview is presented of the pathophysiology of venous and arterial gas embolism in the experimental and clinical environment, as well as the relevance and aims of diagnostics and treatment of gas embolism. The review starts with a few historical observations and

  7. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

  8. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  9. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Boling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis.

  10. Approximating methods for intractable probabilistic models: Applications in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen-Sørensen, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    . The approximating techniques used in this thesis originate from the field of statistical physics which for decades has been facing the same type of intractable computations when analyzing large systems of interacting variables e.g. magnetic spin systems. In general, these approximating techniques are known as mean...... with binary sources. It is shown this approach, which is computationally efficient, infers reasonable brain activation functions. Finally, we outline various ways of carrying out approximate message passing in probabilistic models for which marginalization over some of the clique variables is intractable....

  11. Efficacy and safety of embolization in iatrogenic traumatic uterine vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Shi, H.; Zhou, K.; Sun, H. [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, X., E-mail: pumch005@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Pan, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, W.; Yang, N.; Jin, Z. [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of embolotherapy in patients with iatrogenic traumatic uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent uterine arterial embolization in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2000 and December 2010 was performed. Forty-two patients were diagnosed with a uterine vascular malformation. All patients had obstetric manipulations before. Serial beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-HCG) levels were measured to exclude gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. All patients underwent transcatheter embolization of bilateral uterine arteries. The complications, control of haemorrhage, and outcome of subsequent pregnancies were assessed. Results: A total of 49 embolization procedures were performed in 42 patients. Seven patients required repeated embolizations for recurrence of bleeding. The technical success rate of embolization was 100%. Bleeding was controlled in 35 of 42 patients (83%) after the first embolization procedures, and bleeding was controlled in another two patients who underwent repeat embolization at a median follow-up of 29 months (range 3 months to 5 years). The overall clinical success rate was 88% (37/42). Thirteen patients subsequently became pregnant and eight of 13 patients had uneventful intrauterine pregnancies carried to term. Seven patients had post-embolization syndrome and no other complication occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous embolotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for traumatic AVMs. Future pregnancy is still possible after embolization.

  12. The Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease Revealed by a Refractory Hypoxemia and Severe Cerebral Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic disease which may lead to severe hemorrhage and less frequently to severe organ dysfunction. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with no personal medical history who was involved in a motorcycle accident and exhibited severe complications related to large arteriovenous pulmonary shunts during his ICU stay. The patient developed an unexplained severe hypoxemia which was attributed to several arteriovenous shunts of the pulmonary vasculature by a contrast study during a transesophageal echocardiographic examination. The course was subsequently complicated by a prolonged coma associated with hemiplegia which was attributed to a massive paradoxical fat embolism in the setting of an untreated femoral fracture. In addition to hemorrhagic complications which may lead to intractable shock, arteriovenous malformations associated with the Rendu-Osler-Weber disease may involve the pulmonary vasculature and result in unexpected complications, such as hypoxemia or severe cerebral fat embolism in high-risk patients.

  13. Efficacy of embolization in traumatic uterine vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Sangeet; Rajan, Dheeraj K; Asch, Murray R; Muradali, Derek; Simons, Martin E; TerBrugge, Karel G

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of embolotherapy in patients with bleeding traumatic uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A retrospective review of all patients who underwent pelvic arterial embolization at our institution between July 1992 and September 2002 was performed. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with a uterine vascular malformation on duplex ultrasonography and correlative MR imaging. Serial beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were measured to exclude gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. All patients underwent transcatheter embolization of the uterine arteries. Embolizations were performed with use of standard 4-5-F catheters and microcatheters when necessary. Embolic agents in the 25 procedures included glue only (n = 13), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles and glue (n = 4), PVA particles (n = 2), Gelfoam (n = 2), coils (n = 1), PVA particles and coils (n = 1), glue and Gelfoam (n = 1), and glue and coils (n = 1). PVA particle size ranged from 350 to 1,000 micro m. Outcomes assessed were cessation of bleeding, persistence or resolution of the AVM, complications, and pregnancy after embolization. These were assessed by chart, laboratory, and imaging reviews. A total of 25 embolization procedures were performed in 15 patients. Six patients required repeat embolization (one patient underwent embolization on six occasions; five patients had two embolization procedures each) for recurrence of bleeding. Sixteen procedures were performed on an elective basis and nine were performed on an emergent basis. The technical success rate of embolization was 100%. The clinical success rate was 93%: bleeding was controlled in 14 of 15 patients and one patient underwent a hysterectomy. Four of the 15 patients subsequently had a total of five uneventful intrauterine pregnancies carried to term. The 14 patients who underwent successful embolization had no recurrence of bleeding at a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 3-124 months) after treatment. Three patients were

  14. Transcatheter embolization for splanchnic pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, In Ku; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Young Ju; Youm, Dong Ho; Chang, Young Sim; Park, Si Kyun; Kwack, Kyu Seung; Kwon, Taek Sang; Hong, In Soo [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To determine the therapeutic effect of transcatheter embolization in the treatment of splanchnic pseudoaneurysm. This study involved eleven patients who underwent embolization for the treatment of splanchnic pseudoaneurysm. Nine were men and two were women; their ages ranged from 8 to 74 (mean, 51) years. The etiology of these cases included postoperative pseudoaneurysm(n=3D4), pancreatitis(n=3D3), stab injury(n=3D1), and suspected infection(n=3D1), while two cases were uncertain. The locations of the pseudoaneurysm were the splenic artery(n=3D4), the gastroduodenal artery(n=3D3), the hepatic artery(n=3D2), the celiac artery(n=3D1), and both the right renal and lumbar artery(n=3D1). All patients underwent angiography prior to embolization. The materials used during embolization were a microcoil, a 5-cm metallic guide wire, and a detachable balloon. Embolization was successful in all eleven cases. Among nine cases in which follow-up was possible, angiography was performed in four, and five cases of thrombus were confirmed by abdominal CT. Three of these nine patients underwent re-embolization. One patient underwent elective surgery for a pseudocyst due to pancreatitis. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and convenient modality for the treatment of splanchnic pseudoaneurysm.=20.

  15. Ambulatory management of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusibah, Houssam; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M; Standen, Peter; Bhatia, Praveen; Hamad, Mahir Ma

    2018-01-02

    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism can be very difficult and elusive. It depends greatly on the use of diagnostic tests, which are in turn interpreted according to a pre-test clinical probability. These include non-specific tests such as the chest X-ray and electrocardiograph, which help exclude other conditions such as pneumonia or myocardial infarction. On the other hand, more specific tests such as computed tomography or ventilation/perfusion scanning are used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. The condition is potentially fatal, and in the past patients with suspected pulmonary embolism constituted a significant number of hospital admissions. Despite this, the majority were found not to have pulmonary embolism. More recently, studies have suggested that most patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who are haemodynamically stable can be safely managed on an ambulatory pathway. Therefore, there is a paradigm shift towards investigating and treating pulmonary embolism in the outpatient setting. This article discusses the ambulatory pathway of the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism.

  16. Interleukin-6 as an early marker for fat embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Theis, Jc; Walton, M; Sutherland, W

    2009-06-13

    Fat Embolism is a complication of long bone fractures, intramedullary fixation and joint arthroplasty. It may progress to fat embolism syndrome, which is rare but involves significant morbidity and can occasionally be fatal. Fat Embolism can be detected at the time of embolization by transoesophageal echocardiography or atrial blood sampling. Later, a combination of clinical signs and symptoms will point towards fat embolism but there is no specific test to confirm the diagnosis. We investigated serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a possible early marker for fat embolism. An animal study was conducted to simulate a hip replacement in 31 adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and the animals divided into 3 groups: control, uncemented and cemented. Following surgery and recovery from anaesthesia, the rats allowed to freely mobilize in their cages. Blood was taken before surgery and at 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours to measure serum IL-6 levels. The rats were euthanized at 24 hours and lungs removed and stained for fat. The amount of fat seen was then correlated with serum IL-6 levels. No rats in the control group had fat emboli. Numerous fat emboli were seen in both the uncemented and cemented implant groups. The interleukin levels were raised in all groups reaching a peak at 12 hours after surgery reaching 100 pg/ml in the control group and around 250 pg/ml in the uncemented and cemented implant groups. The IL-6 levels in the control group were significantly lower than any of the implant groups at 12 and 24 hours. At these time points, the serum IL-6 correlated with the amount of fat seen on lung histology. Serum IL-6 is a possible early marker of fat embolism.

  17. Interleukin-6 as an early marker for fat embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fat Embolism is a complication of long bone fractures, intramedullary fixation and joint arthroplasty. It may progress to fat embolism syndrome, which is rare but involves significant morbidity and can occasionally be fatal. Fat Embolism can be detected at the time of embolization by transoesophageal echocardiography or atrial blood sampling. Later, a combination of clinical signs and symptoms will point towards fat embolism but there is no specific test to confirm the diagnosis. We investigated serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6 as a possible early marker for fat embolism. Methods An animal study was conducted to simulate a hip replacement in 31 adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and the animals divided into 3 groups: control, uncemented and cemented. Following surgery and recovery from anaesthesia, the rats allowed to freely mobilize in their cages. Blood was taken before surgery and at 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours to measure serum IL-6 levels. The rats were euthanized at 24 hours and lungs removed and stained for fat. The amount of fat seen was then correlated with serum IL-6 levels. Results No rats in the control group had fat emboli. Numerous fat emboli were seen in both the uncemented and cemented implant groups. The interleukin levels were raised in all groups reaching a peak at 12 hours after surgery reaching 100 pg/ml in the control group and around 250 pg/ml in the uncemented and cemented implant groups. The IL-6 levels in the control group were significantly lower than any of the implant groups at 12 and 24 hours. At these time points, the serum IL-6 correlated with the amount of fat seen on lung histology. Conclusion Serum IL-6 is a possible early marker of fat embolism.

  18. Interleukin-6 as an early marker for fat embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Theis, JC; Walton, M; Sutherland, W

    2009-01-01

    Background Fat Embolism is a complication of long bone fractures, intramedullary fixation and joint arthroplasty. It may progress to fat embolism syndrome, which is rare but involves significant morbidity and can occasionally be fatal. Fat Embolism can be detected at the time of embolization by transoesophageal echocardiography or atrial blood sampling. Later, a combination of clinical signs and symptoms will point towards fat embolism but there is no specific test to confirm the diagnosis. We investigated serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a possible early marker for fat embolism. Methods An animal study was conducted to simulate a hip replacement in 31 adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and the animals divided into 3 groups: control, uncemented and cemented. Following surgery and recovery from anaesthesia, the rats allowed to freely mobilize in their cages. Blood was taken before surgery and at 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours to measure serum IL-6 levels. The rats were euthanized at 24 hours and lungs removed and stained for fat. The amount of fat seen was then correlated with serum IL-6 levels. Results No rats in the control group had fat emboli. Numerous fat emboli were seen in both the uncemented and cemented implant groups. The interleukin levels were raised in all groups reaching a peak at 12 hours after surgery reaching 100 pg/ml in the control group and around 250 pg/ml in the uncemented and cemented implant groups. The IL-6 levels in the control group were significantly lower than any of the implant groups at 12 and 24 hours. At these time points, the serum IL-6 correlated with the amount of fat seen on lung histology. Conclusion Serum IL-6 is a possible early marker of fat embolism. PMID:19523233

  19. Evaluation of Protein C Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Ceviz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and develops as a result of obstruction of pulmonary artery and/or branches with pieces that ruptured from the DVT of the leg. Pulmonary embolism and DVT is also referred as venous thrombo-embolism (VTE, because two events often remain together. In the studies, it was found that protein C (PROC deficiency is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between pulmonary embolism and PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism in Turkish population. Methods: The DNAs of 114 pulmonary embolism cases and 120 healthy controls have been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP to evaluate the relation between PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism and pulmonary embolism in our study. Statistical analyses were performed by using chisquare and analysis of variance tests. Results: The proportion of individuals with CT genotype carrying polymorphic T allele as heterozygous form was 38.7% in the control group and 21.9% in the pulmonary embolism cases (p=0.047. When demographic and clinical characteristics of cases compared with PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism, it was observed that the changes in chest CT ratios could be associated with -1654C>T polymorphism (p=0.017. Conclusion: As a result, individuals with CT genotypes carrying the polymorphic T allele as heterozygous form have a lower risk of developing pulmonary embolism.

  20. Liver Regeneration After Portal Vein Embolization Using Absorbable and Permanent Embolization Materials in a Rabbit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Heger, Michal; Roelofs, Joris J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the safety and hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization (PVE) using 2 absorbable and 3 permanent embolization materials. Background: Portal vein embolization is used to increase future remnant liver volume preoperatively. Application of temporary, absorbable

  1. Patient with intractable delirium successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Eske; Hageman, Ida

    2014-01-01

    and in this situation electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be a quick and efficient treatment. In this case report of a 26-year-old man a post-operative intractable delirium persisting for three weeks was efficiently and swiftly relieved by three consecutive ECTs. The patient was discharged without need for further...

  2. Finite Gaussian Mixture Approximations to Analytically Intractable Density Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Richard, Jean-Francois

    The objective of the paper is that of constructing finite Gaussian mixture approximations to analytically intractable density kernels. The proposed method is adaptive in that terms are added one at the time and the mixture is fully re-optimized at each step using a distance measure that approxima...

  3. Packing of Renal Fossa: Useful Technique for Intractable Bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to manage patients with complex stag horn calculi.[1]. CASE REPORTS. Case 1. A 65 year old man was taken up for open pyelolithotomy for large staghorn calculus by a urologist in a Medical college. I was called for help as the patient started having intractable bleeding after the removal of staghorn calculus. The urologist.

  4. Management of intractable postpartum haemorrhage in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study is to describe treatment alternatives to prevent postpartum hysterectomy after failure of conventional therapies. Prevention of hysterectomy was the main outcome studied. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 19 patients diagnosed to have intractable postpartum ...

  5. Endovascular treatment of intractable epistaxis - results of a 4-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 57 endovascular embolisation procedures were performed for intractable epistaxis in 51 patients during this period. Eight patients (15.7%) developed a re-bleed between 1 and 33 days after embolisation of whom 5 were re- embolised, giving a primary short-term success rate of 86.3% and secondary assisted ...

  6. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  7. Prescription checking device promises to resolve intractable hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisser, A Michael; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Sperlich, Marianne; Ricordi, Camillo

    2009-05-01

    Satisfactory glycemic control, meeting American Diabetes Association recommendations, is often accompanied by unsatisfactory hypoglycemia. The converse is also true. We hypothesize that this diabetes treatment dilemma may be resolved by repeated, objective, prescription checks. To do this, a new, two-part device has been developed. It includes a personal diabetes database for the patient and a built-in diabetes prescription checker for the provider. Its goals are to enhance diabetes education and improve patient care. The device includes a database and supporting software, all contained in a standard USB flash drive. Using the medical prescription, body weight, and recent self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) data, prescription checks can be done at any time. To demonstrate the device's capabilities, an observational study was performed using data from 11 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, on intensified therapy, with a mean glycated hemoglobin A1c <7%, and who all suffered intractable hypoglycemia. Patients had performed SMBG contours on successive days at monthly intervals. Each contour included pre- and postmeal as well as bedtime measurements. The replicated contours were used to predict the patient's glycemic profile each month. Applying a built-in simulator to each profile, changes in the prescription were explored that were consistent with reducing the recalcitrant hypoglycemia. A total of 110 glycemic profiles containing 822 profile points were explored. Of these profile points, 351 (43%) showed risks of hypoglycemia, whereas 385 (47%) fell outside desired ranges. With the simulated changes in the prescription, the predicted risks of hypoglycemia were reduced 2.5-fold with insignificant increases predicted in hemoglobin A1c levels of +0.6 +/- 0.9%. A novel support tool for diabetes promises to resolve the diabetes treatment dilemma. Supporting the patient, it improves self-management. Supporting the provider, it reviews the medical prescription in light

  8. Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Elderly Patients with Stable Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2017-03-01

    Patients aged >60 years with pulmonary embolism who were stable and did not require thrombolytic therapy were shown to have a somewhat lower in-hospital all-cause mortality with vena cava filters. In this investigation we further assess mortality with filters in stable elderly patients. In-hospital all-cause mortality according to use of inferior vena cava filters was assessed from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, 2003-2012, in: 1) All patients with pulmonary embolism; 2) All with pulmonary embolism who had none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index; 3) Patients with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and 4) Patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index. From 2003-2012, 2,621,575 stable patients with pulmonary embolism were hospitalized in the US. Patients aged >80 years showed lower mortality with vena cava filters (all pulmonary embolism, 6.1% vs 10.5%; all pulmonary embolism with no comorbid conditions, 3.3% vs 6.3%; primary pulmonary embolism, 4.1% vs 5.7%; primary pulmonary embolism with no comorbid conditions, 2.1% vs 3.7%; all P pulmonary embolism, irrespective of comorbid conditions, did not show lower mortality with filters. At present, in the absence of a randomized controlled trial, it seems prudent to consider a vena cava filter in very elderly (aged >80 years) stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary embolism; Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) requires a quick diagnostic algorithm, as the untreated disease has a high mortality and morbidity. Crucial for the diagnostic assessment chosen is the initial clinical likelihood of PE and the individual risk profile of the patient. The overall goal is to diagnose or rule out PE as quickly and safely as possible or to initiate timely treatment if necessary. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries (CTPA) with multi-slice CT scanner systems presents the actual diagnostic reference standard. With CTPA further important diagnoses can be made, like presence of right ventricular dysfunction. There are different scan and contrast application protocols that can be applied in order to gain diagnostic examinations with sufficient contrast material enhancement in the pulmonary arteries while avoiding all kinds of artifacts. This review article is meant to be a practical guide to examine patients with suspected PE according to the actual guidelines.

  10. Pulmonary Embolism in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ahmar Urooj; Hutchins, Kelley K.; Rajpurkar, Madhvi

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) in the pediatric population is relatively rare when compared to adults; however, the incidence is increasing and accurate and timely diagnosis is critical. A high clinical index of suspicion is warranted as PE often goes unrecognized among children leading to misdiagnosis and potentially increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of children with PE are lacking and current practices are extrapolated from adult data. Treatment options include thrombolysis and anticoagulation with heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists, with newer direct oral anticoagulants currently in clinical trials. Long-term sequelae of PE, although studied in adults, are vastly unknown among children and adolescents. Additional research is needed in order to provide pediatric focused care for patients with acute PE. PMID:28848725

  11. Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Wojdyla, Daniel; Thomas, Laine; Alexander, John H; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Lopes, Renato D; De Caterina, Raffaele; Erol, Cetin; Goto, Shinya; Lanas, Fernando; Lewis, Basil S; Husted, Steen; Gersh, Bernard J; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2015-12-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension are at high risk for stroke. Previous studies have shown elevated risk of stroke in patients with AF who have a history of hypertension (regardless of blood pressure [BP] control) and in patients with elevated BP. We assessed the association of hypertension and BP control on clinical outcomes. In ARISTOTLE (n=18 201), BP was evaluated as history of hypertension requiring treatment and elevated BP (systolic ≥140 and/or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg) at study entry and any point during the trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models including BP as a time-dependent covariate. A total of 15 916 (87.5%) patients had a history of hypertension requiring treatment. In patients with elevated BP measurement at any point during the trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was significantly higher (HR, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.86), as was hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.26-2.72) and ischemic stroke (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.90). Rates of major bleeding were lower in patients with a history of hypertension (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98) and nonsignificantly lower in patients with elevated BP at study entry (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03). The benefit of apixaban versus warfarin on preventing stroke or systemic embolism was consistent among patients with and without a history of hypertension (P interaction=0.27), BP control at baseline (P interaction=0.43), and BP control during the trial (P interaction=0.97). High BP measurement at any point during the trial was independently associated with a substantially higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism. These results strongly support efforts to treat elevated BP as an important strategy to optimally lower risk of stroke in patients with AF. URL: https://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. The Role of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs in the Management of the Post-Embolization Symptoms after Uterine Artery Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Bilhim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Uterine artery embolization (UAE is usually a very painful procedure. Although pain after the procedure can occur as a single symptom, it usually is associated with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pelvic pain, general malaise, fever and leukocytosis that characterize the post-embolization syndrome. Management of the post-embolization symptoms and of pain in particular, is paramount if UAE is to be performed as an outpatient procedure. Different protocols have used analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory agents to control these symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are frequently used in association with analgesic drugs to control post-embolization symptoms. In our institution the patients start oral medication with NSAIDs the day before the procedure and continue it during and after UAE. We also mix NSAIDs with the embolizing particles. This enables a reduction in the inflammation present in the uterine fibroids and helps controlling the pain. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance of NSAIDs in the management of the post-embolization symptoms. We describe the protocol that we use in our institution that enables us to perform the procedure on an outpatient basis with same day discharge and good control of the post-embolization symptoms with oral NSAIDs and analgesics.

  13. Thromboxane mediation of cardiopulmonary effects of embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsonomiya, T; Krausz, M M; Levine, L; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B

    1982-08-01

    Humoral factors released from platelets during pulmonary embolism may be the cause of several attendant cardiopulmonary abnormalities. This study examines the role of thromboxanes (Tx) after experimental embolism induced with 0.5 g/kg autologous clot in four groups of five dogs: (a) untreated embolized controls; (b) pretreatment with the Tx synthetase inhibitor, imidazole 25 mg/kg . h i.v., starting 30 min before embolization; (c) pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, 5 mg/kg, 12 h per os and 1 mg/kg, 1 h i.v. before the experiment; (d) treatment with prostacyclin (PGI(2)) 100 etag/kg . min i.v. for 1 h, 1 h after embolization. Within 30 min, embolization led to increases of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), the stable hydrolysis product of PGI(2), from 0.11+/-0.08 etag/ml (mean+/-SD) to 0.33+/-0.10 etag/ml (P etag/ml to 0.38+/-0.06 etag/ml (P < 0.001). Increases were observed in total dead space (V(D)/V(T)) from 0.46+/-0.03 to 0.61+/-0.08 (P < 0.025, physiologic shunting (Q(S)/Q(T)) from 16+/-4% to 38+/-9% (P < 0.01), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) from 2.27+/-0.59 mm Hg.min/liter to 9.21+/-1.90 mm Hg.min/liter (P < 0.005) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure from 14+/-6 mm Hg to 34+/-1 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Cardiac index (CI) fell from 139+/-11 ml/kg.min to 95+/-17 ml/kg.min in 4 h (P < 0.025). Imidazole pretreatment prevented a rise of TxB(2), but not 6-keto-PGF(1alpha); indomethacin blocked both. Both agents maintained V(D)/V(T) at base line and limited increases in Q(S)/Q(T) and PVR. CI was higher after imidazole pretreatment compared with controls (P < 0.025). Indomethacin led to intermediate levels of CI. PGI(2) lowered TxB(2) (P < 0.025), V(D)/V(T) (P < 0.025), Q(S)/Q(T) (P < 0.025) and PVR (P < 0.05) within 30 min. During PGI(2) infusion, CI was higher than controls. Concentrations of TxB(2) correlated with V(D)/V(T), r = 0.79 and Q(S)/Q(T), r = 0.69 (P < 0.001). Treatment of three dogs with the imidazole derivative ketoconazole, 10 mg/kg IV, 30

  14. Coil embolization of the splenic artery: impact on splenic volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Stephen R; Schriber, Stacey M; Choudhury, Kingshuk R; Suhocki, Paul V; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of coil embolization of the splenic artery on splenic volume based on computed tomography (CT) imaging. Splenic artery embolization (SAE) was performed in 148 consecutive patients over an 8-year period in an institutional review board-approved retrospective study. Of these, 60 patients (36 men; mean age, 49 y) had undergone contrast-enhanced CT before and after SAE with a mean time interval of 355 days. Pre- and postembolization splenic volumes were calculated with volume-rendering software. Presence of Howell-Jolly bodies was ascertained on laboratory tests. A trauma control group consisted of 39 patients with splenic laceration and follow-up CT but no splenic intervention. SAE in trauma patients resulted in an insignificant decrease in mean spleen size from 224 cm(3) to 190 cm(3) (P = .222). However, postembolization splenic volume was significantly smaller than follow-up volume in the trauma control group (353 cm(3); P Howell-Jolly bodies after SAE. No patients required repeat embolization or splenectomy. Coil embolization of the splenic artery resulted in a modest but significant decrease in splenic volume when performed distally; proximal embolization resulted in an insignificant volume change. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New aspects of paradoxical embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmeyer, S; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2011-01-01

    Paradoxical emboli have their origin in the low-pressure venous system and can cause ischemic stroke or peripheral arterial embolism through a cardiac or pulmonary shunt. In most cases, a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is found. About 20 % of the population has a patent foramen ovale. This review gives insight into publications concerning the association between the presence of a patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke; the association of PFO, coagulation disorders and stroke; and recurrence rates of stroke in patients with PFO. Diagnostic features are discussed, as are the different therapy modalities, taking existing national and international guidelines into account. Also, our own recommendations are given. In addition some new information on the potential improvement of migraine after PFO closure is discussed. It is widely accepted that the optimal therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke has not yet been found. Randomized, controlled clinical studies are ongoing in the United States and will give even more insight and answer open questions in the future.

  16. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS AFTER MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Kovačić

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary embolism is a disease, which has a 30% mortality if untreated, while an early diagnosis and treatment lowers it to 2–8%. Health related quality of life (HRQL of patients who survived massive pulmonary embolism is unknown in published literature. In our research we tried to apply experience of foreign experts in estimation of quality of life in some other diseases to the field of massive pulmonary embolism.Patients and methods. Eighteen patients with shock or hypotension due to massive pulmonary embolism, treated with thrombolysis, between July 1993 and November 2000, were prospectively included in the study. Control group included 18 gender and age matched persons. There were no significant differences regarding demographic data between the groups. The HRQL and aerobic capacity of patients and control group were tested with short questions and questionnaires (Veterans brief, self administered questionnaire (VSAQ, EuroQuality questionnaire (EQ, Living with heart failure questionnaire (LlhHF. With LlhHF physical (F-LlhHF and emotional (E-LlhHF HRQL was assessed at hospitalization and 12 months later.Results. One year after massive pulmonary embolism aerobic capacity (–9.5%, p < 0.017 and HRQL (EQ (–34.5%, F-LlhHF (–85.4%, E-LlhHF (–48.7% decreased in massive pulmonary embolism group compared to aerobic capacity 6 months before massive pulmonary embolism and HRQL. Heart rate before thrombolysis correlated with aerobic capacity (r = 0.627, p < 0.01, EQ (r = 0.479, p < 0.01 and F-LlhHF (r = 0.479, p = 0.04 1 year after massive pulmonary embolism. Total pulmonary resistance at 12 hours after start of treatment correlated with aerobic capacity at 1 year (r = 0.354, p < 0.01.With short question (»Did you need any help in everyday activities in last 2 weeks?« we successfully separated patients with decreased HRQL in EQ (74.3 ± 20.8 vs. 24.5 ± 20.7, p < 0.001 and F-LlhHF (21.7 ± 6.7 vs. 32.8 ± 4.3, p < 0.01, but we

  17. Does Pelvic Embolization Increase Infection Rates in Patients Who Undergo Open Treatment of Acetabular Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Reza; Little, Milton; Alton, Timothy; Scoloro, John; Agel, Julie; Kogut, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the impact of pelvic embolization on postoperative infection rate after acetabular fracture fixation. Retrospective study of 3 separate cohorts. Level I Trauma Center. Identified patients who underwent angiography of the pelvis as well as required an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of an acetabular fracture. This group was compared to a control group of patients with an acetabular fracture, which did not undergo angiography, and underwent ORIF. ORIF of an aectabular fracture with angiography ± embolization. Deep infection rate. Seventy-two patients remained for final analysis; 25 patients underwent embolization, 16 patients underwent angiography without embolization, and 31 patients did not undergo angiography. Two out of 25 (8%) patients developed infections in the embolization group, one deep infection and one superficial infection. Five out of 16 (31%) patients developed deep infections in the nonembolization group. Control group of patients who did not undergo angiography had a deep infection rate of 9.6%. Despite previous reports of high infection rates after pelvic embolization, the deep infection rate was only 4% after embolization in our cohort. This suggests that concerns for higher rates of infection are not substantiated, and pelvic embolization should be performed when indicated. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Numerical modeling process of embolization arteriovenous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Gologush, T. S.; Petrenko, I. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a difficult, dangerous, and most frequently encountered vascular failure of development. It consists of vessels of very small diameter, which perform a discharge of blood from the artery to the vein. In this regard it can be adequately modeled using porous medium. Endovascular embolization of arteriovenous malformation is effective treatment of such pathologies. However, the danger of intraoperative rupture during embolization still exists. The purpose is to model this process and build an optimization algorithm for arteriovenous malformation embolization. To study the different embolization variants, the initial-boundary value problems, describing the process of embolization, were solved numerically by using a new modification of CABARET scheme. The essential moments of embolization process were modeled in our numerical experiments. This approach well reproduces the essential features of discontinuous two-phase flows, arising in the embolization problems. It can be used for further study on the process of embolization.

  19. Pregnancy after uterine arterial embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. Bonduki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes, complications and neonatal outcomes in women who had previously undergone uterine arterial embolization. METHODS: A retrospective study of 187 patients treated with uterine arterial embolization for symptomatic uterine fibroids between 2005-2008 was performed. Uterine arterial embolization was performed using polyvinyl alcohol particles (500-900 mm in diameter. Pregnancies were identified using screening questionnaires and the study database. RESULTS: There were 15 spontaneous pregnancies. Of these, 12.5% were miscarriages (n = 2, and 87.5% were successful live births (n = 14. The gestation time for the pregnancies with successful live births ranged from 36 to 39.2 weeks. The mean time between embolization and conception was 23.8 months (range, 5-54. One of the pregnancies resulted in twins. The newborn weights (n = 14 ranged from 2.260 to 3.605 kg (mean, 3.072 kg. One (7.1% was considered to have a low birth weight (2.260 kg. There were two cases of placenta accreta (12.5%, treated with hysterectomy in one case [6.3%], one case of premature rupture of the membranes (PRM (6.3%, and one case of preeclampsia (6.3%. All of the patients were delivered via Cesarean section. CONCLUSION: In this study, there was an increased risk of Cesarean delivery. There were no other major obstetric risks, suggesting that pregnancy after uterine arterial embolization is possible without significant morbidity or mortality.

  20. Amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, I T

    2012-02-03

    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. Amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension.

  1. Reflex anuria after renal tumor embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervancioglu, Selim; Sirikci, Akif; Erbagci, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of reflex anuria after transarterial embolization of a renal tumor. Anuria developed immediately after embolization and resolved 74 hr following the procedure. We postulate that reflux anuria in our case was related to mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, or both, as these are stimulated by the occluded blood vessels, ischemia, and edema of the normal renal tissue of an embolized kidney.

  2. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail: lmeneseq@gmail.com; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: suribe@med.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  3. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broder

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy is a significant and under-recognized problem. In British Columbia, where there are 46,000 pregnancies per year, it is estimated that there are approximately 160 pulmonary embolisms per year and one maternal death every two years secondary to pulmonary embolism. A complete assessment for suspected pulmonary embolus can be performed without putting the fetus at significant risk from radiation exposure. An algorithm is provided for the workup of pulmonary embolus during pregnancy. Heparin is the drug of choice for anticoagulating pregnant women, initially managing the situation with intravenous heparin and then switching to the subcutaneous route given in a bid or tid regimen, aiming to keep the activated partial thromboplastin time 1.5 to 2 times the control. The risks to both the fetus and the mother from anticoagulation during pregnancy are reviewed.

  5. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics......, and compared it to human NCIPH. METHODS: Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one...... in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats. DISCUSSION: This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies....

  6. High D-dimer levels after stopping anticoagulants in pulmonary embolism with sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Suquia, Angela; Alonso-Fernández, Alberto; de la Peña, Mónica; Romero, David; Piérola, Javier; Carrera, Miguel; Barceló, Antonia; Soriano, Joan B; Arque, Meritxell; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Lorenzo, Alicia; García-Río, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. Elevated D-dimer levels and other biomarkers are associated with recurrent pulmonary embolism. The objectives were to compare the frequency of elevated D-dimer levels (>500 ng·mL(-1)) and further coagulation biomarkers after oral anticoagulation withdrawal in pulmonary embolism patients, with and without obstructive sleep apnoea, including two control groups without pulmonary embolism.We performed home respiratory polygraphy. We also measured basic biochemical profile and haemogram, and coagulation biomarkers (D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and soluble P-selectin).64 (74.4%) of the pulmonary embolism cases and 41 (46.11%) of the controls without pulmonary embolism had obstructive sleep apnoea. Plasmatic D-dimer was higher in PE patients with OSA than in those without obstructive sleep apnoea. D-dimer levels were significantly correlated with apnoea-hypopnoea index, and nocturnal hypoxia. There were more patients with high D-dimer after stopping anticoagulants in those with pulmonary embolism and obstructive sleep apnoea compared with PE without obstructive sleep apnoea (35.4% versus 19.0%, p=0.003). Apnoea-hypopnoea index was independently associated with high D-dimer.Pulmonary embolism patients with obstructive sleep apnoea had higher rates of elevated D-dimer levels after anticoagulation discontinuation for pulmonary embolism than in patients without obstructive sleep apnoea and, therefore, higher procoagulant state that might increase the risk of pulmonary embolism recurrence. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  7. Endoscopic disconnection for hypothalamic hamartoma with intractable seizure. Report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joong-Uhn; Yang, Kook-Hee; Kim, Tae-Gon; Chang, Jong Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Lee, Byung-In; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2004-05-01

    Although intractable epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) can be controlled by microsurgical resection of the lesion, excision of deep-seated lesions is often associated with morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic disconnection is less invasive and seems to be well suited for this indication. The authors discuss the role of endoscopic-assisted surgery in the management of HH-induced seizures. Four patients with HH-related intractable gelastic seizure underwent endoscopic disconnection surgery. Postoperatively, all patients exhibited improvement. Two patients became seizure free immediately after endoscopic disconnection surgery, one patient with a widespread seizure focus involving the motor strip continued to experience rare complex partial seizures but gelastic seizures ceased, and one experienced a reduced frequency of seizures but persistence of some generalized seizures. Three patients suffered postoperative disconnection-like syndrome, which continued 3 to 7 days and spontaneously disappeared. The authors advocate the endoscopic disconnection surgery as a safe and effective treatment for HH-related epilepsy by blocking the spread of epileptic discharges from the lesion.

  8. The role of executive functioning in quality of life in pediatric intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christina Eguizabal; Webbe, Frank; Kim, Gunha; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Westerveld, Michael; Salinas, Christine M

    2016-11-01

    Children with epilepsy are vulnerable to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy is not fully delineated. This exploratory study elucidated the relationship between ecological EF and QOL in pediatric intractable epilepsy. Fifty-four consecutively referred pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and their parents were administered IQ measures, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. A significant difference was found in QOL between those with and without clinical impairments on the BRIEF [t(52)=3.93; p<.001]. That is, children with executive dysfunction had lower overall QOL. All seizure variables and BRIEF scales were associated with overall QOL [F(12, 40)=6.508; p=.001; R 2 =.661]. Working memory from the BRIEF was the most frequently elevated scale in our sample (57%). Those with executive dysfunction had 9.7 times the risk of having poor QOL. Poor EF control according to behavior ratings is significantly related to QOL in intractable pediatric epilepsy. Identification of executive dysfunction in home environments is an essential component of presurgical evaluations and target for intervention, which may improve QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acupuncture in intractable epilepsy: lack of effect on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavem, K; Kloster, R; Røssberg, E; Larsson, P G; Dahl, R; Kinge, E; Lossius, R; Nakken, K O

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect on health-related quality of life of acupuncture and sham acupuncture as adjunctive treatment in intractable epilepsy. We performed a randomized controlled trail with two parallel treatment arms at The National Center for Epilepsy in Norway, a comprehensive epilepsy center. Thirty-four patients with long-standing drug resistant epilepsy completed the study. The intervention consisted of 20 acupuncture treatments (bilateral needling of three acupoints plus one or two individually chosen points) or sham acupuncture (bilateral needling with smaller needles of three points outside the traditional meridians) over 8 weeks. The main outcome measures were changes in mean health-related quality of life scores for the two groups after 8 weeks, using the 89-item Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-89) questionnaire. We found no difference between the acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups in score changes in any dimension of the QOLIE-89 questionnaire, despite testing a large number of dimensions. We also found no change in QOLIE-89 scores between baseline and 8 weeks in either groups. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate a significant effect of traditional acupuncture or sham acupuncture on the health-related quality of life of patients with intractable epilepsy. Copyright 2000 BEA Trading Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of a liquid embolization agent (Onyx) for transcatheter embolization for renal vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennert, Janine; Herold, T.; Schreyer, A.G.; Jung, E.M.; Mueller-Wille, R.; Zorger, N. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Banas, B.; Feuerbach, S. [Medizinische Klinik, Nephrologie, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Lenhart, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the therapeutic outcome after endovascular treatment of renal vascular lesions using the liquid embolization agent, Onyx. Materials and methods: between 2004 and 2008 nine patients with renal vascular lesions were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using Onyx. The renal vascular lesions consisted of 4 AV-fistulas, a pseudoaneurysm, bleeding from a single subsegmental artery, diffuse parenchymal bleeding after trauma, septic embolizations and multiple aneurysms in endocarditis. All patients underwent selective angiography of the renal artery. A dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible microcatheter was used and Onyx was injected. The technical and clinical success rate, examination time and procedure-related complications were documented. Results: the overall technical and clinical success rate was 100%. One patient had to be treated twice due to recurrent bleeding after an accidental puncture with a drainage catheter. No loss of viable renal tissue occurred in 4 cases. In 4 patients mild to moderate parenchyma loss was noted. In one patient having diffuse renal bleeding, occlusion of the main renal artery was performed. No procedure-related complications were noted. The mean examination time was 16.17 min when treating with Onyx alone and 60 min when using a combination of Onyx and coils. Within an average follow-up period of 21 months, no recurrent renal bleeding or recurrent AV-fistulas occurred. Conclusion: Onyx is an effective embolization agent for the treatment of renal vascular lesions. It allows controlled and quick application with low complication rates and a short examination time as a standalone agent or in combination with coils. (orig.)

  11. Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Shinsuke; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kushida, Saeko; Nishisaki, Hogara; Akita, Hozuka

    2017-01-01

    Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of either intractable hiccups due to esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult or improvement following antifungal therapy. An 87-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups. Although the patient was immunocompetent, he used proton pump inhibitors. An esophagogastroduodenos-copy revealed several white deposits throughout the esophagus and extensive white deposits in the midesophageal diverticulum. A mucosal culture showed candidiasis, which was suspected to be the cause of the intractable hiccups. After oral fluconazole had been prescribed, the candidiasis resolved and the hiccups improved. Therefore, we concluded that esophageal diverticular candidiasis was the cause of his intractable hiccups. Physicians should consider esophageal candidiasis as one of the differential diagnoses for intractable hiccups, even in immunocompetent adults.

  12. Microvillus Inclusion Disease Variant in an Infant with Intractable Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr M. Rasheed Alsaleem

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID is a rare autosomal recessive congenital enteropathy characterized by intractable secretory diarrhea. We report a case of MVID variant with a homozygous gene mutation in syntaxin 3 (STX3. The patient is a male Saudi infant who presented shortly after birth with severe vomiting, metabolic acidosis, and mild diarrhea. Electron microscopy study for small intestinal biopsy was consistent with MVID. MYO5B gene mutation was excluded; subsequently, whole exome sequencing (WES was performed, which revealed homozygous gene mutation in STX3. Using WES in clinical environment can be a useful tool for diagnosing difficult and rare inherited congenital enteropathies.

  13. Patient with intractable delirium successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Eske; Hageman, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a frequent and serious condition often seen in hospitalized patients, especially the elderly. Treatment of the somatic illness causing the delirium, and antipsychotic medication will usually resolve the condition. Sometimes, however, the condition is refractory towards medical treatment...... and in this situation electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be a quick and efficient treatment. In this case report of a 26-year-old man a post-operative intractable delirium persisting for three weeks was efficiently and swiftly relieved by three consecutive ECTs. The patient was discharged without need for further...

  14. Recurrent intractable hiccups treated by cervical phrenic nerve block under electromyography: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Young Jo; Song, Dae Heon; Kim, Jae Jun; Kim, Young Du; Kim, Chi Kyung; Moon, Seok Whan

    2015-11-01

    Intractable or persistent hiccups require intensive or invasive treatments. The use of a phrenic nerve block or destructive treatment for intractable hiccups has been reported to be a useful and discrete method that might be valuable to patients with this distressing problem and for whom diverse management efforts have failed. We herein report a successful treatment using a removable and adjustable ligature for the phrenic nerve in a patient with recurrent and intractable hiccups, which was employed under the guidance of electromyography.

  15. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism, and several modalities have been employed over the years. In recent years, the choice has been narrowed to either computer tomographic or radionuclide based methods, i.e. computer tomographic...

  16. Up-regulated ephrinB3/EphB3 expression in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients and pilocarpine induced experimental epilepsy rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Li, Ruohan; Yuan, Jinxian; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-05-15

    EphB family receptor tyrosine kinases, in cooperation with cell surface-bound ephrinB ligands, play a critical role in maintenance of dendritic spine morphogenesis, axons guidance, synaptogenesis, synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the expression pattern of ephrinB/EphB in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the underlying molecular mechanisms during epileptogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression pattern and cellular distribution of ephrinB/EphB in intractable TLE patients and lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced TLE rats using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, double-labeled immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Compared to control groups, ephrinB3 and EphB3 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats, while the mRNA expression trend of ephrinB1/2 and EphB1/2/4/6 in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats were inconsistent. Western blot analysis and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that ephrinB3 and EphB3 protein level were up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats. At the same time, double-labeled immunofluorescence indicate that ephrinB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm and protrusions of glia and neurons, while EphB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons. Taken together, up-regulated expression of ephrinB3/EphB3 in intractable TLE patients and experimental TLE rats suggested that ephrinB3/EphB3 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter embolization for vascular complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Necdet; Balasar, Mehmet; Gökmen, İbrahim Erdem; Koç, Osman; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Aydın, Arif; Göger, Yunus Emre; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the preferred procedure for safe and effective surgical treatment of kidney stones. Hemorrhage is the most serious complication of PNL, resulting from pseudoaneurysm (PA) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and can usually be controlled with conservative treatment. To evaluate endovascular treatments and outcomes of vascular complications observed after PNL. We retrospectively reviewed data on 19 patients who underwent renal embolization due to post-PNL renal artery bleeding between March 2005 and September 2016. Embolization materials included embolization coils and glue. The incidence of post-PNL vascular complications and their endovascular treatments, outcomes, and the follow-up data were analyzed. Nineteen (1.1%) of 1,609 patients (mean age: 44.9 years, range: 19-75 years) underwent angiography and subsequent transcatheter embolization to control bleeding. The mean time to onset of hemorrhage was 7.2 days after PNL (range: 3-18 days). The PNL entry site was the lower calyx in 15 patients, the middle calyx in 3, and the upper calyx in 1. PA, AVF, and PA plus AVF occurred in 14, 5, and 3 of the 19 renal angiography patients, respectively. Embolization of the affected vessels was successful in all 19 patients. The embolization materials of coil, glue, and coil plus glue were used in 16, 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Severe hematuria is a rare complication of PNL and can be successfully treated with transcatheter embolization.

  18. Intractable chronic constipation in children: outcome after anorectal myectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Karami, Hasan; Rajabpoor, Ahmad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many children with constipation fail to respond with conventional medical therapy. Surgery can produce a good result in dysfunction of the colon secondary to aganglionosis. However, its role in treating idiopathic constipation is more controversial. A consecutive series of 44 patients with chronic idiopathic intractable constipation were included in this study. All children were investigated by barium enema and anorectal manometry. Due to inadequate response to medical therapy, all of these patients were selected for internal sphincter myomectomy. Patients were followed-up from 3 to 12 months. Short-term (3 months) and long-term (6 months) follow-up was available for all patients. The histology examinations showed normal ganglion cells in 32, hypoganglionosis in eight and aganglionosis in four patients. In short-term, regular bowel habits, without the need for laxatives or low dose drugs were recorded in 35 patients (79.5%). Overall there was an improvement in 68.2% of the children after 6 months follow-up. There was not any correlation between histopathological findings, duration of symptoms, age and sex of operation and response to myectomy. anorectal myectomy is an effective procedure in patients with intractable idiopathic constipation. It relieves symptoms in 68.2% of patients with chronic refractory constipation.

  19. Role of combined embolization and ablation in management of renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Ronald S; Pua, Bradley B; Madoff, David C

    2014-03-01

    Combination of minimally invasive treatment modalities is being increasingly utilized to improve local tumor control and overall survival. In the liver, the combination of embolization and ablation results in equivalent overall survival and intrahepatic disease progression as surgical resection for lesions smaller than 7 cm. Ablation alone for small renal masses up to 4 cm results in excellent local tumor control and lack of residual enhancement to suggest viable tumor. A small number of studies have been performed combining embolization and ablation, which result in high rates of local tumor control for tumors smaller than 5 cm. Based on this small cohort, combined embolization and ablation may be most indicated for central or mixed tumors where ablation alone suffers from the greatest degree of "heat sink" effect. This article reviews the theory, methods, and outcomes of combining percutaneous ablative and embolic modalities in the treatment of renal masses.

  20. Comparison of four embolic materials for portal vein embolization: experimental study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, Thierry de [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology, Villejuif (France); Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Paradis, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon-Inserm U773, Department of Anatomie Pathologique, Clichy (France)

    2009-06-15

    Different embolic materials for portal vein embolization (PVE) were evaluated. Twenty pigs received left and median PVE. Hydrophilic phosphorylcholine, N-butyl cyanoacrylate, hydrophilic gel, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles measuring either 50-150 {mu}m or 700-900 {mu}m were used in five pigs each. Portography and portal vein pressure measurement were performed before, immediately after PVE, and before being euthanized at day 7. Tissue wedges from embolized, and non-embolized liver were obtained for pathology. After complete embolization, recanalization occurred at 7 days in one gel and one 700-900 PVA embolization. Post-PVE increase in portal pressure was found in all groups (p = 0.01). The area of the hepatic lobules in non-embolized liver was larger than in the embolized liver in all groups (p = 0.001). The ratios of the areas between non-embolized/embolized livers were 1.65, 2.19, 1.57, and 1.32 for gel, NBCA, 50-150 PVA and 700-900 PVA, respectively; the ratios of fibrosis between the embolized and non-embolized livers were 1.37, 3.01, 3.49, and 2.11 for gel, NBCA, 50-150 PVA and 700-900 PVA, respectively. Hepatic lobules in non-embolized liver were significantly larger with NBCA than in other groups (p = 0.01). Fibrosis in embolized liver was significantly higher for NBCA and 50-150 PVA (p = 0.002). The most severe changes in embolized and non-embolized liver were induced by 50-150 PVA and NCBA PVE. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary embolism and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Faucal, P. de; Touze, M.D.; Dupas, B.

    1988-01-01

    Risks related to pulmonary embolism require use of diagnostic procedures with good sensitivity, and the potential complications of effective anticoagulant therapy require procedures with good specificity. Clinical signs are not more accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary than are ECG, blood gas and chest X ray examinations. Perfusion-ventilation scintigraphy has good diagnostic accuracy approaching that of pulmonary angiography which remains the gold standard. Since pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep venous thrombosis, distal clot detection should be associated with lung explorations. Plethysmography, ultrasonography, doppler studies and scintigraphy of the lower limbs could provide data supplementing those of contrast venography. The value and role of these examinations are analyzed and discussed in terms of different clinical situations.

  2. Pulmonary Embolism in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Dey, Sadanand; Singh, Dilip; Hill, Michael D

    2018-01-28

    Silent pulmonary embolism (PE) may be associated with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We identified 10 patients from 3,132 unique patients (3,431 CT scans). We retrospectively examined CT angiogram of patients with AIS to determine the frequency of concurrent PE in AIS. The period prevalence of PE was 0.32. Seven patients had concurrent PE, whereas three had PE diagnosed 2 days after their AIS presentation. We suspected paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale as the cause of stroke in three patients and thrombophilia in four patients. Seven patients had poor outcome including four deaths. CT angiogram stroke protocol images from aortic arch to vertex allows visualization of upper pulmonary arteries and PE detection in AIS.

  3. Perceptions of a changing world induce hope and promote peace in intractable conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J; Halperin, Eran

    2015-04-01

    The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for intractable biliary reflux in an individual with incomplete tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Deborah; Tower, Donald; Goetz, Lance

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common complication in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Surgical treatment of GERD has a unique risk/benefit profile in this population. This 68-year-old male with chronic incomplete tetraplegia, dyslipidemia, and well-controlled diabetes mellitus underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) for intractable biliary reflux. Postoperatively, the patient had resolution of his symptoms but he also presented with significant weight loss and dumping syndrome. While he did have improvement in his dyslipidemia there was no change in his functional status. RYGBP is an option for refractory GERD treatment in the SCI population but preoperative risk assessment and close monitoring postoperatively is essential.

  5. Onset of intractability and its course over time : The Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Ada; Brouwer, Oebele; Stroink, Hans; van Donselaar, Cees; Peters, Boudewijn; Peeters, Els; Arts, Willem F.

    Purpose: Intractability in epilepsy is difficult to define, and little is known about its onset, course, and duration. We investigated these aspects (as well as the occurrence of intractability) during long-term follow-up in patients with epilepsy, focusing on possible explanations for the variation

  6. Political Socialization of Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: Conception and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Tal, Daniel; Diamond, Aurel Harrison; Nasie, Meytal

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that…

  7. Patient management of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilworth, D.L.; Donovan, B.C.; Morrison, R.; Ryan, K.; Reagan, K.; Goldhaber, S.Z.

    1988-03-01

    This is the first article in a four-part continuing education series addressing patient care and the clinical management of disease. This series is not directed at nuclear medicine procedures themselves, but focuses on topics related to patients referred for nuclear medicine studies. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism; and 2) discuss conventional versus thrombolytic approaches to therapy.

  8. Intrahepatic arterioportal fistulae: role of transcatheter embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazov, P G

    1993-01-01

    Management of 26 arterioportal fistulae (APFs) is reported. Among 13 hepatoma-induced fistulae (group A), conservative treatment was ineffective in 8 patients, and arterial embolization alleviated portal hypertension in the other 5. Of 10 iatrogenic APFs (group B), the 3 largest were successfully embolized, the remaining lesions resolved spontaneously. Three spontaneous nonmalignant APFs (group C) were embolized. Excellent results were obtained in 2 patients, and the other died of severe postembolization hepatic failure. Because long-standing APFs may cause severe portal hypertension with consequent variceal bleeding they should be treated. Arterial embolization is indicated in most patients.

  9. Intracerebroventricular Pain Treatment with Analgesic Mixtures including Ziconotide for Intractable Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquet, Héléne; Dupoiron, Denis; Nader, Edmond; Menei, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of opioids for control of intractable cancer pain has been used since 1982. We present here our experience of intracerebroventricular administration of pain treatments including ziconotide associated with morphine and ropivacaine for patients resistant to a conventional approach, with nociceptive, neuropathic, or mixed pain. These clinical cases were conducted with patients suffering from refractory pain, more than 6/10 on a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) while on high-dose medical treatment and/or intolerance with significant side effects from oral medication. The baseline study visit included a physical examination and an assessment of pain intensity on a NPRS. Under general anesthesia, a neuronavigation device was used to place the catheter on the floor of the third ventricle, supported by an endoscope. Then, drugs were injected in the cerebroventricular system, through a pump (external or subcutaneous). The primary objective was to measure pain evaluation with ICV treatment after a complete withdrawal of other medications.Four patients were enrolled: 3 with intractable cancer pain and one with central neuropathic pain. The median NPRS at baseline was 9.5 [8.5; 19]. The mean NPRS after one month was 3.5 [3; 4.5]. Ziconotide was initiated at 0.48 µg/d and up to a median of 1.2 µg/d [1.0; 1.56]. The median dose of morphine and ropivacaine used initially was respectively 0.36 mg/d [0.24; 0.66] up to 0.6 mg/d [0.45; 4.63] and 1.2 mg/d [0; 2.4] up to 2.23 mg/d [1.2; 3.35]. Minor side effects were initially observed but transiently. One psychiatric agitation required discontinuation of ziconotide infusion. For intractable pain, using ziconotide by intracerebroventricular infusion seems safe and efficient, specifically for chronic neoplastic pain of cervicocephalic, thoracic, or diffuse origin and also for pain arising from a central neuropathic mechanism.

  10. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage: Predictive Factors of Need for Embolic Material Conversion of Gelatin Sponge Particles to N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanahashi, Yukichi; Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kondo, Hiroshi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ando, Tomohiro; Noda, Yoshifumi; Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kotoku, Junichi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology (Japan); Furui, Shigeru [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo identify predictive factors for embolic material conversion to N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after failed transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) using gelatin sponge (GS).Materials and MethodsInstitutional review board approval was obtained. We retrospectively studied 62 consecutive women with primary PPH who underwent TAE between January 2006 and March 2015. Five of them were excluded for the following: cardiopulmonary arrest at arrival (n = 1), uterine inversion (n = 1), and hysterectomy after TAE (n = 3). Remaining 57 women (age range, 21–43 years; mean, 32.6 years) comprised study population. TAE was initially performed using GS in all cases and then converted to NBCA after two embolizations using GS with persistent hemodynamic instability or vaginal bleeding. The patients’ background, uterine height, vital signs, laboratory tests, disseminated intravascular coagulation score, and details of procedure were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors related to embolic material conversion.ResultsTechnical success rate was 100%. Fourteen patients (25%) needed embolic material conversion to NBCA. Univariate analysis showed that uterine height, systolic blood pressure (sBP), and hemoglobin level were significantly related to embolic material conversion to NBCA (P = 0.029, 0.030, and 0.042). Logistic regression analysis showed that uterine height (odds ratio, 1.37; P = 0.025) and sBP (odds ratio, 0.96; P = 0.003) were associated with embolic material conversion to NBCA.ConclusionUterine height and sBP can be predictive factors for embolic material conversion to NBCA for the treatment of PPH.Level of EvidenceLevel 4, Case Control Study.

  12. Preoperative Direct Puncture Embolization of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in Combination with Transarterial Embolization: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Mingming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Su Lixin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Chen Dong, E-mail: chenjsun@public8.sta.net.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China)

    2013-02-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of preoperative auxiliary embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by direct puncture embolization (DPE) of the tumor in combination with transarterial embolization (TAE). The study included 22 patients. An 18-gauge needle was used to puncture directly into the tumor, and 20-25 % N-butyl cyanoacrylate was injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy after confirming the placement of the needle into the JNA and no leaking into the surrounding tissue. Tumors were obstructed later via TAE. The supplying arteries of JNA were from branches of the internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Control angiography showed the obliteration of contrast stain in the entire tumor mass and the distal supplying arteries disappeared after DPE in combination with TAE. Surgical resection was performed within 4 days after embolization and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The use of DPE in combination with TAE was a safe, feasible, and efficacious method. It can devascularize effectively the JNAs and reduce intraoperative bleeding when JNAs are extirpated.

  13. Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula as a complication of laparoscopic splenectomy: treatment by transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleux, G.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Vermylen, J. [Department of Internal Medicine-Vascular Diseases, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-06-01

    Iatrogenic injury of a lumbar artery is very rare and mostly causes retroperitoneal hemorrhage. We report a case of a lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and a concomitant arteriovenous fistula complicating laparoscopic splenectomy and provoking renal colic-like flank pain due to mass effect on the left ureter. Definitive treatment of both vascular lesions was obtained after percutaneous transcatheter embolization of several lumbar arteries. Control computed tomography scan 3 months after embolization showed almost complete resorption of the retroperitoneal hematoma. (orig.)

  14. Ovarian protection by selective coil embolization of a uteroovarian anastomosis before uterine fibroid embolization: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Im, Han Hyeok [Soonchunhyang University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yun Woo; Goo, Dong Erk [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Premature menopause can be developed as a result of undesired nontarget ovary embolization during the performance of uterine fibroid embolization. The etiology of varian failure after uterine fibroid embolization is not yet clearly defined, but one of the leading possibilities is nontarget embolization of the varies. We report here on two cases in which superselective coil embolization of distal uterine artery collateral pathways to the ovary was performed during uterine fibroid embolization.

  15. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2014-10-01

    L every 4.5–11 hours. Methods: Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results: Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg–1 and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg–1. Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL–1 and 235.7 ng·mL–1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively. Limitations: This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation.Conclusion: Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL–1 was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain.Keywords: tenesmoid pain, intractable cancer pain, bupivacaine, intrathecal, palliative, local anesthetic, toxicity

  16. Giant tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula treated by a combination of trans-arterial embolization and surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türker Karanci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae are uncommon lesions but can be life-threatening. A 34-year-old male presented with intractable headache, seizures, and visual disturbance. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a right tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula supplied by both internal and external carotid systems and draining into a giant venous ampula. Transarterial embolization of the external carotid feeders with Onyx (TM, ev3, Irvine, CA was carried out. Postembolization angiography revealed persistence of a portion of the fistula supplied by the temporo-occipital branch of right middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent right temporo-occipital craniotomy, division of the feeders and resection of the entire fistula and coagulation of the leptomeningeal arterialized veins. Complete elimination of the fistula was demonstrated by angiography. Postoperative recovery was uneventful; the patient did not develop any fresh neurologic deficits. We review the relevant literature and discuss the rationale for managing these lesions.

  17. The effect of leucotomy in intractable adolescent weight phobia (primary anorexia nervosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, A. H.; Kalucy, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is best construed as a phobic avoidance response to the psychosocial maturational implications of adolescent weight. Within this state, surrender to the impulse to eat and consequent weight gain is associated with panic, depression and sometimes specific intense fear of loss of control. So long as the avoidance posture can be maintained the experience of such turmoil is largely avoided. Complicated ritualistic behaviour may arise to promote and secure the posture. However, its unrewarding and lonely nature still increasingly leaves the individual liable to the experience of depression. Established treatment procedures often assist recovery from the illness but intractable cases arise and it is amongst these that the majority of deaths occur either from inanition or suicide. The basis for the changes characteristically induced by leucotomy is complex. The procedure often leads to reduced tension and release of appetitive behaviour. This is taken to be due to some direct effect of the cerebral lesion and possibly the intervention may also be construed by some patients as a licence to behave differently. In patients with anorexia nervosa such appetitive release can be expected to promote considerable weight gain. However, the adverse psychological implications of such weight gain for the patient do not appear always to be so immediately or easily relieved. They may still experience panic, shame or depression and new patterns of social avoidance, or vomiting behaviour may develop. Intensive help of a psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative kind is then still required if the patient is to have the best chance of adjusting healthily to her newly found potential for a more normal nutritional status. Four patients who have undergone such treatment are described in this paper. It is concluded that leucotomy has a small but definite place in the treatment of patients with intractable anorexia nervosa. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4806268

  18. Delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after uneventful embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations is related to volume of embolic agent administered: multivariate analysis of 13 predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Fernando; Shay, Sheila D; Mericle, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms and management of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage (dICH) after treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are poorly understood and widely debated. Many clinical predictive factors have been theorized for dICH after an otherwise uneventful AVM embolization, but there is an absence of data to discern their significance. To analyze 13 proposed predictive factors and to assess their potential in guiding prevention strategies. One hundred sixty-eight embolization procedures were performed on 67 patients with brain AVMs by a single surgeon. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with symptomatic dICH and control subjects. Thirteen factors were analyzed: age, sex, race, previous ICH, Spetzler-Martin grade, AVM size, eloquence, embolic volume, embolic agent, percent obliteration, and timing, number, and stage of embolizations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on these factors to determine significance. Six procedures were complicated by dICH; 5 (83%) occurred after the final planned procedure. The volume of embolic agent was significantly higher in the dICH group (4.5 ± 1.0 mL) compared with control subjects (1.7 ± 0.2 mL) in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P < .01), even after controlling for AVM size. AVM size was significant in univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for any of the other possible predictive factors. High volume of embolic agent administered per procedure is an independent predictive factor for dICH. Limiting the injected volume for each procedure may reduce this poorly understood complication.

  19. Embolization of severe arterioportal shunts in the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma : safety and influence on patient survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and the influence of embolization of severe arterioportal shunts, and the effect of the procedure on the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma combined with portal vein tumor thrombosis. This study involved a total of 54 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom hepatic arteriography revealed severe arterioportal shunt. From among this total, 34 patients (embolization group) underwent chemoinfusion after shunt embolization, while 19 (control group) underwent chemoinfusion only. The embolic materials included PVA particles and /or Gelfoam pieces. The frequency of postem-bolization symptoms (Chi-squared test) and changes in laboratory values (paired t-test) were compared between the two groups, and shunt improvement was also evaluated. Patient survival was tested using the Kaplan-Meier method. Fever and RUQ pain were more frequent in the embolization group (p<0.001). The complications of embolization included severe postembolization syndrome (n=1), acute hepatic failure (n=2), hepatic infarction (n=1), and sepsis (n=1). There were no significant changes in laboratory values. Among the 28 patients (24 of embolization group and four of control group) who underwent follow-up angiography, arterioportal shunt became less severe or disappeared in ten of the embolization group. For the embolization and control groups, the mean survival interval was 29.5{+-}5.4 weeks and 10.3{+-}3.1 weeks (p=0.0002), respectively. The best results were seen in the PVA particle group (p=0.01). The embolization of severe arterioportal shunts is relatively safe and increases patient survival rate.

  20. Animal models of cerebral arterial gas embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism is a dreaded complication of diving and invasive medical procedures. Many different animal models have been used in research on cerebral arterial gas embolism. This review provides an overview of the most important characteristics of these animal models. The properties

  1. [Portal vein embolization: Present and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, Lauranne; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Escal, Laure; Souche, Regis; Herrero, Astrid; Pierredon-Foulongne, Marie-Ange; Assenat, Eric; le Lam, Ngo; Quenet, François; Guiu, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Portal vein embolization consists of occluding a part of the portal venous system in order to achieve the hypertrophy of the non-embolized liver segments. This technique is used during the preoperative period of major liver resection when the future remnant liver (FRL) volume is insufficient, exposing to postoperative liver failure, main cause of death after major hepatectomy. Portal vein embolization indication depends on the FRL, commonly assessed by its volume. Nowadays, FRL function evaluation seems more relevant and can be measured by 99mTc labelled mebrofenin scintigraphy. Portal vein embolization procedure is mostly performed with percutaneous trans-hepatic access by using ultrasonography guidance and consists of embolic agent injection, such as cyanoacrylate, in the targeted portal vein branches with fluoroscopic guidance. It is a safe and well-tolerated technique, with extremely low morbi-mortality. Portal vein embolization leads to sufficient FRL hypertrophy in about 80% of patients, allowing them to undergo surgery from which they were initially rejected. The two main reasons of non-resection are tumor progression (≈15% of cases) and FRL insufficient hypertrophy (≈5% of cases). When portal vein embolization is not enough to obtain adequate FRL regeneration, hepatic vein embolization may potentiate its effect (liver venous deprivation technique). Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Parietal tuberculosis complicated by pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopaka, Regis Gothard; Bemba, Presley Lee Esthel; Janah, Hind; Okombi, Franck Hardain Okemba; Jabri, Hasna; Khattabi, Wiam El; Afif, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a frequent infectious disease in developing countries. It can affect the lung or spread to other parts of the body. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis poses a major diagnostic problem. We report the case of a patient with pulmonary embolism revealing parietal tuberculosis. This study emphasizes the importance of etiologic assessment in patients with pulmonary embolism.

  3. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  4. Pulmonary embolism : diagnostic management and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Frederikus Albertus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the diagnostic management, short term prognosis and long term complications of pulmonary embolism. We have validated a newly derived clinical decision rule, the revised Geneva score, for predicting the pre-test probability of having acute pulmonary embolism. This rule can be

  5. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R.

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer

  6. Effectiveness of arterial embolization procedure in uterine cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Murakami, A; Iwasaki, N; Yaoi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Patients with late stage gynecologic malignancies occasionally develop massive pelvic hemorrhage, and management of the hemorrhage is often difficult. Transcatheter arterial embolization with an absorbable gelatin sponge following the Seldinger method was performed to control hemorrhage in five patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. Pelvic arteriograms of five patients showed no further extravasation and their bleeding ceased. No patients died of pelvic hemorrhage, and all of them eventually died as a result of the original disease within two years of the procedure. As for complications of this procedure, slight fever (3/5) and minimal lumbar pain (2/5) were noticed, which were easily controlled by an indomethacin suppository. Based on these findings, this therapeutic embolization method proved to be useful in the management of massive pelvic hemorrhage in patients with cervical cancer.

  7. Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report

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    Yahata S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Yahata,1,2 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,1 Saeko Kushida,3 Hogara Nishisaki,2 Hozuka Akita2 1Division of Community Medicine and Career Development, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital, Tamba, 3Department of Gastroenterological Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi, Japan Introduction: Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of either intractable hiccups due to esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult or improvement following antifungal therapy. Case presentation: An 87-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups. Although the patient was immunocompetent, he used proton pump inhibitors. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed several white deposits throughout the esophagus and extensive white deposits in the midesophageal diverticulum. A mucosal culture showed candidiasis, which was suspected to be the cause of the intractable hiccups. After oral fluconazole had been prescribed, the candidiasis resolved and the hiccups improved. Therefore, we concluded that esophageal diverticular candidiasis was the cause of his intractable hiccups. Conclusion: Physicians should consider esophageal candidiasis as one of the differential diagnoses for intractable hiccups, even in immunocompetent adults. Keywords: Intractable hiccups, candidiasis, esophageal diverticulum, immunocompetence, elderly, acid-suppression therapy

  8. Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ≈ 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.

  9. Transarterial embolization for management of severe postcoital bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Eskandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postcoital bleeding is an uncommon cause of gynecologic hemorrhage; however, it can be severe in a majority of cases necessitating surgical management. Methods: We report a case of severe postcoital bleeding in a young woman requiring blood transfusion. Results: Hemostasis was achieved using subselective embolization of cervical artery by metallic coils. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates a minimally invasive treatment for control of non-obstetric hemorrhage.

  10. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  11. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E H; Strober, S; Hoppe, R T; Calin, A; Engleman, E G; Kotzin, B L; Tanay, A S; Calin, H J; Terrell, C P; Kaplan, H S

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  12. Intravenous Lidocaine for Intractable Renal Colic Unresponsive to Standard Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Billy; Cao, John; Yang, David; Ambert, Karen; Punnapuzha, Sheena

    2018-02-13

    Renal colic is defined as a flank pain radiating to the groin caused by kidney stones in the ureter (urolithiasis). Renal colic is a frequent cause of Emergency Department visits. Most renal colic cases present as acute distress and severe back and/or abdominal pain that require prompt treatment with analgesics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids are traditionally used for renal colic in the Emergency Department. This trend of practice is based on clinical experience and expert opinion. Consensus guidelines that provide evidence-based approach for the management of renal colic are limited. One consensus guideline from Europe provides a systematic approach for the management of pain with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugss and opioids. However, no guidance is provided on how to manage patients who do not respond to these agents. Intravenous lidocaine 120 mg in 100 mL normal saline was infused over 10 minutes for pain management for intractable renal colic unresponsive to standard therapy. Three minutes after initiation of lidocaine infusion, the patient reported numeric pain rating scale 1/10. At 5 minutes, the reported numeric pain rating scale was 0/10 and remained for 60 minutes after initiation of lidocaine infusion. No adverse events were reported during or after the infusion, and no subsequent analgesia was required.

  13. Intractable diarrhea with tufting enteropathy: a favorable outcome is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemale, Julie; Coulomb, Aurore; Dubern, Béatrice; Boudjemaa, Sabah; Viola, Sheila; Josset, Patrice; Tounian, Patrick; Girardet, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Tufting enteropathy (TE) is a congenital abnormality of intestinal mucosa development characterized by severe intestinal failure requiring parenteral nutrition (PN) and, in some cases, small bowel transplantation. A few patients have had a more favorable outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between histological lesion severity in duodenal biopsies and clinical outcomes in children with TE. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with TE between 1993 and 2003 at our institution based on intractable neonatal-onset diarrhea with prolonged dependence on PN and duodenal biopsy findings of villous atrophy, epithelial dysplasia with enterocyte dedifferentiation and disorganization (tufting) of the surface epithelium, and crypt abnormalities. The histological lesions were assessed semiquantitatively and compared with the clinical outcomes including dependence on PN. Seven children, all from consanguineous parents, were studied for a median of 6.5 years. Three were permanently weaned off PN and experienced normal growth without nutritional assistance. Initial biopsies in all 3 children showed severe diffuse histological lesions. At weaning off PN, 2 of these 3 patients had persistent, although less diffuse, histological lesions. Progressive weaning off PN is possible in some children with TE. In our experience, this favorable outcome was not predicted by histological lesion severity, although the lesions improved in some patients. New biomarkers for identifying the histological lesions and predicting the outcome would be useful.

  14. [Maggots of Lucilia sericata in treatment of intractable wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkiszewski, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Although beneficial effects of wound infestation with maggots had been known for many centuries, it was not until dr Zacharias recognized medical importance of maggots during the American Civil War. He intentionally introduced maggots into the wound for its debridement. Baer successfully used maggots in treatment of osteomyelitis in 4 children in the 1930'. After many successes in the 1930' maggots therapy had become limited to intractable wounds after introducing sulphonamides and mass-production of Flemming's penicillin. Present use of maggots came in the 1980' when better methods of sterilization both eggs and maggot were developed and clinical efficiency of antibiotics used for wound treatment decreased dramatically. Today maggots' therapy became less treatment of last resort but of first choice in leg ulcers, carbuncules, pressure ulcers and infected traumatic wounds. Its beneficial effect was noted in diabetic foot and in destroying malignant tissue as well. Easiness in application, safety, near no side effects and often exceptional efficiency in wound debridement makes maggots therapy the first line therapeutic tool in both hospital and out-patient surgery. Clinical experience has demonstrated that maggot therapy may reduce costs of treatment considerably by shortening hospital stay and decrease usage of antibiotics.

  15. Case-crossover study to examine the change in postpartum risk of pulmonary embolism over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheur, Grégoire; Caron, Alexandre; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Ferret, Laurie; Jung, Yu-Jin; Garabedian, Charles; Beuscart, Régis; Chazard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-14

    Although the current guidelines recommend anticoagulation up until 6 weeks after delivery in women at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the risk of VTE may extend beyond 6 weeks. Our objective was to estimate the risk of a pulmonary embolism in successive 2-week intervals during the postpartum period. In a population-based, case-crossover study, we analyzed the French national inpatient database from 2007 to 2013 (n = 5,517,680 singleton deliveries). Using ICD-10 codes, we identified women who were diagnosed with a postpartum pulmonary embolism between July 1st, 2008, and December 31st, 2013. Deliveries were identified during a case "period" immediately before the pulmonary embolism, and five different control periods one year before the pulmonary embolism. Using conditional logistic regression, Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) were estimated for ten successive 2-week intervals that preceded the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We identified 167,103 cases with a pulmonary embolism during the inclusion period. After delivery, the risk of pulmonary embolism declined progressively over time, with an OR [95%CI] of 17.2 [14.0-21.3] in postpartum weeks 1 to 2 and 1.9 [1.4-2.7] in postpartum weeks 11 to 12. The OR [95%CI] in postpartum weeks 13 to 14 was 1.4 [0.9-2.0], and the OR did not fall significantly after postpartum week 14. Our findings indicate that women are at risk of a pulmonary embolism up to 12 weeks after delivery. The shape of the risk curve suggests that the risk decreases exponentially over time. Future research is needed to establish whether the duration of postpartum anticoagulation should be extended beyond 6 weeks.

  16. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Outpatient management of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P-M; Moumneh, T; Penaloza, A; Sanchez, O

    2017-07-01

    Despite clear potential benefits of outpatient care, most patients suffering from pulmonary embolism (PE) are currently hospitalized due to the fear of possible adverse events. Nevertheless, some teams have increased or envisage to increase outpatient treatment or early discharge. We performed a narrative systematic review of studies published on this topic. We identified three meta-analyses and 23 studies, which involved 3671 patients managed at home (n=3036) or discharged early (n=535). Two main different approaches were applied to select patients eligible for outpatient in recent prospective studies, one based on a list of pragmatic criteria as the HESTIA rule, the other adding severity criteria (i.e. risk of death) as the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Criteria (PESI) or simplified PESI. In all these studies, a specific follow-up was performed for patients managed at home involving a dedicated team. The overall early (i.e. between 1 to 3 months) complication rate was low, Outpatient management appears to be feasible and safe for many patients with PE. In the coming years, outpatient treatment may be considered as the first line management for hemodynamically stable PE patients, subject to the respect of simple eligibility criteria and on the condition that a specific procedure for outpatient care is developed in advance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interventional Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, David M; Giri, Jay; Rosenfield, Kenneth

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and prevalent cause of vascular disease. Nevertheless, optimal treatment for many phenotypes of PE remains uncertain. Treating PE requires appropriate risk stratification as a first step. For the highest-risk PE, presenting as shock or arrest, emergent systemic thrombolysis or embolectomy is reasonable, while for low-risk PE, anticoagulation alone is often chosen. Normotensive patients with PE but with indicia of right heart dysfunction (by biomarkers or imaging) constitute an intermediate-risk group for whom there is controversy on therapeutic strategy. Some intermediate-risk patients with PE may require urgent stabilization, and ≈10% will decompensate hemodynamically and suffer high mortality, though identifying these specific patients remains challenging. Systemic thrombolysis is a consideration, but its risks of major and intracranial hemorrhages rival overall harms from intermediate PE. Multiple hybrid pharmacomechanical approaches have been devised to capture the benefits of thrombolysis while reducing its risks, but there is limited aggregate clinical experience with such novel interventional strategies. One method to counteract uncertainty and generate a consensus multidisciplinary prognostic and therapeutic plan is through a Pulmonary Embolism Response Team, which combines expertise from interventional cardiology, interventional radiology, cardiac surgery, cardiac imaging, and critical care. Such a team can help determine which intervention-catheter-directed fibrinolysis, ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombus fragmentation, or percutaneous or surgical embolectomy-is best suited to a particular patient. This article reviews these various modalities and the background for each. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, Andrew C., E-mail: apicel@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States); Koo, Sonya J. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picel, Andrew C; Koo, Sonya J; Roberts, Anne C

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %). Embolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization. TAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  1. Role of selective intra-arterial embolization in benign liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Puchol, M D; Parra Casado, C La; Cervera Araez, A; Sala López, R; Esteban Hernández, E; Cremades Mira, A; Ramiro Gandia, R

    To present cases of symptomatic benign liver tumors diagnosed and treated with intra-arterial embolization before surgery. We present the cases of 7 patients diagnosed with symptomatic benign liver tumors that required treatment: 1 focal nodular hyperplasia, 2 giant cavernous hemangiomas, 1 hepatic adenomatosis, and 3 hepatic adenomas. Once the feeding arteries were identified, tumors were embolized with polyvinyl alcohol particles (500μm-700μm) and then the feeding artery was plugged with coils if there was an arterial pedicle to ensure the total vascular exclusion of the tumor. The surgical intervention took place 4 to 7 days after embolization. All 7 patients were women (age range, 23-74 years); presurgical intra-arterial embolization was done in 6. In 1 patient with adenomatosis, embolization was done to control intraparenchymal hepatic hemorrhage. In the 6 patients who underwent surgery, the tumor was completely excised and no intraoperative bleeding events or postoperative complications occurred. Provided there is a consensus among the multidisciplinary team, embolization is a useful option in the perioperative management of giant and/or symptomatic benign liver tumors. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of embolization in the treatment of renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Pua, Bradley B; Madoff, David C

    2014-03-01

    Renal arterial embolization (RAE) performed for the treatment of renal masses has been proven to be a safe and effective technique, with several decades of experience. RAE is well tolerated with few complications, particularly if the time interval from embolization to surgery is reduced to less than 48 hours. Review of the literature suggests that RAE is also extremely effective for palliation of symptoms in the setting of nonoperative advanced stage renal cell carcinoma. In addition, this technique plays a large role in the management of angiomyolipomas that are symptomatic or at risk of spontaneous rupture. To date, RAE has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled setting, which has contributed to its underutilization. All of these potential benefits warrant the need for prospective studies for further validation.

  3. Effects of lipemia and trauma on experimental fat embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, F. X.

    1976-01-01

    According to some investigators, trauma is thought to bring about physical changes which produce a coalescence of normally dispersed blood lipids into fat droplets and pulmonary fat embolisms. Lipemia is thought to increase the extent of this embolization. If this theory is correct, intravenously infused labeled oil which is retained in the lungs should be mixed with and diluted by the fat emboli originating from the blood. Radioactive olive oil of known specific activity was slowly administered to a) control rats, b) rats made lipemic by dietary measures, c) severely traumatized rats, and d) traumatized lipemic rats. There was no difference in the specific activity of the oil recovered from the lungs of rats of any group, indicating that no recognizable amount of blood lipids had been added to the experimentally produced emboli. PMID:961825

  4. Effect of Combined Ketogenic Diet and Valproate Treatment for Intractable Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety and tolerability of ketogenic diet (KGD and valproate (VPA cotherapy in the treatment of intractable seizures were evaluated retrospectively at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

  5. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Nooh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism.

  6. Transcatheter arterial embolization therapy for a hypoplastic pelvic kidney with a single vaginal ectopic ureter to control incontinence: the usefulness of three-dimensional CT angiography using multidetector-row helical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Kouichi; Kadota, Masataka; Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Yasuda, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Inadome, Akito; Yoshida, Masaki; Ueda, Shouichi

    2003-01-01

    A girl with continuous urinary incontinence was successfully treated by angiographic embolization of a hypoplastic pelvic kidney with a single unilateral vaginal ectopic opening of the ureter. For this intervention, CT angiography was useful for detecting the corresponding renal artery of the hypoplastic kidney.

  7. The tilt-up osteotomy for correction of intractable plantar keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, R N; DeVincentis, A; Goller, W L

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and follow-up a new surgical technique used for the correction of intractable plantar keratoses. Twenty-five osteotomies were studied from 8 to 20 months postoperatively. The results showed a 60% success rate, but a patient satisfaction rate of 92%. The tilt-up osteotomy is a promising new procedure for the correction of intractable plantar keratoses.

  8. The serpentine mitral valve and cerebral embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker James

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Valvular strands, well-delineated filiform masses, attached to cardiac valve edges are associated with cerebral embolism and stroke. Strokes, caused by emboli from valvular strands, tend to occur among younger persons. In this case report a valvular strand, giving a peculiar serpentine appearance to the mitral valve is described. This mitral valvular strand was the only explanation for an episode of cerebral embolism, presenting with a transient right sided hemiparesis. It is proposed that a randomized study involving combined treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is warranted in young patients with valvular strands, presenting with a first episode of cerebral embolism.

  9. Management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Vishal; Mehta, Nimeshkumar; Rawat, Naveen; Lehrman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterized by systemic hypotension (defined as a systolic arterial pressure pulmonary embolism has a high mortality rate despite advances in diagnosis and therapy. A subgroup of patients with nonmassive PE who are hemodynamically stable but with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction or hypokinesis confirmed by echocardiography is classified as submassive PE. Their prognosis is different from that of others with non-massive PE and normal RV function. This article attempts to review the evidence-based risk stratification, diagnosis, initial stabilization, and management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism. PMID:23319967

  10. Packing of renal fossa: Useful technique for intractable bleeding after open pyelolithotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohinder Kumar Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no documented study to indicate the role of prolonged packing of renal fossa (24 to 48 hours to control bleeding in life threating haemorrhage following open pyelolithotomy without compromise in the renal functions. On the contrary emergency nephrectomy was performed for intractable bleeding during renal stone surgery in peripheral hospitals. Several studies have shown the usefulness of temporary packing to control bleeding in liver injuries and following open heart operations. Packing of the renal fossa with laparotomy pads in unstable patients, and transferring the patient to the surgical intensive care unit (ICU is also described in trauma but not in controlling bleeding after open pyelolithotomy .This study comprises of three such patients whose kidneys were salvaged by a simple procedure of temporary packing of renal fossa for period of 24-48 hours who had developed life threatening haemorrhage after open pyelolithotomy. This technique is simple and worth trying especially for surgeons who are contemplating nephrectomy as prolonged packing has not lead to any compromise in renal functions. The aim of this manuscript is very limited and clear. Packing is not a licence to carry out open pyelolithotomy without proper expertise and local backup or resources. Principles of safe and ethical surgical practice should never be violated as it can lead to medico legal complications.

  11. Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot study of sphenopalatine injection of onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratbak, Daniel Fossum; Nordgård, Ståle; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Linde, Mattias; Folvik, Mari; Bugten, Vegard; Tronvik, Erling

    2016-05-01

    The main object of this pilot study was to investigate the safety of administering onabotulinumtoxinA (BTA) towards the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) in intractable chronic cluster headache. Efficacy data were also collected to provide indication on whether future placebo-controlled studies should be performed. In a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled study, we performed a single injection of 25 IU (n = 5) or 50 IU BTA (n = 5) towards the SPG in 10 patients with intractable chronic cluster headache with a follow-up of 24 weeks. The primary outcome was adverse events (AEs) and the main efficacy outcome was attack frequency in weeks 3 and 4 post-treatment. A total of 11 AEs were registered. There was one severe adverse event (SAE): posterior epistaxis. The number of cluster headache attacks (main efficacy outcome) was statistically significantly reduced in the intention-to-treat analysis from 18 ± 12 per week in baseline to 11 ± 14 (p = 0.038) in weeks 3 and 4, and five out of 10 patients had at least 50% reduction of attack frequency compared to baseline. The cluster attack frequency was significantly reduced for five out of six months post-treatment. Randomised, placebo-controlled studies are warranted to establish the potential of this possible novel treatment of cluster headache. © International Headache Society 2015.

  13. Recovery of heavy metals from intractable wastes: A thermal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, D.W. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The generation of industrial solid wastes containing leachable species of environmental concern is a problem for developing and developed nations alike. These materials arise from direct processing of mineral ores, from production of metals and minerals, from manufacturing operations, and from air and water pollution treatment processes. The general characteristics that make these wastes intractable is that their content of hazardous species is not easily liberated from the waste yet is not bound so tightly that they are safe for landfill disposal or industrial use. The approach taken in this work is a thermal treatment that separates the inorganic contaminants from the wastes. The objective is to provide recovery and reuse of both the residual solids and liberated contaminants. The results from operating this technique using two very different types of waste are described. The reasons that the process will work for a wide variety of wastes are explored. By using the knowledge of the thermodynamic stability of the phases found from the characterization analyses, a thermal regime was found that allowed separation of the contaminants without capturing the matrix materials. Bench scale studies were carried out using a tube furnace. Samples of the wastes were heated in crucible boats from 750 to 1150{degrees}C in the presence of various chlorinating agents. The offgas contained 90{sup +}% of the targeted contaminants despite their complex matrix form. The residue was free of contamination. As a result of the efficient concentrating mechanism of the process, the contaminants in the offgas solids are attractive for reuse in metallurgical industries. As an additional benefit, the organic contaminants of the residues were eliminated. Dioxin traces in the solids before treatment were absent after treatment. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Is ketogenic diet treatment hepatotoxic for children with intractable epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur; Guzel, Orkide; Kose, Engin; Yılmaz, Unsal; Kuyum, Pınar; Aksoy, Betül; Çalık, Tansel

    2016-12-01

    Long-term ketogenic diet (KD) treatment has been shown to induce liver steatosis and gallstone formation in some in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the hepatic side effects of KD in epileptic children. A total of 141 patients (mean age: 7.1±4.1years [2-18 years], 45.4% girls), receiving KD at least one year for intractable epilepsy due to different diagnoses (congenital brain defects, GLUT-1 deficiency, West syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, hypoxic brain injury, etc.) were included in the study. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, aminotransferase, bilirubin, protein and albumin levels and abdominal ultrasonography were recorded before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following after diet initiation. The mean duration of KD was 15.9±4.3months. At one month of therapy, three patients had elevated alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels. These patients were receiving ketogenic diet for Doose syndrome, idiopathic epilepsy and GLUT-1 deficiency. Hepatosteatosis was detected in three patients at 6 months of treatment. Two of these patients were treated with KD for the primary diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and one for Landau Kleffner syndrome. Cholelithiasis was detected in two patients at 12 months of treatment. They were receiving treatment for West syndrome and hypoxic brain injury sequelae. Long-term ketogenic diet treatment stimulates liver parenchymal injury, hepatic steatosis and gallstone formation. Patients should be monitored by screening liver enzymes and abdominal ultrasonography in order to detect these side effects. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistent uncrossed corticospinal connections in patients with intractable focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Harper L; Gersner, Roman; Boes, Aaron D; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Corticospinal connections may be bilateral at birth, but a predominantly unilateral and crossed pattern develops by the toddler years. Acquired injury can alter the normal development of laterality such that uncrossed corticospinal connections persist, particularly if the injury is early in life and involves the motor system. Whether other developmental insults, such as childhood epilepsy, affect the development of crossed laterality in the motor system is unknown, although this topic has relevance for understanding the broader impact of epilepsy on brain development. Accordingly, in a cohort of children with intractable focal epilepsy, we tested by neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) whether childhood epilepsy is associated with persistent uncrossed corticospinal connections. Specifically, we hypothesized that in contrast to early-life neuroclastic corticospinal tract injury that induces preservation of uncrossed corticospinal connections in the contralesional hemisphere, uncrossed corticospinal connections will be preserved in the epileptic hemisphere where the corticospinal tract is intact, but overstimulated by ongoing seizures and epileptic interictal discharges. Motor cortex mapping was performed by nTMS as part of a clinical presurgical evaluation, and the analysis was limited to patients with radiographically intact motor cortices and corticospinal tracts. Given that foot motor cortex representation is often bilateral, we focused on the lateralization for the tibialis anterior muscle cortical motor representation and its relation to the seizure focus. We demonstrate preserved uncrossed corticospinal connections for the tibialis anterior region of the hemisphere affected by the epilepsy. These findings indicate a pathologically preserved immature motor lateralization in patients with epilepsy and suggest that developmental processes associated with hemispheric lateralization are affected by epilepsy. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  16. Subsegmental pulmonary embolism: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Soheil; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Allameh, Seyed Farshad; Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Safavi, Enayat

    2016-02-01

    Through the introduction of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for diagnosis of the pulmonary embolism (PE), the high sensitivity of this diagnostic tool led to detecting peripheral filling defects as small as 2-3mm, termed as subsegmental pulmonary embolism (SSPE). However, despite these substantial increases in diagnosis of small pulmonary embolism, there are minimal changes in mortality. Moreover, SSPE patients generally are hemodynamically stable with mild clinical presentation, lower serum level of biomarkers, lower incidence of associated proximal DVTs and less frequent echocardiographic changes compared to the patients with emboli located in more central pulmonary arteries. However, the pros and cons of anticoagulant therapy versus non-treating, monitoring protocol and exact long term outcome of these patients are still unclear. In this article we review existing evidence and provide an overview of what is known about the diagnosis and management of subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Embolism during Laparoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2012-01-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22476987

  18. Clean Power Generation from the Intractable Natural Coalfield Fires: Turn Harm into Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Su, Hetao; Li, Jinshi; Qi, Haining; Zhou, Fubao; Torero, José L; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-07-13

    The coal fires, a global catastrophe for hundreds of years, have been proved extremely difficult to control, and hit almost every coal-bearing area globally. Meanwhile, underground coal fires contain tremendous reservoir of geothermal energy. Approximately one billion tons of coal burns underground annually in the world, which could generate ~1000 GW per annum. A game-changing approach, environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from the intractable natural coalfield fires, is being developed by utilizing the waste energy and reducing the temperature of coalfield fires at the same time. Based on the Seebeck effect of thermoelectric materials, the temperature difference between the heat medium and cooling medium was employed to directly convert thermal energy into clean electrical energy. By the time of December 2016, the power generation from a single borehole at Daquan Lake fire district in Xinjiang has been exceeded 174.6 W. The field trial demonstrates that it is possible to exploit and utilize the waste heat resources in the treated coal fire areas. It promises a significant impact on the structure of global energy generation and can also promote progress in thermoelectric conversion materials, geothermal exploration, underground coal fires control and other energy related areas.

  19. Pregnancy after embolization therapy for uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jérôme; Chevallier, Patrick; Benoit, Bernard; Castillon, Jean-Michel; Bongain, André

    2006-01-01

    To describe childbearing prognosis following embolization therapy for uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Case report and review. University hospital. Thirteen patients, including our case, who underwent pregnancy after embolization therapy for arteriovenous malformation. Two successive embolization procedures. Childbearing prognosis following embolization therapy for uterine AVM. Bilateral embolization was performed in seven patients. In four cases, including ours, two successive embolization procedures were required to treat the uterine AVM. The longest delay between embolization and pregnancy was 5 years and the shortest was six weeks. Two patients presented with postpartum hemorrhage which was treated medically. One neonate required resuscitation after delivery in the context of Listeria infection. Conservative management of uterine AVMs using embolization therapy is being increasingly developed. New embolization agents and hyperselective technical procedures aim at reducing morbidity related to such treatments and preserving reproductive capacity in women of childbearing age.

  20. Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Toru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

  1. Mortality and Embolic Potential of Cardiac Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. Objectives: To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Methods: Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years. In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%. The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Results: Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%, followed by fibromas (6.9%, thrombi (6.4% and sarcomas (6.4%. Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm 37 (19.8% patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001. The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002 and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006, but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months, there were 2 deaths (1.1% and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Conclusion: Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event.

  2. Acute pulmonary embolism in young: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism remains a disease which needs high clinical suspicion to prevent mortality and morbidity. More so in young healthy individuals, suspicion is very low as compared to old age individuals with multiple co-morbid conditions. Pulmonary embolism carries high mortality if not suspected and treatment initiated as early as possible. There are two case reports of young male individuals who presented as acute onset of breathlessness and later diagnosed and treated as a case of pulmonary thromboembolism.

  3. Mortality and Embolic Potential of Cardiac Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro, E-mail: ricardo.dias@incor.usp.br; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramires, Félix José Alvarez; Mady, Charles; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli [Instituto do Coração (InCor) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years). In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%). The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%), followed by fibromas (6.9%), thrombi (6.4%) and sarcomas (6.4%). Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm) 37 (19.8%) patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001). The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002) and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006), but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months), there were 2 deaths (1.1%) and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event.

  4. Thrombolysis for acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang-yuan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Miao; Ding, Mei; Liu, Guo-hui; Tong, Ya-liang; Yang, Chun-yan; Meng, Fan-bo

    2015-11-01

    The use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism is controversial. To compare with anticoagulation alone, no analysis before has determined whether thrombolytic therapy is associated with improved survival or lower incidence of adverse clinical outcomes for intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. This meta-analysis was performed to assess mortality benefits, bleeding and recurrent pulmonary embolism risks associated with thrombolytic therapy compared with anticoagulation in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. The Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized clinical trials comparing thrombolytic therapy with anticoagulation in intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism patients (in which the mortality data were reported) from inception to August 5, 2014. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and major bleeding. Secondary outcomes were recurrent pulmonary embolism and minor bleeding. The pooled relative risk (RR), Mantel-Haenszel corresponding method and fixed-effect model were used to estimate the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy with 95% confidence intervals. Eight clinical randomized controlled trials involving 1755 patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism were included. Patients treated with thrombolytics presented lower mortality than patients in the anticoagulation cohort (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.97; 1.39% [12/866] vs. 2.92% [26/889]). Compared with anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy was associated with a higher risk of major (RR, 3.35; 95% CI, 2.03-5.54; 7.80% [64/820] vs. 2.28% [19/834]) and minor (RR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.77-4.84; 32.78% [197/601] vs. 8.94% [53/593]) bleeding. Furthermore, thrombolytic therapy was associated with a lower incidence of recurrent pulmonary embolism (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.73; 0.73% [6/826] vs. 2.72% [23/846]). Compared with anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy in patients with intermediate

  5. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for a patient with an intractable small bowel injury after repeat surgeries: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeyama Hiromitsu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The management of intestinal injury can be challenging, because of the intractable nature of the condition. Surgical treatment for patients with severe adhesions sometimes results in further intestinal injury. We report a conservative management strategy using percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for an intractable small bowel surgical injury after repeated surgeries. Case presentation A 78-year-old Japanese woman had undergone several abdominal surgeries including urinary cystectomy for bladder cancer. After this operation, she developed peritonitis as a result of a small bowel perforation thought to be due to an injury sustained during the operation, with signs consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: body temperature 38.5°C, heart rate 92 beats/minute, respiratory rate 23 breaths/minute, white blood cell count 11.7 × 109/L (normal range 4-11 × 109/μL. Two further surgical interventions failed to control the leak, and our patient's clinical condition and nutritional status continued to deteriorate. We then performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy, and continuous suction was applied as an alternative to a third surgical intervention. With this endoscopic intervention, the intestinal leak gradually closed and oral feeding became possible. Conclusion We suggest that the technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy combined with a somatostatin analog is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment for small bowel leakage, and is less invasive than a nasojejunal tube.

  6. Application of statistical parametric mapping to SPET in the assessment of intractable childhood epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggemann, Jason M.; Lawson, John A.; Cunningham, Anne M. [Department of Neurology, Sydney Children' s Hospital and School of Women' s and Children' s Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); Som, Seu S.; Haindl, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); Bye, Ann M.E. [Department of Neurology, Sydney Children' s Hospital and School of Women' s and Children' s Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Neurology, Sydney Children' s Hospital, High Street, 2031, Randwick, NSW (Australia)

    2004-03-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) quantification and analysis has been successfully applied to functional imaging studies of partial epilepsy syndromes in adults. The present study evaluated whether localisation of the epileptogenic zone (determined by SPM) improves upon visually examined single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in presurgical assessment of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The patient sample consisted of 24 children (15 males) aged 2.1-17.8 years (9.8{+-}4.3 years; mean{+-}SD) with intractable TLE or FLE. SPET imaging was acquired routinely in presurgical evaluation. All patient images were transformed into the standard stereotactic space of the adult SPM SPET template prior to SPM statistical analysis. Individual patient images were contrasted with an adult control group of 22 healthy adult females. Resultant statistical parametric maps were rendered over the SPM canonical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two corresponding sets of ictal and interictal SPM and SPET images were then generated for each patient. Experienced clinicians independently reviewed the image sets, blinded to clinical details. Concordance of the reports between SPM and SPET images, syndrome classification and MRI abnormality was studied. A fair level of inter-rater reliability (kappa=0.73) was evident for SPM localisation. SPM was concordant with SPET in 71% of all patients, the majority of the discordance being from the FLE group. SPM and SPET localisation were concordant with epilepsy syndrome in 80% of the TLE cases. Concordant localisation to syndrome was worse for both SPM (33%) and SPET (44%) in the FLE group. Data from a small sample of patients with varied focal structural pathologies suggested that SPM performed poorly relative to SPET in these cases. Concordance of SPM and SPET with syndrome was lower in patients younger than 6 years than in those aged 6 years and above. SPM is effective in localising the

  7. Postpartum Hemorrhage Treated with Gelfoam Slurry Embolization Using the Superselective Technique: Immediate Results and 1-Month MRI Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.pellerin@egp.aphp.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Bats, Anne-Sophie [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Gynecologic and Oncologic Surgery Department (France); Primio, Massimiliano Di; Palomera-Ricco, Ana [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Pinot de Villechenon, Gabrielle [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Unit (France); and others

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of superselective embolization of the uterine arteries in a postpartum hemorrhage. Between November 2004 and January 2011, a total of 44 consecutive women (median {+-} standard deviation age 34 {+-} 3 years, range 23-41 years) were referred to our institution for postpartum intractable hemorrhage management. All patients were embolized with a microcatheter that was placed deep into the uterine arteries upstream of the cervical arteries. The embolic agent was a mixture of contrast medium and 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm pieces of gelfoam (Gelita-Spon) modified into a gelatin emulsion as follows: rapid mixing through a three-way stopcock with two 2.5-ml syringes. A 1-ml syringe was used for injection. One month after embolization, all patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examination. Technical and clinical success was obtained in all cases. Thirty-five patients experienced bleeding related to poor retraction of the uterus, 7 patients because of a tear of the cervix and 2 because of a vaginal hematoma. Pre- and postembolization red blood cell transfusions were (mean {+-} standard deviation [SD]) 6 {+-} 1.2 (range 3-8) U and 2 {+-} 0.7 (range 2-4) U, respectively. One-month magnetic resonance imaging follow-up revealed no sign of ischemic myometrium or necrosis, and no instances of uterine rupture and no pelvic vein thrombosis. Incidental findings included two small intramyometrial hematic collections. All uterine arteries were patent via magnetic resonance angiography. Seventeen patients had concomitant fibroids, all of which appeared hypovascular. This technique permits good, safe clinical results with no marked damage to the uterine arteries or the uterus itself.

  8. Preoperative embolization in surgical treatment of spinal metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Dahl, Benny; Frevert, Susanne Christiansen

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: This single-blind, randomized (1:1), controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial was approved by the Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics and was conducted from May 2011-March 2013. Participants (N = 45) were scheduled for decompression and posterior thoracic/lumbar spinal...... instrumentation and randomly assigned to either preoperative embolization (n = 23) or a control group (n = 22). The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes were perioperative blood loss, allogeneic RBC transfusion, and surgery time. Analyses were performed by intention-to-treat. RESULTS...

  9. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy treated by electroconvulsive therapy: intractable pain, depression, and bilateral electrode ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J H; Nuss, S

    1993-12-01

    An adult female patient without previous history of pain or psychiatric disorder developed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) in her left hand and arm after 2 separate injuries, and subsequent arthroscopy and arthroscopic surgery. Traditional management with systemic medications, nerve blocks, and behavioral pain management were unsuccessful. With subsequent development of depression and suicide attempt, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was administered using bilateral lead placement. Total resolution of her pain occurred for several hours after the first treatment. Over the course of the full ECT series the pain, vasculature changes of RSD, and depression resolved completely. Prominent psychiatric disturbances were complications arising after ECT and the resolution of the RSD, and during long-term follow-up. A review of the literature from the 1940s revealed numerous cases of chronic, intractable pain treated successfully by ECT, although none of the case series were controlled studies. More recent literature questions if 'modified' ECT, using unilateral lead placement, is less effective than bilateral lead placement, in treating pain syndromes. Resolution of the vascular changes of RSD after ECT raises questions of possible cerebral contributions to the pathophysiology of RSD.

  10. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia manifesting as intractable epilepsy in a 23-year-old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Raghavan,1 Charles M Katz21Department of Medicine, Mount Carmel Health, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Carmel Health, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder of calcium metabolism that involves target organ resistance to the action of the parathyroid hormone. As a result, calcium levels may become dangerously low, sometimes leading to seizures and other symptoms. We present a case of a 23-year-old Somalian female on antiepileptic therapy presenting with intractable epilepsy. She was subsequently found to have pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. She had multiple reasons accounting for loss of seizure control, including worsening hypocalcemia from resistance to the parathyroid hormone; vitamin D deficiency, which could have resulted from lack of exposure to direct sunlight and her antiepileptic medication; and extensive calcium deposition in the brain due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. The patient was stabilized with intravenous therapy and oral calcium, vitamin D, and calcitriol. Her antiepileptic therapy was changed to a medication that did not interfere with vitamin D metabolism or contribute to worsening hypocalcemia.Keywords: calcium, pseudohypoparathyroidism, epilepsy

  11. Epidemiological Investigation of Asymptomatic Dogs with Leishmania Infection in Southwestern China Where Visceral Leishmaniasis is Intractable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Hua; Yin, Kun; Zhong, Wei-Xia; Xiao, Ting; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Cui, Yong; Liu, Gong-Zhen; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Fa

    2016-12-01

    Heishui county, located in northwest Sichuan province, southwestern China, is an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is the most intractable area. VL is never destroyed in it. Asymptomatic dogs (Leishmania parasites have been diagnosed but clinically healthy) are considered to be a potential reservoir host in zoonotic VL area, and most can lead to infection of individuals, that is a new challenge for controlling VL in humans. The present study aimed to assess the Leishmania infection rate of asymptomatic dogs in Heishui county. Total 105 asymptomatic domestic dogs were gathered from 4 districts in Heishui county to investigate the infection rate with serological and molecular methods based on ELISA and kinetoplast minicircle DNA(kDNA) PCR, respectively. Out of 105 dogs, 44 (41.9%) were positive by more than 1 method; 21 (20.0%) were positive by ELISA, and 30 (28.6%) were positive by kDNA-PCR. Our study showed that Leishmania infection of domestic dogs which is clinically healthy is prevalent in the studied district, and the asymptomatic dogs infected by Leishmania may be the primary reason for the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in the area.

  12. Critical potential of early cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis with cardio-embolic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Ohshima, Yutaro; Nagatomo, Yuji; Seki, Atsushi; Takamisawa, Itaru; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Naito, Kazuhiro; Kin, Hajime; Umemura, Jun; Takayama, Morimasa; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2017-01-15

    Early cardiac surgery may have a trade-off between stabilized hemodynamics with controlled infection and a risk of peri-operative death in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated with cardio-embolic strokes. We retrospectively studied clinical characteristics and outcomes in 68 consecutive patients with IE (mean age, 58±3years, 62% male) who admitted in our institute during June 2013 and August 2015. Cardio-embolic strokes were noted in 37% of patients (n=25) with IE and overall in-hospital mortality was 4 times higher in IE with cardio-embolic strokes than IE with an absence of strokes (n=43) (20% vs. 4.7%, p=0.045). Bacteremia of Staphylococcus aureus (p=0.021) and a complication of cardio-embolic strokes (p=0.031) were independently associated with in-hospital death in those with IE. However, in-hospital mortality was quite low in 19 with early cardiac surgery compared with 6 with conventional treatment in those with cardio-embolic strokes (11% vs. 50%, p=0.035). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that lack of early cardiac surgery (p=0.014), a complication of cerebral hemorrhage (p=0.002), and a presence of refractory heart failure (p=0.047) were independently associated with in-hospital death in those with IE complicated with cardio-embolic strokes. Early cardiac surgery may provide clinical advantages overcoming peri-operative risks in those with IE complicated with cardio-embolic strokes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Peroral endoscopic anastomotic reduction improves intractable dumping syndrome in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Lautz, David B; Thompson, Christopher C

    2010-01-01

    Dumping syndrome is a well-described consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although the condition can benefit some patients with morbid obesity, a subset will develop intractable dumping syndrome characterized by symptomatic episodes with most meals. We describe the first series of patients successfully treated endoscopically for intractable dumping syndrome. Endoscopic gastrojejunal anastomotic reduction was performed in patients with intractable dumping syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using a combination of argon plasma coagulation, endoscopic suturing, and fibrin glue. The technical feasibility of endoscopic anastomotic reduction and the clinical improvement in dumping symptoms were assessed by clinical follow-up. Endoscopic anastomotic reduction was technically successful in 6 consecutive patients with a dilated gastrojejunal anastomosis and intractable dumping syndrome. One patient reported hematemesis 2 days after the procedure that was treated endoscopically. No other significant complications occurred. Complete and persistent resolution of the dumping symptoms was achieved in all patients, with a median follow-up of 636 days. Endoscopic anastomotic reduction appears technically feasible and safe and might be a minimally invasive treatment option for patients who experience intractable dumping symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Additional studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy of this procedure. 2010 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blue toe syndrome treated with sympathectomy in a patient with acute renal failure caused by cholesterol embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gang Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue toe syndrome is the most frequent manifestation of tissue ischemia caused by cholesterol embolization (CE, which can lead to amputation of affected lower extremities, if severe. However, any effective treatment is lacking. We experienced a case of spontaneously presenting blue toe syndrome and concomitant acute renal failure in a patient with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors. CE was confirmed by renal biopsy. Despite medical treatment including prostaglandin therapy and narcotics, the toe lesion progressed to gangrene with worsening ischemic pain. Therefore, we performed lumbar sympathectomy, which provided dramatic pain relief as well as an adequate blood flow to the ischemic lower extremities, resulting in healing of the gangrenous lesion and avoiding toe amputation. This is the first reported case of a patient with intractable ischemic toe syndrome caused by CE that was treated successfully by sympathectomy. Our observations suggest that sympathectomy may be beneficial in some patients with CE-associated blue toe syndrome.

  15. Dermatomyositis masquerading as pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroz RM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 61-year-old Caucasian was admitted to Department of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland for progressive muscle weakness and weight loss. Eighteen months prior to admission, the patient had been diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. At that point he was started on Enoxaparin QD. Past medical history was unremarkable. In the interim, the patient developed fever, myalgia and progressive dyspnea. Physical examination on admission revealed a rash on his upper torso and back, and the extensor surfaces of all four extremities. Laboratory values included CPK 8229, MB fraction 219, LDH 981. Chest X-ray and CT scan revealed bilateral patchy consolidations and ground-glass opacities. EMG was consistent with myositis. The patient was started on solumedrol 40 mg i.v., b.i.d., and then switched to prednisone 40 mg b.i.d. His symptoms and muscle strength improved remarkably. The patient was discharged with prednisone with an outpatient follow up.

  16. Nontraumatic Fat Embolism Found Following Maternal Death after Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Schrufer-Poland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Fat embolism is a rare form of nonthrombotic embolization. Limited literature exists regarding the diagnosis of fat embolism during the perinatal period. We present the first case of maternal death that resulted from nontraumatic fat embolization following Cesarean delivery. Case Description - A 29-year-old gravida 1 with a complex medical and surgical history underwent a primary Cesarean delivery at term. On postoperative day 2 the patient was found to be unresponsive. Despite resuscitative efforts, the patient succumbed. Autopsy findings were remarkable for diffuse pulmonary fat emboli. Furthermore, there was no histological evidence of either amniotic fluid embolism or thromboembolism. The primary cause of death was attributed to nontraumatic fat embolization. Discussion - Multiple risk factors may have contributed to the development of nontraumatic fat embolization in our patient. Obstetricians should maintain a high level of suspicion for nontraumatic fat embolization in cases of maternal respiratory decompression and sudden maternal mortality.

  17. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control.

  18. [Surgery for intractable epilepsy in a patient with encephalocele of the temporal lobe: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M S; Belyakova-Bodina, A I; Murtazina, A F; Brutyan, A G; Golovteev, A L; Aziatskaya, G A; Samoylov, A S; Zabelin, M V; Udalov, Yu D

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of surgical treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy in a female patient with congenital middle cranial fossa encephalocele. We present clinical-anamnestic and neuroimaging data as well as the microscopic and macroscopic pictures of encephalocele. We analyze outcomes of surgery for this pathology, which have been reported in the literature. To date, there have been a few articles on this subject in the domestic literature. The development of neuroimaging techniques and a growing number of verified encephalocele cases promote the widespread use of surgery for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Congenital encephalocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intractable temporal epilepsy, and, if verified, surgical treatment is the method of choice in most cases.

  19. [Surgery for pediatric intractable epilepsy due to posterior quadrantic cortical dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Zhu; Cai, Li-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Yu-Wu; Wang, Shuang; Ji, Tao-Yun; Wang, Wen; Cheng, Wei-Ke; Wang, Ruo-Fan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the clinical features and surgical strategy for pediatric intractable epilepsy due to posterior quadrantic cortical dysplasia and to assess the surgical outcomes. The clinical features and preoperative evaluation results of 14 children with intractable epilepsy due to posterior quadrantic cortical dysplasia were retrospectively analyzed. The localization values of video-electroencephalography and intraoperative monitoring and the indications, advantages and disadvantages of temporoparietooccipital disconnection were evaluated. The 14 children had different seizure types, of which spasm was the most common one. The lesions of cortical dysplasia involved the central cerebral region in 2 cases. After temporoparietooccipital disconnection in 14 patients, 13 cases were seizure-free; only one case still had seizures, but the frequency dropped by more than 50%. Temporoparietooccipital disconnection is a safe and effective surgical procedure for children with intractable epilepsy due to posterior quadrantic cortical dysplasia.

  20. Elimination of medically intractable epileptic drop attacks following endoscopic total corpus callosotomy in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi; Kumar, Ajay; Luat, Aimee F

    2017-11-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, characterized by developmental delay, hand stereotypies, abnormal gait, and acquired microcephaly. Epilepsy is very common in Rett syndrome and can be medically intractable. It remains uncertain if a patient with epileptic drop attacks associated with this genetic disease can benefit from corpus callosotomy. We report an 8-year-old girl with Rett syndrome and medically intractable epileptic drop attacks who underwent endoscopic total corpus callosotomy without any complications that led to the successful elimination of her seizures. Total corpus callosotomy is a feasible treatment option for medically intractable epileptic drop attacks in Rett syndrome and should not be considered as a contraindication in this condition. This is the first reported case of corpus callosotomy in Rett syndrome.

  1. Bioabsorbable radiopaque water-responsive shape memory embolization plug for temporary vascular occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yee Shan; Salvekar, Abhijit Vijay; Zhuang, Kun Da; Liu, Hui; Birch, William R; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Huang, Wei Min; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2016-09-01

    We describe the preparation, characterization and evaluation of a biodegradable radiopaque water-triggered shape memory embolization plug for temporary vascular occlusion. The shape memory occluding device consists of a composite of a radio-opaque filler and a poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) blend, which was coated with a crosslinked poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel. The mechanical properties, the degradation timeframe, the effect of programming conditions on the shape memory behaviour and the extent of radio-opacity for imaging were evaluated. Based on the tests, the mechanism responsible for the water-induced shape memory effect in such an embolization plug was elucidated. Suitable materials were optimized to fabricate an embolic plug prototype and its in vitro performance was evaluated as an occlusion rate (using a custom-built set up) and its biocompatibility. Finally, a feasibility study was conducted in vivo in a rabbit model to investigate the ease of device deployment, device migration and extent of vessel occlusion. The in vivo results demonstrated that the prototypes were visible under fluoroscopy and complete vascular occlusion occurred within 2 min of deployment of the prototypes in vivo. In conclusion, the developed embolization plug enables controlled and temporary vascular embolization, and is ready for safety studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghelfi, Julien, E-mail: JGhelfi@chu-grenoble.fr; Frandon, Julien, E-mail: JFrandon2@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Barbois, Sandrine, E-mail: SBarbois@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Digestive et d’Urgences (France); Vendrell, Anne, E-mail: AVendrell@chu-grenoble.fr; Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr; Sengel, Christian, E-mail: CSengel@chu-grenoble.fr; Bricault, Ivan, E-mail: IBricault@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Arvieux, Catherine, E-mail: CArvieux@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Digestive et d’Urgences (France); Ferretti, Gilbert, E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr; Thony, Frédéric, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France)

    2016-05-15

    IntroductionMesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, and the complications of embolization.ResultsSix endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration.ConclusionIn mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.

  3. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelfi, Julien; Frandon, Julien; Barbois, Sandrine; Vendrell, Anne; Rodiere, Mathieu; Sengel, Christian; Bricault, Ivan; Arvieux, Catherine; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Mesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding. The medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, and the complications of embolization. Six endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration. In mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.

  4. Severe postpartum haemorrhage from ruptured pseudoaneurysm: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, Philippe; Fargeaudou, Yann; Boudiaf, Mourad; Le Dref, Olivier; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP Universite Paris 7, Department of Abdominal Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP Universite Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris cedex 10 (France)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the role of transcatheter arterial embolization in the management of severe postpartum haemorrhage due to a ruptured pseudoaneurysm and to analyse the clinical symptoms that may suggest a pseudoaneurysm as a cause of postpartum haemorrhage. A retrospective search of our database disclosed seven women with severe postpartum haemorrhage in whom angiography revealed the presence of a uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm and who were treated using transcatheter arterial embolization. Clinical files were reviewed for possible clinical findings that could suggest pseudoaneurysm as a cause of bleeding. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in five out of seven patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization allowed to control the bleeding in all patients and subsequently achieve vaginal suture in four patients with vaginal laceration. No complications related to transcatheter arterial embolization were noted. Only two patients had uterine atony, and inefficiency of sulprostone was observed in all patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and secure technique for the treatment of severe postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm. Ineffectiveness of suprostone and absence of uterine atony should raise the possibility of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm. (orig.)

  5. Differentiation at autopsy between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction using gas composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; González-Díaz, Oscar; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Brubakk, Alf O; Hjelde, Astrid; Saavedra, Pedro; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Gas embolism can arise from different causes (iatrogenic accidents, criminal interventions, or diving related accidents). Gas analyses have been shown to be a valid technique to differentiate between putrefaction gases and gas embolism. In this study, we performed systematic necropsies at different postmortem times in three experimental New Zealand White Rabbits models: control or putrefaction, infused air embolism, and compression/decompression. The purpose of this study was to look for qualitative and quantitative differences among groups and to observe how putrefaction gases mask in vivo gas embolism. We found that the infused air embolism and compression/decompression models had a similar gas composition prior to 27-h postmortem, being typically composed of around 70-80 % of N(2) and 20-30 % of CO(2), although unexpected higher CO(2) concentrations were found in some decompressed animals, putting in question the role of CO(2) in decompression. All these samples were statistically and significantly different from more decomposed samples. Gas composition of samples from more decomposed animals and from the putrefaction model presented hydrogen, which was therefore considered as a putrefaction marker.

  6. Embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae with ONYX: Indications, techniques, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the liquid embolic agent, ONYX, in the treatment of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs and to redefine the indications, techniques and outcomes of treatment with ONYX. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 25 DAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment with ONYX between February 2006 and July 2008. All patients of DAVF presenting in this period were treated with ONYX. Results: Anatomic cure (i.e., complete angiographic closure of the fistula was achieved in a single session and through a single arterial pedicle injection in 21 out of 25 patients (cure rate of 84%. Out of four patients with residual fistulae, one achieved cure that was evident on a control angiogram obtained at 3 months while three had no vascular access for further embolization and so were referred for radiosurgery. There was only one recurrence seen in angiograms obtained at the end of one year and this patient was re-embolized successfully with ONYX. Complications were seen in two patients. Conclusion: ONYX embolization of DAVFs has revolutionized the endovascular treatment of DAVFs, achieving high cure rates in a single session with minimal complications. Transarterial ONYX embolization should be the first option for all locations, except cavernous DAVFs.

  7. Totally implantable catheter embolism: two related cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaves Ribeiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Long-term totally implantable catheters (e.g. Port-a-Cath® are frequently used for long-term venous access in children with cancer. The use of this type of catheter is associated with complications such as infection, extrusion, extravasation and thrombosis. Embolism of catheter fragments is a rare complication, but has potential for morbidity. The aim here was to report on two cases in which embolism of fragments of a long-term totally implantable catheter occurred. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series study at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective review of catheter embolism in oncological pediatric patients with long-term totally implantable catheters. RESULTS: The first patient was a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with stage IV Wilms' tumor. Treatment was started with the introduction of a totally implantable catheter through the subclavian vein. At the time of removal, it was realized that the catheter had fractured inside the heart. An endovascular procedure was necessary to remove the fragment. The second case was a boy diagnosed with stage II Wilms' tumor at the age of two years. At the time of removal, it was noticed that the catheter had disconnected from the reservoir and an endovascular procedure was also necessary to remove the embolized catheter. CONCLUSION: Embolism of fragments of totally implantable catheters is a rare complication that needs to be recognized even in asymptomatic patients.

  8. [Anticoagulation after an acute pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mao, Raphael; Tromeur, Cécile; Couturaud, Francis

    In order to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation after an acute pulmonary embolism, the benefit risk balance needs to be analysed based on the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in the absence of anticoagulation and the risk of bleeding while on anticoagulant therapy. Such evaluation take in account the frequency and the severity of the risks; clinical variables appear more informative to predict recurrent venous thromboembolism than biochemical or morphological variables. Three major results are now available: (1) the minimal duration of anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism is 3 months; (2) after pulmonary embolism that was provoked by a major transient risk factor, the risk of recurrence is low and does not justify to prolong anticoagulation beyond 6 months; and (3), in patients with an unprovoked pulmonary embolism (high risk of recurrence), the prolongation of anticoagulation up to 1 or 2 years as compared to 3 or 6 months is not associated with a long term reduction in the risk of recurrence and, consequently, these patients should be treated either during 3 to 6 months or indefinitely. This last observation has two major implications: first, to identify, among patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism, those who have a low risk of recurrence and who do not require indefinite anticoagulation; and second, in those who are eligible for indefinite anticoagulation, to reduce the risk of bleeding. If direct oral anticoagulant therapies are promising, however, additional clinical trials are needed to help physician for the daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis without fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.D. E-mail: mdkim@cha.ac.kr; Won, J.W.; Lee, D.Y.; Ahn, C.-S

    2004-06-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential usefulness of transcatheter uterine artery embolization as a treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis in patients without uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uterine artery embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 250-710 mm was performed in 43 patients (mean; 40.3 years, range; 31-52 years) with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or bulk-related symptoms (pelvic heaviness, urinary frequency) due to adenomyosis without fibroids. All patients underwent pre-procedural and 3.5 months (range 1-8 months) follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement. Clinical symptoms were also assessed at the time of MRI before and after embolization. RESULTS: Significant improvement of dysmenorrhoea (95.2%) and menorrhagia (95.0%) was reported in most patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed non-enhancing areas suggesting coagulation necrosis of adenomyosis in 31 patients (72.1%), decreased size without necrosis in 11 patients (25.6%), and no change in one patient (2.3%). The mean volume reduction of the uteri after uterine artery embolization was 32.5% (from 321.7{+-}142.9 to 216.7{+-}130.1 cm{sup 3}). CONCLUSION: Transcatheter uterine artery embolization is an effective therapy for the treatment of symptomatic pure adenomyosis, and may be a valuable alternative to hysterectomy.

  10. Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Stuart B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres into the left pulmonary artery for 1 day (1d PPE; 115d gestational age; GA or 5 days (5d PPE; 110-115d GA. Control fetuses received vehicle injections. Lung morphology, secondary septal crests, elastin, collagen, myofibroblast, PECAM1 and HIF1α abundance and localization were determined histologically. VEGF-A, Flk-1, PDGF-A and PDGF-Rα mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. Results At 130d GA (term ~147d, in embolized regions of the lung the percentage of lung occupied by tissue was increased from 29 ± 1% in controls to 35 ± 1% in 1d PPE and 44 ± 1% in 5d PPE fetuses (p VEGF and Flk-1, although a small increase in PDGF-Rα expression at 116d GA, from 1.00 ± 0.12 in control fetuses to 1.61 ± 0.18 in 5d PPE fetuses may account for impaired differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts and alveolar development. Conclusions PPE impairs alveolarization without adverse systemic effects and is a novel model for investigating the role of pulmonary capillaries and alveolar myofibroblasts in alveolar formation.

  11. Association of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with embolization in the treatment of bleeding duodenal varix refractory to sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Smail, A; Azoulay, D; Castaing, D; Bismuth, H

    2000-01-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices are often severe (mortality as high as 40%), and more difficult to sclerose than esophageal varices. We report a patient with a bleeding duodenal varix, refractory to sclerotherapy, successfully treated by the association of portosystemic shunt placement and varix embolization, via the same transjugular intrahepatic route. A 40-year-old Black male underwent emergency TIPS and duodenal varix embolization after failure of endoscopic sclerotherapy. The portosystemic pressure gradient droped from 16 to 9 mm Hg following TIPS. At 5 months from TIPS, the patient is well, with a patent shunt at Doppler ultrasound. The present report of successful control of duodenal varix, actively bleeding and refractory to sclerotherapy, by means of combined TIPS and embolization, supports the role of TIPS and suggests that its association to embolization can be valuably considered in the difficult setting of portal hypertension with bleeding duodenal varices. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Treatment of intractable epilepsy in a female with SLC6A8 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Connolly, Mary B; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Horvath, Gabriella A; Lowry, Noel; Salomons, Gajja S; Casey, Brett; Sinclair, Graham; Davis, Cynthia; Jakobs, Cornelis; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia

    2010-12-01

    A female heterozygous for a novel, disease causing, missense mutation in the X-linked cerebral creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene (c.1067G>T, p.Gly356Val) presented with intractable epilepsy, mild intellectual disability and moderately reduced cerebral creatine levels. Treatment with creatine monohydrate, to enhance cerebral creatine transport, combined with L-arginine and L-glycine, to enhance cerebral creatine synthesis, resulted in complete resolution of seizures. Heterozygous SLC6A8 deficiency is a potentially treatable condition and should be considered in females with intractable epilepsy and developmental delay/intellectual disability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism; Embolismo gaseosos paradojico cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Sala, J. [Hospital Valle del Nalon. Riano.Langreo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We present a fatal case of intracranial air embolism produced by the passage of intravenous air to the arteries owing to the existence of a patent foremen ovale associated with pulmonary hypertension, which permitted a right-left shunt (paradoxical embolism). The pathophysiological mechanisms of pneumcephalus and paradoxical embolism are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, E. J.; Kuijer, P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is known to a limited extent only. OBJECTIVE: To address this limited knowledge in a cohort in whom pulmonary embolism was proved or ruled out. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent

  15. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu; Elnur Alizade; Abdurrahman Naser; Akin İzgi

    2017-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  16. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  17. Mesial temporal lobe morphology in intractable pediatric epilepsy: so-called hippocampal malrotation, associated findings, and relevance to presurgical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James L; Awwad, Reem; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer J; Miles, Lili; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Diagnostic criteria for hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL) on brain MRI typically include a rounded hippocampus, vertical collateral sulcus, and architectural blurring. Relationship to epileptogenesis remains speculative, and usefulness for surgical guidance is unknown. The study was performed to determine the prevalence of hippocampal rotational anomalies in a cohort of pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing evaluation for surgery and to determine the significance of this finding in the context of surgical planning. METHODS Forty-eight surgically treated children with intractable epilepsy were compared with matched healthy subjects; reviewers were blinded to surgical side. Each temporal lobe was evaluated for rounded hippocampus, blurring, vertical collateral sulcus, wide choroidal fissure, enlarged temporal horn, low fornix, hippocampal signal, and findings of hippocampal sclerosis. A mesial temporal lobe (MTL) score was calculated by summing the number of features, and the collateral sulcus angle (CSA) was measured in each temporal lobe. Surgical side, pathological diagnosis, and imaging findings elsewhere in the brain were tabulated. Presence of HIMAL, associated imaging features, and MTL score were compared between sides, between epilepsy and control groups, in relationship to side of surgery, and in relationship to postoperative outcome. RESULTS Only 3 epilepsy patients (6.2%) and no controls exhibited all 3 features of HIMAL (p = 0.12). Eight of 48 (16.7%) epilepsy versus 2 of 48 (4.6%) control subjects had both a rounded hippocampus and vertical collateral sulcus (suggesting HIMAL) (p = 0.045). In control and epilepsy subjects, most findings were more prevalent on the left, and the left CSA was more vertical (p Epilepsy subjects had higher MTL scores (z = -2.95, p = 0.002) and more acute CSAs (p = 0.04) than controls. Only lateralizing raw MTL score had a significant association with surgical side (p = 0.03, OR 7.33); however, this

  18. The Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Islam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most current literature on the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism.  The epidemiology and symptomology of this disorder, including common symptoms such as fever, chest pain, dyspnea, edema, and syncope, are reviewed.  The utility of basic and easily available testing, such as electrocardiography and chest radiography, is evaluated. The literature on determining the pretest probability of venous thromboembolism with scoring systems, such as the Wells Score, the Geneva Scoring System, and the Pulmonary Embolism Rule Out Criteria, is appraised.  As the evaluation of pulmonary embolism has evolved, multiple imaging techniques has been developed and studied.  Ultrasonography, computed tomography with angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, ventilation perfusion lung scanning, and SPECT ventilation-perfusion lung imaging are discussed.  In conclusion, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains complicated.  Clinical suspicion and stratification should guide a diagnostic strategy for the comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis of patients with this disorder.

  19. Paradoxical embolism: Experiences from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our treatment experiences and the follow-up data of patients with paradoxical embolism (PDE. Methods: The clinical characteristics, management, and follow-up data of all included patients who were diagnosed with PDE at Fuwai Hospital from January 1994 to October 2015 were recorded. Results: Twelve patients were included; all had a pulmonary embolism, and 8 had deep venous thrombosis. The artery embolisms involved the cerebral artery (7 patients, renal artery (2 patients, mesentery artery (2 patients, popliteal artery (1 patient, descending aorta thrombus (1 patient, and thrombus-straddled patent foramen ovale (PFO (1 patient. PFO was found in 3 cases. One patient underwent thrombectomy and PFO closure; Six patients received thrombolysis; and 3 patients were implanted with a vena cava filter. Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was recommended for each patient. One patient died from ventricular fibrillation despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Eleven patients were discharged with improvements. No late mortality occurred in 8 patients with a complete follow-up of 10.6–17.7 years. One had a recurrent deep venous thrombosis. No patient had a recurrent pulmonary or arterial embolism. Two patients changed their treatment from warfarin to aspirin; others remained on warfarin. Only 1 case had an occasional gum bleeding. Conclusions: PDE treatment including thrombolysis, anticoagulation, and embolectomy should be individualized. We recommend long-term anticoagulation therapy to prevent the recurrence of PDE, especially to those with an intracardiac communication or persistent risk factors for re-thrombosis. Keywords: Paradoxical embolism, Pulmonary embolism, Deep venous thrombosis, Patent foramen ovale

  20. Embolism of high energy firearm projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez Soler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The embolism of a projectile is very rare and out of the normal context, so the cor-oner in front of a wound projectile firearm must make a very judicious and careful analysis to recover the projectile and/or its fragments. This case presents evidence how modern military high-velocity weapons have a high kinetic energy which is transferred to body tissues, so including their fragments and parts of the projectile can cause serious injury and embolism, requiring a great effort scientific and in-terdisciplinary to give technical support to justice.

  1. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  2. Fat embolism syndrome: history, definition, epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Max; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2006-10-01

    The first clinical case of fat embolism was described over 100 years ago and significant progress has been made in the understanding of this condition since then. Gurd's criteria, consisting of major and minor clinical features, is the most commonly used diagnostic tool in the literature. Due to the lack of a gold standard for diagnosis, clinical criteria cannot be validated. It is now recognized that although fat embolization occurs in the majority of patients with long bone fractures, clinical signs and symptoms occur only in 1-10% of patients with fractures.

  3. Local thrombolysis in renal artery embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmann, P.; Hoerl, W.H.; Hohnloser, S.

    1985-02-01

    Thrombo-embolic occlusions of the renal arteries are usually a result of co-existing cardiac disease, in most cases cardiac arrhythmias or ischaemic heart disease. Similar findings have been observed in mesenteric infarction and embolism into the lower extremities. The duration of ischeamia determines the prognosis. Surgical intervention has been the mainstay of previous therapy. However, the application of local thrombolysis, which is an extension of the diagnostic catheter studies, provides an alternative form of treatment. As in the case of peripheral artery disease, the choice of treatment can only be made in consultation with the surgeon. This report presents experience with the use of local thrombolysis of renal artery emboli.

  4. Preoperative and palliative embolization of renal cell carcinomas. Follow-up of 49 patients; Praeoperative und palliative Embolisation des Nierenzellkarzinoms. Nachsorge von 49 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallscheidt, P.; Besharati, S.; Noeldge, G.; Lopez, R.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Radiodiagnostik; Haferkamp, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of preoperative and palliative embolization of renal cell carcinomas on survival, intra- and post-operative procedures, and symptom control for palliative and preoperative indications. Materials and Methods: 56 patients who underwent renal cell carcinoma embolization from 1981 to 1999 were included in this retrospective study. Results: 24 women and 32 men were included (mean age 59.4 years). Complete follow-up data was available for 49 patients. 42 patients underwent preoperative embolization at different tumor stages (pT1: 1 patient, pT2: 6, pT3 a: 4, pT3 b: 19, pT3 c: 2, pT4: 5). 14 patients underwent palliative embolization (T1: 0 patients, T2: 5, T3: 4, T4: 4). Indications for preoperative embolization were bleeding of the renal tumor in 6 cases - non-recurrent bleeding reported, flank pain in 4 patients - 3 of 4 patients had no further symptoms, recurrent tumor embolization in 1 patient, and 2 patients who wanted to be treated without symptoms. The mean survival time of preoperative embolized patients was 3.1{+-}5.11 years with a 5-year survival rate of 50%. The mean survival time of palliative embolized patients was 0.67{+-}0.76 years with initial metastases (n=7) and 2.33{+-}2.40 without metastases (n=6). Conclusion: Palliative embolization of renal cell carcinomas is a safe therapeutic method to treat advanced renal cell carcinomas allowing control of symptoms such as hematuria and flank pain in more than 90% of our cases. Preoperative embolization yields a patient survival time comparable to that of patients at earlier tumor stages and is dependent on the metastases. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke in lung cancer patients : results from a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P. P.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Penning-Van Beest, Fernie J. A.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Majoor, Christof J.; Overbeek, Lucy I. H.; Herings, Ron M. C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this cohort study, the rates of pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke (IS) before and after lung cancer (LC) diagnosis were compared to cancer-free controls. METHODS: Patients with LC during 2000-2007 were selected from PALGA, the Dutch Pathology

  6. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, Iris M.; Di Nisio, Marcello; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning the efficacy and safety of medical or surgical treatments of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A

  7. The effects of early insulin treatment combined with thrombolysis in rat embolic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meden, Per; Andersen, Martin; Overgaard, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    in % of the affected hemisphere. Mortality was calculated as the number of animals dying spontaneously before the scheduled euthanasia. The median infarct volume in control animals (n = 12) was 24%. Insulin (3 IU kg(-1)) was given subcutaneously 15 min, 3 h, and 24 h after embolization (n = 12) and reduced median...

  8. [Disseminated arterial occlusions revealing bilateral venous thrombosis with paradoxical embolisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsendoorn, A; Desport, E; Vialle, R; Frat, J-P; Bridoux, F; Touchard, G

    2009-06-01

    Paradoxical embolism is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical triad associates deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, arterial embolism, and intracardiac communication with right-to-left shunt. The intracardiac communication is generally related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a 75-year-old patient, who presented with bilateral deep venous thrombosis of the legs, complicated by massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolisms through a PFO. This resulted in cerebral, mesenteric, splenic and bilateral kidney infarctions. A promptly initiated anticoagulant treatment allowed a favourable outcome.

  9. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Fox, Mary A.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. PMID:25846076

  10. Cardiac Arrest Caused by Multiple Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjartan Eskjaer Hannig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism is a common condition with a high mortality. We describe a previously healthy 68-year-old male who suffered three pulmonary embolisms during a short period of time, including two embolisms while on anticoagulant treatment. This paper illustrates three important points. (1 The importance of optimal anticoagulant treatment in the prevention of pulmonary embolism reoccurrence. (2 The benefit of immediate accessibility to echocardiography in the handling of haemodynamically unstable patients with an unknown underlying cause. (3 Thrombolytic treatment should always be considered and may be life-saving in patients with cardiac arrest suspected to be caused by pulmonary embolism.

  11. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  12. Significant improvement of intractable headache after transsphenoidal surgery in patients with pituitary adenomas; preoperative neuroradiological evaluation and intraoperative intrasellar pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Iwato, Masayuki; Fukui, Issei; Oishi, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Taishi; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    Headache is the most common symptom of both primary and metastatic brain tumor, and is generally considered the primary symptom in patients with large pituitary adenomas. However, patients with small pituitary adenomas rarely complain of intractable headache, and neurosurgeons are unsure whether such small adenomas actually contribute to headache. If conventional medical treatments for headache prove ineffective, surgical removal of the adenoma can be considered as an alternative management strategy. We conducted a retrospective review of 180 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary adenomas at Kanazawa University Hospital between 2006 and 2014. Patients with acute phase intratumoral hemorrhage were excluded. We identified nine patients with intractable headache as the chief complaint associated with small pituitary adenoma (diameters 15.8 ± 2.6 mm, 11-20 mm), non-functioning in eight, and prolactin-secreting in one. The preoperative neuroradiological studies and headache characteristics were assessed retrospectively, and the intrasellar pressure evaluation was performed during TSS in the last seven patients. All nine patients had complete or substantial resolution of their formerly intractable headache after TSS. Headaches consisted of ocular pain ipsilateral to the adenoma localization within the sella in four cases and bifrontal headache in five. Magnetic resonance imaging of these patients revealed small diaphragmatic foramen, which were so narrow that only the pituitary stalk could pass. Computed tomography scans showed ossification beneath the sellar floor in the sphenoid sinus, presellar type in six cases, and choncal type in three. The adenomas included cysts in seven cases. There was no cavernous sinus invasion. Intrasellar pressure measurements averaged 41.5 ± 8.5 mmHg, range 34-59, significantly higher than in control patients without headache (n = 12), namely 22.2 ± 10.6 mmHg (16-30). In this study, the authors demonstrated

  13. Secondary Voice Restoration After Laryngotracheal Separation (LTS) for Dysphagia with Intractable Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Katrien; Huvenne, Wouter; De Loof, Marie; Deron, Philippe; Viaene, Annick; Duprez, Fréderic; Vermeersch, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    Intractable aspiration is a serious, often life-threatening condition due to its potential impact on pulmonary function. Aspiration requires therapeutic measures, starting with conservative management but often necessitating surgical treatment. The basic surgical principle is to separate the alimentary and respiratory tracts through a variety of procedures which, unfortunately, nearly all result in the loss of phonation, with the exception of total laryngectomy (TL) which includes the placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. In this study, we present a modified laryngotracheal separation (LTS) technique that, we believe, offers multiple advantages compared to standard TL. After reviewing the medical records of 35 patients with intractable aspiration who have undergone LTS, we describe the surgical technique and present the postoperative result. In a second surgical procedure about two months following LTS, we aimed to achieve voice restoration by placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. Intractable aspiration was successfully treated in all patients. Placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis during a second operation was successful in 15 patients, representing the largest reported cohort thus far. LTS is a reliable surgical technique to treat intractable aspiration, with restoration of oral intake, thereby improving the general condition and quality of life of these unfortunate patients. Furthermore, voice restoration can be achieved in selected patients, by placement of a voice prosthesis.

  14. Treatment of intractable epilepsy in a female with SLC6A8 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S.; Connolly, M.B.; Poskitt, K.J.; Horvath, G.A.; Lowry, N.; Salomons, G.S.; Casey, B.; Sinclair, G.; Davis, C.; Jakobs, C.; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S.

    2010-01-01

    A female heterozygous for a novel, disease causing, missense mutation in the X-linked cerebral creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene (c.1067G > T, p.Gly356Val) presented with intractable epilepsy, mild intellectual disability and moderately reduced cerebral creatine levels. Treatment with creatine

  15. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  16. The nature of intractable conflict: Resolution in the twenty-first century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review. The nature of intractable conflict: Resolution in the twenty-first century. Christopher Mitchell* 2014. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 353 pages. ... three, where he indicates the necessity for organising conflicts into various required ... conflicts should be waged, chapter seven addresses the specific rule systems ...

  17. Diagnostic reframing of intractable environmental problems: Case of a contested multiparty public land-use conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Keith Wendt; Kristen C. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional...

  18. Developing Agency through Peacebuilding in the Midst of Intractable Conflict: The Case of Israel and Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonski, Sharri

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the presence of "peacebuilding islands" within civil society as potential agents of transformation in the midst of intractable conflict. Focusing on the particular case of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the argument stems from a deconstruction of the legacy of national myopia perpetuated through social and…

  19. Histopathological features and optimal operative procedure for patients with late intractable epilepsy after traumatic brain injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-xi GAO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the pathological features and optimal operation of the patients with late intractable epilepsy after traumatic brain injuries(TBI.Methods Fresh specimens of temporal lobe were obtained during operation from 21 patients with late intractable epilepsy after TBI to investigate the cortical structure,cellular morphology,number and distribution,and analyze the structure of hippocampus and pathological features of other tissues.Results The pathological features of brain tissue in epilepsy after TBI were encephalomalacia and hypertrophic scar,and the marked pathological changes in resected temporal lobe were hippocampal sclerosis and dysplasia of temporal cortex cells(seen in 15 of 21 cases.The therapeutic effects were assessed by a 6-month to 2-year follow-up,and satisfactory effects were obtained in 14 out of 21 patients(66.7%(Grade Ⅰ,favorable effects were seen in 4 cases(19.0%(Grade Ⅱ,and poor outcomes were seen in 3 cases(14.3%(Grade Ⅲ.Conclusions Hippocampal sclerosis and construction abnormalities of temporal lobe cortex are the most common pathological features,and they always co-exist in patients with late intractable epilepsy.The resection of pathological lesion combined with standard anterior temporal lobectomy is currently the recommended operation choice for late intractable epilepsy after TBI.

  20. Intractable Oral Candidosis As An Indicator Of HIV Infection In Infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus infection is assuming an epidemic proportion in the developing world, and infants are increasingly being infected and seen with clinical features and serological evidence of HIV infection in IIorin. Intractable oral candidosis is one of the clinical features of the disease seen ...

  1. Major amputation for intractable extremity melanoma after failure of isolated limb perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapma, M. R.; Vrouenraets, B. C.; Nieweg, O. E.; van Geel, A. N.; Noorda, E. M.; Eggermont, A. M. M.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse indications and results of amputation for intractable extremity melanoma after failure of isolated limb perfusion (ILP). METHODS: Between 1978 and 2001, 451 patients with loco-regional advanced extremity melanoma underwent 505 ILPs. Amputation of the

  2. Prospective study of POLG mutations presenting in children with intractable epilepsy: prevalence and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusimaa, Johanna; Gowda, Vasantha; McShane, Anthony; Smith, Conrad; Evans, Julie; Shrier, Annie; Narasimhan, Manisha; O'Rourke, Anthony; Rajabally, Yusuf; Hedderly, Tammy; Cowan, Frances; Fratter, Carl; Poulton, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    To assess the frequency and clinical features of childhood-onset intractable epilepsy caused by the most common mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Children presenting with nonsyndromic intractable epilepsy of unknown etiology but without documented liver dysfunction at presentation were eligible for this prospective, population-based study. Blood samples were analyzed for the three most common POLG mutations. If any of the three tested mutations were found, all the exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the POLG gene were sequenced. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the notes of patients presenting with intractable epilepsy in which we had found POLG mutations. All available clinical data were collected by questionnaire and by reviewing the medical records. We analyzed 213 blood DNA samples from patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the prospective study. Among these, five patients (2.3%) were found with one of the three common POLG mutations as homozygous or compound heterozygous states. In addition, three patients were retrospectively identified. Seven of the eight patients had either raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate (n = 3) or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes (n = 4) at presentation with intractable epilepsy. Three patients later developed liver dysfunction, progressing to fatal liver failure in two without previous treatment with sodium valproate (VPA). Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that one patient presented first with an autism spectrum disorder before seizures emerged. Mutations in POLG are an important cause of early and juvenile onset nonsyndromic intractable epilepsy with highly variable associated manifestations including autistic features. This study emphasizes that genetic testing for POLG mutations in patients with nonsyndromic intractable epilepsies is very important for clinical diagnostics, genetic counseling, and treatment decisions

  3. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.ozbek@gmail.com [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Acar, Kadir [Selcuk University, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Koc, Osman [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Saritas, Kadir [Afyon Kocatepe University, Department of General Surgery, Veterinary Faculty (Turkey); Toy, Hatice [Selcuk University, Department of Pathology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Solak, Yalcin [Selcuk University, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Ozbek, Seda [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Selcuklu School of Medicine (Turkey); Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman [Selcuk University, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin [Hacettepe University, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  4. Mortality from pulmonary embolism is decreasing in hospital patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcke, Douglas; Harryman, Ondina; Benbow, Emyr W; Hay, Charles; Chalmers, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary embolism is believed to be a common cause of death of hospital inpatients. The aims of this study were to estimate the number of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism and the potential to reduce this by the use of caval filters according to accepted indications. Design Review of autopsy reports and death notification records from 2007 and 2008. When pulmonary embolism was given as cause of death (in the autopsy report or in section 1 a-c or part 2 of the Medical Certificate of the Cause of Death), hospital records were reviewed for evidence of pre-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for evidence of accepted indications for caval filter placement. Setting Large UK teaching hospital. Participants Hospital inpatients whose deaths were attributed to pulmonary embolism. Main outcome measures Proportion of deaths adjudged at autopsy to be due to pulmonary embolism; evidence of pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism; total number of hospital admission and deaths. Results From a total of 186,517 adult inpatient admissions there were 2583 (1.4%) adult inpatient deaths of which 696 (27%) underwent autopsy. Of those undergoing autopsy, 14 (2.0%, 95% CI 1.2–3.3%) deaths were caused by pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolism was recorded as a cause of death in a further 12 (0.7%) of 1773 patients who did not undergo autopsy. Of these, five had a pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism. Conclusions The proportion of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism appears to be considerably lower than the widely published rate, and of this small number, few have a pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism. There is little scope for further reduction of pulmonary embolism mortality through use of caval filters according to guidelines. Current policy on pulmonary embolism risk prevention appears to be based on an over-estimate of the level of risk. PMID:21816931

  5. Acute but not delayed amphetamine treatment improves behavioral outcome in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of d-amphetamine (amph) upon recovery after embolic stroke in rats. METHODS: Ninety-three rats were embolized in the right middle cerebral artery and assigned to: (1) controls; (2) combination (acute amph and later amph-facilitate......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of d-amphetamine (amph) upon recovery after embolic stroke in rats. METHODS: Ninety-three rats were embolized in the right middle cerebral artery and assigned to: (1) controls; (2) combination (acute amph and later amph...... with the ipsilateral paws during days 14-21 showed that the acute amph group performed better than the control group (Pcontrols did not differ from any group. DISCUSSION......: In conclusion, results showed that the acute amph group performed the best, while the late amph and the combination groups performed the worst. Amphetamine treatment in acute stroke may be warranted due to reduced detrimental effects of hypotension and improved brain plasticity....

  6. Arterial embolization in patients with renal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S W; Berg, J; Brynitz, S

    1989-01-01

    The literature concerning embolization of the renal artery in patients with renal cell carcinoma is reviewed. Based on this review it is concluded that the method is useful in this patient group as it will facilitate the surgical procedure if nephrectomy is performed afterwards. Used...

  7. Acute Thrombo-embolic Renal Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted for acute onset of right lower abdominal pain. She was taking anticoagulant medication regularly for rheumatic valvular disease and atrial fibrillation. Physical examination revealed no obvious abdominal or flank tenderness. Right thrombo-embolic renal infarction was diagnosed after performing computed tomography angiography (CTA.

  8. Update on Embolization Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Sirish; Friedman, Tamir; Madoff, David C

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the review is to summarize the latest applications for embolotherapy in the management of patients with HCC according to BCLC stage. While traditionally reserved for patients with unresectable HCC and stage B disease, there is an important role for embolization therapies in earlier stage patients as an adjunct to ablation, bridging, or downstaging therapy, as a means to improve safety of resection, and potentially as an arterial ablative option in the case of radioembolization. Newer applications of radioembolization such as radiation segmentectomy have the potential to provide cure in localized unifocal disease, and transarterial chemoembolization-portal vein embolization and radiation lobectomy may provide a combination of treatment and future liver remnant hypertrophy for planned hepatic resection. There is also an increasing role for embolization in the treatment of stage C disease, and recent data suggest it can be used in combination with sorafenib with the potential for survival benefit over sorafenib alone, even in the case of portal vein tumor thrombus. Embolization therapies play an increasingly important role in patients with BCLC stage A-C hepatocellular carcinoma. While different therapies may be offered on a patient-specific basis, there are limited prospective RCT data to support superiority of one technique over another.

  9. Neural hypernetwork approach for pulmonary embolism diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucco, Matteo; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Merelli, Emanuela; Johnson, Jeffrey H; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo

    2015-10-29

    Hypernetworks are based on topological simplicial complexes and generalize the concept of two-body relation to many-body relation. Furthermore, Hypernetworks provide a significant generalization of network theory, enabling the integration of relational structure, logic and analytic dynamics. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, frequently fatal. Our study uses data on 28 diagnostic features of 1427 people considered to be at risk of pulmonary embolism enrolled in the Department of Internal and Subintensive Medicine of an Italian National Hospital "Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona". Patients arrived in the department after a first screening executed by the emergency room. The resulting neural hypernetwork correctly recognized 94% of those developing pulmonary embolism. This is better than previous results obtained with other methods (statistical selection of features, partial least squares regression, topological data analysis in a metric space). In this work we successfully derived a new integrative approach for the analysis of partial and incomplete datasets that is based on Q-analysis with machine learning. The new approach, called Neural Hypernetwork, has been applied to a case study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. The novelty of this method is that it does not use clinical parameters extracted by imaging analysis.

  10. Coagulopathy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2017-01-01

    Whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage were studied in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and evaluated in relation to PE severity. Twenty-five patients were enrolled prospectively each having viscoelastical analysis of whole blood done using thrombelastography (TEG...

  11. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R

    2016-12-17

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line treatment options for venous thromboembolism because they are associated with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists and are easier to use. Use of thrombolysis should be limited to pulmonary embolism associated with haemodynamic instability. Anticoagulant treatment should be continued for at least 3 months to prevent early recurrences. When venous thromboembolism is unprovoked or secondary to persistent risk factors, extended treatment beyond this period should be considered when the risk of recurrence outweighs the risk of major bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...

  13. Fertility after uterine artery embolization of fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, K; Hrobjartsson, A; Korsholm, M

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The impact of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the purpose of diminishing the effect of uterine fibroids on fertility is unclear. We have investigated the reported rates of pregnancy and miscarriage after treatment of uterine fibroids with UAE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched...

  14. [Transhepatic embolization of oesophageal varices (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, D; Mouzon, A; Vadrot, D; Franco, D; Bismuth, H

    1975-12-01

    Embolization of the aeso-cardiotuberositary varices, by selective catheterization of the coronary vein of the stomach and the posterior gastrics, seems to be valuable palliative treatment in portal hypertension, owing to its relative innocuousness, inspite of a certain number of failures. It is carried out by transhepatic puncture of the portal system or catheterization of the umbilical vein.

  15. Seizure frequency reduction after posteromedial hypothalamus deep brain stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy associated with intractable aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Isaac, Juan C; Torres-Zambrano, Martin; Vargas-Toscano, Andres; Perea-Castro, Esther; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Furlanetti, Luciano L; Reithmeier, Thomas; Tierney, Travis S; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Fonoff, Erich T; Contreras Lopez, William Omar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteromedial hypothalamus (pHyp) on seizure frequency in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) associated with intractable aggressive behavior (IAB). Data were collected retrospectively from nine patients, who received bilateral stereotactic pHyp-DBS for the treatment of medically intractable aggressive behavior, focusing on five patients who also had DRE. All patients were treated at the Colombian Center and Foundation of Epilepsy and Neurological Diseases-FIRE (Chapter of the International Bureau for Epilepsy), in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia from 2010 to 2014. Each case was evaluated previously by the institutional ethical committee, assessing the impact of aggressive behavior on the patient's family and social life, the humanitarian aspects of preserving the safety and physical integrity of caregivers, and the need to prevent self-harm. Epilepsy improvement was measured by a monthly seizure reduction percentage, comparing preoperative state and outcome. Additional response to epilepsy was defined by reduction of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Aggressive behavior response was measured using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). All the patients with DRE associated with IAB presented a significant decrease of the rate of epileptic seizures after up to 4 years follow-up, achieving a general 89.6% average seizure reduction from the state before the surgery. Aggressiveness was significantly controlled, with evident improvement in the OAS, enhancing the quality of life of patients and families. In well-selected patients, DBS of the pHyp seems to be a safe and effective procedure for treatment of DRE associated with refractory aggressive behavior. Larger and prospective series are needed to define the pHyp as a target for DRE in different contexts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Pelvic Blood Flow Predicts Fibroid Volume and Embolic Required for Uterine Fibroid Embolization: A Pilot Study With 4D Flow MR Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christopher D; Banerjee, Arjun; Alley, Marcus T; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Roberts, Anne C; Hsiao, Albert

    2018-01-01

    We report here an initial experience using 4D flow MRI in pelvic imaging-specifically, in imaging uterine fibroids. We hypothesized that blood flow might correlate with fibroid volume and that quantifying blood flow might help to predict the amount of embolic required to achieve stasis at subsequent uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Thirty-three patients with uterine fibroids and seven control subjects underwent pelvic MRI with 4D flow imaging. Of the patients with fibroids, 10 underwent 4D flow imaging before UFE and seven after UFE; in the remaining 16 patients with fibroids, UFE had yet to be performed. Four-dimensional flow measurements were performed using Arterys CV Flow. The flow fraction of the internal iliac artery was expressed as the ratio of internal iliac artery flow to external iliac artery flow and was compared between groups. The flow ratios between the internal iliac arteries on each side were calculated. Fibroid volume versus internal iliac flow fraction, embolic volume versus internal iliac flow fraction, and embolic volume ratio between sides versus the ratio of internal iliac artery flows between sides were compared. The mean internal iliac flow fraction was significantly higher in the 26 patients who underwent imaging before UFE (mean ± standard error, 0.78 ± 0.06) than in the seven patients who underwent imaging after UFE (0.48 ± 0.07, p flow fraction correlated well with fibroid volumes before UFE (r = 0.7754, p flow (r = 0.6776, p = 0.03). Internal iliac flow measured by 4D flow MRI correlates with fibroid volume and is predictive of the ratio of embolic required to achieve stasis on each side at subsequent UFE and may be useful for preprocedural evaluation of patients with uterine fibroids.

  17. Risk of severe pulmonary embolism in cancer patients receiving bevacizumab: Results from a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meidan; Zheng, Yayuan; Chen, Zuguang; Qiu, Yumiao; Pan, Zhanchun; Cai, Zitao; Shi, Yapeng; Cheng, Junfen; Yao, Weimin

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association between severe pulmonary embolism events and bevacizumab, we conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating the incidence and risk of pulmonary embolism associated with bevacizumab-based therapy. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to September 2016 for randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab with no bevacizumab on cancer patients. Incidence rates, relative risks, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. The primary end point was the association of bevacizumab with pulmonary embolism. Subgroup analyses were performed according to tumor type, dose, and publication status. In total, 23 randomized controlled trials were included. For patients receiving bevacizumab, the overall incidence of severe pulmonary embolism events was 1.76% (95% confidence interval = 1.25%-2.27%). Cancer patients treated with bevacizumab did not increase the risk of pulmonary embolism events (relative risk = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.80-1.25). No significant differences in pulmonary embolism incidence or risk among subgroup analyses were observed. No evidence of publication bias was observed. This study suggested that bevacizumab may not increase the risk of pulmonary embolism in cancer patients.

  18. Management of bleeding renal angiomyolipomas by transcatheter embolization following CT diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerhouni, E A; Schellhammer, P; Schaefer, J C; Drucker, J R; Jaffe, A H; Gonzales, J E; Edwards, O E; Lampton, L D

    1984-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipomas are commonly associated with spontaneous hemorrhage which can be life-threatening and may require radical nephrectomy for control of hemorrhage. Transcatheter embolization was used in 2 cases of spontaneously bleeding angiomyolipomas; permanent control was achieved in 1 case and temporary control in the other. This more conservative approach was made possible by our ability to diagnose these benign renal tumors confidently using computed tomography.

  19. Contemporary Role of Embolization of Solid Organ and Pelvic Injuries in Polytrauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos D. Ptohis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdominopelvic trauma (APT remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the 15- to 44-year-old age group in the Western World. It can be life-threatening as abdominopelvic organs, specifically those in the retroperitoneal space, can bleed profusely. APT is divided into blunt and penetrating types. While surgery is notably considered as a definitive solution for bleeding control, it is not always the optimum treatment for the stabilization of a polytrauma patient. Over the past decades, there has been a shift toward more sophisticated strategies, such as non-operative management of abdominopelvic vascular trauma for haemodynamically stable patients. Angiographic embolization for bleeding control following blunt and/or penetrating intra- and retroperitoneal injuries has proven to be safe and effective. Embolization can achieve hemostasis and salvage organs without the morbidity of surgery, and the development and refinement of embolization techniques has widened the indications for non-operative treatment in solid organ injury. Moreover, advances in computed tomography provided more efficient scanning times with improved image quality. While surgery is still usually recommended for patients with penetrating injuries, non-operative management can be effectively used as well as an alternative treatment. We review indications, technical considerations, efficacy, and complication rates of angiographic embolization in APT.

  20. An injectable shear-thinning biomaterial for endovascular embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Reginald K; Albadawi, Hassan; Akbari, Mohsen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Duggan, Michael J; Sahani, Dushyant V; Olsen, Bradley D; Khademhosseini, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi

    2016-11-16

    Improved endovascular embolization of vascular conditions can generate better patient outcomes and minimize the need for repeat procedures. However, many embolic materials, such as metallic coils or liquid embolic agents, are associated with limitations and complications such as breakthrough bleeding, coil migration, coil compaction, recanalization, adhesion of the catheter to the embolic agent, or toxicity. Here, we engineered a shear-thinning biomaterial (STB), a nanocomposite hydrogel containing gelatin and silicate nanoplatelets, to function as an embolic agent for endovascular embolization procedures. STBs are injectable through clinical catheters and needles and have hemostatic activity comparable to metallic coils, the current gold standard. In addition, STBs withstand physiological pressures without fragmentation or displacement in elastomeric channels in vitro and in explant vessels ex vivo. In vitro experiments also indicated that STB embolization did not rely on intrinsic thrombosis as coils did for occlusion, suggesting that the biomaterial may be suitable for use in patients on anticoagulation therapy or those with coagulopathy. Using computed tomography imaging, the biomaterial was shown to fully occlude murine and porcine vasculature in vivo and remain at the site of injection without fragmentation or nontarget embolization. Given the advantages of rapid delivery, in vivo stability, and independent occlusion that does not rely on intrinsic thrombosis, STBs offer an alternative gel-based embolic agent with translational potential for endovascular embolization. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Successful implantation and immediate activation of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) during pregnancy in a patient with intractable epilepsy: A case illustration and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebi, N; Moghimi, N; Lall, R; Osadebey, E; Ortega-Barnett, J; Masel, T

    2017-08-01

    While Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is proven to be a safe and effective adjunctive therapy in the general population with medically intractable seizures, little is published about its implantation during pregnancy. Here we illustrate the case of a 21year old primigravid woman with medically refractory seizures who underwent safe and successful VNS implantation and immediate activation of the device in her 32nd week of pregnancy, resulting in dramatically improved seizure control and subsequent delivery of a healthy baby. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Partial splenic embolization in patients with idiopathic portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Maurizio E-mail: maurizio.romano@ibb.cnr.it; Giojelli, Angela; Capuano, Gaetano; Pomponi, Domenico; Salvatore, Marco

    2004-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of partial splenic embolization (PSE) in patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) in reducing variceal bleeding episodes, splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia. Materials and methods: Six patients (2M, 4F, mean age 30.3 years) with IPH presenting with splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and recurrent variceal bleeding were treated with PSE using gelatin sponge (four patients) or Contour particles (two patients) as embolization material. Results: PSE was performed successfully in all cases; 3F coaxial microcatheters were necessary in two patients due to extreme splenic artery tortuosity. The average amount of devascularized parenchyma at CT 1 week after PSE was 71%. Splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia improved in all cases, with a mean platelet count increase of 120000/mm{sup 3} and an average 68% reduction of spleen volume at follow up. Variceal bleeding did not recur after PSE. Esophageal or gastroesophageal varices disappeared (one patient) or significantly reduced (five patients) at endoscopic controls. No significant complications were noted. The follow up was of at least 18 months in all patients; mean follow up was 28.2 months. Conclusion: In patients with IPH PSE can be effective in preventing variceal bleedings, in reducing spleen volume and in significantly increasing platelet count; therapeutic results were durable in our population.

  3. Lumbar paravertebral blockade as intractable pain management method in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2013-09-01

    ranges during the whole treatment course (22.9–927.4 ng · mL-1. In the case presented, lumbar PVB with bupivacaine in boluses (≤137.5 mg · 24 hours-1 was an easy to perform, safe, effective method for pain control. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (≤150 mg · 12 hours-1 had an acceptable risk-benefits ratio, but was ineffective. Keywords: bone metastases, bupivacaine, intractable pain, opioid ineffectiveness

  4. Intermittent pneumatic compression in intractable critical ischemia of lower limb - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerhake, Ingrid Luise; Henneberg, Eskild Winther; Høgh, Annette Langager

    Posters på "Forskningens Dag" 1. Intermittent pneumatic compression in intractable critical ischemia of the lower limb - a pilot study Feuerhake IL1 , Henneberg E1 , Høgh A1 1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital Aim: Patients with chronic ischemic wounds or rest pain in the l......Posters på "Forskningens Dag" 1. Intermittent pneumatic compression in intractable critical ischemia of the lower limb - a pilot study Feuerhake IL1 , Henneberg E1 , Høgh A1 1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital Aim: Patients with chronic ischemic wounds or rest pain...... in the lower extremity (CLI), without the possibility for vascular reconstruction, represent a high selected patient population with high comorbidity and mortality. The aim of this case-study was to investigate the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) among these patients, as a tool to lower pain...

  5. Clinical Application of Insertion Force Sensor System for Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Izumi, Takashi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marui, Naoki; Ota, Keisuke; Tajima, Hayato; Shintai, Kazunori; Ito, Masashi; Imai, Tasuku; Nishihori, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    In endovascular embolization for intracranial aneurysms, it is important to properly control the coil insertion force. However, the force can only be subjectively detected by the subtle feedback experienced by neurointerventionists at their fingertips. The authors envisioned a system that would objectively sense and quantify that force. In this article, coil insertion force was measured in cases of intracranial aneurysm using this sensor, and its actual clinical application was investigated. The sensor consists of a hemostatic valve (Y-connector). A little flexure was intentionally added in the device, and it creates a bend in the delivery wire. The sensor measures the change in the position of the bent wire depending on the insertion force and translates it into a force value. Using this, embolization was performed for 10 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The sensor adequately recorded the force, and it reflected the operators' usual clinical experience. The presence of the sensor did not affect the procedures. The sensor enabled the operators to objectively note and evaluate the insertion force and better cooperative handling was possible. Additionally, other members of the intervention team shared the information. Force records demonstrated the characteristic patterns according to every stage of coiling (framing, filling, and finishing). The force sensor system adequately measured coil insertion force in intracranial aneurysm coil embolization procedures. The safety of this sensor was demonstrated in clinical application for the limited number of patients. This system is useful adjunct for assisting during coil embolization for an intracranial aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Significance of transcatheter arterial embolization in the treatment of pseudoaneurysm complicating pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Gyee; Joo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam Univ. School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hee Yeon [Namkwang Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the significance of transcatheter arterial embolization(TAE) of pseudoaneurysm complicating pancreatitis. This study was based on a retrospective analysis of eight cases, in which TAE for control of pseudoaneurysm complicating pancreatitis was attempted. All patients were males, and were aged between 35 and 65(mean, 47) years. Seven had a history of episodes of chronic pancreatitis and one case was the result of acute pancreatitis. All patients underwent diagnostic angiography and superselective embolization. Arteries in which pseudoaneurysm had occurred were the gastroduodenal (n=3D5), inferior pancreaticoduodenal (n=3D1), superior mesenteric artery root (n=3D1), and the celiac axis (n=3D1). Six cases were treated successfully without complications, but in two, embolization failed due to a wide aneurysmal neck arising from the superior mesenteric artery root and celiac axis. In four successful cases, pseudoaneurysms were completely resolved within three to six months of embolization. One of the other two remained as a pseudocyst, while in the other, also a pseudocyst, surgery was performed. Because TAE in patients with pseudoaneurysm complicating pancreatitis has a high success rate, and also leads to absolute resorption of a pseudocyst, TAE is the preferred pre-surgical treatment mode.=20.

  7. Uterine artery embolization for cervical ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhou, MD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old woman with 3 prior C-sections is diagnosed with a caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Despite receiving intramuscular and transvaginal methotrexate injection 2 months before presentation, the beta human chorionic gonadotropin was recorded to be 73 mIU/mL at the time of encounter. The patient complained of vaginal bleeding with a significant drop in hematocrit from 40% to 33%. Transvaginal ultrasound confirmed retroplacental hemorrhage and because of the patient's desire to retain fertility, interventional radiology was consulted to perform an uterine artery embolization. The uterine artery embolization was successful in achieving hemostasis and resulted in a decrease of betaHCG to 46 on postprocedure day 1 to <1 mIU/mL by postoperative week 3.

  8. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Massive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatova, Elena V; Moazzami, Kasra; Cocke, Thomas P; Elmann, Elie; Vaidya, Pranay; Ng, Arthur F; Satya, Kumar; Narayan, Rajeev L

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has been suggested for cardiopulmonary support in patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE) refractory to other treatment or as bridging to embolectomy. The survival benefit from ECMO in patients with massive PE remains unclear. Here, we describe 5 cases in which ECMO was used as cardiopulmonary support following massive near-fatal pulmonary embolism. The overall mortality in patients with massive PE that received ECMO support was 40%. Death occurred secondary to ECMO-related complication in one case and due to inability to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion despite ECMO support in the second case. ECMO can be considered as a treatment modality for patients with massive PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pneumomediastinum Due to Intractable Hiccup as the Presenting Symptom of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Sang-Jun; Lee, Sang In; Chung, Tae-Sub; Choi, Young-Chul; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2005-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema generally occurs following trauma to the esophagus or lung. It also occurs spontaneously in such situations of elevating intrathoracic pressure as asthma, excessive coughing or forceful straining. We report here on the rare case of a man who experienced the signs of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema after a prolonged bout of intractable hiccup as the initial presenting symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

  10. Surgical management of children with intractable functional constipation; experience of a single tertiary children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, S; Koppen, I J N; Zwager, L W; Di Lorenzo, C; de Jong, J R; Benninga, M A

    2017-05-01

    Children with intractable functional constipation (FC) may eventually require surgery. However, guidelines regarding the surgical management of children with intractable FC are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical management of FC in children. A retrospective chart review was performed of children with FC (according to the Rome III criteria) who underwent ileostomy, colostomy or (sub)total colectomy at a tertiary hospital. Treatment success was defined as no longer fulfilling the Rome III-FC-criteria or having a functional ostomy. In addition, a self-developed questionnaire was administered to parents by telephone to assess postsurgical satisfaction (yes-no question and rated on a scale of 1-10). Thirty-seven patients (68% female) were included; median age at first surgery was 12 years (range 1.6-17.6). The initial surgical procedure consisted of ileostomy (n=21), colostomy (n=10), sigmoid resection (n=5) and subtotal colectomy (n=1). Success criteria were fulfilled by 85% of the patients. Postsurgical satisfaction of parents was 91% with a median postoperative satisfaction score of 8 (range 2-10), and 97% would opt for the same procedure(s) if necessary. Thirty patients (81%) experienced stoma problems, with 12 patients (32%) requiring stoma-revisions. Other complications occurred in 16 patients (43%). Surgery can improve symptoms in children with intractable FC. Despite morbidity and complications, parental satisfaction is high. Prospective, high-quality research is necessary to develop guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and surgical management in children with intractable FC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yahata S; Kenzaka T; Kushida S; Nishisaki H; Akita H

    2017-01-01

    Shinsuke Yahata,1,2 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,1 Saeko Kushida,3 Hogara Nishisaki,2 Hozuka Akita2 1Division of Community Medicine and Career Development, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital, Tamba, 3Department of Gastroenterological Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi, Japan Introduction: Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of e...

  12. Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation: a cohort of 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Watkins, L; Matharu, M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic cluster headache is a rare, highly disabling primary headache condition. When medically intractable, occipital nerve stimulation can offer effective treatment. Open-label series have provided data on small cohorts only. We analyzed 51 subjects to evaluate the long-term outcomes of highly intractable chronic cluster headache with occipital nerve stimulation. Patients with intractable chronic cluster headache were implanted with occipital nerve stimulators during the period 2007-2014. The primary endpoint was improvement in daily attack frequency. Secondary endpoints included attack severity, attack duration, quality-of-life measures, headache disability scores and adverse events. We studied 51 patients [35 males; mean age at implant 47.78 (range 31-70) years; mean follow-up 39.17 (range 2-81) months]. Nineteen patients had other chronic headache types in addition in chronic cluster headache. At final follow-up, there was a 46.1% improvement in attack frequency (P cluster headache alone and 40.3% (P = 0.036) in those with multiple phenotypes. There were no significant differences in response in those with or without multiple headache types. The overall response rate (defined as at least a 50% improvement in attack frequency) was 52.9%. Significant reductions were also seen in attack duration and severity. Improvements were noted in headache disability scores and quality-of-life measures. Triptan use of responders dropped by 62.56%, resulting in significant cost savings. Adverse event rates were highly favorable. Occipital nerve stimulation appears to be a safe and efficacious treatment for highly intractable chronic cluster headache even after a mean follow-up of over 3 years. © 2016 EAN.

  13. Surgical Treatment of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Ziv; Bolotin, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) is a life-threatening condition. The management of MPE has changed over the course of the last few years. Since the emergence of thrombolytic therapy, only a few patients remain amenable for surgical treatment. Currently, surgical embolectomy is advised only in very specific indications. This chapter will review the background, history, indications, surgical technique and results of surgical pulmonary embolectomy in patients with MPE.

  14. Pediatric Pulmonary Embolism: Diagnostic and Management Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Christian; Chauhan, Aman; Turner, Jason P; Carson, Thomas H; Velez, Maria C; Arcement, Christopher; Caspi, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    A rare case of massive pulmonary embolism is presented in an oligosymptomatic teenager with predisposing factors. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography supported by three-dimensional reconstruction was diagnostic. The embolus qualified as massive by conventional anatomical guidelines, but as low risk by more recent functional criteria. Functional assessment has complemented morphologic assessment for risk stratification in adult patients. Such evidence is scarce in pediatrics. The patient underwent surgical embolectomy, followed by prophylactic anticoagulation, without further events. Diagnostic and management challenges are discussed.

  15. QR in V1--an ECG sign associated with right ventricular strain and adverse clinical outcome in pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Nils; Walpoth, Nazan; Wustmann, Kerstin; Noveanu, Markus; Gertsch, Marc

    2003-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that Qr in V(1)is a predictor of pulmonary embolism, right ventricular strain, and adverse clinical outcome. ECG's from 151 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were blindly interpreted by two observers. Echocardiography, troponin I, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels were obtained in 75 patients with pulmonary embolism. Qr in V(1)(14 vs 0 in controls; p or =1 mV (15 vs 1 in controls; p=0.0002) were more frequently present in patients with pulmonary embolism. Sensitivity and specificity of Qr in V(1)and T wave inversion in V(2)for predicting right ventricular dysfunction were 31/97% and 45/94%, respectively. Three of five patients who died in-hospital and 11 of 20 patients with a complicated course, presented with Qr in V(1). After adjustment for right ventricular strain including ECG, echocardiography, pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I levels, Qr in V(1)(OR 8.7, 95%CI 1.4-56.7; p=0.02) remained an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Among the ECG signs seen in patients with acute pulmonary embolism, Qr in V(1)is closely related to the presence of right ventricular dysfunction, and is an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome.

  16. Transarterial microcatheter glue embolization of the bronchial artery for life-threatening hemoptysis: Technical and clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltacioglu, Feyyaz [Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: fbaltaci@yahoo.com; Cimsit, Nuri Cagatay [Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: cagataycimsit@gmail.com; Bostanci, Korkut [Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: kbostanci@marmara.edu.tr; Yueksel, Mustafa [Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: myuksel@marmara.edu.tr; Kodalli, Nihat [Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: nihatkodalli@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    Objectives: To report our experience with transarterial glue embolization of the bronchial artery for life-threatening hemoptysis. Materials and methods: Twenty-five patients underwent bronchial artery embolization, using coaxial microcatheter technique, with a liquid agent, n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA), named glue, for life-threatening hemoptysis. The technical and clinical outcomes were followed in terms of immediate control of bleeding, recurrence of hemoptysis and complications of the procedure. Results: Four patients had acute hemoptysis when they were evaluated. The average number of arteries embolized per patient was 2.9. BAEs were successful in controlling hemoptysis immediately in all 25 patients (100%) and in 24 patients (96%) at 1 month follow-ups. One patient had recurrent hemoptysis on the tenth day after embolization. The follow-up time ranged from 2 to 63 months (mean 14 months). Six patients (25%) died all as a result of their disease process. Bleeding recurred in 3 patients after 30 days (7th, 11th, 12th months). One patient had vomitting attacks with dysphagia after the procedure that lasted 24 h. Three patients had transient thoracic pain lasting 3-5 days. There were no procedure related spinal or vascular complications. Conclusions: Glue embolization with microcatheter technique is a safe and effective treatment in cases of life-threatening hemoptysis with a very high rate of success and low rate of complications.

  17. Efficacy of the Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Mostaghimi, Parvin; Mirmiran, Parvin; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Abdollah Gorji, Fatemeh; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2010-11-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective medical therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy. However, it has drawbacks in that it restricts calories, fluids and protein. The Atkins diet may also induce ketosis without those restrictions. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a modified Atkins diet in children with intractable childhood epilepsy. This clinical trial was conducted in 51 epileptic children aged 1 - 16 years with refractory seizures from Feb. 2004 to Oct. 2006. Outcome measures included seizure frequency and adverse reactions. Twenty-seven patients left the study for various reasons, leaving 24 who continued the Atkins diet for a minimum of three months. Carbohydrates were initially limited to 10 g/day and fats constituted 60% of the total energy requirement. All participants received vitamin and calcium supplementation. Following three months of treatment with the Atkins diet, 16 patients (67%) had >50% decrease in seizure frequency, and 6 (25%) had >90% improvement, of whom 5 were seizure-free. Mean seizure frequency after the first, second and third months of treatment were significantly lower than at baseline (P values Atkins diet can be considered as a safe and effective alternative therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy. Atkins diet was well tolerated in our patients with rare complications and it appears to demonstrate preliminary efficacy in childhood refractory epilepsy.

  18. The ketogenic and atkins diets effect on intractable epilepsy: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ahad; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Nikibakhsh, Ahmad Ali; Khajeh, Ali; Fayyazi, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Intractable epilepsy is a major difficulty in child neurology, because the numbers of drugs that are available for treatment are limited and new treatments such as diets must be tried. Now there are some diets available for treating patients with intractable epilepsy. The oldest diet is the classic ketogenic diet and one of the newest diets is the modified Atkins diet. Patients have a harder time accepting the classic ketogenic diet than the Atkins diet, which is easier to accept because the food tastes better. This study compares the efficacy of the ketogenic diet and the Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy in children. This study is a clinical trial survey with sample size of 40 children with refractory epilepsy who were patients at Mofid hospital in Tehran, Iran. Initially, from Jan 2005-Oct 2007, 20 children were treated with the Atkins diet, and then from Oct 2007-March 2010, the other group was treated with the classic ketogenic diet and the results were compared. In this study, response to treatment was greater than a 50% reduction in seizures and at the end of first, second, and third months for the ketogenic diet were 55%, 30%, and 70% and for the Atkins diet were 50%, 65%, and 70%, respectively. The results of this study show that there is no significant difference between the classic Ketogenic diet and the Atkins diet at the end of first, second, and third months and both had similar responses to the treatments.

  19. Effectiveness of Medium Chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet in Thai Children with Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomtho, Krisnachai; Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2016-02-01

    To determine the efficacy, side effects and feasibility of Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet (KD) in Thai children with intractable epilepsy. Children with intractable epilepsy were recruited. Baseline seizure frequency was recorded over 4 weeks before starting MCT KD. Average seizure frequency was assessed at 1 month and 3 months, compared to the baseline using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Side effects and feasibility were also assessed by blood tests and an interview. Sixteen subjects were recruited with mean seizure frequency of 0.35-52.5 per day. After treatment, there was a significant reduction in seizure frequency, ranging from 12% to 100% (p = 0.002 at 1 month, and 0.001 at 3 months). 64.3% of the subjects achieved more than 50% seizure reduction at 3 months and 28.6% of the patients were seizure-free. Common adverse effects were initial weight loss (37.5%) and nausea (25%). 87.5% of subjects and parents were satisfied with the MCT KD with 2 cases dropping-out due to diarrhea and non-compliance. MCT ketogenic diet is effective and feasible in Thai children with intractable epilepsy. Despite modification against Asian culinary culture, the tolerability and maintenance rate was still satisfactory. A larger study is required.

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Moon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4–5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief.

  1. COMPRESSION UTERINE SUTURES TRIUMPH OVER EMERGENCY PERIPARTUM HYSTERECTOMY IN INTRACTABLE ATONIC PPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Bhatnagar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To study the efficacy and morbidity of uterine compression sutures in the management of intractable severe postpartum haemorrhage. METHOD A prospective study was done at Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar from Jan 2012 to June 2015. There were total 6149 deliveries and 1803 (29.4% caesarean deliveries and 4346 (70.7% were vaginal deliveries. Uterine compression sutures B-Lynch and modified B-Lynch (Hayman sutures were applied in eight patients. A Vicryl No. 1 or catgut No. 2 sutures were used in straight round body needle. Patient was placed in modified lithotomy position to assess the compression effect of uterine compression suture. RESULT There were eight uterine compression sutures applied in 6149 deliveries (1:800. Five (62.5% were applied at the time of caesarean and three (37.5% were applied after vaginal or assisted vaginal deliveries. Hysterectomy was avoided in seven patients and one patient (12.5% required hysterectomy for intractable bleeding due to DIC. Blood transfusions were given in all patients. Postoperative period was uneventful and there was no maternal death. CONCLUSION Uterine compression sutures should be considered in case of intractable postpartum haemorrhage (atonic and it may obviate the need of hysterectomy and other procedures like hypogastric artery ligation, uterine artery/ovarian artery ligation.

  2. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abu Zikry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric restrictive and malabsorptive operations are being carried out in most countries laparoscopically. Carbon dioxide or gas embolism has never been reported in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We report a case of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG in a young super obese female patient. Early diagnosis and successful management of this complication are discussed. An 18-year-old super obese female patient with enlarged fatty liver underwent LSG under general anesthesia. During initial intra-peritoneal insufflation with CO 2 at high flows through upper left quadrant of the abdomen, she had precipitous fall of end-tidal CO 2 and SaO 2 % accompanied with tachycardia. Early suspicion led to stoppage of further insufflation. Clinical parameters were stabilized after almost 30 min, while the blood gas analysis was restored to normal levels after 1 h. The area of gas entrainment on the damaged liver was recognized by the surgeon and sealed and the surgery was successfully carried out uneventfully. Like any other laparoscopic surgery, carbon dioxide embolism can occur during bariatric laparoscopic surgery also. Caution should be exercised when Veress needle is inserted through upper left quadrant of the abdomen in patients with enlarged liver. A high degree of suspicion and prompt collaboration between the surgeon and anesthetist can lead to complete recovery from this potentially fatal complication.

  3. The effectiveness of percutaneous transarterial embolization for arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Sang; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Sang Hoon [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Hyung Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Seven patients with AVMs located in the kidney, liver, lung, chest wall, uterus and paraspinal region underwent angiography and percutaneous transarterial embolization. The embolic materials used were steel coil, gelfoam, contour emboli, and absolute alcohol; in some cases, more than one of these were employed. The analysed the angiographic findings and clinical status following embolization were assessed and analysed. The AVMs had tortuous, dilated feeding arteries (n=7) and veins with early venous drainage (n=6). In the hepatic AVM, a grape-like dilated vessel arose from the hepatic artery and was connected to the portal vein. In the uterine AVM, numerous dilated feeding arteries formed a honeycomb. In the feeding arteries of the chest wall AVM and in the nidus of the pulmonary AVM, aneurysms were present. In simple AVMs, the patient's symptoms were relieved by first embolization. Complex AVMs, however, required repeated embolizations for symptomatic relief. Although extensive, complex AVMs of the chest wall and uterus recurred after initial embolization, repeated treatment successfully improved the clinical status of such patients. The complications developing after emboliation were fever (n=3) and pain (n=3), but these were relieved by conservative care. Percutaneous transarterial embolization is a safe and effective therapeutic method for the treatment of AVM. In a case of inoperable complex AVM, repeated embolization is the only method for symptomatic relief and the maintenance of life.

  4. Transjugular preoperative portal embolization (TJPE) a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau, Jean-Marc; Daradkeh, Salam; Johann, Marc; Deneuville, Michele; Weinling, Pierre; Coniel, Claudine

    2003-01-01

    Because of our previous experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, we decided to apply the transjugular approach to preoperative portal embolization. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and the potential advantages and disadvantages of this new method. Under ultrasound guidance the right or left portal branch was punctured from the right, median or left hepatic vein. Then, a catheter was placed near the portal bifurcation and used to perform right portal branch embolization with a mixture of Histoacryl and Lipiodol. Pre- and post-transjugular preoperative portal embolization duplex ultrasound and CT scan were performed to assess portal flow and liver tissue growth. Hospital stay, pain and hepatic enzymes were monitored. Fifteen patients underwent a transjugular preoperative portal embolization without any serious complication. Mean of hospital stay was 3.3 +/- 0.6 days. (2-5 days). Portal embolization was successful in all cases; left portal branch velocity increased from 11.8 +/- 7.5 cm/s before, to 16.5 +/- 3.5 cm/s on day one, and 14.8 +/- 3.3 cm/s on day 28 after transjugular preoperative portal embolization; volume of non-embolized segments increased by 10% within the 4 weeks after transjugular preoperative portal embolization. Right hepatectomy was possible in 12 patients This method is safe, painless, and can be proposed in cases of impossibility to perform the standard percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (tumor interposition, impaired hemostasis).

  5. Risk factors for embolism in cardiac myxoma: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Deng-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Liang, Yin; Ye, Shi-Xing; Wang, Chong; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Nong

    2015-04-22

    Myxomas are the most common primary heart tumors and are closely associated with embolic events. Cardiac myxomas typically arise from the interatrial septum at the border of the fossa ovalis in the left atrium. Any other location is considered atypical. Embolism, one of the complications of myxoma, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for embolism in patients with cardiac myxoma. In this retrospective study, a cohort of 162 patients with cardiac myxomas was surgically treated between January 1998 and June 2014 at 3 cardiac centers in China. Preoperative data, including platelet count, sex, age, and the tumor (size, location, surface, and attachment), were compared between embolic and non-embolic groups of patients. No significant differences in vascular risk factors were seen between the 2 groups. However, the percentage of higher platelet count (>300 × 10(9)/L) and mean platelet volume in the embolic group were significantly higher than in the non-embolic group (P=0.0356, and 0.0113, respectively). Irregular surface and atypical location of the myxomas were also independently associated with increased risk of embolic complications. Tumor location, macroscopic appearance, mean platelet volume, and high platelet count are strong risk factors for embolic events in patients with cardiac myxomas.

  6. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Salsamendi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome.

  7. An in vitro study of pulsatile fluid dynamics in intracranial aneurysm models treated with embolic coils and flow diverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, M Haithem; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Albuquerque, Felipe; Collins, Daniel; Elvikis, Arius; Zwart, Christine; Roszelle, Breigh; Frakes, David H

    2013-04-01

    Although coil embolization is one of the most effective treatments for intracranial aneurysms (ICAs), the procedure is often unsuccessful. For example, an ICA may persist after coil embolization if deployed coils fail to block the flow of blood into the aneurysm. Unfortunately, the specific flow changes that are effected by embolic coiling (and other endovascular therapies) are poorly understood, which creates a barrier to the design and execution of optimal treatments in the clinic. We present an in vitro pulsatile flow study of treated basilar tip aneurysm models that elucidates relationships between controllable treatment parameters and clinically important post-treatment fluid dynamics. We also compare fluid dynamic performance across embolic coils and more recently proposed devices (e.g., the Pipeline Embolization Device) that focus on treating ICAs by diverting rather than blocking blood flow. In agreement with previous steady flow studies, coil embolization-reduced velocity magnitude at the aneurysmal neck by greater percentages for a narrow-neck aneurysm, and reduced flow into aneurysms by greater percentages at lower parent vessel flow rates. However, flow diversion reduced flow into a wide-neck aneurysm more so than coil embolization, regardless of flow conditions. Finally, results also showed that for the endovascular devices we examined, treatment effects were generally less dramatic under physiologic pulsatile flow conditions as compared to steady flow conditions. The fluid dynamic performance data presented in this study represent the first direct in vitro comparison of coils and flow diverters in aneurysm models, and provide a novel, quantitative basis to aid in designing endovascular treatments toward specific fluid dynamic outcomes.

  8. Postpartum Hemorrhage Resulting from Pelvic Pseudoaneurysm: A Retrospective Analysis of 588 Consecutive Cases Treated by Arterial Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr; Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.soyer@lrb.aphp.fr; Subhani, Aqeel, E-mail: drsubhani07@gmail.com [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Hequet, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.hequet@gmail.com [Universite Paris-Diderot (France); Fargeaudou, Yann, E-mail: yannfargeaudou4@hotmail.com [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Morel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.morel17@gmail.com [Maternite Universitaire de Nancy, Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1 (France); Boudiaf, Mourad, E-mail: mourad.boudiaf@lrb.aphp.fr [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Gayat, Etienne, E-mail: etienne.gayat@9online.fr [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (France); Barranger, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.barranger@lrb.aphp.fr [Universite Paris-Diderot (France); Dref, Olivier Le, E-mail: olivier.ledref@lrb.aphp.fr; Sirol, Marc, E-mail: marc.sirol@lrb.aphp.fr [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France)

    2013-10-15

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the incidence of arterial pseudoaneurysm in patients presenting with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), to analyze the angiographic characteristics of pseudoaneurysms that cause PPH, and to evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic arterial embolization for the treatment of this condition.Study designEighteen women with pelvic arterial pseudoaneurysm were retrieved from a series of 588 consecutive patients with PPH treated by arterial embolization. Clinical files, angiographic examinations, and procedure details were reviewed. Results: The incidence of pseudoaneurysm was 3.06 % (18/588; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.82-4.8 %). A total of 20 pseudoaneurysms were found; 15/20 (75 %) were located on the uterine arteries. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material from pseudoaneurysm indicating rupture in 9 of 18 (50 %) patients. Arterial embolization was performed using gelatin sponge alone in 12 of 18 (67 %) patients or in association with metallic coils in 5 of 18 (28 %) patients or n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in 1 of 18 (6 %) patients. Arterial embolization allowed controlling the bleeding in all patients after one or two embolization sessions in 17 of 18 (94 %) and 1 of 18 patients (6 %) respectively, without complications, obviating the need for further surgery. Conclusions: Pseudoaneurysm is rarely associated with PPH. Arterial embolization is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of PPH due to uterine or vaginal artery pseudoaneurysm. Our results suggest that gelatin sponge is effective for the treatment of ruptured pseudoaneurysms, although we agree that our series does not contain sufficient material to allow drawing definitive conclusions with respect to the most effective embolic material.

  9. Antibody response to a T-cell-independent antigen is preserved after splenic artery embolization for trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, D C; Lammers, A J J; van Leeuwen, E M M; Hoekstra, J B L; ten Berge, I J M; Goslings, J C

    2014-11-01

    Splenic artery embolization (SAE) is increasingly being used as a nonoperative management strategy for patients with blunt splenic injury following trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the splenic function of patients who were embolized. A clinical study was performed, with splenic function assessed by examining the antibody response to polysaccharide antigens (pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine), B-cell subsets, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB). The data were compared to those obtained from splenectomized patients and healthy controls (HC) who had been included in a previously conducted study. A total of 30 patients were studied: 5 who had proximal SAE, 7 who had distal SAE, 8 who had a splenectomy, and 10 HC. The median vaccine-specific antibody response of the SAE patients (fold increase, 3.97) did not differ significantly from that of the HC (5.29; P = 0.90); however, the median response of the splenectomized patients (2.30) did differ (P = 0.003). In 2 of the proximally embolized patients and none of the distally embolized patients, the ratio of the IgG antibody level postvaccination compared to that prevaccination was <2. There were no significant differences in the absolute numbers of lymphocytes or B-cell subsets between the SAE patients and the HC. HJB were not observed in the SAE patients. The splenic immune function of embolized patients was preserved, and therefore routine vaccination appears not to be indicated. Although the median antibody responses did not differ between the patients who underwent proximal SAE and those who underwent distal SAE, 2 of the 5 proximally embolized patients had insufficient responses to vaccination, whereas none of the distally embolized patients exhibited an insufficient response. Further research should be done to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Embolization of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Using PHIL Liquid Embolic Agent in 26 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamin, S; Chew, H S; Chavda, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of liquid embolic agents has revolutionized endovascular approach to cranial vascular malformations. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of Precipitating Hydrophobic Injectable Liquid (PHIL), a new nonadhesive liquid...... embolic agent, in the treatment of patients with cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. The primary end point was the rate of complete occlusion of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Secondary end points included the incidence of adverse events and clinical status at 3-month follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: This was a retrospective multicenter study. Twenty-six consecutive patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (de novo or previously treated) treated by injection of PHIL only or with PHIL in combination with other embolization products (such as Onyx or detachable coils) were included in the study. Recruitment started...

  11. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-03-01

    To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was -37.9% in the active and -17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. © 2014 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Kyphoplasty for Intractable Pain Due to Glucocorticosteroid-induced Osteoporotic Vertebra Fracture of a 9-Year-Old Patient With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: 8-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatli, Ulunay; Ataoğlu, Baybars; Özer, Mustafa; Şenköylü, Alpaslan; Çetinkaya, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is approximately 50% in patients treated for >6 months, and in the long-term usage fracture risk is approximately 34%. The awareness of pediatric vertebral fractures due to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is increasing. Although most of these fractures are asymptomatic, a small number of children may have severe pain. In this case report we are presenting long-term result of a 9-year-old patient with intractable pain due to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic vertebral fracture managed by kyphoplasty. Case report. Case report of a 9-year-old girl who had L3 vertebral fracture due to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis treated by kyphoplasty. The patient was a 9-year-old girl with severe back pain, and lupus nephritis. Glucocorticoid-induced L3 vertebral fracture was detected and the case was resistant to conservative treatment. Seeing this, we have performed balloon kyphoplasty procedure to L3 vertebrae. No complication and pain was observed after the operation although L3 vertebral height could not restored. On the 8-year control, L3 vertebral height was almost totally restored with a compression index of 10% without any clinical problem. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the patient sample of this case report is the first and the youngest patient who was treated with kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fracture intractable pain due to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, mentioned in literature. During the 8-year follow-up, no adverse effect was reported that was related to kyphoplasty procedure. This case report indicates that kyphoplasty can be an alternative method for selective pediatric intractable painful vertebral glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic fractures, but it should be performed after careful consideration in pediatric group. We do not advise routine usage of kyphoplasty for pediatric vertebral fractures.

  13. Endovascular treat- ment of intractable epistaxis — results of a 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;113: 674-678. 22. Cullen MM, Tami TA. Comparison of internal maxillary artery ligation versus embolization for refractory posterior epistaxis. Otolaryngol Head. Neck Surg 1998;118:636-642. 23. Simpson GT, Janfaza P, Becker GD. Transantral sphenopalatine artery ligation. Laryngoscope.

  14. Intractable Acute Pain Related to Fluoroquinolone-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukewich, Matthew; Danesh, Arash; Onyima, Chiemeka; Gupta, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed antibiotics, used for various infectious etiologies. These antibiotics carry the possibility of the serious adverse effect of peripheral neuropathy, with a true incidence not known owing to its rare existence. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required alterations to drug labels to highlight this adverse effect of fluoroquinolones. This is a case report of a single patient at an inpatient neurology service at an urban academic medical center in the United States. The patient is a 20-year-old male, with well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus, presenting with a short duration of bilateral lower extremity pain following a 10-day course of levofloxacin for suspected epididymitis. The patient was initially diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome and treated with a variety of pain medications, including lidocaine infusions, hydromorphone, methadone, and ketamine infusions. After review of the patient's history and limited response to medical management, the patient's condition was reclassified as an adverse effect from fluoroquinolone treatment. Pain of unknown etiology can be perplexing, both for the physician and the patient. Reporting of similar incidents attributed to medication adverse effects will increase the awareness of this type of neuropathy, avoid future cases of misdiagnosis, and enable early detection and treatment.

  15. Intractability of Deficit Syndrome of Schizophrenia Against Adjunctive Modafinil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Akbari, Sasan

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms are a significant barrier to successful functional outcome and recovery in individuals with schizophrenia, and their management is not easy. Prior tryouts with antidepressants and some cognitive enhancers were not really encouraging, and experiments with modafinil had mixed and indecisive results. The objective of the present study was to assess modafinil's efficacy on subjective and objective aspects of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This study was an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil, as an adjective to haloperidol, in treatment of 50 schizophrenic patients. Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was used as the primary outcome measure, and Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale, Schedule for Assessment of Insight, Simpson Angus Scale, Psychological General Well-Being Schedule, and Nurses Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation were used as secondary measures. According to the findings, while more cases in the modafinil group (n = 14) showed a positive response in some of the subscales of SANS, in comparison with the placebo group (n = 6; P modafinil was obvious because there was no significant decrease in the mean total score of SANS in the target group in comparison with the placebo group at the end of the assessment (P modafinil was visible as regards the subjective measures, no significant improvement was evident with respect to deficit syndrome per se.

  16. Upper limb amputation due to a brachial arterial embolism associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Tsuyoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mesenteric ischemia due to an embolism of the superior mesenteric artery is associated with a high mortality rate. Over 20 percent of acute mesenteric embolism cases consist of multiple emboli, and the long-term prognosis depends on the incidence of subsequent embolic events at other sites. The incidence of emboli in the upper extremity associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism has rarely been described. The signs and symptoms of ischemic change in the upper limb can be masked by other circumstances, such as postoperative conditions or complications. In these cases, a late presentation or delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in limb loss. Case presentation We present a rare case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with atrial fibrillation who developed an embolic occlusion of the brachial artery associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism. She developed gangrene in her right hand, which had progressed to the point that amputation was necessary by the time the gastrointestinal surgeon had consulted the Department of Orthopedic Surgery. The brachial arterial embolism diagnosis was delayed by the severe abdominal symptoms and shock conditions that followed the emergency enterectomy, resulting in amputation of the upper limb despite anticoagulation therapy. In this case, multiple infarctions of the spleen were also observed, indicating a shower embolism. Conclusions When treating a superior mesenteric arterial embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation, the possibility of recurrent or multiple arterial thromboembolic events should be considered, even after the procedure is completed.

  17. Transcatheter ovarian vein embolization for pelvic congestion syndrome: short-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Seon; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Huh, Joo Yup [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yu Mee [College of Medicine, Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    migrated, and was successfully retrieved using a snare loop. In this study, ovarian vein embolization using coils for PCS appeared to be both safe and effective in controlling pain. If other causes of pelvic pain are absent, it is thought to be a valuable alternative to surgical procedures.

  18. Percutaneous Retrieval Of A Venous Port Catheter Embolizing To Pulmonary Artery With A Snare Loop Catheter; A Case Report And Review Of The Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Dogan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous port catheter systems are widely used with increasing frequency in patients requiring long-term or intermittant infusion therapy. Usage of port systems for a wide variety of indications also leads to well-documented wide spectrum of complications that can be potentially serious. Venous catheter dislodgement and migration is one of the rare complications of venous port implantation, however once diagnosed it must be removal of the catheter is indicated. Percutaneous approach for removal is considered a gold standard treatment because it is a minimally invasive, relatively simple, safe procedure, with low complication rates compared to conventional surgical treatment. In this report we present a 2-year-old girl who had a port catheter implanted because of recurrent intractable seizures and subsequently dislodgement and embolizing of entire catheter, which was removed with a snare-loop catheter via transvenous approach. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 54-56

  19. Transarterial Embolization With Cyanoacrylate for Severe Arterioportal Shunt Complicated by Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Haibin, E-mail: shihb@vip.sina.com; Yang Zhengqiang; Liu Sheng; Zhou Weizhong; Zhou Chungao; Zhao Linbo; Xia Jinguo; Li Linsun [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology (China)

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate glue embolization in the treatment of severe arterioportal shunt (APS) presenting with hepatofugal portal venous flow in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Between July 2000 and January 2010, 27 HCC patients with severe APS presenting with hepatofugal portal venous flow underwent transarterial angiography and treatment. Among them, four patients were excluded from the study. Twelve patients underwent transarterial chemoperfusion and embolization of APS with cyanoacrylate glue between January 2006 and January 2010 (Emb group), and the other 11 patients undergoing only transarterial chemoperfusion without embolization of APS between July 2000 and December 2005 served as a control group (non-Emb group). The change of APS, survival rates, and procedure related complications were analyzed. In the Emb group, APS was improved in all of the 12 patients after initial glue embolization; long-term APS improvement with hepatopetal portal flow was achieved in 80 % (8 of 10) patients who underwent follow-up angiography. Survival rates in the Emb group were 67 % at 6 months, 33 % at 1 year, and 8 % at 2 years, whereas those in the non-Emb group were 0 % at 6 months (P < 0.05). Median survival time in the Emb group was 275 days, which was longer than that of 107 days in the non-Emb group (P = 0.001). There were no major complications in both groups. The preliminary experience suggests that glue embolization may be an effective and safe therapy in the management of severe APS accompanied by HCC and also improve patient survival.

  20. Transarterial embolization with cyanoacrylate for severe arterioportal shunt complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Bin; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Chun-Gao; Zhao, Lin-Bo; Xia, Jin-Guo; Li, Lin-Sun

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate glue embolization in the treatment of severe arterioportal shunt (APS) presenting with hepatofugal portal venous flow in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Between July 2000 and January 2010, 27 HCC patients with severe APS presenting with hepatofugal portal venous flow underwent transarterial angiography and treatment. Among them, four patients were excluded from the study. Twelve patients underwent transarterial chemoperfusion and embolization of APS with cyanoacrylate glue between January 2006 and January 2010 (Emb group), and the other 11 patients undergoing only transarterial chemoperfusion without embolization of APS between July 2000 and December 2005 served as a control group (non-Emb group). The change of APS, survival rates, and procedure related complications were analyzed. In the Emb group, APS was improved in all of the 12 patients after initial glue embolization; long-term APS improvement with hepatopetal portal flow was achieved in 80 % (8 of 10) patients who underwent follow-up angiography. Survival rates in the Emb group were 67 % at 6 months, 33 % at 1 year, and 8 % at 2 years, whereas those in the non-Emb group were 0 % at 6 months (P < 0.05). Median survival time in the Emb group was 275 days, which was longer than that of 107 days in the non-Emb group (P = 0.001). There were no major complications in both groups. The preliminary experience suggests that glue embolization may be an effective and safe therapy in the management of severe APS accompanied by HCC and also improve patient survival.

  1. Preoperative Embolization of Carotid Chemodectoma: a Technical Challenge that Can Be Customized According to Angioarchitecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragò, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlotta; Ponzi, Silvano; Jankovic, Claudio; Saginario, Vittorio; Berardi, Carlo; Pollo, Bianca; Ciceri, Elisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preoperative embolization of carotid paraganglioma is is increasingly used to reduce the risk of surgical bleeding obtaining a more precise and extensive tumor resection. Currently the technique can be customized in consideration of the different tumor angioarchitecture, thanks to embolic materials with different vascular penetration: solid particles of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA), histoacryl glue, and liquid polymer (Onyx®). Two cases of swelling dissection with volume progression over time came to our observation. Both patients (45 and 70-year-old women) were studied with neck ultrasound imaging and computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR). In both cases the radiological investigations confirmed the clinical suspicion of carotid paraganglioma. Both patients were sent for angiography control and preoperative devascularization of the lesion. The treatment was performed under general anesthesia using, depending on the type of tumor vasculature, in case 1 solid particles of PVA and histoacryl glue, and in case 2 Onyx® (Covidien, Irvine). The patients successfully underwent excision of the lesion via cervicotomy within a week from the embolization procedure, without any complications. The histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of chemodectoma, and macrophage infiltrates were seen in the regions previously embolized. At one-year follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrent disease. The preoperative embolization of vascular lesions of the neck represents a safe technique that yields the best results when customized over the type of vascularization of the lesion, enabling the use of the most appropriate materials, depending on the case to be treated. PMID:24355187

  2. Correlation between the time elapsed after liposuction and the risk of fat embolism: An animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwang-Ryeol; Cho, Jeong-Min; Yoon, Chung-Min; Lee, Keun-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Yun; Ju, Mi-Ha

    2018-01-01

    Liposuction has become one of the most frequently performed procedures in the field of aesthetic surgery. Fat embolism syndrome after liposuction can easily be overlooked or underestimated; however, occasionally, fulminating fat embolism syndrome can develop and lead to a critical situation within 2-3 days after lipoplasty. Changes over time in the amount of circulating fat particles and the histology of major organs have not yet been studied. This study was conducted using 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks and weighing 500-628 g (average, 562 g). Fifteen rats were used as the experimental group and 3 as the control group. Under general anesthesia, tumescent-technique liposuction was performed at the lateral flank areas and abdomen for 1 hour. Blood, lung, and brain tissue specimens were obtained at 1 hour, 1 day, and 2 days after the liposuction procedure. The average number of fat particles in the blood samples was 25,960/dL at 1 hour, 111,100/dL at 24 hours, and 21,780/dL at 48 hours. The differences between study groups were statistically significant. Both intravascular and extravascular fat particles with inflammation were seen in all 15 rats, as were inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and consolidation with shrinkage of the lung alveoli. These results imply that there is a strong possibility of fat embolism syndrome after liposuction in real clinical practice, and the first 24-48 hours after the operation were found to be the most important period for preventing pulmonary embolism and progression to fulminating fat embolism syndrome.

  3. Ketogenic diet efficacy in the treatment of intractable epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, Husam R; Gustafson, Megan; Myers, Tara; Thompson, Lindsey; Williams, Michelle; Abdelmoity, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in controlling epileptic spasms after failing traditional antiepileptic medication therapy. This is a prospective, case-based study of all infants with epileptic spasms who were referred for treatment with the ketogenic diet at our hospital between 2009 and 2012. All subjects continued to have epileptic spasms with evidence of hypsarrhythmia or severe epileptic encephalopathy on electroencephalography despite appropriate medication treatments. The diet efficacy was assessed through clinic visits, phone communications, and electroencephalography. Quality of life improvement was charted based on the caregiver's perspective. Twenty infants (15 males) were included in the study. The mean age at seizure onset was 4.5 months. Age at ketogenic diet initiation was 0.3 to 2.9 years (mean 1.20, standard deviation 0.78). Fifteen patients had epileptic spasms of unknown etiology; three had perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, one had lissencephaly, and one had STXBP1 mutation. Fifteen infants failed to respond to adrenocorticotropin hormone and/or vigabatrin before going on the ketogenic diet. Three months after starting the diet, >50% seizure reduction was achieved in 70% of patients (95% CI 48-86). These results were maintained at 6- and 12-month intervals. All eight of the patients followed for 24 months had >50% seizure reduction (95% CI 63-100). At least 90% seizure reduction was reported in 20% of patients at 3 months (95% CI 7-42), 22% (95% CI 8-46) at 6 months, and 35% (95% CI 17-59) at 12 months. The majority of patients (63%) achieved improvement of their spasms within 1 month after starting the diet. Sixty percent of patients had electroencephalographic improvement. All caregivers reported improvement of the quality of life at the 3-month visit (95% confidence interval 81-100). This ratio was 94% at 6 months (95% CI 72-99) and 82% at 12 months (95% CI 58-95). The ketogenic diet is a safe and potentially

  4. Vesical Artery Embolization in Haemorrhagic Cystitis in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gámez, Andrés, E-mail: agargamez@gmail.com; Bermúdez Bencerrey, Patricia, E-mail: PBERMUDE@clinic.ub.es [Hospital Clinic (Spain); Brio-Sanagustin, Sonia, E-mail: sbrio@santpau.cat [Hospital de la Santa Creu y Sant Pau (Spain); Guerrero Vara, Rubén, E-mail: rguerrerov@santpau.cat [Hospital Clinic (Spain); Sisinni, Luisa, E-mail: lsisinni@santpau.cat [Hospital de la Santa Creu y Sant Pau (Spain); Stuart, Sam, E-mail: sam.stuart@gosh.nhs.uk; Roebuck, Derek, E-mail: Derek.Roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom); Gómez Muñoz, Fernando, E-mail: FEGOMEZ@clinic.ub.es [Hospital Clinic (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Haemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon and, in its severe form, potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or cancer therapy in children. The severe form involves macroscopic haematuria with blood clots, urinary obstruction and/or renal impairment. There are many therapeutic options to treat acute haemorrhage, but only recombinant factor VII has a high level of clinical evidence in children. Supraselective vesical artery embolization (SVAE) is an increasingly used therapeutic procedure for controlling haemorrhage in adults, but is less commonly used in children. This might be due to several factors, such as the invasive nature of the procedure, lack of appropriate medical experience and possible long-term side effects. We present three cases of children successfully treated by means of effective SVAE.

  5. [Chemoperfusion and embolization in the treatment of liver metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, T J; Mack, M G; Eichler, K; Zangos, S; Naguib, N N; Gruber-Rouh, T

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of techniques and procedures for regional chemotherapy in the treatment of unresectable liver metastases from different primary tumors as a modality of interdisciplinary therapy management. Such transarterial therapy methods include hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), chemoembolization with cytostatic-loaded microspheres (DEBs), transarterial embolization (TAE) and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Regional chemotherapy procedures in the treatment of liver metastases represent a minimally invasive treatment option that can be successfully combined with surgical resection and/or radiofrequency (RFA), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), microwave ablation (MWA). These procedures allow optimization of the local control rate with strictly intrahepatic processes and lead to increased survival rates without any quality of life restriction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    physical restraint may occur in spite of no pre-existing risk factors. Medical guidelines for the prevention of thrombosis following physical restraint are presented. Despite the absence of controlled trials of treatment effectiveness, the catastrophic outcome of DVT and PE warrants early and vigorous......OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented....... The literature on physical restraint, DVT, and PE was reviewed using a search of Medline and Psychinfo from 1966 to the present. RESULTS: Four other reported cases of DVT and PE were found in association with physically restrained patients. CONCLUSION: Risk of DVT and PE in association with immobilization during...

  7. Preoperative embolization of carotid chemodectoma: a technical challenge that can be customized according to angioarchitecture. Illustrative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragò, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlotta; Ponzi, Silvano; Jankovic, Claudio; Saginario, Vittorio; Berardi, Carlo; Pollo, Bianca; Ciceri, Elisa F

    2013-12-01

    Preoperative embolization of carotid paraganglioma is increasingly used to reduce the risk of surgical bleeding obtaining a more precise and extensive tumor resection. Currently the technique can be customized in consideration of the different tumor angioarchitecture, thanks to embolic materials with different vascular penetration: solid particles of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA), histoacryl glue, and liquid polymer (Onyx(®)). Two cases of swelling dissection with volume progression over time came to our observation. Both patients (45 and 70-year-old women) were studied with neck ultrasound imaging and computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR). In both cases the radiological investigations confirmed the clinical suspicion of carotid paraganglioma. Both patients were sent for angiography control and preoperative devascularization of the lesion. The treatment was performed under general anesthesia using, depending on the type of tumor vasculature, in case 1 solid particles of PVA and histoacryl glue, and in case 2 Onyx(®) (Covidien, Irvine). The patients successfully underwent excision of the lesion via cervicotomy within a week from the embolization procedure, without any complications. The histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of chemodectoma, and macrophage infiltrates were seen in the regions previously embolized. At one-year follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrent disease. The preoperative embolization of vascular lesions of the neck represents a safe technique that yields the best results when customized over the type of vascularization of the lesion, enabling the use of the most appropriate materials, depending on the case to be treated.

  8. Bariatric Arterial Embolization with Non-spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Ghrelin Suppression in a Swine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Man-Deuk; Han, Kichang; Muqmiroh, Lailatul; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Gyoung Min; Kwon, Joonho; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of bariatric arterial embolization (BAE) with non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles on systemic ghrelin levels, weight change, and gastric ulceration risk in a swine model. From March 2014 to February 2015, ten healthy swine were used in the study (mean weight 31.5 kg; range 24.0-41.5 kg). The animals were randomly assigned to two groups: the embolized group (n = 5) in which BAE was performed and the control group (n = 5). In the embolized group, BAE was performed by selectively infusing 150-250 or 50-150 μm PVA into the gastric arteries that supplied the fundus of the stomach. In the control group, a sham procedure was performed with saline infusion. Plasma ghrelin levels were prospectively obtained at baseline and every 2 weeks thereafter. Endoscopy was performed 3 weeks after BAE to see whether any gastric ulcer occurred. To determine the durability of the occluded arteries, repeated celiac trunk angiography was performed 8 weeks after BAE. Then, all the swine were killed and necropsies were performed. The mean post-procedure ghrelin value decreased by 370.0 pg/mL in the embolized group at week 3 (mean 536.0 ± 334.3 pg/mL) and week 5 (mean 515.0 ± 150.0 pg/mL, p ghrelin levels were not significantly decreased between the embolized and control groups. There was a significant body weight change as follows: 35.1 ± 9.5 to 46.6 ± 15.7 kg and 31.8 ± 5.8 to 41.2 ± 6.6 kg at baseline and endpoint in the control and embolized groups, respectively (p ghrelin levels in embolized animals, but levels are not significantly different compared to controls. Stomach ulcerations were identified in 60% of the embolized animals.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Prostatic Arterial Embolization: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Kanhai, Karan J K; Ko, Young Myoung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to overcome the limitations of previous systematic reviews to determine the overall treatment efficacy and safety of prostatic arterial embolization compared with standard therapy. Meta-analyses were done of randomized, controlled and single group trials. Meta-regression analysis of the moderator effect was performed with single group analysis. The outcomes measured were mean changes in I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score), quality of life, maximal urinary flow rate, prostate volume, post-void residual volume and prostate specific antigen. Adverse events were compared as proportional differences between the embolization group and groups receiving other therapies in comparative studies. A total of 16 studies met our selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Three studies were comparative and included a total of 297 subjects, including 149 in the experimental groups and 148 in the control groups. The other 13 studies were noncomparative and included a total of 750 experimental subjects. Pooled overall standardized mean differences for embolization in I-PSS, maximal urinary flow rate and prostate volume were significantly impaired in the experimental vs control groups. Overall weighted mean differences for all outcomes except prostate specific antigen were significantly improved from baseline by embolization treatment in noncomparative studies. Sensitivity analysis of study duration showed that all outcome measurements did not differ before vs after 6 months. Although there is growing evidence of the efficacy and safety of prostatic arterial embolization for benign prostatic hyperplasia, this systematic review using meta-analysis and meta-regression showed that prostatic arterial embolization should still be considered an experimental treatment modality. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between the occurrence of intractable epilepsy with glial cells and myelin sheath - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Wang, J-Y; Gu, R; Qu, H; Li, M; Chen, L; Liu, R; Yuan, P

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with myelin sheath injury; oligodendrocyte (OL) is the main cell of myelin sheath; In this study, we observed the changes of OL, demyelination, and myelin associated protein in different stages of intractable epilepsy (IE) at the epileptic foci of patients, and provide useful information for the pathophysiology of IE. IE patients who received epileptogenic focus resection were recruited as the experimental group, their medical records were collected and postoperative follow-up was performed. The brain tissues from10 cases with non-brain disorders were obtained as controls. Immunofluorescence double staining was used to observe OL expression. The demyelination in epileptic foci was observed by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining method. Real-time fluorescent quantitative (RT) PCR, Western blot methods were used to detect the expressions of myelin-related proteins. We observed increased OL precursor cells, former OL and decreased mature OL in experimental group when compared with controls (both p myelin basic protein (MBP), oligodendrocytes myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and other MAG associated proteins-Nogo receptors (NgRs) and GD1α (p myelin associated protein are related to the occurrence of IE.

  11. Distal flow protection during carotid stenting. a prospective study to quantify the embolic debris retrieved in the internal carotid artery territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiu, K; Martin, J B; Pache, J C; Gulmaraens, L; Theron, J; Rüfenacht, D A

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate presence of embolic debris during ICA stent procedures. Nine patients with severe carotid atheromatous stenosis were treated by stent implantation under distal flow protection using a non-detachable balloon. After stent implantation, the lumen of the ICA was cleaned by aspiration of 50 cc of blood before further flush cleaning and deflation of the protection balloon. The blood samples obtained from each patient were analyzed using a microscope to check quantity and aspect of embolic debris. Significant numbers of embolic debris were recovered from blood samples in all nine stenting cases, but very few were found in four out of the five control cases. This observation demonstrates the high risk of producing embolic debris during carotid stenting. Distal balloon occlusion and cleaning procedures are techniques to provide protection from thromboembolic complications to the brain.

  12. A novel method for the angiographic estimation of the percentage of spleen volume embolized during partial splenic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Xi-Zhang [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Yi-Sheng, E-mail: taicheng100704@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687.

  13. [Massive pulmonary embolism. When medical treatment is not enough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, B; Glorion, M; Rodriguez, A; Garcia, C; Stephan, F; Fabre, D; Mercier, O; Brenot, P; Fadel, E

    2017-12-01

    Emergency bedside veno-arterious ECMO implantation can be the only saving gesture in the suspicion of acute massive pulmonary embolism leading to haemodynamic failure, even before CT-scan imaging. Once the massive pulmonary embolism is confirmed it is possible to undergo surgical or percutaneous pulmonary thrombectomy, when thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Atrial Fibrillation in Embolic Stroke: Anticoagulant Therapy at UNTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The decision to commence anticoagulation in a patient with embolic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF) is often a difficult one for many clinicians. The result can have significant impact on the patient. This study was therefore undertaken to review the use of anticoagulation in embolic stroke in the setting of atrial ...

  15. Incidence of Pleural Effusion in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Cui, Ai; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Li, Man; Teng, Lei-Lei; Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: No data on the incidence of pleural effusion (PE) in Chinese patients with pulmonary embolism are available to date. The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of PE in a Chinese population of patients with pulmonary embolism. Methods: This was a retrospective observational single-center study. All data of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) performed over 6-year period on adult patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism were analyzed. Results: From January 2008 until December 2013, PE was identified in 423 of 3141 patients (13.5%) with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism who underwent CTPA. The incidence of PE in patients with pulmonary embolism (19.9%) was significantly higher than in those without embolism (9.4%) (P pulmonary embolism patients were small to moderate and were unilateral. The locations of emboli and the numbers of arteries involved, CT pulmonary obstruction index, and parenchymal abnormalities at CT were not associated with the development of PE. Conclusions: PEs are present in about one fifth of a Chinese population of patients with pulmonary embolism, which are usually small, unilateral, and unsuitable for diagnostic thoracentesis. PMID:25881595

  16. MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN OLDER PATIENT: SURVIVAL DESPITE STATISTIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Makharynska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary thromboembolism is presented in this article on example of clinical case. Clinical investigation, prognosis evaluation tools, diagnosis and acute phase treatment along with prevention of recurrent episode of pulmonary embolism presented. Observed and described clinical case of pulmonary embolism in older patient, when patient was mistakenly diagnosed in emergency department as acute coronary syndrome patient.

  17. Fat embolism syndrome: a review of the literature | Mustapha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat embolism syndrome is a serious manifestation of fat embolism phenomenon characterized clinically by triad of dyspnoea, petechiae and mental confusion and usually follows long bone fractures. Its classic presentation consists of an asymptomatic interval followed by pulmonary and neurologic manifestations combined ...

  18. Fatal Fat Embolism In Traumatized Patients: An Experience From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to highlight the problems of fat embolism in our environment. METHOD: All the patients who had fat embolism in the author's practice from 1988 – 2001 at our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Ihiala and Holy Cross Hospital, Nnewi, were reviewed. Information on age, sex, occupation, cause of injury, ...

  19. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  20. A review of animal models for portal vein embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Floor; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Damude, Samantha; Hoekstra, Lisette T.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a preoperative intervention to increase the future remnant liver (FRL) through regeneration of the non-embolized liver lobes. This review assesses all the relevant animal models of PVE available, to guide researchers who intend to study PVE. We performed a

  1. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles in...

  2. An unusual case of repeated venous air embolism during awake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their experience of managing an unusual case of repeated VAE during both sides of burr-hole and electrode insertion in awake bilateral DBS surgery. Keywords: awake craniotomy, burr hole, deep brain stimulation, neurosurgery, venous air embolism. Introduction. Venous air embolism (VAE) is the entrainment of air from a.

  3. Massive Pulmonary Embolism after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a rare complication that may result in death after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Although pulmonary embolism mortality rates decreased with early diagnosis and treatment, delays in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is commonly seen even with advanced diagnostic methods. Even though it is rare, the risk of pulmonary embolism as well as thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis are encountered in patients undergoing spinal surgery. In this case presentation, we discussed the case of pulmonary embolism determined in a young patient developing unconsciousness and then cardiopulmonary arrest following mobilization at the postoperative 12th hour after a lumbar spinal fusion surgery and determined to have severe right ventricular enlargement, leftward deviation of the interatrial septum, severe tricuspid failure at the bedside echocardiography and who was discharged after thrombolytic therapy.

  4. Medical Management of Pulmonary Embolism: Beyond Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nancy; Wang, Tisha; Friedman, Oren; Barjaktarevic, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Although diagnosis, anticoagulation, and interventional clot-burden reduction strategies represent the focus of clinical research and care in PE, appropriate risk stratification and supportive care are crucial to ensure good outcomes. In this chapter, we will discuss the medical management of PE from the time of presentation to discharge, focusing on the critical care of acute right ventricular failure, anticoagulation of special patient populations, and appropriate follow-up testing after acute PE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Interventional radiology treatment for pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Miguel A; Guirola, Jose A; Lahuerta, Celia; Serrano, Carolina; Figueredo, Ana L; Kuo, William T

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an illness that has a potentially life-threatening condition that affects a large percentage of the global population. VTE with pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third leading cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. In the first three months after an acute PE, there is an estimated 15% mortality among submassive PE, and 68% mortality in massive PE. Current guidelines suggest fibrinolytic therapy regarding the clinical severity, however some studies suggest a more aggressive treatment approach. This review will summarize the available endovascular treatments and the different techniques with its indications and outcomes. PMID:28794825

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim-University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology, Mannheim (Germany); Ley, Sebastian; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [University Hospitals Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a very common and potentially life-threatening disease. In comparison with CT, the clinical relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of PE is low. Nevertheless, as there are some potential advantages of MRI over CT (e.g. radiation free method, better safety profile of MR contrast media, capability of functional imaging). In certain patient, groups MRI might therefore be considered as a valuable alternative in the assessment of suspected PE. This article reviews the relevant MRI techniques for the evaluation of PE and gives an overview of the current literature for contrast-enhanced MR angiography of PE. (orig.)

  7. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) Versus Original and PErFecTED Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Preliminary Results of a Single Center, Prospective, Urodynamic-Controlled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Iscaife, Alexandre, E-mail: iscaifeboni@yahoo.com.br; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M., E-mail: dumuracca@ig.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br; Srougi, Miguel, E-mail: srougi@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare clinical and urodynamic results of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to original and PErFecTED prostate artery embolization (PAE) methods for benign prostatic hyperplasia.MethodsWe prospectively randomized 30 patients to receive TURP or original PAE (oPAE) and compared them to a cohort of patients treated by PErFecTED PAE, with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were assessed for urodynamic parameters, prostate volume, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL).ResultsAll groups were comparable for all pre-treatment parameters except bladder contractility and peak urine flow rate (Q{sub max}), both of which were significantly better in the TURP group, and IIEF score, which was significantly higher among PErFecTED PAE patients than TURP patients. All groups experienced significant improvement in IPSS, QoL, prostate volume, and Q{sub max}. TURP and PErFecTED PAE both resulted in significantly lower IPSS than oPAE but were not significantly different from one another. TURP resulted in significantly higher Q{sub max} and significantly smaller prostate volume than either original or PErFecTED PAE but required spinal anesthesia and hospitalization. Two patients in the oPAE group with hypocontractile bladders experienced recurrence of symptoms and were treated with TURP. In the TURP group, urinary incontinence occurred in 4/15 patients (26.7 %), rupture of the prostatic capsule in 1/15 (6.7 %), retrograde ejaculation in all patients (100 %), and one patient was readmitted for temporary bladder irrigation due to hematuria.ConclusionsTURP and PAE are both safe and effective treatments. TURP and PErFecTED PAE yield similar symptom improvement, but TURP is associated with both better urodynamic results and more adverse events.

  8. Pelvic artery embolization in gynecological bleeding; Beckenarterienembolisationen bei gynaekologischen Blutungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, K.A.; Schreyer, H.; Bodhal, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie Graz Univ., Graz (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The most common reasons for gynecological bleeding are pregnancy-related disorders, fibroids of the uterus, and gynecological malignances. Transarterial embolization is an effective treatment modality for gynecological bleeding regardless of its etiology. Depending on the underlying disease, a different technique of embolization is applied. In postpartal bleeding a temporary effect of embolization is desired, therefore gelatine sponge is used as embolizing agent. In fibroids and malignant tumors the effect should permanent, therefore PVA particles are used. Regardless the etiology, the technical and clinical success of transarterial embolization is at least 90%. In nearly every patient a post-embolization syndrome can be observed, represented by local pain and fever. This post-embolization syndrome usually does not last longer than 3 days. If embolization is performed with meticulous attention to angiographic technique and handling of embolic material, ischemic damage of adjacent organs is rarely observed. Transarterial embolization should be an integrative modality in the treatment of gynecological bleeding. (orig.) [German] Gynaekologische Blutungen koennen schwangerschaftsbedingt sein, oder durch Myome oder maligne Tumore hervorgerufen werden. In allen Faellen ist die Transkatheterembolisation ein effektives therapeutisches Verfahren. Die angewandte Embolisationstechnik haengt von der Aetiologie der Blutung ab. Bei schwangerschaftsbedingten Blutungen ist ein temporaerer Embolisationseffekt erwuenscht, die Embolisation erfolgt daher mit Spongostan. Bei Myomen und Malignomen wird ein permanenter Embolisationseffekt durch die Verwendung von PVA-Partikeln angestrebt. Der technische und klinische Erfolg der Embolisation liegt unabhaengig von der Aetiologie der Blutungen ueber 90%. In der Regel wird bei Embolisationen von Myomen und Malignomen ein Postembolisationssyndrom mit Schmerzen und Fieber beobachtet. Diese Symptome bilden sich jedoch meist innerhalb von 2

  9. The Ketogenic and Atkins Diets Effect on Intractable Epilepsy: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHAZAVI, Ahad; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; NIKIBAKHSH, Ahmad Ali; KHAJEH, Ali; FAYYAZI, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intractable epilepsy is a major difficulty in child neurology, because the numbers of drugs that are available for treatment are limited and new treatments such as diets must be tried. Now there are some diets available for treating patients with intractable epilepsy. The oldest diet is the classic ketogenic diet and one of the newest diets is the modified Atkins diet. Patients have a harder time accepting the classic ketogenic diet than the Atkins diet, which is easier to accept because the food tastes better. This study compares the efficacy of the ketogenic diet and the Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy in children. Materials & Methods This study is a clinical trial survey with sample size of 40 children with refractory epilepsy who were patients at Mofid hospital in Tehran, Iran. Initially, from Jan 2005–Oct 2007, 20 children were treated with the Atkins diet, and then from Oct 2007–March 2010, the other group was treated with the classic ketogenic diet and the results were compared. Results In this study, response to treatment was greater than a 50% reduction in seizures and at the end of first, second, and third months for the ketogenic diet were 55%, 30%, and 70% and for the Atkins diet were 50%, 65%, and 70%, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study show that there is no significant difference between the classic Ketogenic diet and the Atkins diet at the end of first, second, and third months and both had similar responses to the treatments. PMID:25143768

  10. Resting-State Functional MR Imaging for Determining Language Laterality in Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Greve, Douglas N; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To measure the accuracy of resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies against the results of an intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all subjects gave signed informed consent. Data in 23 patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. All 23 patients were candidates for epilepsy surgery and underwent both IAP and resting-state functional MR imaging as part of presurgical evaluation. Language dominance was determined from functional MR imaging data by calculating a laterality index (LI) after using independent component analysis. The accuracy of this method was assessed against that of IAP by using a variety of thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using leave-one-out cross validation. Spatial maps of language components were qualitatively compared among each hemispheric language dominance group. Results Measurement of hemispheric language dominance with resting-state functional MR imaging was highly concordant with IAP results, with up to 96% (22 of 23) accuracy, 96% (22 of 23) sensitivity, and 96% (22 of 23) specificity. Composite language component maps in patients with typical language laterality consistently included classic language areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobule, while those of patients with atypical language laterality also included non-classical language areas such as the superior and middle frontal gyri, the insula, and the occipital cortex. Conclusion Resting-state functional MR imaging can be used to measure language laterality in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: Outcome Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Eun Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kwon, Bo Ra; Kim, See Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy and predictors of clinical outcome after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Of 127 patients who underwent TAE for postpartum hemorrhage, 46 progressed to DIC (group 1), 81 showed normal range hematological parameters (group 2). We retrospectively evaluated etiology, embolization methods and the efficacy of TAE for intergroup comparison Pearson Chi-Square test and logistic regression model. Overall TAE failed to control bleeding in 9 patients in spite of technical success. Lower bleeding control rate was found in group 2 (82.6%) relative to group 1 (98.8%, p = 0.001). And embolization methods were not statistically different between two groups no statistically significant predictors associated with failed hemostasis except the amount of transfusion in group 1. Although bleeding control rate is lower in postpartum hemorrhage with DIC than without DIC, we believe that TAE with correction of DIC is an effective method for postpartum hemorrhage with DIC.

  12. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo method for distributions with intractable normalising constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Pettitt, A. N.; Reeves, R.

    2006-01-01

    Maximum likelihood parameter estimation and sampling from Bayesian posterior distributions are problematic when the probability density for the parameter of interest involves an intractable normalising constant which is also a function of that parameter. In this paper, an auxiliary variable method...... is presented which requires only that independent samples can be drawn from the unnormalised density at any particular parameter value. The proposal distribution is constructed so that the normalising constant cancels from the Metropolis–Hastings ratio. The method is illustrated by producing posterior samples...

  13. Hot water irrigation as treatment for intractable posterior epistaxis in an out-patient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, E; Schlegel-Wagner, C

    2012-01-01

    The management of intractable posterior epistaxis is challenging for any physician. Nasal packing, often combined with use of an endonasal balloon system, is painful for the patient, and torturous to maintain for two to three days. If conservative treatment fails, the most commonly used treatment options are currently invasive procedures such as endoscopic coagulation of bleeding arteries, external ligation and, rarely, embolisation. This paper describes a simple, non-invasive technique of treating posterior epistaxis with hot water irrigation. Technical information is presented, and the benefits of the method are discussed.

  14. [A case of intractable fistula after low anterior resection repaired by transsacral direct suture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takanobu; Kodato, Takashi; Shirai, Junya; Kamiya, Mariko; Sujishi, Ken; Kumazu, Yuta; Sugano, Nobuhiro; Hatori, Shinsuke; Osaragi, Tomohiko; Yoneyama, Katsuya; Kasahara, Akio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of an intractable fistula repaired by transsacral direct suture. A 65-year-old man underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer. He subsequently underwent ileostomy due to anastomosis leakage. The fistula of the anastomosis persisted 3 months after surgery. He underwent surgery to repair the fistula using a transsacral approach. After removing the coccyx, the fistula in the postrectal space was exposed directly. The presence of the fistula was confirmed by an air leak test and was closed by direct suture. After 33 days, the patient underwent ileostomy closure.

  15. Modified Atkins diet to children and adolescents with medical intractable epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Susanne; Mølgaard, Christian; Taudorf, Karen

    2008-01-01

    further restricted to 10g per day. No change in AED treatment was allowed. The diet was well tolerated. After 3 months six out of the fifteen children (40%) had a seizure reduction of more than 50%, which was seen in different epileptic syndromes and different age groups. The responders reported......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of the modified Atkins diet given to children and adolescents with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment resistant epilepsy. 15 children with medically intractable epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were...

  16. Nonthrombotic Pulmonary Artery Embolism: Imaging Findings and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Emre; Balci, Sinan; Atceken, Zeynep; Akpinar, Erhan; Ariyurek, Orhan Macit

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the imaging findings encountered in the setting of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism refers to a spectrum of clinical and radiologic disorders caused by embolization of the pulmonary artery vasculature by various cell types, microorganism, and foreign bodies. Awareness of the imaging and clinical features of the nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism may facilitate prompt diagnosis.

  17. Amelioration of intractable epilepsy by adjunct vagus nerve stimulation therapy in a girl with a CDKL5 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shimpei; Sugawara, Yuji; Moriyama, Kengo; Inaji, Motoki; Maehara, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Morio, Tomohiro

    2017-04-01

    We report the case of on an 8-year-old girl with a cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 mutation and who underwent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for 2years. She had developed epilepsy at the age of 6months and had severe developmental delays. Initially, she had tonic and tonic-clonic seizures; however, around the age of 5years, she also developed epileptic spasms. These seizures were never completely controlled by conventional medical treatments. At the age of 7, after VNS initiation, her seizure frequency markedly reduced, and abnormal electrical activities on her electroencephalography tests strikingly decreased. Moreover, using questionnaires, we confirmed an improvement in her quality of life in the fields of alertness and activity. Although the efficacy of VNS therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy associated with a genetic anomaly has not been fully established, adjunctive VNS therapy may widen the scope of treatment choices available to these patients. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ischemic Gastric Conditioning by Preoperative Arterial Embolization Before Oncologic Esophagectomy: A Single-Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghelfi, Julien, E-mail: JGhelfi@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Brichon, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: PYBrichon@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Thoracique, Vasculaire et Endocrinienne (France); Frandon, Julien, E-mail: Julien.frandon@chu-nimes.fr [CHU de Nîmes, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Boussat, Bastien, E-mail: BBoussat@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Département d’Information Médicale, Pôle de Santé Publique (France); Bricault, Ivan, E-mail: IBricault@chu-grenoble.fr; Ferretti, Gilbert, E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Guigard, Sébastien, E-mail: SGuigard@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Thoracique, Vasculaire et Endocrinienne (France); Sengel, Christian, E-mail: CSengel@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeSurgical esophagectomy is the gold standard treatment of early-stage esophageal cancer. The procedure is complicated with significant morbidity; the most severe complication being the anastomotic leakage. Anastomotic fistulas are reported in 5–25% of cases and are mainly due to gastric transplant ischemia. Here, we report our experience of ischemic pre-conditioning using preoperative arterial embolization (PreopAE) before esophagectomy.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of all patients who underwent oncologic esophagectomy from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who received PreopAE, and a control group of patients who did not benefit from ischemic pre-conditioning. The target arteries selected for PreopAE were the splenic artery, left gastric artery, and right gastric artery. Evaluation of the results was based on anastomotic leakage, postoperative mortality, technical success of PreopAE, and complications related to the embolization procedure.ResultsForty-six patients underwent oncologic esophagectomy with PreopAE and 13 patients did not receive ischemic conditioning before surgery. Thirty-eight PreopAE were successfully performed (83%), but right gastric artery embolization failed for 8 patients. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 6 PreopAE patients (13%) and in 6 patients (46%) in the control group (p = 0.02). The mortality rate was 2% in the PreopAE group and 23% in the control group (p = 0.03). Eighteen patients suffered from partial splenic infarction after PreopAE, all treated conservatively.ConclusionPreoperative ischemic conditioning by arterial embolization before oncologic esophagectomy seems to be effective in preventing anastomotic leakage.

  19. Fever and Skin Involvement at Diagnosis Predicting the Intractable Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: 40 Case-Series in a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuko; Koga, Yuhki; Ishimura, Masataka; Nakashima, Kentaro; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Motoshi; Eguchi, Katsuhide; Fukano, Reiji; Honjo, Satoshi; Oda, Yoshinao; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-12-29

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) occurs as a clonal disease with enigmatic immune responses. LCH patients occasionally present with fever, although the significance remains elusive. We investigated the predicting factors for developing intractable disease of refractory and/or reactivated LCH. In total, 40 pediatric LCH patients managed in Kyushu University from 1998 to 2014 were enrolled. The medical records were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients suffered from multisystem (MS) LCH involving risk organs (ROs) (n=4) or not (n=12). In total, 24 patients had single-system LCH affecting bone (multi n=8, single n=13), skin (n=2), or lymph node lesions (n=1). Eight patients had the intractable disease of 7 MS or 1 multibone LCH. Two patients died from MS LCH with or without RO involvement. Ten patients showed persistent fever (>38°C) at onset. Intractable cases had fever, RO and skin involvement, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, microcytic anemia, higher levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and C-reactive protein, more frequently at diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated that fever and skin lesions at diagnosis were independently associated with the intractability (odds ratio: fever, 35.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-1229.1; skin lesions, 24.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-868.7). Initial fever and skin involvement might predict the development of intractable and fatal-risk LCH even without the RO involvement.

  20. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute pulmoner embolism mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Avcı Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and electocardiographic (ECG features in pulmonary embolism (PE lack of specificity and may mimic an acute coronary syndrom (ACS. We here report a case of a 56-year-old woman presenting with chest pain secondary to pulmonary artery embolism which was initially diagnosed as ACS due to electrocardiographic changes and raised troponin. PE presenting with negative T-wave inversion can mimic ACS and misdirect the diagnostic approach. Simultaneous T-wave inversions in anterior and inferior leads are important clues suggesting PE. Most common ECG findings in PE are anteroseptal T-wave inversion/ST-elevation or depression along with complete or incomplete right bundle branch block, sinus tachycardia, low QRS-complex voltage, an S1Q3T3 pattern, and right axis deviation. The reasons for the ECG changes that seem like ischemia are sudden RV strain, hypoxemia and the release of catecholamines. So we have to be aware that PE can present as acute coronary syndrome with ECG changes preoccupy ischemia

  2. Intraventricular hemorrhage after dural fistula embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Chaves Gonçalves Rodrigues de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Dural arteriovenous fistulas are anomalous shunts between dural arterial and venous channels whose nidus is located between the dural leaflets. For those circumstances when invasive treatment is mandatory, endovascular techniques have grown to become the mainstay of practice, choice attributable to their reported safety and effectiveness. We describe the unique and rare case of a dural arteriovenous fistula treated by transarterial embolization and complicated by an intraventricular hemorrhage. We aim to emphasize some central aspects of the perioperative management of these patients in order to help improving the future approach of similar cases. Case report: A 59-year-old woman with a previously diagnosed Cognard Type IV dural arteriovenous fistula presented for transarterial embolization, performed outside the operating room, under total intravenous anesthesia. The procedure underwent without complications and the intraoperative angiography revealed complete obliteration of the fistula. In the early postoperative period, the patient presented with clinical signs of raised intracranial pressure attributable to a later diagnosed intraventricular hemorrhage, which conditioned placement of a ventricular drain, admission to an intensive care unit, cerebral vasospasm and a prolonged hospital stay. Throughout the perioperative period, there were no changes in the cerebral brain oximetry. The patient was discharged without neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Intraventricular hemorrhage may be a serious complication after the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula. A close postoperative surveillance and monitoring allow an early diagnosis and treatment which increases the odds for an improved outcome.

  3. Spontaneous occlusion of cerebral arteriovenous malformation following partial embolization with Onyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Omer Fatih; Ozturk, Kerem; Gokalp, Gokhan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-02-01

    Management options for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolization. The aim of partial embolization in endovascular treatment is to make total resection possible. However, increased risk of bleeding in partial embolization creates some controversies about treatment options. Spontaneous total occlusion of cerebral AVMs following partial obliteration with embolization agents is a rarely seen condition. We present a case with an AVM vanishing from right posterior cerebral artery which spontaneously occluded following partial embolization with Onyx liquid agent.

  4. ACTH therapy on intractable epilepsy in Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia-Epilepsy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nomura, Shohei; Ogino, Motoko; Fukui, Miho; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    In the chronic phase of Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia-Epilepsy (HHE) syndrome, developing epilepsy may be intractable. Herein, we report a case where adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ceased an intractable habitual partial seizure in a patient with HHE syndrome. A developmentally normal one-year-old girl presented with left focal motor status epilepticus in the clinical course of rotavirus infection. She was diagnosed with HH syndrome. At 4 months after status epilepticus, she developed partial seizures that occurred daily, and which resulted in a stooped posture, head rotation to the right, and contraction of both upper limbs predominantly in the left arm. At this time, she was diagnosed with idiopathic HHE syndrome. Her seizures were not reduced by sodium valproate, clonazepam, clobazam, zonisamide, phenytoin, phenobarbital, topiramate, lamotrigine, or liposteroid. At the age of 7, ACTH therapy was performed. On the 10th day of ACTH therapy, the habitual seizure was ceased. However, partial seizures characterized by left arm contraction then developed. Treatment with 350 mg/day lamotrigine prevented this emerging seizure. She has been free of both seizure types for more than one year, with no serious adverse effects of ACTH therapy. We suggest that ACTH therapy may be useful for patients with HHE, although further studies are required. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical resection for intractable epilepsy in "double cortex" syndrome yields inadequate results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, A; Martinez, V; Rosa-Neto, P; D'Agostino, D; Bernasconi, N; Berkovic, S; MacKay, M; Harvey, A S; Palmini, A; da Costa, J C; Paglioli, E; Kim, H I; Connolly, M; Olivier, A; Dubeau, F; Andermann, E; Guerrini, R; Whisler, W; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F; Andermann, F

    2001-09-01

    To analyze the results of surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy in patients with subcortical band heterotopia, or double cortex syndrome, a diffuse neuronal migration disorder. We studied eight patients (five women) with double cortex syndrome and intractable epilepsy. All had a comprehensive presurgical evaluation including prolonged video-EEG recordings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had partial seizures, with secondary generalization in six of them. Neurologic examination was normal in all. Three were of normal intelligence, and five were mildly retarded. Six patients underwent invasive EEG recordings, three of them with subdural grids and three with stereotactic implanted depth electrodes (SEEG). Although EEG recordings showed multilobar epileptic abnormalities in most patients, regional or focal seizure onset was recorded in all. MRI showed bilateral subcortical band heterotopia, asymmetric in thickness in three. An additional area of cortical thickening in the left frontal lobe was found in one patient. Surgical procedures included multiple subpial transections in two patients, frontal lesionectomy in one, temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy in five, and an additional anterior callosotomy in one. Five patients had no significant improvement, two had some improvement, and one was greatly improved. Our results do not support focal surgical removal of epileptogenic tissue in patients with double cortex syndrome, even in the presence of a relatively localized epileptogenic area.

  6. Outcomes of Disconnective Surgery in Intractable Pediatric Hemispheric and Subhemispheric Epilepsy

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    Santhosh George Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the outcome of disconnective epilepsy surgery for intractable hemispheric and sub-hemispheric pediatric epilepsy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the epilepsy surgery database was done in all children (age <18 years who underwent a peri-insular hemispherotomy (PIH or a peri-insular posterior quadrantectomy (PIPQ from April 2000 to March 2011. All patients underwent a detailed pre surgical evaluation. Seizure outcome was assessed by the Engel’s classification and cognitive skills by appropriate measures of intelligence that were repeated annually. Results: There were 34 patients in all. Epilepsy was due to Rasmussen’s encephalitis (RE, Infantile hemiplegia seizure syndrome (IHSS, Hemimegalencephaly (HM, Sturge Weber syndrome (SWS and due to post encephalitic sequelae (PES. Twenty seven (79.4% patients underwent PIH and seven (20.6% underwent PIPQ. The mean follow up was 30.5 months. At the last follow up, 31 (91.1% were seizure free. The age of seizure onset and etiology of the disease causing epilepsy were predictors of a Class I seizure outcome. Conclusions: There is an excellent seizure outcome following disconnective epilepsy surgery for intractable hemispheric and subhemispheric pediatric epilepsy. An older age of seizure onset, RE, SWS and PES were good predictors of a Class I seizure outcome.

  7. [Successful treatment with chloramphenicol in four pediatric cases of intractable bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kayo; Abe, Yu-ichi; Itano, Atsushi; Musha, Ikuma; Koga, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Taro; Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CP) is recently one of the rarely-used antibiotics. In this study, we present four patients with intractable bacterial meningitis, who were successfully treated with CP and discuss the therapeutic indications of CP in these pediatric cases. The patients were diagnosed as bacterial meningitis at the ages ranging from 2 months to 1 year and 4 months. The causative organisms found in three of the patients were H. influenzae and in the fourth patient, S. pneumoniae. According to the microbial sensitivity tests, these organisms were highly sensitive to antibiotics including ceftriaxone, meropenem and/or panipenem/betamipron. Treatment with these antibiotics was initially effective; however, recurrences of meningitis appeared in all patients. Administration of CP (100 mg/kg/day) started between the 11th and the 58th days, and was continued for 9 days up to 19 days. Their fever had disappeared within four days after the administration of CP, and it was confirmed that all patients completely recovered from meningitis. Two of the patients developed a mild degree of anemia, but soon recovered after the discontinuation of CP. None of them had neurological sequela. We recommend CP as one of the choices for the treatment of intractable bacterial meningitis.

  8. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

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    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test.

  9. Understanding complexities of synaptic transmission in medically intractable seizures: A paradigm of epilepsy research

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    Jyotirmoy Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the changes associated with the development of epileptic state in humans is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Understanding the intricacies of medically intractable epilepsy still remains a challenge for neurosurgeons across the world. A significant number of patients who has undergone resective brain surgery for epilepsy still continue to have seizures. The reason behind this therapy resistance still eludes us. Thus to develop a cure for the difficult to treat epilepsy, we need to comprehensively study epileptogenesis. Although various animal models are developed but none of them replicate the pathological conditions in humans. So the ideal way to understand epileptogenecity is to examine the tissue resected for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Advanced imaging and electrical localization procedures are utilized to establish the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients. Further molecular and cytological studies are required for the microscopic analysis of brain samples collected from the epileptogenic focus. As alterations in inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission are key features of epilepsy, understanding the regulation of neurotransmission in the resected surgery zone is of immense importance. Here we summarize various modalities of in vitro slice analysis from the resected brain specimen to understand the changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in epileptogenic zone. We also review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of nicotinic receptors in abnormal synaptic transmission which is one of the major causes of epileptiform activity. Elucidation of current concepts in regulation of synaptic transmission will help develop therapies for epilepsy cases that cannot me managed pharmacologically.

  10. Chronic Granulomatous Herpes Encephalitis in a Child with Clinically Intractable Epilepsy

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    James R. Hackney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with herpes simplex virus Type I encephalitis experience an acute, monophasic illness. Chronic encephalitis is much less common, and few late relapses are associated with intractable seizure disorders. A 10-year-old boy was admitted to our institution for intractable epilepsy as part of an evaluation for epilepsy surgery. His history was significant for herpes meningitis at age 4 months. At that time, he presented to an outside hospital with fever for three days, with acyclovir treatment beginning on day 4 of his 40-day hospital course. He later developed infantile spasms and ultimately a mixed seizure disorder. Video electroencephalogram showed a Lennox-Gastaut-type pattern with frequent right frontotemporal spikes. Imaging studies showed an abnormality in the right frontal operculum. Based on these findings, he underwent a right frontal lobectomy. Neuropathology demonstrated chronic granulomatous inflammation with focal necrosis and mineralizations. Scattered lymphocytes, microglial nodules and nonnecrotizing granulomas were present with multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry for herpes simplex virus showed focal immunoreactivity. After undergoing acyclovir therapy, he returned to baseline with decreased seizure frequency. This rare form of herpes encephalitis has only been reported in children, but the initial presentation of meningitis and the approximate 10-year-time interval in this case are unusual.

  11. A case of intractable infectious keratitis and subsequent flap necrosis after laser in situ keratomileusis

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    Kazutaka Kamiya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazutaka Kamiya, Masayuki Kasahara, Kimiya ShimizuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Kitasato School of Medicine, JapanAbstract: We report on a patient in whom intractable infectious keratitis and subsequent lamellar flap necrosis necessitating flap amputation after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. A 34-year-old woman undergoing LASIK complained of blurred vision and pain in the left eye. The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 0.01, and slit-lamp examination showed a marked presence of stromal infiltrates involving the flap and the underlying stroma in that eye. The patient was treated topically with hourly instillation of micronomicin, levofloxacin, and cefmenoxime, together with systemic administration of imipenem, but the left eye developed corneal flap necrosis. We performed surgical debridement of the diseased stroma and excised the lamellar flap. Since nontuberculous mycobacterium was detected on the surgical instruments, we then added oral clarithromycin, and substituted systemic administration of amikacin with that of imipenem. At one month after the flap removal, the visual acuity gradually improved to 0.7, but the stromal opacity of the central cornea and hyperopic shift of +3.0 diopters remained. LASIK can cause intractable keratitis, resulting in significant visual disturbance that presumably results from insufficient antisepsis of the medical instruments used for this surgery, supporting the importance of strict sterilization of these instruments.Keywords: infectious keratitis, flap necrosis, nontuberculous mycobacterium, sterilization, LASIK

  12. Catalytic-Independent Functions of PARP-1 Determine Sox2 Pioneer Activity at Intractable Genomic Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziying; Kraus, W Lee

    2017-02-16

    Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) function as genomic first responders, binding to inaccessible regions of chromatin to promote enhancer formation. The mechanism by which pioneer TFs gain access to chromatin remains an important unanswered question. Here we show that PARP-1, a nucleosome-binding protein, cooperates with intrinsic properties of the pioneer TF Sox2 to facilitate its binding to intractable genomic loci in embryonic stem cells. These actions of PARP-1 occur independently of its poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferase activity. PARP-1-dependent Sox2-binding sites reside in euchromatic regions of the genome with relatively high nucleosome occupancy and low co-occupancy by other transcription factors. PARP-1 stabilizes Sox2 binding to nucleosomes at suboptimal sites through cooperative interactions on DNA. Our results define intrinsic and extrinsic features that determine Sox2 pioneer activity. The conditional pioneer activity observed with Sox2 at a subset of binding sites may be a key feature of other pioneer TFs operating at intractable genomic loci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colchicine in Treatment of Intractable Postpericardiotomy Syndrome in an Elderly Patient

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    Lin-Shong Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Postpericardiotomy syndrome is a specific type of acute pericarditis because of a delayed pericardial and/or pleural reaction after thoracic surgery. Relapse after aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and/or steroid treatment or intractable to this conventional therapy causes a troublesome situation. Colchicine was first proposed for treatment of recurrent pericarditis in 1987. A number of investigators have reported the efficacy and safety of colchicine in combination therapy for recurrent pericarditis. Recently, Colchicine for Recurrent Pericarditis and Colchicine for Acute Pericarditis studies suggested that colchicine is useful in the first attack of acute pericarditis, and corticosteroid therapy given in the first attack favors the recurrence of pericarditis. In this report, we present an 82-year-old woman with severe tricuspid regurgitation and moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation because of rheumatic heart disease, postpericardiotomy syndrome with severe pleural and pericardial effusion developed after the open-heart surgery. Both pleural and pericardial effusion was intractable to steroid therapy. Colchicine and steroid combination therapy made the syndrome remission rapidly. The total course of colchicines therapy was 2.5 months. There was no recurrence after 1 year of clinic follow-up.

  14. A Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for sampling from distributions with intractable normalizing constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Faming; Jin, Ick-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Simulating from distributions with intractable normalizing constants has been a long-standing problem in machine learning. In this letter, we propose a new algorithm, the Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings (MCMH) algorithm, for tackling this problem. The MCMH algorithm is a Monte Carlo version of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. It replaces the unknown normalizing constant ratio by a Monte Carlo estimate in simulations, while still converges, as shown in the letter, to the desired target distribution under mild conditions. The MCMH algorithm is illustrated with spatial autologistic models and exponential random graph models. Unlike other auxiliary variable Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, such as the Møller and exchange algorithms, the MCMH algorithm avoids the requirement for perfect sampling, and thus can be applied to many statistical models for which perfect sampling is not available or very expensive. The MCMH algorithm can also be applied to Bayesian inference for random effect models and missing data problems that involve simulations from a distribution with intractable integrals.

  15. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  16. A Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm for Sampling from Distributions with Intractable Normalizing Constants

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-08-01

    Simulating from distributions with intractable normalizing constants has been a long-standing problem inmachine learning. In this letter, we propose a new algorithm, the Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings (MCMH) algorithm, for tackling this problem. The MCMH algorithm is a Monte Carlo version of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. It replaces the unknown normalizing constant ratio by a Monte Carlo estimate in simulations, while still converges, as shown in the letter, to the desired target distribution under mild conditions. The MCMH algorithm is illustrated with spatial autologistic models and exponential random graph models. Unlike other auxiliary variable Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, such as the Møller and exchange algorithms, the MCMH algorithm avoids the requirement for perfect sampling, and thus can be applied to many statistical models for which perfect sampling is not available or very expensive. TheMCMHalgorithm can also be applied to Bayesian inference for random effect models and missing data problems that involve simulations from a distribution with intractable integrals. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  17. Medial release and lateral imbrication for intractable anterior knee pain: diagnostic process, technique, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldrum AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexander R Meldrum,1 Jeremy R Reed,2 Megan D Dash3 1Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine, Regina, SK, Canada; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK, Canada Purpose: To present two cases of intractable patellofemoral pain syndrome treated with a novel procedure, arthroscopic medial release, and lateral imbrication of the patellar retinaculum. Patients and methods: This case series presents the treatment of three knees in two patients (one bilateral in whom an all-inside arthroscopic medial release and lateral imbrication of the patellar retinaculum was performed. Subjective measurement of pain was the primary outcome measurement, and subjective patellofemoral instability was the secondary outcome measurement. Results: Subjectively the two patients had full resolution of their pain, without any patellofemoral instability. Conclusion: Medial release and lateral imbrication of the patellar retinaculum is a new surgical procedure that has been used in the treatment of intractable patellofemoral pain syndrome. This is the first report of its kind in the literature. While outcome measurements were less than ideal, the patients had positive outcomes, both functionally and in terms of pain. Keywords: anterior knee pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, runners knee, patellar chondropathy, patellofemoral dysfunction, patellofemoral tracking disorder

  18. Renoduodenal Fistula After Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma

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    Sheth, Rahul A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Feldman, Adam S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery (United States); Walker, T. Gregory, E-mail: tgwalker@partners.org [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas is a routinely performed, nephron-sparing procedure with a favorable safety profile. Complications from this procedure are typically minor in severity, with postembolization syndrome the most common minor complication. Abscess formation is a recognized but uncommon major complication of this procedure and is presumably due to superinfection of the infarcted tissue after arterial embolization. In this case report, we describe the formation of a renoduodenal fistula after embolization of an angiomyolipoma, complicated by intracranial abscess formation and requiring multiple percutaneous drainage procedures and eventual partial nephrectomy.

  19. Postcoital Hemorrhage of a Recurrent Seminal Vesicle Cyst Requiring Embolization

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    Eric Royston

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein is a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrence of a seminal vesicle cyst after percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic excision complicated by hemorrhage requiring embolization. He presented to the emergency department for pain after ejaculation. Computed tomographic scan of his pelvis revealed extravasation of contrast near his cyst and pelvic fluid collection suspicious for a hematoma. The patient had steadily decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. An interventional radiologist performed an embolization of the left seminal vesicle cystic arteries. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values improved and he was discharged. Hemorrhage resolved with embolization procedure and pain dissipated over the course of follow up care.

  20. PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN BREAST CANCER: ETIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT APPROACHES

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    I. D. Rozanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism in breast cancer is one of the causes of major deterioration of health status of the patients. Pulmonary artery occlusion is most often a  consequence of venous thromboembolism; this condition is referred to as "pulmonary thromboembolism". Significantly less common cause of occlusion of the pulmonary artery branches can be embolism by a  cluster of tumor cells, accompanied by development of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. This paper reviews data on the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism in breast cancer, and approaches to its prevention and treatment.

  1. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Halpern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele.

  2. Anterior mediastinal paraganglioma: A case for preoperative embolization

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    Shakir Murtaza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraganglioma is a rare but highly vascular tumor of the anterior mediastinum. Surgical resection is a challenge owing to the close proximity to vital structures including the heart, trachea and great vessels. Preoperative embolization has been reported once to facilitate surgical treatment. Case presentation We report a case of anterior mediastinal paraganglioma that was embolized preoperatively, and was resected without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and without major bleeding complications. Conclusion We make a case to further the role of preoperative embolization in the treatment of mediastinal paragangliomas.

  3. Embolization of a giant pediatric, posttraumatic, skull base internal carotid artery aneurysm with a liquid embolic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Adam S; Simon, Scott; Mericle, Robert A

    2009-11-01

    Many treatments for posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms have been described. Eight months after an all-terrain-vehicle accident, this 12-year-old girl presented with right-side Horner syndrome caused by a 33 x 19-mm internal carotid artery aneurysm at the C-1 level. We chose to treat the aneurysm with a new liquid embolic agent for wide-necked, side-wall aneurysms (Onyx HD 500). We felt this treatment would result in less morbidity than surgery and was less likely to occlude the parent artery than placement of a covered stent, especially in a smaller artery in a pediatric patient. Liquid embolic agents also appear to be associated with a lower chance of recanalization and lower cost compared with stent-assisted coil embolization. After the patient was treated with loading doses of aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate, and heparin, 99% of the aneurysm was embolized with 9 cc of the liquid embolic agent. There were no complications, and the patient remained neurologically stable. Follow-up angiography revealed durable aneurysm occlusion after 1 year. The cost of Onyx was less than the cost of coils required for coil embolization of similarly sized intracranial aneurysms at our institution. Liquid embolic agents can provide a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective approach to treatment of select giant, posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms in pediatric patients.

  4. Surfactant reduction in embolism bubble adhesion and endothelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akira; Armstead, Stephen C; Eckmann, David M

    2004-07-01

    Surfactants may reduce the adhesion force holding bubbles to the vessel wall in gas embolism. The authors measured bubble adhesion force using excised microvessels. They assessed endothelial damage by measuring vessel reactivity and with microscopy. Microbubbles injected into arterioles resided for 5, 10, or 30 min, with intact or damaged endothelium. Perfusion was with rat serum alone (control) or with 1% Perftoran (OJSC SPC Perftoran, Moscow, Russia) or 1% Pluronic F-127 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) added. Pressure across the bubble, bubble length, and bubble diameter were measured, and adhesion force per unit surface area, K = deltaPD/4 l, was calculated. Vessel reactivity was assessed using topical application of phenylephrine and acetylcholine. With the endothelium intact, K was higher in controls than with Perftoran at 10 and 30 min or Pluronic F-127 at 10 min (P surfactant added after air perfusion to damage the endothelium, K was lower (P surfactant in the perfusate before air perfusion, K was lower at 10 and 30 min for Perftoran and at 10 min for Pluronic F-127 than for controls (P surfactant exposure than in either surfactant group (P Surfactants reduced bubble adhesion force and preserved basic endothelial structure and vasodilatory function despite attempts to damage the endothelium. Surfactants seem to protect the endothelium from mechanically induced injury in addition to decreasing bubble adhesion forces.

  5. Successful treatment of postoperative massive pulmonary embolism with paradoxal arterial embolism through extracorporeal life support and thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapatsas, Konstantinos; Leivaditis, Vasileios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsilogianni, Zoi; Kotoulas, Sotirios; Kotoulas, Christophoros; Koletsis, Efstratios; Iliadis, Ilias Stylianos; Spiliotopoulos, Konstantinos; Trakada, Georgia; Veletza, Lemonia; Kallianos, Anastasios; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Huang, Haidong; Haussmann, Rainer; Haussmann, Erich; Dahm, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common clinical entity related to high mortality. About 200,000 to 300,000 patients die every year due to pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of a patient who on the second postoperative day after undergoing thromboembolectomy of the left femoral artery, manifested a massive pulmonary embolism. Due to cardiorespiratory collapse a combined treatment via extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and parallel catheter thrombolysis was decided and performed. By cardiorespiratory improvement and final stabilization the patient was successfully weaned from ECLS and the system was successfully removed. After a reasonable postoperative time the patient was dismissed in good overall condition.

  6. Sustained reduction of seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy after self-regulation training of slow cortical potentials –10 year after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eStrehl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the reduction of seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy after self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCP was maintained almost ten years after the end of treatment. Originally, 41 patients received training with SCP-Neurofeedback. A control group of 12 patients received respiratory feedback while another group of 11 patients had their anticonvulsant medications reviewed. Nineteen patients in the experimental group participated at least in parts of the long term follow-up, but only two patients from each control group agreed to do so. The follow-up participants completed the same seizure diaries as in the original study. Patients of the experimental group also took part in three SCP-training sessions at the follow-up evaluation. Due to the small sample size, the results of participants in the control groups were not considered in the analysis. A significant decrease in seizure frequency was found about 10 years after the end of SCP treatment. The clinical significance of this result is considered medium to high. All patients were still able to self-regulate their slow cortical potentials during the feedback condition. This success was achieved without booster sessions.This is the longest follow-up evaluation of the outcome of a psychophysiological treatment in patients with epilepsy ever reported. Reduced seizure frequency may be the result of patients continued ability to self-regulate their slow cortical potentials. Given such a long follow-up period, the possible impact of confounding variables should be taken into account. The small number of patients participating in this follow-up evaluation diminishes the ability to make causal inferences. However, the consistency and duration of improvement for patients who received SCP-feedback training suggests that such treatment may be considered as a treatment for patients with intractable epilepsy and as an adjunct to conventional

  7. Embolization of a traumatic uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Monette S; Borge, Marc A; Pierce, Kenneth L

    2007-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can lead to massive hemorrhage. Although angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis, ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice for the evaluation of a suspected AVM. US and MRI cannot only accurately define a uterine AVM, but they also have the ability to assess the extent of pelvic involvement noninvasively. The definitive treatment of uterine AVM is hysterectomy. However, most women diagnosed with the condition are of childbearing age. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective alternative to surgery, with the major advantage of retaining childbearing capacity.

  8. [Parma Stroke Data Bank: embolic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, C; Catamo, A; Finzi, G; Mombelloni, A; Rossetti, A; Silvestrini, C; Ponari, O

    1995-11-01

    Cerebral infarction is one of the three main causes of death in most countries. It is very frequent and, since it is more often disabiliting rather than fatal, it is of high social impact. The correct classification of patients and the accurate diagnostic definition of the various subtypes of stroke is of great prognostic and therapeutic importance since cerebral infarction is not a single entity. In this study we report our findings concerning 244 patients with embolic infarction recorded in the Parma Stroke Data Bank hospital register. Clinical features were studied (risk factors, symptomatology of the onset, degree of severity within 3 days of the onset, post-stroke complications) as were instruments readings (TAC) and evolution (outcome, mortality, personal performance and environmental integration, both 4 weeks after the clinical onset and after one year).

  9. Cutaneous embolism of an atrial myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Bandera, Ana Isabel; Stewart, Nicholas Charles; Uribe, Pablo; Minocha, Rashi; Choi, James Young Joon

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma often presents with heterogeneous symptoms and signs and represents a challenging diagnosis. The cutaneous manifestations, if present, are often transient and non-specific and the clinician must possess a high degree of suspicion to secure the diagnosis. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with a 6-month history of intermittent, painful, violaceous, non-blanching macules on the thumb and fingertips of the left hand and right ankle. A cutaneous embolic phenomenon was suspected and an urgent echocardiogram demonstrated an atrial mass, with subsequent histopathology confirming the clinical suspicion of atrial myxoma. Early diagnosis and excision of the tumour avoided serious complications. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Management dilemmas in acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Hughes, Rodney J; Hurdman, Judith; Maclean, Rhona M; Sabroe, Ian; van Veen, Joost J; Kiely, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians treating acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are faced with difficult management decisions while specific guidance from recent guidelines may be absent. Methods Fourteen clinical dilemmas were identified by physicians and haematologists with specific interests in acute and chronic PE. Current evidence was reviewed and a practical approach suggested. Results Management dilemmas discussed include: sub-massive PE, PE following recent stroke or surgery, thrombolysis dosing and use in cardiac arrest, surgical or catheter-based therapy, failure to respond to initial thrombolysis, PE in pregnancy, right atrial thrombus, role of caval filter insertion, incidental and sub-segmental PE, differentiating acute from chronic PE, early discharge and novel oral anticoagulants. Conclusion The suggested approaches are based on a review of the available evidence and guidelines and on our clinical experience. Management in an individual patient requires clinical assessment of risks and benefits and also depends on local availability of therapeutic interventions. PMID:24343784

  11. Pulmonary embolism due to exogenous estrogen intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Caner; Carus, Murat; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a relatively common clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism, which develops in relation to acute pulmonary arterial occlusion mostly caused by thrombi of the lower limbs. 29year old female admitted to emergency department with pulmonary thromboembolism due to an ingestion of 17 Diana 35 pills (2 mg cyproterone acetate and 0.035mg ethinyl estradiol) in a suicide attempt without any previously known predisposing factors. After thrombolytic therapy, the patient was discharged with oral warfarin treatment. We know that exogenous estrogen increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in therapeutic use. It should be kept in mind that even single ingestion of a single high-dose exogenous estrogen intake may induce pulmonary thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Secondary pulmonary embolism to right atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Besó, L; Zúñiga Cedó, E

    2013-10-01

    A case of pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to atrial myxoma right. The myxoma is a primary cardiac tumor, namely, has his origin in the cardiac tissue. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, including myxomas, the most common type. Have a predilection for females and the most useful tool for diagnosis is echocardiography. About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart and rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas in some sometimes associated with tricuspid stenosis and atrial fibrillation. The most common clinical manifestations include symptoms of this neoplasm constitutional, and embolic phenomena resulting from the obstruction to the flow intracavitary. The treatment of this condition is surgical. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. A rare cause of pulmonary embolism: panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Cevik, Erdem

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a patient with pulmonary embolism during a high-dose course of panax. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with sudden complaints of shortness of breath, sweating,weakness, and loss of conscious after panax pills intake. At pulmonary computed tomography angiography, hypodense filling defect compatible with pulmonary emboli was seen at the bifurcation level of right and left distal pulmonary arteries and at each of pulmonary lobary arteries. The patient was treated with pulmonary artery selective thrombolysis. Conclusion: Herbal products, which are used all over the world to support health, should not be taken indiscriminately because their ingredients' amounts and what kind of adverse effects may come up whether used alone or in combination cannot be known.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: ablation and arterial embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, J I; Páramo, M; Madrid, J M; Benito, A

    2017-11-03

    Percutaneous and endovascular techniques take an important role in the therapeutic management of patients with hepatocarcinoma. Different techniques of percutaneous ablation, especially indicated in tumors up to 2cm diameter offer, at least, similar results to surgical resection. Taking advantage of double hepatic vascularization and exclusive tumor nutrition by the artery, several endovascular techniques of treating the tumor have been developed. Intra-arterial administration of embolizing particles, alone or charged with drug (chemoembolization), will produce ischemia and consequent necrosis with excellent results in selected patients. Certain types of particles may exclusively be carriers of a therapeutic agent when they incorporate a radioisotope that facilitates the direct intratumoral selective irradiation (radioembolization). This technique has demonstrated its efficacy in lesions not susceptible to be treated with other methods and should be considered, together with ablation and chemoembolization, in the therapeutic algorithms of hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of uterine arterial embolization on the ovarian function in puerpera with postpartum hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Xian Deng

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To observe the hemostatic effect of uterine arterial embolization in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and the effect on menstruation, sex hormone level, ovarian function, and pelvic floor function.Methods:A total of 45 patients with postpartum hemorrhage who were admitted in the Department of Obstetrics of our hospital from January, 2014 to June, 2016 for uterine arterial embolization were included in the study and served as the treatment group. The postoperative menstruation recovery was recorded. The hormone levels, ovarian function, and pelvic floor function before and after treatment were recorded. A total of 42 normal puerpera were served as the control group. The menstrual status of the two groups after menstruation was compared.Results: Rapid and effective hemostasis could be obtained from patients in the treatment group after treatment with hemostasis success rate of 100%. The comparison of menstruation cycle and menstruation days after treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. The levels of E2, P, FSH, LH and PRL, ovarian function index RI and PI, pelvic floor muscle fatigue and vaginal dynamic pressure before and after 3 and 6 months had no significant difference, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups.Conclusions: Uterine arterial embolization in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage is effective, and has no influence on the patient's menstrual conditions, sex hormone levels, ovarian and pelvic floor functions; therefore, it is worthy of clinical application.

  16. Fat embolization and fatal cardiac arrest during hip arthroplasty with methylmethacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K M; Fuller, J G; Morley-Forster, P

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes a cardiac arrest during a cemented hip arthroplasty procedure. Hemodynamic instability during methylmethacrylate use in arthroplasty surgery can be explained by fat embolization rather than the inherent toxicity of the monomer. A 78-yr-old woman required a cemented hemiarthroplasty for a pathologic left subcapital fracture. The patient's past medical history included stable angina, diet-controlled type II diabetes and metastatic breast cancer. During the cementing of the canal and insertion of the femoral prosthesis, desaturation, hypotension and cardiac arrest occurred. The patient underwent a successful intraoperative resuscitation and was transferred to the intensive care unit where she subsequently developed disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The patient died 24 hr later and autopsy confirmed the cause of death as fat embolization. The deleterious cardiovascular effects of methylmethacrylate have been discussed in the literature. However, clinical evidence supports fat embolization during arthroplasty surgery as a greater determinant of hemodynamic compromise. Surgical precautions are paramount in minimizing the sequelae of Bone Implantation Syndrome and anesthetic treatment consists of supportive care.

  17. Development of enterohepatic fistula after embolization in ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Ho; Koo, Ja Seol; Jung, Chang Ho; Chung, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jae Joong; Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Choung, Rok Seon; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun

    2013-11-21

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with the formation of fistulas to adjacent organs in few case reports. However, GIST with enterohepatic fistula has not been reported. Here we report the case of an enterohepatic fistula that occurred after embolization of a liver mass originating in the distal ileum. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. On initial conventional endoscopy, a bleeding focus in the gastrointestinal tract was not found. Because of massive hematochezia, enteroscopy was performed through the anus. A protruding, ulcerative mass was found in the distal ileum that was suspected to be the source of the bleeding; a biopsy sample was taken. Electrocoagulation was not successful in controlling the bleeding; therefore, embolization was performed. After embolization, the patient developed a high fever and severe abdominal tenderness with rebound tenderness. Follow-up abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed an enterohepatic fistula between the liver and distal ileum. The fistula was treated surgically by segmental resection of the distal ileum and unlooping of the liver mass.

  18. A microfluidic pump/valve inspired by xylem embolism and transpiration in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jingmin

    Full Text Available In plants, transpiration draws the water upward from the roots to the leaves. However, this flow can be blocked by air bubbles in the xylem conduits, which is called xylem embolism. In this research, we present the design of a biomimetic microfluidic pump/valve based on water transpiration and xylem embolism. This micropump/valve is mainly composed of three parts: the first is a silicon sheet with an array of slit-like micropores to mimic the stomata in a plant leaf; the second is a piece of agarose gel to mimic the mesophyll cells in the sub-cavities of a stoma; the third is a micro-heater which is used to mimic the xylem embolism and its self-repairing. The solution in the microchannels of a microfluidic chip can be driven by the biomimetic "leaf" composed of the silicon sheet and the agarose gel. The halting and flowing of the solution is controlled by the micro-heater. Results have shown that a steady flow rate of 1.12 µl/min can be obtained by using this micropump/valve. The time interval between the turning on/off of the micro-heater and the halt (or flow of the fluid is only 2∼3 s. This micropump/valve can be used as a "plug and play" fluid-driven unit. It has the potential to be used in many application fields.

  19. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.

  20. Image-guidance for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and cerebral embolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikouskaya, I; Rottbauer, W; Gonska, B; Rodewald, C; Seeger, J; Rasche, V; Wöhrle, J

    2017-12-15

    The study was aimed at evaluation of the feasibility and potential benefit of image fusion (IF) of pre-procedural CT angiography (CTA) and x-ray (XR) fluoroscopy for image-guided navigation in transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the strong focus on guiding the double-filter cerebral embolic protection device and valve prosthesis placement. In 31 patients undergoing TAVI, image registration of CTA-derived 3D anatomical models of the relevant cardiac anatomy and vasculature, and live XR was performed applying a commercially available navigation tool. The approach was evaluated in terms of the accuracy of the overlay. In 27 TAVI patients with IF receiving double-filter cerebral embolic protection device overall procedure time, fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, and total volume of intra-procedural iodinated contrast agent (CA) were registered and compared to those of a control group of prospectively enrolled during the same period of time N=27 patients receiving the same protection system but without IF. Image co-registration and model-based guidance is feasible in TAVI procedures. The overlay facilitates placement of the embolic protection device, placement of the guide wire in the left ventricle and initial alignment of the valve prosthesis prior to final deployment, thus improving the confidence level of the operators during the procedure without compromising CA or XR dose. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of uterine arterial embolization on the ovarian function in puerpera with postpartum hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Xian Deng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the hemostatic effect of uterine arterial embolization in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and the effect on menstruation, sex hormone level, ovarian function, and pelvic floor function. Methods: A total of 45 patients with postpartum hemorrhage who were admitted in the Department of Obstetrics of our hospital from January, 2014 to June, 2016 for uterine arterial embolization were included in the study and served as the treatment group. The postoperative menstruation recovery was recorded. The hormone levels, ovarian function, and pelvic floor function before and after treatment were recorded. A total of 42 normal puerpera were served as the control group. The menstrual status of the two groups after menstruation was compared. Results: Rapid and effective hemostasis could be obtained from patients in the treatment group after treatment with hemostasis success rate of 100%. The comparison of menstruation cycle and menstruation days after treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. The levels of E2, P, FSH, LH and PRL, ovarian function index RI and PI, pelvic floor muscle fatigue and vaginal dynamic pressure before and after 3 and 6 months had no significant difference, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Uterine arterial embolization in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage is effective, and has no influence on the patient's menstrual conditions, sex hormone levels, ovarian and pelvic floor functions; therefore, it is worthy of clinical application.

  2. Embolia paradojal inminente Impending paradoxical embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Veltri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de un trombo venoso atrapado en un defecto interauricular e insinuándose en las cavidades izquierdas configura una forma extremadamente inusual de enfermedad tromboembólica denominada embolia paradojal inminente. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 71 años, sometido 10 días antes a adenomectomía prostática, que consultó por disnea y mareos. Se le diagnosticó tromboembolismo pulmonar bilateral por tomografía axial computada helicoidal. Se lo anticoaguló con heparina sódica y se le realizó un ecocardiograma transesofágico que mostró un trombo que atravesaba el foramen oval y se alojaba en la aurícula izquierda. No presentaba signos clínicos de embolización sistémica. Se realizó la embolectomía quirúrgica y cierre del defecto auricular. El paciente falleció.An intracardiac thrombus traversing a patent foramen ovale is a very infrequent but potentially catastrophic complication of the thromboembolic disease. It is named "impending paradoxical embolism". We report the case of a 71 year old Caucasian male warded in ten days after a prostatectomy because of bilateral pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis was confirmed by HCT scan and the patient received anticoagulation with heparin. A transesophageal ecocardiogram disclosed a thrombus traversing foramen ovale into the left atrium. Surgical embolectomy was performed, but the patient died shortly after surgery.

  3. Cancer patients and characteristics of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenberg, U.; Paul, T. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Feuersenger, A. [Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Goyen, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Kroeger, K. [Department of Angiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany)], E-mail: knut.kroeger@uk-essen.de

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To check the hypothesis that cancer patients suffer from extended pulmonary embolism (PE) more frequently than patients without cancer we analysed PEs proved by computed tomography (CT)-imaging. Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive CT scans at the University Hospital of Essen from March 2002 until December 2004 which proved a definite case of pulmonary embolism were retrospectively reviewed (79 men, 71 women; mean age 57 {+-} 15 years). Underlying disease and blood parameters were included (haemoglobin, haematocrit, fibrinogen and total protein, if determined within 48 h before the CT scans). Results: Patients with malignant disease were older (59 {+-} 12 years vs. 54 {+-} 19 years, p = 0.05) and tend to have a higher rate of central PEs (52% vs. 34%, p = 0.08) than patients without malignancies. The odds of a central PE in cancer patients was about twice as high as in patients without a malignant disease (Odds ratio: 2.08, 95%-confidence interval: 1.06-4.10; age-adjusted Odds ratio 1.88, 95%-confidence interval: 0.92-3.84). Additional adjustment for the clinical information dyspnoea, inhospital patient and clinically expected PE did not deteriorate the odds. Thrombus density determined in patients with central PE only shows a trend towards a lower density in patients with malignant disease (52 {+-} 13 HE vs. 45 {+-} 15 HE, p = 0.13). There is no statistical evidence that thrombus density is related to one of the blood parameters or even blood density measured in the pulmonary artery. Conclusion: Although this is a retrospective study including a small number of patients it shows that cancer patients are at a higher risk for central PE than patients without cancer. Characteristics of the intrapulmonal thrombus in cancer and non-cancer patients seem to be different.

  4. Candesartan reduces the hemorrhage associated with delayed tissue plasminogen activator treatment in rat embolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishrat, Tauheed; Pillai, Bindu; Ergul, Adviye; Hafez, Sherif; Fagan, Susan C

    2013-12-01

    We have previously reported that angiotensin receptor blockade reduces reperfusion hemorrhage in a suture occlusion model of stroke, despite increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activity. We hypothesized that candesartan will also decrease hemorrhage associated with delayed (6 h) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration after embolic stroke, widening the therapeutic time window of tPA. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO) and treated with either candesartan (1 mg/kg) alone early at 3 h, delayed tPA (10 mg/kg) alone at 6 h, the combination of candesartan and tPA, or vehicle control. Rats were sacrificed at 24 and 48 h post-eMCAO and brains perfused for evaluation of neurological deficits, cerebral hemorrhage in terms of hemoglobin content, occurrence rate of hemorrhage, infarct size, tissue MMP activity and protein expression. The combination therapy of candesartan and tPA after eMCAO reduced the brain hemorrhage, and improved neurological outcome compared with rats treated with tPA alone. Further, candesartan in combination with tPA increased activity of MMP-9 but decreased MMP-3, nuclear factor kappa-B and tumor necrosis factor-α expression and enhanced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. An activation of MMP-9 alone is insufficient to cause increased hemorrhage in embolic stroke. Combination therapy with acute candesartan plus tPA may be beneficial in ameliorating tPA-induced hemorrhage after embolic stroke.

  5. Clinical utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Zita; Elhorst, Didi; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kessels, Roy P C; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2016-02-01

    The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) is one of the most widely used test batteries to assess memory functions in patients with brain dysfunctions of different etiologies. This study examined the clinical validation of the Dutch Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The sample consisted of 75 patients with intractable TLE, who were eligible for epilepsy surgery, and 77 demographically matched healthy controls. All participants were examined with the WMS-IV-NL. Patients with TLE performed significantly worse than healthy controls on all WMS-IV-NL indices and subtests (pVisual Working Memory Index including its contributing subtests, as well as the subtests Logical Memory I, Verbal Paired Associates I, and Designs II. In addition, patients with mesiotemporal abnormalities performed significantly worse than patients with lateral temporal abnormalities on the subtests Logical Memory I and Designs II and all the indices (pMemory Index and Visual Working Memory Index. Patients with either a left or a right temporal focus performed equally on all WMS-IV-NL indices and subtests (F(15, 50)=.70, p=.78), as well as the Auditory-Visual discrepancy score (t(64)=-1.40, p=.17). The WMS-IV-NL is capable of detecting memory problems in patients with TLE, indicating that it is a sufficiently valid memory battery. Furthermore, the findings support previous research showing that the WMS-IV has limited value in identifying material-specific memory deficits in presurgical patients with TLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Systemic Air Embolism After CT-guided Lung Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Under CT Guidance; Patients Who Presented Systemic Air Embolism After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Under CT Guidance Depicted at the Time of the Procedure on a Whole Thoracic CT

  7. Persistent tachypnea in children: keep pulmonary embolism in mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen, C. H.; Heyboer, H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Teeuw, R.; Aronson, D. C.; Peters, M.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tachypnea in children is associated with respiratory disorders and nonrespiratory disorders such as cardiac disease, metabolic acidosis, fever, pain, and anxiety. Pulmonary embolism is seldom considered by pediatricians as a cause of tachypnea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three children of

  8. Renal aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula; Management with transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisioterapia)

    1990-01-01

    Embolization was performed in six patients with renal artery aneurysms (n=2) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (n=5). The aneurysms were observed in one patient with fibromuscular dysplasia and in another with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. All the AVFs were intraparenchymal and secondary to iatrogenic trauma. Elective embolization was performed in five patients with good clinical results at follow-up between 1 and 9 years. Because of rupture of the aneurysm emergency embolization was attempted without success in the patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and nephrectomy was carried out. A postembolization syndrome complicated three procedures in which Gelfoam and polyvinyl alcohol were used; in two of these cases unexpected reflux of the particulate material occurred, resulting in limited undesired ablation of the ipsilateral renal parenchyma. Embolization is the most reliable and effective treatment for intrarenal vascular abnormalities since it minimizes the parenchymal damage. (orig.).

  9. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Mimics Acute Coronary Syndrome in Older Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a fatal disease and an often missed diagnosis. There are no specific symptoms or signs. Accurate diagnosis followed by effective therapy can reduce mortality. We report on a 67-year-old man who underwent lumbar laminectomy and developed an acute anterior compressive-like chest pain and jaw numbness rather than dyspnea on the fifth postoperative day. Owing to refractory chest pain with suspicious posterior myocardial infarction or unstable angina on surface electrocardiogram, the patient received emergency coronary catheterization, which demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Further investigation provided a final diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary embolism with simultaneous recent neuro-surgery was a therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of postoperative hemorrhage threatening neurologic function. After treatment with enoxaparin and close monitoring of his neurologic condition, his symptoms were eliminated. Clinicians must keep in mind a differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a postoperative high-risk patient.

  10. Calcium Hydroxylapatite Pulmonary Embolism after Percutaneous Injection Laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seong Jun; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2017-11-01

    Injection medialization laryngoplasty is a procedure that has many advantages in treating vocal fold paralysis; however, undesired complications can occur. We experienced a case of a pulmonary embolism, suspected in a patient who had undergone an injection laryngoplasty with calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA). The patient suffered dyspnea after undergoing the injection laryngoplasty. Chest embolism computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a new lesion of enhancing materials at the pulmonary vasculature in the right upper lobe. The CaHA embolism was suspected, and the patient was treated with warfarin for 12 months. The patient's symptom of dyspnea nearly disappeared and a follow up chest embolism CT scan revealed no signs of the previous lesion. Thus, we would like to report this rare case along with a review of the literature. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  11. Radiologic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism; Radiologische Diagostik der Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Ley, S.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie E010

    2004-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of venous thromboembolism. Despite numerous modern diagnostic methods, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains problematic, especially in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. In this educational review, current diagnostic methods and their role in the diagnostic workup of pulmonary embolism will be discussed. In addition, practical guidelines are given for the diagnostic cascade contingent on the clinical probability for pulmonary embolism. (orig.) [German] Die akute Lungenembolie ist eine haeufige und potenziell lebensbedrohliche Komplikation der tiefen Venenthrombose. Die Diagnose der akuten Lungenembolie bleibt trotz moderner diagnostischer Verfahren insbesondere aufgrund der unspezifischen klinischen Symptomatik problematisch. Im folgenden Artikel werden die gaengigen diagnostischen Methoden und deren Stellenwert bei der Diagnostik der akuten Lungenembolie diskutiert. Weiterhin werden praktische Richtlinien fuer das diagnostische Vorgehen gegeben - je nachdem wie wahrscheinlich eine Lungenembolie klinisch ist. (orig.)

  12. A case of metastatic brain tumor causing multifocal cerebral embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takuya; Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Numa, Yoshihiro; Sakurai, Yasuo; Yamahara, Takahiro; Seno, Toshitaka; Shikata, Nobuaki; Asai, Akio; Kawamoto, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old woman who had previously undergone treatment for femoral chondrosarcoma (histologically rated as myxofibrosarcoma). She suddenly developed left homonymous hemianopsia and was diagnosed with cerebral embolism. Because she had atrial fibrillation, we treated her for cardiogenic cerebral embolism. About 3 months later, however, she developed left hemiplegia, and head magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple tumorous lesions affecting the previously detected infracted area and several new areas. We assumed that a tumor embolus had caused cerebral embolism, which resulted in growth of the tumor from the embolus and formation of a metastatic brain tumor. The metastatic foci formed from the tumor embolus were visualized by diagnostic imaging, and histological examination of the resected tumor confirmed that the brain tumor had occluded the brain vessel (tumorigenic cerebral embolism). No such case has been reported to date, and this case seems to be important.

  13. Acute pulmonary embolism: A review | Saleh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Medline and Embase databases. Key words employed were: pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thrombophilia. Information was also sourced from the British Thoracic Society and The ...

  14. [Prospective multicenter study on long-term ketogenic diet therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term ketogenic diet (KD) on the children with intractable epilepsy. This was a prospective, open-label study of intractable epilepsy patients treated with the classic KD with a lipid-to-nonlipid ratio 4:1 between October 2004 and July 2011 at five Chinese epilepsy centers. A total of 299 patients were enrolled. The patients were divided into different groups according to age (including the below-1-year-old group, 1-to-3-year-old group, 3-to-6-year-old group, 6-to-10-year-old group, and over-10-year-old group), etiology (cryptogenic epilepsy, symptomatic epilepsy, and idiopathic epilepsy), and the seizure types (included infantile spasm, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Dravet syndrome, generalized epilepsy, and partial epilepsy). Parents were assigned to write seizure diaries which recorded the seizure presentations, tolerability, and complications associated with the KD. Patients' weight and height were measured every week. Blood β-hydroxybutyric acid, blood sugar, and urinary ketone bodies were monitored closely. Patients were followed up through telephone calls by the nutritionists every month and regular outpatient visits or hospitalizations were recommended at all time-points which included the third, sixth and twelfth month after initiation. Efficacy was measured through seizure frequency. The variables related to the efficacy were also analyzed. SPSS 17.0 was used for all statistical analysis. At 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation, 65.9%, 44.8%, and 26.4% patients remained on the diet, and 37.4%, 26.1%, and 20.4% had a > 50% reduction in their seizure frequency, including 21.7%, 10.7%, and 11.0% who became seizure free, respectively. At 24 months after initiation, 29 patients remained on the diet, and 28 patients had a > 90% seizure reduction, including five became seizure free. At 36 months after initiation, 7 patients remained on the diet, and all of them had a > 90% seizure

  15. Bariatric Arterial Embolization with Non-spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Ghrelin Suppression in a Swine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Man-Deuk, E-mail: mdkim@yuhs.ac; Han, Kichang; Muqmiroh, Lailatul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Up [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyoung Min; Kwon, Joonho; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of bariatric arterial embolization (BAE) with non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles on systemic ghrelin levels, weight change, and gastric ulceration risk in a swine model.Materials and MethodsFrom March 2014 to February 2015, ten healthy swine were used in the study (mean weight 31.5 kg; range 24.0–41.5 kg). The animals were randomly assigned to two groups: the embolized group (n = 5) in which BAE was performed and the control group (n = 5). In the embolized group, BAE was performed by selectively infusing 150–250 or 50–150 μm PVA into the gastric arteries that supplied the fundus of the stomach. In the control group, a sham procedure was performed with saline infusion. Plasma ghrelin levels were prospectively obtained at baseline and every 2 weeks thereafter. Endoscopy was performed 3 weeks after BAE to see whether any gastric ulcer occurred. To determine the durability of the occluded arteries, repeated celiac trunk angiography was performed 8 weeks after BAE. Then, all the swine were killed and necropsies were performed.ResultsThe mean post-procedure ghrelin value decreased by 370.0 pg/mL in the embolized group at week 3 (mean 536.0 ± 334.3 pg/mL) and week 5 (mean 515.0 ± 150.0 pg/mL, p < 0.05) relative to baseline (880.0 ± 559.5 pg/mL), respectively, but ghrelin levels were not significantly decreased between the embolized and control groups. There was a significant body weight change as follows: 35.1 ± 9.5 to 46.6 ± 15.7 kg and 31.8 ± 5.8 to 41.2 ± 6.6 kg at baseline and endpoint in the control and embolized groups, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the difference between groups was not significant at endpoint. In the embolized group, ulcerations were identified in three animals (60%) and the recanalization of the embolized arteries was noted on follow-up angiography in three animals (60%), respectively.ConclusionBAE with PVA particles can transiently suppress ghrelin

  16. Hypertension following Therapeutic Arterial Embolization: A Rare Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghansham Biyani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated hypertension following therapeutic arterial embolization is a rare phenomenon. A patient of left upper limb chronic lymphedema was posted for shoulder disarticulation under general anaesthesia. Coil embolization of the left subclavian artery was done prior to surgery. Following the intervention, patient’s blood pressure increased by more than 30% of the base line value and was managed with antihypertensives for the next 3 hours to get the blood pressure optimised prior to taking the patient for surgery.

  17. Multiple small pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis: angiographic diagnosis and transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleux, G.; Stockx, L.; Vanbeckevoort, D.; Wilms, G.; Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Steenbergen, W. van [Department of Hepatology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    We report a case of retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to multiple, small pseudoaneurysms complicating a chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Cross-sectional imaging with CT and US could not clearly depict these vascular lesions. Selective arteriography of the superior mesenteric and gastroduodenal arteries clearly showed the small pseudoaneurysms and definitive treatment was performed by transcatheter embolization using coils. Eight months after successful embolization, the patient is asymptomatic without any recurrent bleeding. (orig.)

  18. Catastrophic Systemic Embolization from a Left Atrial Myxoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Farheen; Swadley, Matthew J.; Williams, Byron R.; Kumar, Gautam; Rab, S. Tanveer

    2014-01-01

    We report the fatal course of a left atrial myxoma: its systemic embolization to the coronary, cerebral, renal, and peripheral vascular beds in a 39-year-old woman resulted in rapid clinical deterioration, multiorgan failure, and death. Among reported cases of left atrial myxoma, this degree of embolic burden is exceedingly rare. In addition to reporting the patient's case, we discuss the presentation and diagnosis of possible intracardiac sources of systemic emboli. PMID:24512404

  19. Paradoxical Cerebral Fat Embolism in Revision Hip Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás S. Piuzzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of clinical fat embolism syndrome (FES is low (<1% whilst fat embolism (FE of marrow fat appears to occur more often (Mellor and Soni (2001. Paradoxical brain FE may occur in patients undergoing hip orthopedic surgery who have an undocumented patent foramen ovale (PFO. We report a case of an eighty-year-old male patient, who underwent a scheduled revision hip surgery suffering a paradoxical cerebral FE.

  20. Thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D R; Levine, M N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether thrombolytic therapy reduces the rate of death or complications in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and whether a particular thrombolytic regimen is more effective than others. DATA SOURCES: The key words "fibrinolytic agents," "plasminogen activators," "streptokinase," "urokinase" and "pulmonary embolism" were used to search MEDLINE for relevant articles in English; the bibliographies of these articles were reviewed for additional publications. STUDY SE...

  1. PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN BREAST CANCER: ETIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    I. D. Rozanov; E. A. Rozanova; E. I. Shirikov; A. S. Balkanov; L. E. Gaganov; E. A. Stepanova

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism in breast cancer is one of the causes of major deterioration of health status of the patients. Pulmonary artery occlusion is most often a  consequence of venous thromboembolism; this condition is referred to as "pulmonary thromboembolism". Significantly less common cause of occlusion of the pulmonary artery branches can be embolism by a  cluster of tumor cells, accompanied by development of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. This paper reviews data on the etiology ...

  2. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  3. Diagnostic radialogy of pulmonary embolism. Radiologische Diagnostik der Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Fengels, W. (Koeln Univ., Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik (Germany))

    1991-10-01

    The prognosis of accute pulmonary embolism is largely determined by an early and valid diagnosis. Pulmonary angiography, currently most frequently performed by a DSA, ranks third in the range of available diagnostic method, after X-ray imaging of the thorax, and perfusion scintiscanning. The review article discusses the radiological aspects involved together with aspects of the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism. (orig.).

  4. [Bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism without associated hypoxemia. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, M; Chtara, K; Turki, O; Kammoun, M M; Bouaziz, W; Bouaziz, M

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a classic complication in intensive care. It is characterized by hypoxemia secondary to perturbed ventilation/perfusion ratios. We report a case of proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism that occurred without associated hypoxemia. A spiral computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to explore unexplained fever in a patient with a negative infectious investigation. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the absence of hypoxemia in this patient. A 43-year-old patient with no significant pathological history was admitted to intensive care for the management of multiple injuries following a road accident. During resuscitation, the patient developed a proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism without signs of hypertension of the pulmonary artery or associated hypoxemia. The patient improved under treatment. This case shows that bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism may be associated with normal gas exchange. The absence of hypoxemia could be explained by the bilateral nature of the pulmonary embolism that led to balanced ventilation/perfusion ratios on both sides. Furthermore, bronchoconstriction was bilateral, explaining the maintenance of a stable ventilation/perfusion ratio on both sides. The presence of unexplained fever in a victim of multiple trauma, despite the absence of hypoxemia, suggests the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. PORTAL VEIN EMBOLIZATION USING AN ADAPTED HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY CATHETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBRÜCK, Klaus; ALVES, Jefferson; FERNANDES, Reinaldo; ENNE, Marcelo; PACHECO-MOREIRA, Lúcio Filgueiras

    2014-01-01

    Background Portal vein embolization is an accepted procedure that provides hypertrophy of the future remnant liver in order to reduce post-hepatectomy complications. Aim To present a series submitted to portal vein embolization using an adapted hysterosalpingography catheter via transileocolic route. Methods Were performed right portal branch embolization in 19 patients using hysterosalpingography catheter. For embolizing the vessel, was used Gelfoam® powder with absolute alcohol solution. Indications for hepatectomy were colorectal liver metastases in all cases. Results An adequate growth of the future remnant liver was achieved in 15 patients (78.9%) and second time hepatectomy could be done in 14 (73.7%). In one patient (5.2%), tumor progression prevented surgery. One patient presented acute renal failure after portal embolization. Conclusions The hysterosalpingography catheter is easy to handle and can be introduced into the portal vein with a wire guide. There were no major post-embolization complication. Its use is safe, cheap and effective. PMID:25184773

  6. Tumor necrosis after preventive embolization of large renal angiomyolipomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rafei, M; Renard, B; Puech, P; Devos, P; Gaillard, V; Lemaître, L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate tumor necrosis following preventive embolization in patients with renal angiomyolipoma (RAML) at high risk of bleeding. Arterial embolization was performed in 24 patients (22 women, 2 men; mean age, 43±13 years) with a total of 30 RAMLs (mean volume, 137 cm(3)±163) between 1996 and 2012. Two sub-groups of patients were identified and further compared based on the presence or not of necrosis following arterial embolization. The technical and clinical success rates of arterial embolization of RAMLs were 97% and 87%, respectively. The mean initial volume of RAMLs differed between the two sub-groups with 331 cm(3) in the group with tumor necrosis and 88 cm(3) in the group without tumor necrosis (P=0.0047). High-fat content RAMLs were predominantly observed in the necrosis group and the mean volume reduction observed for high-fat RAMLs was 65% whereas it was 36% for low-fat content RAMLs. The six patients who developed RAML necrosis had arterial embolization using microspheres (one patient with microspheres alone and five with a combination of microspheres and metallic coils). All necrotic RAMLs displayed arterial dysplasia. The risk of tumor necrosis is higher for larger RAMLs. The role of distal arterial embolization with microspheres in tumor necrosis in RAML is suggested by the results of our study but could not be definitely demonstrated statistically due to the limited sample size. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. A Case of Turner Syndrome with Multiple Embolic Infarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy W. Yoon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Only a few cases of Turner syndrome (TS with ischemic stroke have been reported. Various arteriopathies of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia, congenital hypoplasia, moyamoya syndrome, and premature atherosclerosis have been assumed to be the cause of ischemic stroke in TS. There has been no case report of a TS patient presenting with an embolic stroke pattern without any cerebral arteriopathy. A 28-year-old woman with TS was referred to our hospital because of abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings. She underwent brain MRI at the referring hospital because she experienced sudden-onset diffuse headache. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed multiple acute embolic infarcts in different vascular territories. Intracranial and extracranial arterial disease was not detected on cerebral magnetic resonance angiography and carotid sonography. Embolic source workups, including transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, Holter monitoring, and transcranial Doppler shunt study, were all negative. Hypercoagulability and vasculitis panels were also negative. Our patient was diagnosed with cryptogenic embolic stroke. This is the first report of a TS patient with an embolic stroke pattern. Our case shows that ischemic stroke in TS could be due to embolism as well as the various cerebral arteriopathies documented in previous reports.

  8. Neurological effects of fat embolism syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacklock, Emma; Gemmell, Andrew; Hollister, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is a serious multi-system pathology which classically affects the respiratory system, neurological system and causes a petechial rash. We present the case of a 20-year-old farmer who developed fat embolism syndrome following a traumatic femoral fracture. Features developed within 24 h of injury and necessitated a prolonged stay in Intensive Care. He exhibited significant signs of cerebral fat embolism syndrome including coma and seizures but went on to make full functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging is the recommended imaging modality for patients with suspected cerebral fat embolism. In this case, computerised tomography was inconclusive, but magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the "starfield pattern" of multiple high signal foci on a dark background. Supportive treatment of fat embolism syndrome is required in an appropriate setting, such as High Dependency or Intensive Care, for patients at risk of hypoxia or neurological deterioration. Despite major neurological involvement of fat embolism syndrome, full recovery is described by several cases including ours.

  9. De novo mutations of KIAA2022 in females cause intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, Iris M; Helbig, Katherine L; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the KIAA2022 gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA2022 mutation and share a phenotype characterised...... by intellectual disability and epilepsy. METHODS: Reported females were selected for genetic testing because of substantial developmental problems and/or epilepsy. X-inactivation and expression studies were performed when possible. RESULTS: All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop....... 12 out of 14 patients had intractable epilepsy with myoclonic and/or absence seizures, and generalised in 11. Thirteen patients had mild to severe intellectual disability. This female phenotype partially overlaps with the reported male phenotype which consists of more severe intellectual disability...

  10. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  11. Long-term outcomes of hemispheric disconnection in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Jung Kyo; Hong, Seokho; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2014-04-01

    Hemispherectomy reportedly produces remarkable results in terms of seizure outcome and quality of life for medically intractable hemispheric epilepsy in children. We reviewed the neuroradiologic findings, pathologic findings, epilepsy characteristics, and clinical long-term outcomes in pediatric patients following a hemispheric disconnection. We retrospectively studied 12 children (8 males) who underwent a hemispherectomy at Asan Medical Center between 1997 and 2005. Clinical, EEG, neuroradiological, and surgical data were collected. Long-term outcomes for seizure, motor functions, and cognitive functions were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 12.7 years (range, 7.6-16.2 years) after surgery. The mean age at epilepsy onset was 3.0 years (range, 0-7.6 years). The following epilepsy syndromes were identified in our cohort: focal symptomatic epilepsy (n=8), West syndrome (n=3), and Rasmussen's syndrome (n=1). Postoperative histopathology of our study patients revealed malformation of cortical development (n=7), encephalomalacia as a sequela of infarction or trauma (n=3), Sturge-Weber syndrome (n=1), and Rasmussen's encephalitis (n=1). The mean age at surgery was 6.5 years (range, 0.8-12.3 years). Anatomical or functional hemispherectomy was performed in 8 patients, and hemispherotomy was performed in 4 patients. Eight of our 12 children (66.7%) were seizure-free, but 3 patients with perioperative complications showed persistent seizure. Although all patients had preoperative hemiparesis and developmental delay, none had additional motor or cognitive deficits after surgery, and most achieved independent walking and improvement in daily activities. The long-term clinical outcomes of hemispherectomy in children with intractable hemispheric epilepsy are good when careful patient selection and skilled surgical approaches are applied.

  12. Diagnostic reframing of intractable environmental problems: case of a contested multiparty public land-use conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asah, Stanley T; Bengston, David N; Wendt, Keith; Nelson, Kristen C

    2012-10-15

    Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional reframing are the two major approaches to conflict transformation. These approaches have some drawbacks. Cognitive reframing does not guarantee commensurate consideration of all disputants' views about the problem. Interactional reframing is prone to inter-disputant influences that interfere with presenting the problems as accurately as they exist in disputants' minds. Inadequate consideration of other disputants' views and inter-disputant influences often lead to inaccurate problem identification and definition. This in turn leads to solving the wrong problem, enabling intractability to persist. Proper problem identification and definition requires commensurate consideration of all sides of the conflict while minimizing inter-disputant influences. From a problem diagnosis perspective, we show how Q methodology is used to reframe environmental problems, rendering them more tractable to analysis while minimizing the influence of who disputants are talking with, and without ignoring the perspectives of other disputants. Using a case of contentious All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) use in a state-administered public land, conflicting parties reframed the problem by prioritizing issues, outlining areas and levels of consensus and disagreement, and revealing inherent unrecognized and/or unspoken agendas. The reframing process surprisingly revealed several areas of common ground in disputants' diagnosis of the problem, including lack of emphasis on environmental protection and uncoordinated management factions. Emergent frames were misaligned on some issues, such as the behaviors of ATV riders and the role of management

  13. Balloon Kyphoplasty for Managing Intractable Pain in Pediatric Pathologic Vertebral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Jane S; Thomas, Stefanie M; Goodwin, Ryan C; Gurd, David P; Hanna, Rabi; Kuivila, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are a common result of osteoporosis and osteopenia secondary to steroid use and chemotherapy treatment. Balloon kyphoplasty is a treatment option with good to excellent results well described in adults. Although a few recent studies have been published regarding the use of kyphoplasty in children, no formal indication exists for the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of 3 chronically ill children with intractable pain from vertebral compression fractures, managed with kyphoplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 3 pediatric patients who underwent balloon kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures secondary to chronic illness. Patient variables included age, sex, primary diagnosis and treatments, levels of vertebral fracture, and time elapsed from initial therapy to fracture. A numeric rating scale of 0 to 10 was used for patient-reported pain, before and after kyphoplasty. Preoperative and postoperative analgesic use and physical function were also described. Surgical variables included levels of kyphoplasty, operative time, and procedure-related complications. The primary diagnoses were relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma, abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and IPEX-like (immune dysregulation, polyendrocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome. All 3 patients were males, aged 12, 12, and 13, respectively, at the time of kyphoplasty. Pain scores were 8 to 9 preoperatively in 2 patients, severely affecting their physical function including independent walking. Excruciating back pain was a contributing factor to the respiratory distress of the third patient, who required elective intubation. All of the patients reported significant pain relief (range, 0 to 2) and improved physical function with kyphoplasty. The third patient was successfully extubated 1 week postoperatively and eventually returned to baseline activity. There were no complications related to kyphoplasty. Balloon kyphoplasty

  14. Treating Intractable Phantom Limb Pain with Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, Brian M.; Moeller-Bertram, Tobias; Hanling, Steven R.; Tokarz, Kyle; Mariano, Edward R.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Madison, Sarah J.; Ferguson, Eliza J.; Morgan, Anya C.; Wallace, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently no reliable treatment for phantom limb pain (PLP). Chronic PLP and associated cortical abnormalities may be maintained from abnormal peripheral input, raising the possibility that a continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) of extended duration may permanently reorganize cortical pain mapping, thus providing lasting relief. Methods Three men with below-the-knee (2) or -elbow (1) amputations and intractable PLP received femoral/sciatic or infraclavicular perineural catheter(s), respectively. Subjects were randomized in a double-masked fashion to receive perineural ropivacaine (0.5%) or normal saline for over 6 days as outpatients using portable electronic infusion. Four months later, subjects returned for repeated perineural catheter insertion (“crossover”), and received an ambulatory infusion with the alternate solution. Subjects were followed for up to one year. Results By chance, all 3 subjects received saline during their initial infusion and reported little change in their PLP. One subject did not receive crossover treatment; but, the remaining 2 subjects reported complete resolution of their PLP during and immediately following treatment with ropivacaine. One subject experienced no PLP recurrence through the 52-week follow-up period; and, the other reported mild PLP occurring once each week of just a small fraction of his original pain (pre-treatment: continuous PLP rated 10/10; post-treatment: no PLP at baseline with average of 1 PLP episode each week rated 2/10) for 12 weeks (lost to follow-up thereafter). Conclusions A prolonged ambulatory CPNB may be a reliable treatment for intractable PLP. The results of this pilot study suggest that a large, randomized clinical trial is warranted. PMID:23489466

  15. De novo mutations of KIAA2022 in females cause intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Iris M; Helbig, Katherine L; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Møller, Rikke S; Velinov, Milen; Dolzhanskaya, Natalia; Marsh, Eric; Helbig, Ingo; Devinsky, Orrin; Tang, Sha; Mefford, Heather C; Myers, Candace T; van Paesschen, Wim; Striano, Pasquale; van Gassen, Koen; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Piard, Juliette; Minassian, Berge A; Nezarati, Marjan M; Pessoa, André; Jacquette, Aurelia; Maher, Bridget; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Warde, Marie Therese Abi; De St Martin, Anne; Chelly, Jamel; van 't Slot, Ruben; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Brilstra, Eva H; Koeleman, Bobby P C

    2016-12-01

    Mutations in the KIAA2022 gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA2022 mutation and share a phenotype characterised by intellectual disability and epilepsy. Reported females were selected for genetic testing because of substantial developmental problems and/or epilepsy. X-inactivation and expression studies were performed when possible. All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop. 12 out of 14 patients had intractable epilepsy with myoclonic and/or absence seizures, and generalised in 11. Thirteen patients had mild to severe intellectual disability. This female phenotype partially overlaps with the reported male phenotype which consists of more severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and, less frequently, epilepsy. One female patient showed completely skewed X-inactivation, complete absence of RNA expression in blood and a phenotype similar to male patients. In the six other tested patients, X-inactivation was random, confirmed by a non-significant twofold to threefold decrease of RNA expression in blood, consistent with the expected mosaicism between cells expressing mutant or normal KIAA2022 alleles. Heterozygous loss of KIAA2022 expression is a cause of intellectual disability in females. Compared with its hemizygous male counterpart, the heterozygous female disease has less severe intellectual disability, but is more often associated with a severe and intractable myoclonic epilepsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Treating intractable phantom limb pain with ambulatory continuous peripheral nerve blocks: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Moeller-Bertram, Tobias; Hanling, Steven R; Tokarz, Kyle; Mariano, Edward R; Loland, Vanessa J; Madison, Sarah J; Ferguson, Eliza J; Morgan, Anya C; Wallace, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    There is currently no reliable treatment for phantom limb pain (PLP). Chronic PLP and associated cortical abnormalities may be maintained from abnormal peripheral input, raising the possibility that a continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) of extended duration may permanently reorganize cortical pain mapping, thus providing lasting relief. Three men with below-the-knee (2) or -elbow (1) amputations and intractable PLP received femoral/sciatic or infraclavicular perineural catheter(s), respectively. Subjects were randomized in a double-masked fashion to receive perineural ropivacaine (0.5%) or normal saline for over 6 days as outpatients using portable electronic infusion pumps. Four months later, subjects returned for repeated perineural catheter insertion and received an ambulatory infusion with the alternate solution ("crossover"). Subjects were followed for up to 1 year. By chance, all three subjects received saline during their initial infusion and reported little change in their PLP. One subject did not receive crossover treatment, but the remaining two subjects reported complete resolution of their PLP during and immediately following treatment with ropivacaine. One subject experienced no PLP recurrence through the 52-week follow-up period and the other reported mild PLP occurring once each week of just a small fraction of his original pain (pretreatment: continuous PLP rated 10/10; posttreatment: no PLP at baseline with average of one PLP episode each week rated 2/10) for 12 weeks (lost to follow-up thereafter). A prolonged ambulatory CPNB may be a reliable treatment for intractable PLP. The results of this pilot study suggest that a large, randomized clinical trial is warranted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transarterial versus transhepatic portal vein embolization to induce selective hepatic hypertrophy: a comparative study in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, David C; Gupta, Sanjay; Pillsbury, Edmund P; Kan, Zuxing; Tinkey, Peggy T; Stephens, L Clifton; Ensor, Joe E; Hicks, Marshall E; Wright, Kenneth C

    2007-01-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used to induce liver hypertrophy for surgical candidates with marginal future liver remnant (FLR) volumes. We compared the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a transarterial approach for PVE (TA-PVE) with those of a transhepatic approach for PVE (TH-PVE) in a swine model. Ten experimental pigs (TA-PVE, n = 5; TH-PVE, n = 5) and six controls (TA, n = 3; TH, n = 3) were studied. For TA-PVE, a microcatheter was advanced into arteries supplying the left and left middle hepatic lobes. A 3 to 1 Ethiodol-ethanol mixture was infused into selected arteries to cross the arterioportal peribiliary plexus and remain within the portal veins (PVs). For TH-PVE, PVs in the same lobar distribution were embolized with 355- to 500-micro m polyvinyl alcohol particles and coils. Controls were similarly catheterized for saline infusion. Computed tomography with volumetry was performed before and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after PVE to assess FLR hypertrophy (absolute FLR volume change and FLR/total liver volume [TLV]). Computed tomographic volumetry, laboratory data, and histopathology were compared between groups. All procedures were technically successful. The increases in mean absolute FLR volume (TA-PVE, 148 +/- 84 cm(3); TH-PVE, 62 +/- 19 cm(3); P = .082), mean FLR hypertrophy (TA-PVE, 93.2%; TH-PVE, 48.4%; P = .178), and mean FLR/TLV (TA-PVE, 31.0%; TH-PVE, 16.2%; P = .130) from day 0 to day 28 between experimental groups were better for TA-PVE. Changes in laboratory data among all groups were minimal. Two complications occurred from TA-PVE (right gastric artery embolization [n = 2] without sequela) and two from TH-PVE (acute segmental right PV thrombosis [n = 1]; death 3 weeks after PVE of unknown cause [n = 1]). Transarterial portal vein embolization is feasible, safe, and effective for inducing future liver remnant hypertrophy in swine and may represent an improvement over previously reported transhepatic portal vein embolization methods.

  18. EFFICACY OF SPINAL-CORD STIMULATION AS ADJUVANT THERAPY FOR INTRACTABLE ANGINA-PECTORIS - A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONGSTE, MJL; HAUTVAST, RWM; HILLEGE, HL; LIE, KI

    Objectives. In a prospective, randomized study with an 8-week follow-up period, we evaluated the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation an exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with intractable angina. Background. Despite important achievements in therapy for ischemic heart disease, there

  19. Conversion to modified duodenal switch for relieving intractable dumping syndrome and constipation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Kun; Wang, Ming-Yu; Hsin, Ming-Che; Chang, Po-Chih

    2015-05-01

    Dumping syndrome is not infrequent after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and could result in dreaded complications, such as hypoglycemia or syncope. Those patients who failed medical therapy and diet modification, regarded as intractable dumping syndrome, may be considered as candidates for revisional surgery. Herein, we make a video presentation of laparoscopic revisional procedure for intractable dumping syndrome with unsatisfactory weight loss. A 32-year-old, morbidly obese woman (initial body mass index, 53.3 kg/m(2)) presented with dumping syndrome 17 months after initial laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. She underwent nutritional counseling, strict diet modification, and medication treatment but failed. In addition, the patient complained of worsening constipation and insufficient weight loss (body mass index, 36 kg/m(2)). Laparoscopic revisional procedure with modified duodenal switch was conducted to relieve her intractable condition. The procedure took 260 min without any intraoperative complication. Blood loss was 100 mL The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days. The uncomfortable symptoms relieved successfully after the revisional surgery. Though long-term follow-up is warranted to draw a definite conclusion, modified duodenal switch with pyloric restoration and shortening bowel length remains an acceptable revisional procedure to relive intractable dumping syndrome and constipation in our patient successfully.

  20. Internationalization under Intractable Conflict: The Influence of National Conflict on Israeli Higher Education Institutions' Internationalization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri

    2017-01-01

    Intractable conflicts are usually defined as long-lasting, violent, intergroup ones perceived as having no foreseen solutions. Such conflicts heavily affect the societies involved, which invest massive resources in all issues related to the conflict, including various educational elements. Regardless of the context of national conflict,…

  1. The effect of lymphatico-venous anastomosis for an intractable ulcer at the lower leg in a marked obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Makoto; Hara, Hisako; Todokoro, Takeshi; Seki, Yukio; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao; Murai, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema occurs after trauma, cancer surgery, or obesity, and wounds in lymphedema can easily become intractable. We report positive results using lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA) to treat a post-traumatic lymph fistula and an intractable ulcer in a severely obese patient. A 41-year-old male (BMI 51.8), one year prior, had a traffic injury, and had an 18-cm contusion in his right leg. Six months later, lymph leakage in a 14 cm × 8 cm region and a 5 cm × 3 cm skin ulcer occurred in the center of the wound. We made a diagnosis of lymphedema resulting from obesity, accompanied with lymphorrhea and intractable ulcer. He was unable to reach his legs owing to obesity, making complex physical therapy impossible. We performed LVA under local anesthesia. The lymphorrhea healed 2 weeks after the operation and had not recurred 3 months after the operation. The leg lymphedema improved after the surgery without the compression therapy. In cases of intractable ulcers, suspected of being caused by lymphostasis, treatments indicated for lymphedema, for example LVA, may possibly allow satisfactory wound healing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:64-67, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. Microsurgery Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intravenous Lidocaine: Old-School Drug, New Purpose-Reduction of Intractable Pain in Patients with Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.A.S. van den; Wal, S.E.I. van der; Smedes, L.A.; Radema, S.A.; Alfen, N. van; Vissers, K.C.P.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Treatment of intractable pain due to chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a challenge. Intravenous (iv) lidocaine has shown to be a treatment option for neuropathic pain of different etiologies. Methods. Lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg in 10 minutes followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h over 5

  3. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparisons of transarterial oily chemoembolization and simple embolization with gelfoam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Ym, Young Soo [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Ym, Seong Hee [Namwon Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To compare the safety and effectiveness of transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE) and transarterial embolization (TAE) with gelfoam in cases of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to describe the most important prognostic factors involved in emergency embolization. Forty-two consecutive patients with spontaneously ruptured HCC underwent emergency TOCE (n=3D22) or TGE (n=3D20). In the TOCE group, Lipiodol (3-10 cc), Adriamycin (20-50 mg), and Mitomycin (2-10 mg) were used, and these were followed by blockade of the hepatic arterial flow with gelatin sponge particles. In the TAE group, patients underwent only gelfoam embolization. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, survival time from the time of embolization was estimated, and to analyze prognostic factors, Cox's proportional hazard regression model was used. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 41 patients (97.6%). Mean survival time was 201 and 246 days in the TOCE and TAE group, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Five of the TOCE group (22.7%) and three of the TAE group (15.0%) died of hepatic failure. Analysis of the prognostic factors showed that portal vein involvement by the tumor was the most important factor influencing survival. Although TOCE and TAE effectively controlled hemorrhaging from a ruptured HCC, the procedures involve a high risk of hepatic failure. Their goal should, therefore, be solely to achieve hemostasis, and thus decrease parenchymal injury. (author)

  4. Spontaneous Pneumothorax as a Complication of Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Intravenous Drug User: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Chyun Sheu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis has been the major cause of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users (IDUs with infections, mostly involving the tricuspid valve and presenting multiple septic pulmonary embolisms. Numerous pulmonary complications of septic pulmonary embolism have been described, but only a few have reported spontaneous pneumothorax. Our patient, a 23-year-old heroin addict, was hospitalized for tricuspid endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Acute onset of respiratory distress occurred on his seventh hospital day and rapidly resulted in hypoxemia. Immediate bedside chest radiograph demonstrated left pneumothorax. It was thought to be a spontaneous pneumothorax, because he had not undergone any invasive procedure before the occurrence of pneumothorax. His clinical condition improved after the insertion of an intercostal chest tube. He later underwent surgery to replace the tricuspid valve as a result of the large size of the vegetation and poor control of infection. He ultimately survived. Pneumothorax is a possible lethal complication of septic pulmonary embolism in IDUs with right-sided endocarditis and should be considered in such patients when respiratory distress occurs acutely during their hospitalization.

  5. Impact of the sharp changes in the use of contraception in 2013 on the risk of pulmonary embolism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricotel, A; Collin, C; Zureik, M

    2015-09-01

    In late 2012, a national pill crisis led French women to promptly change their behavior regarding contraception, with a significant increase in the use of first-generation and second-generation combined oral contraceptives to the detriment of third-generation and fourth-generation products (C3Gs and C4Gs). To assess the impact of the sharp changes in 2013 on the rate of women hospitalized for pulmonary embolism in France. All hospitalized pulmonary embolisms in women aged 15-49 years, excluding those occurring during delivery stay, were identified from the French national hospital discharge databases from 2010 to 2013. Hospitalization rates, overall and by age group, were calculated. We compared rates in 2013 with those in 2012, and with mean rates over the preceding 3-year period (2010-2012). Two populations of non-users of contraceptives were used as control groups: men aged 15-49 years, and women aged 50-69 years. The expected reduction in pulmonary embolism incidence, estimated by modeling the number of expected cases based on modifications of combined oral contraceptive exposure, was also considered. In France, in 2013 as compared with 2012, the pulmonary embolism hospitalization incidence rate in women aged 15-49 years fell by 10.6%, corresponding to a reduction of 322 hospitalizations (95% confidence interval -468 to -156). The expected pulmonary embolism reduction is consistent with the observed reduction in hospitalization incidence rate (-10.2% and -10.6%, respectively). Such a pattern was not observed in the control groups. The sharp change in contraception methods, with decreased use of C3Gs and C4Gs, probably played a major role in the reduction in venous thromboembolism morbidity in France. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia: initial experience in uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Jung, Young Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Jang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia for the management of pain during uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Between April 2004 and July 2004, 15 patients with symptomatic fibroids underwent uterine artery embolization and pain management. Except the three patients for whom the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score was not obtained, twelve patients were included in this study. For pain management, epidural PCA (Patient Controlled Analgesia) was used in two patients, intravenous PCA was used in two patients and modified intravenous analgesia injection was used in eight patients. For all the patients, we used the 2.8 Fr coaxial microcatheter and 500-710 {mu} m PVA particles for the embolic materials. The protocol of the modified intravenous analgesia injection was as follow, 1) prior to femoral artery puncture, 30 mg of ketorolac tromethamine (Tarasyn)was injected via an intravenous route. 2) At the time that the one side uterine artery embolization was finished, normal saline mixed 150 mg meperidine (Demerol) was administered through the side port of the intravenous line that was used for hydration. 3) Additional ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg was injected after 6 hour. The VAS score and side effects were then checked. After 12 hours, the VAS score was rechecked. If the VAS score was above 4, this was considered as failure of pain management. The VAS scores, complications and side effects for the modified intravenous analgesia injection were compared with that of IV PCA and epidural PCA. The average VAS score of the modified intravenous analgesia injection, intravenous PCA and epidural PCA was 1.4, 1 and 0, respectively; the number of additional intramuscular injections of analgesia was 0.5, 0.5 and 0, respectively. All the patients who underwent epidural PCA had back pain at the puncture site and 1 patient who underwent modified intravenous analgesia injection experienced mild dyspnea, but they easily recovered with such

  7. Treatment of Right Heart Thrombi Associated with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Deisy; Chavant, Jeremy; Jiménez, David; Bertoletti, Laurent; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Muriel, Alfonso; Viallon, Alain; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Yusen, Roger D; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based recommendations do not adequately address the treatment of right heart thrombi in patients who present with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. This study included patients who had acute pulmonary embolism associated with right heart thrombi and participated in the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica registry. We assessed the effectiveness of anticoagulation versus reperfusion treatment for the outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism-related mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding rates through 30 days after initiation of pulmonary embolism treatment. We used propensity score matching to adjust for the likelihood of receiving reperfusion treatment. Of 325 patients with pulmonary embolism and right heart thrombi, 255 (78%; 95% confidence interval, 74-83) received anticoagulation and 70 (22%; 95% confidence interval, 17-26) also received reperfusion treatment. Propensity score-matched pairs analyses did not detect a statistically lower risk of all-cause death (6.2% vs 14%, P = .15) or pulmonary embolism-related mortality (4.7% vs 7.8%; P = .47) for reperfusion compared with anticoagulation. Of the patients who received reperfusion treatment, 6.2% had a recurrence during the study follow-up period, compared with 0% of those who received anticoagulation (P = .049). The incidence of major bleeding events was not statistically different between the 2 treatment groups (3.1% vs 3.1%; P = 1.00). In patients with pulmonary embolism and right heart thrombi, no significant difference was found between reperfusion therapy and anticoagulant therapy for mortality and bleeding. The risk of recurrences was significantly higher for reperfusion therapy compared with anticoagulation. Right heart thrombi may not warrant riskier interventions than standard anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Sterilization on Shape Memory Polyurethane Embolic Foam Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalek, Rachael; Nash, Landon; Jones, Ryan; Hasan, Sayyeda M; Keller, Brandis K; Monroe, Mary Beth B; Maitland, Duncan J

    2017-09-01

    Polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams have been developed for various embolic medical devices due to their unique properties in minimally invasive biomedical applications. These polyurethane materials can be stored in a secondary shape, from which they can recover their primary shape after exposure to an external stimulus, such as heat and water exposure. Tailored actuation temperatures of SMPs provide benefits for minimally invasive biomedical applications, but incur significant challenges for SMP-based medical device sterilization. Most sterilization methods require high temperatures or high humidity to effectively reduce the bioburden of the device, but the environment must be tightly controlled after device fabrication. Here, two probable sterilization methods (nontraditional ethylene oxide (ntEtO) gas sterilization and electron beam irradiation) are investigated for SMP medical devices. Thermal characterization of the sterilized foams indicated that ntEtO gas sterilization significantly decreased the glass transition temperature. Further material characterization was undertaken on the electron beam (ebeam) sterilized samples, which indicated minimal changes to the thermomechanical integrity of the bulk foam and to the device functionality.

  9. Follow-up in uterine fibroid embolization; Nachsorge bei Myomembolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, D. [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Follow-up controls in patients after uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) should monitor clinical improvement of symptoms, document shrinkage of the fibroids, exclude malignancies and detect and treat potential complications of the intervention. A close cooperation with the referring gynecologist, sufficiently and carefully informing the patient about the routine follow-up procedure, potential complications and their clinical signs are necessary to fulfill this goal. Imaging is usually based on ultrasound imaging but may be supplemented by MRI. There are different complications in the early phase after UFE and in the later postembolization phase. (orig.) [German] Die Nachsorge bei Patientinnen, die sich einer Myomembolisation unterzogen haben, soll sicherstellen, dass eine erfolgreiche klinische Besserung der Symptome eintritt, ein Wachstum des Myoms gestoppt bzw. die Schrumpfung eingeleitet wird, ein Malignom nicht uebersehen wird und Komplikationen des Eingriffs erkannt und ausreichend therapiert werden. Hierzu sind eine vertrauensvolle und enge Kooperation mit dem betreuenden Gynaekologen und eine ausreichende Information der Patientin ueber den Verlauf nach der Embolisation und die klinischen Zeichen von Komplikationen erforderlich. Die Bildgebung beruht im Wesentlichen auf dem Ultraschall und ggf. der MRT, zwischen Komplikationen in der Fruehphase und im Verlauf muss unterschieden werden. (orig.)

  10. Clinical outcomes of symptomatic arterioportal fistulas after transcatheter arterial embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Masakazu; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-02-28

    To evaluate the complications and clinical outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for symptoms related to severe arterioportal fistulas (APFs). Six patients (3 males, 3 females; mean age, 63.8 years; age range, 60-71 years) with chronic liver disease and severe APFs due to percutaneous intrahepatic treatment (n = 5) and portal vein (PV) tumor thrombosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1) underwent TAE for symptoms related to severe APFs [refractory ascites (n = 4), hemorrhoidal hemorrhage (n = 1), and hepatic encephalopathy (n = 1)]. Control of symptoms related to APFs and complications were evaluated during the follow-up period (range, 4-57 mo). In all patients, celiac angiography revealed immediate retrograde visualization of the main PV before TAE, indicating severe APF. Selective TAE for the hepatic arteries was performed using metallic coils (MC, n = 4) and both MCs and n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n = 2). Three patients underwent repeated TAEs for residual APFs and ascites. Four patients developed PV thrombosis after TAE. During the follow-up period after TAE, APF obliteration and symptomatic improvement were obtained in all patients. Although TAE for severe APFs may sometimes be complicated by PV thrombosis, TAE can be an effective treatment to improve clinical symptoms related to severe APFs.

  11. Automated embolic signal detection using Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombune, Praotasna; Phienphanich, Phongphan; Phuechpanpaisal, Sutanya; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Ruamthanthong, Anuchit; Tantibundhit, Charturong

    2017-07-01

    This work investigated the potential of Deep Neural Network in detection of cerebral embolic signal (ES) from transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). The resulting system is aimed to couple with TCD devices in diagnosing a risk of stroke in real-time with high accuracy. The Adaptive Gain Control (AGC) approach developed in our previous study is employed to capture suspected ESs in real-time. By using spectrograms of the same TCD signal dataset as that of our previous work as inputs and the same experimental setup, Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which can learn features while training, was investigated for its ability to bypass the traditional handcrafted feature extraction and selection process. Extracted feature vectors from the suspected ESs are later determined whether they are of an ES, artifact (AF) or normal (NR) interval. The effectiveness of the developed system was evaluated over 19 subjects going under procedures generating emboli. The CNN-based system could achieve in average of 83.0% sensitivity, 80.1% specificity, and 81.4% accuracy, with considerably much less time consumption in development. The certainly growing set of training samples and computational resources will contribute to high performance. Besides having potential use in various clinical ES monitoring settings, continuation of this promising study will benefit developments of wearable applications by leveraging learnable features to serve demographic differentials.

  12. Endovascular Coil Embolization of Segmental Arteries Prevents Paraplegia After Subsequent TAAA Repair – An Experimental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbüsch, S; Stefanovic, A; Koruth, JS; Lin, HM; Morgello, S; Weisz, DJ; Griepp, RB; Di Luozzo, G

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test a strategy for minimizing ischemic spinal cord injury (SCI) following extensive thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAAA) repair, we occluded a small number of segmental arteries (SAs) endovascularly one week before simulated aneurysm repair in an experimental model. Methods 30 juvenile Yorkshire pigs (25.2±1.7kg) were randomized into three groups. All SAs—intercostal and lumbar—were sacrificed by a combination of surgical ligation of the lumbar SAs and occlusion of intercostal SAs with thoracic endovascular stent grafting (TEVAR). 7–10 days before this simulated TAAA replacement, SAs in the lower thoracic/upper lumbar region were occluded using embolization coils: 1.5±0.5 SAs in Group 1 (T13/L1), and 4.5±0.5 in Group 2 (T11-L3). No SAs were coiled in the controls. Hind limb function was evaluated blindly from daily videotapes using a modified Tarlov score: 0=paraplegia; 9=full recovery. After sacrifice, each segment of spinal cord was graded histologically using the 9-point Kleinman score: 0=normal, 8=complete necrosis. Results Hind limb function remained normal after coil embolization. After simulated TAAA repair, paraplegia occurred in 6/10 control pigs, but only 2/10 pigs in Group 1: no pigs in Group 2 had SCI. Tarlov scores were significantly better in Group 2 (Control vs 1 p=0.06; Control vs 2 p= 0.0002; 1 vs 2 p=0.05). A dramatic reduction in histologic damage—most prominently in the coiled region—was seen when SAs were embolized before simulated TAAA repair. Conclusions Endovascular coiling of 2–4 SAs prevents paraplegia in an experimental model of extensive hybrid TAAA repair, and helps protect the spinal cord from ischemic histopathological injury. A clinical trial in a selected patient population at high risk for postoperative SCI may be appropriate. PMID:24220154

  13. Symptoms, location and prognosis of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, M T; Pena-Álvarez, C; López-Landeiro, P; Bermo-Domínguez, A; Fontúrbel, T; González-Barcala, F J

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease with variable symptoms and high overall mortality. The clinical relevance of the extent of PE is still debatable, and the role of anticoagulation in patients with subsegmental involvement has been contested. Our objective is to describe the clinical details of patients with PE in our hospital and to analyze their prognosis based on the extent of the disease. Retrospective study of 313 patients diagnosed with PE by chest computed tomography (CT) scan at the Hospital Complex of Pontevedra in Spain for six years. Predictors of mortality were determined by multivariate analysis. Women accounted for 56% of patients, and patient median age was 70 years (interquartile range 53-78 years). Subsegmental PE accounted for 7% of all cases; these patients were younger and had lower comorbidity; they reported chest pain more often, performed better in blood gas analysis and none of them had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with subsegmental PE had a higher survival rate. Factors independently associated with mortality were cancer diagnosis and higher comorbidity. Patients with subsegmental PE clinically differ from those with more proximal PE. Underlying diseases have more influence on the prognosis than the extent of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Cardiopulmonary Support for Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Oren; Horowitz, James M; Ramzy, Danny

    2017-09-01

    Management of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of PE, options for rapid clot reduction, critical care interventions, and advanced cardiopulmonary support. PE can lead to rapid respiratory and hemodynamic collapse via a complex sequence of events leading to acute right ventricular failure. Importantly, reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance must be accomplished either by systemic thrombolytics, catheter directed thrombolytics, endovascular clot extraction, or surgical embolectomy. There are important advances in these techniques all of which have a niche role in the cardiopulmonary stabilization of critically ill patient with PE. Critical care support surrounding the above interventions is necessary. Maintenance of systemic perfusion and cardiac output may require careful titration of vasopressors, inotropes, and preload. Extreme caution should be taken with approach to intubation and positive pressure ventilation. A hemodynamically neutral induction with preparations for circulatory collapse should be the goal. Once intubated, the effect of positive pressure on pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular hemodynamics is necessary. Veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation plays an increasingly important role in the stabilization of the hemodynamically collapsed patient who either has a contraindication to systemic lytics, failed systemic lytics, or requires a bridge to surgical or catheter embolectomy. Veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation has also been used alone to stabilize the circulation until hemodynamics normalize on anticoagulation and has also been used in tenuous patient as a safety net for endovascular procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk-adapted management of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Stefano; Konstantinides, Stavros V

    2017-03-01

    The presence and severity of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a key determinant of prognosis in the acute phase of pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk-adapted treatment strategies continue to evolve, tailoring initial management to the clinical presentation and the functional status of the RV. Beyond pharmacological and, if necessary, mechanical circulatory support, systemic thrombolysis remains the mainstay of treatment for hemodynamically unstable patients; in contrast, it is not routinely recommended for intermediate-risk PE. Catheter-directed pharmacomechanical reperfusion treatment represents a promising option for minimizing bleeding risk; for reduced-dose intravenous thrombolysis, the data are still preliminary. Non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants, directly inhibiting factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) or thrombin (dabigatran), have simplified initial and long-term anticoagulation for PE while reducing major bleeding risk. Use of vena cava filters should be restricted to selected patients with absolute contraindications to anticoagulation, or PE recurrence despite adequately dosed anticoagulants. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  17. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.

  18. Right Heart Thrombi Accompained with Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çörtük

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Right sided heart thrombus (RSHT is rarely seen. It is generally detected during transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE examination or multislice thoracic computed tomographic scanning for pulmonary embolism (PE. Although RSHT and PE secondary to this situation is rare, mortality during the course of process is very high. We aim to aproach right cardiac trombus and determine the results of treatment. Method: In this study 25 patients hospital records were investigated retrospectively. The data obtained consisted of diagnostic methods, presence of shock state, treatments applied and results were assessed. Results: Th present study revealed that the 32% of patients had been admitted to hospital in shock state, hospital mortality rate was 24%, and this mortality rate was not affected by different treatment choices. Conclusion: The exact incidence of RSHT is unknown. It is reported that the probability of seeing a case suffering from RSHT during echocardiographic examination performed to diagnose the PE is 9%. RSHT may cause PE anytime and requires urgent treatment. In our study, we determined that the hospital mortaliy did not change with the type of given treatment and overall mortality was determined as 24%. There are no sufficient studies searching large series on RSHT in literature. Therefore, there is no agreement on treatment tecniques.

  19. Isolated Pulmonary Embolism following Shoulder Arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H. Goldhaber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE following shoulder arthroscopy is a rare complication. We present a unique case report of a 43-year-old right-hand dominant female who developed a PE 41 days postoperatively with no associated upper or lower extremity DVT. The patient had minimal preoperative and intraoperative risk factors. Additionally, she had no thromboembolic symptoms postoperatively until 41 days following surgery when she developed sudden right-hand swelling, labored breathing, and abdominal pain. A stat pulmonary computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest revealed an acute PE in the right lower lobe, and subsequent extremity ultrasounds showed no upper or lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. After a thorough review of the literature, we present the first documented isolated PE following shoulder arthroscopy. Although rare, sudden development of an isolated PE is possible, and symptoms such as sudden hand swelling, trouble breathing, and systemic symptoms should be evaluated aggressively with a pulmonary CT angiogram given the fact that an extremity ultrasound may be negative for deep vein thrombosis.

  20. Medical image of the week: fat embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 74-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a left femoral neck fracture after a fall. The next day she underwent an uneventful left hip hemiarthroplasty. About 3 hours postoperatively, she became lethargic, tachycardic, tachypneic, febrile, and hypotensive. An arterial blood gas analysis revealed mild hypoxemia with PaO2 / FiO2 ratio of 270. Hemoglobin decreased from 9.4g/dL to 7.7g/dL postoperatively. A chest x-ray showed only bibasilar opacities. Sepsis, acute postoperative blood loss anemia, and pulmonary embolism (PE were entertained as a differential diagnosis. The patient was resuscitated with intravenous fluids and packed red blood cells, and was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Her hemodynamic status stabilized shortly thereafter. A CT chest with PE protocol and abdomen/pelvis down to thigh level was performed; no PE was identified. It did not show any intraabdominal pathology or signs of hemorrhage. However, it incidentally revealed fat embolus mixed with thrombus in the left common and …

  1. Preparation of embolic NEMs loading capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuangang; He, Peng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Xuezhan; Chen, Aizheng

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles-embedded microcapsules (NEMs) with smooth surface, good sphericity, excellent dispersivity and uniform particle size distribution were prepared by emulsification combined with electrospraying to extend the sustained release performance of the embolic microcapsules loading capecitabine (CAP). The sodium alginate and chitosan with good biocompatibility were used as the materials and CAP as a small-molecule model drug. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and drug release of CAP in the NEMs were investigated. The results showed that the drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency both increased with the increment of chitosan and CAP concentration. The maximum values of drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 1.97 and 18.01 % respectively when initial CAP concentration was 5.0 g/L and chitosan molecular weight 100 kDa. The cumulative release rate of CAP released from the NEMs was lower than 30 % in 0.5 h, which indicated that there was no obvious initial burst release behavior. In the subsequent 240 h, the release results confirmed that the NEMs had better sustained release properties compared to pure microcapsules, and it might be a new anticancer drug delivery system in the future studies.

  2. Oral direct thrombin inhibitors or oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Kesteven, Patrick; McCaslin, James E

    2015-12-04

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition in which a clot can travel from the deep veins, most commonly in the leg, up to the lungs. Previously, a pulmonary embolism was treated with the anticoagulants heparin and vitamin K antagonists. Recently, however, two forms of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been developed: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) and oral factor Xa inhibitors. The new drugs have characteristics that may be favourable over conventional treatment, including oral administration, a predictable effect, lack of frequent monitoring or re-dosing and few known drug interactions. To date, no Cochrane review has measured the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in the long-term treatment (minimum duration of three months) of pulmonary embolism. To assess the effectiveness of oral DTIs and oral factor Xa inhibitors for the long-term treatment of pulmonary embolism. The Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched January 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (last searched January 2015). Clinical trials databases were also searched for details of ongoing or unpublished studies. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles retrieved by electronic searches for additional citations. We included randomised controlled trials in which patients with a pulmonary embolism confirmed by standard imaging techniques were allocated to receive an oral DTI or an oral factor Xa inhibitor for the long-term (minimum duration three months) treatment of pulmonary embolism. Two review authors (LR, JM) independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias in the trials. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion with the third author (PK). We used meta-analyses when we considered heterogeneity low. The two primary outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality and major bleeding. We calculated all outcomes

  3. Arterial gas embolism: a review of cases at Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, 1996 to 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trytko, B E; Bennett, M H

    2008-01-01

    ... aware of the role for hyperbaric oxygen therapy in non-diving related gas embolism. This review is part of an Australian appraisal of experience in the management of arterial gas embolism over the last 10 years...

  4. Embolization of benign and malignant bone and soft tissue tumors of the extremities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seda Börüban; Tanzer Sancak; Yusuf Yildiz; Yener Saglik

    2007-01-01

    .... Among 17 patients who were initially assessed to be appropriate for angiographic embolization, DSA-assisted intra-arterial embolization was performed on 11 pre-operatively, and 6 curatively or palliatively...

  5. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are often underdiagnosed and serious, but ... bloodstream to the lungs, causing a blockage called pulmonary embolism (PE). If the clot is small, and with ...

  6. Prospective cardiopulmonary screening program to detect chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients after acute pulmonary embolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F.A.; Kralingen, K.W. van; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Heyning, F.H.; Vliegen, H.W.; Huisman, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism is important for evaluating the need for screening but is also a

  7. Long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes of vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Schultz, Lonni; Mohanarangan, Karthik; Gaddam, Aryamaan; Schwalb, Jason M; Spanaki-Varelas, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a widely used adjunctive treatment option for intractable epilepsy. Most studies have demonstrated short-term seizure outcomes, usually for up to 5 years, and thus far, none have reported psychosocial outcomes in adults. We aimed to assess long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes in patients with intractable epilepsy on VNS therapy for more than 15 years. We identified patients who had VNS implantation for treatment of intractable epilepsy from 1997 to 2013 at our Comprehensive Epilepsy Program and gathered demographics including age at epilepsy onset and VNS implantation, epilepsy type, number of antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) and seizure frequency before VNS implantation and at the last clinic visit, and the most recent stimulation parameters from electronic medical records (EMR). Phone surveys were conducted by research assistants from May to November 2014 to determine patients' current seizure frequency and psychosocial metrics, including driving, employment status, and use of antidepressants. Seizure outcomes were based on modified Engel classification (I: seizure-free/rare simple partial seizures; II: >90% seizure reduction (SR), III: 50-90% SR, IV: 50% SR)=favorable outcome). A total of 207 patients underwent VNS implantation, 15 of whom were deceased at the time of the phone survey, and 40 had incomplete data for medical abstraction. Of the remaining 152, 90 (59%) were contacted and completed the survey. Of these, 51% were male, with the mean age at epilepsy onset of 9.4 years (range: birth to 60 years). There were 35 (39%) patients with extratemporal epilepsy, 19 (21%) with temporal, 18 (20%) with symptomatic generalized, 5 (6%) with idiopathic generalized, and 13 (14%) with multiple types. Final VNS settings showed 16 (18%) patients with an output current >2 mA and 14 (16%) with rapid cycling. Of the 80 patients with seizure frequency information, 16 (20%) had a modified Engel class I outcome, 14 (18%) had class II, 24 (30

  8. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  9. Transcatheter arterial embolization in gastric cancer patients with acute bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Song, Ho-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-04-15

    The safety and clinical effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization for bleeding associated with unresectable gastric cancer was evaluated. Twenty-three patients with bleeding from unresectable gastric cancer underwent transcatheter arterial embolization. Of the 23 patients, eight showed signs of active bleeding, such as contrast extravasation or pseudoaneurysm, seven showed only tumor staining, and the remaining eight patients showed negative angiographic findings. All embolization procedures were successful without procedure-related complications. In all eight active bleeding patients, immediate hemostasis was achieved. The overall clinical success rate was 52% (12/23). Recurrent bleeding within 1 month occurred in one (8%) in 12 patients with initial clinical success. One patient showed partial splenic infarction after embolization of the splenic artery for active bleeding from the short gastric artery. Overall 30-day mortality rate was 43% (10/23). The median overall survival period was 38 days. In patients with bleeding from unresectable gastric cancer, transcatheter arterial embolization was found to be safe and effective for achieving immediate hemostasis for active bleeding. Although the clinical success rate was not high, the recurrent bleeding rate was low at 1 month post procedure. (orig.)

  10. Clinicopathological Investigation of AVMs Embolized with HEMA-MMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, H.; Kazekawa, K.; Tanaka, A.; Ueno, Y.; Nomoto, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Summary We have recently developed a non-adhesive liquid embolic agent, hydroxyethylmethacrylate methylmethacrylate copolymer (HEMA-MMA), and used it for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the central nervous system. To evaluate the toxicity and usefulness of this agent, we made a clinicopathological study of AVMs that were embolized with it and then excised surgically. This study includes ten cases· nine with pial AVM and one with scalp AVM. In a pathological study, special attention was paid to vascular and perivascular inflammation, angionecrosis, recanalization of the embolized vessels, and foreign body reactions. Inflammation was absent or very mild regardless of the interval between embolization and excision. There was no angionecrosis. Recanalization could be expected to occur in the partially occluded vessel. Foreign body reactions such as infiltration of monocytes or giant cells, and proliferation of fibroblasts or capillaries were also not seen in any case. It was concluded that HEMA-MMA is an excellent embolic material that is easy to handle, less vasotoxic than other agents, and highly histocompatible. PMID:20663398

  11. Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial & Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Jia, Ren-Bing, E-mail: jrb19760517@hotmail.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Wang, De-Ming, E-mail: wdmdeming@hotmail.com; Lv, Ming-Ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@aliyun.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China)

    2015-06-15

    ObjectiveArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the periorbital region are technically challenging clinical entities to manage. The purpose of the present study was to present our initial experience of ethanol embolization in a series of 16 patients with auricular AVMs and assess the outcomes of this treatment.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization and/or direct percutaneous puncture embolization were performed in the 16 patients. Pure or diluted ethanol was manually injected. The follow-up evaluations included physical examination and angiography at 1- to 6-month intervals.ResultsDuring the 28 ethanol embolization sessions, the amount of ethanol used ranged from 2 to 65 mL. The obliteration of ulceration, hemorrhage, pain, infection, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients was obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all the 16 patients, with down-staging of the Schobinger status for each patient. AVMs were devascularized 100 % in 3 patients, 76–99 % in 7 patients, and 50–75 % in 6 patients, according to the angiographic findings. The most common complications were necrosis and reversible blister. No permanent visual abnormality was found in any of the cases.ConclusionEthanol embolization is efficacious and safe in the treatment of AVMs in the periorbital region and has the potential to be accepted as the primary mode of therapy in the management of these lesions.

  12. New thermoreversible liquid embolic agent for embolotherapy: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yuichi; Ebara, Masaki; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Saguchi, Takayuki; Irie, Koreaki; Abe, Toshiaki [Jikei University School of Medicine, Division of Endovascular Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Mori, Yuichi [Waseda University, Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Vinuela, Fernando [UCLA School of Medicine and Medical Center, Department of Radiological Science, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate potential feasibility of new liquid embolic agent, thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP), for embolotherapy. TGP is a liquid polymer that was originally developed as a cell culture medium for tissue engineering. TGP becomes liquid at temperatures lower than the sol-gel transition temperature (TT) and becomes a gel at temperatures higher than the TT. The TT can be adjusted from 10 C to 40 C, allowing gelation at body temperature without solvent. The renal arteries in six swine were embolized with TGP. Angiographic evaluations were obtained 0, 3 h, and 14 days after embolization. The animals were sacrificed at day 14 after angiogram. All renal arteries were successfully embolized with TGP using cooling catheter. No acute and chronic clinical complication was observed. Follow-up angiogram demonstrated complete or near complete occlusion of renal arteries. No untoward inflammatory response was observed in acute and chronic specimen. This embolic material has potential feasibility to be used in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, or hyper vascular tumors. (orig.)

  13. Uterine artery embolization angiography and fertility related aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Horhoianu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Uterine artery embolization is a minimally invasive technique. It applies the principle of targeted anatomical structure devascularisation with utility in fibroid conservative therapy, including for future fertility preserving status. The objective of our paper represents a description and evaluation of angiography utility as a predictive method for fertility maintenance. Material and Methods. The angiography and ultrasound aspects obtained from a prospective study in which selected patients have undergone uterine artery embolization for fertility preservation are detailed. Results. The following angiography aspects have been detected: left- right shunt and utero-ovarian collaterals; these have been compared with the ultrasound aspects related to the fibroid evolution form a volumetric and Doppler ultrasound point of view. The angiographical description predicts the impact on post embolization fibroid evolution and upon fertility. An analysis is made in order to assess the way in which angiography can contribute to fertility alteration. Conclusions. The angiography aspects during embolization and the following ultrasound aspects can represent predictive factors as to fertility evolution after uterine artery embolization.

  14. A Case of Tracheobronchomalacia Mimicking Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stefani M; Greco, Katherine J; Reddy, Venugopal

    2017-09-19

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary embolism is a common acute postoperative complication and is associated with 100,000 deaths per year in the USA. Tracheobronchomalacia is an uncommon condition, which presents with similar symptoms to pulmonary embolism, including hypoxemia, tachycardia, and shortness of breath. We describe a case of a patient who presented with postoperative pulmonary symptoms that were initially thought to be due to pulmonary embolism. However, following imaging investigations these symptoms were found to be due to tracheobronchomalacia. CASE REPORT A 73-year-old woman underwent elective ventral hernia repair and takedown of a Hartmann's pouch. On the ninth postoperative day, she developed symptoms of acute respiratory distress and was admitted to the surgical intensive care unit. Respiratory function tests and blood gas evaluation showed that her alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a gradient) and modified Wells' score were suggestive of a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the lungs was negative for pulmonary embolism but demonstrated findings suggestive of tracheobronchomalacia. CONCLUSIONS Tracheobronchomalacia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypoxia when evaluating a patient in the ICU.

  15. Uterine fibroid vascularization and clinical relevance to uterine fibroid embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelage, Jean-Pierre; Cazejust, Julien; Pluot, Etienne; Le Dref, Olivier; Laurent, Alexandre; Spies, James B; Chagnon, Sophie; Lacombe, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    Embolization has become a first-line treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors. Selective catheterization and embolization of both uterine arteries, which are the predominant source of blood flow to fibroid tumors in most cases, is the cornerstone of treatment. Although embolization for treatment of uterine fibroid tumors is widely accepted, great familiarity with the normal and variant pelvic arterial anatomy is needed to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The uterine artery classically arises as a first or second branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is usually dilated in the presence of a uterine fibroid tumor. Angiography is used for comprehensive pretreatment assessment of the pelvic arterial anatomy; for noninvasive evaluation, Doppler ultrasonography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR angiography also may be used. After the uterine artery is identified, selective catheterization should be performed distal to its cervicovaginal branch. For targeted embolization of the perifibroid arterial plexus, injection of particles with diameters larger than 500 mum is generally recommended. Excessive embolization may injure normal myometrium, ovaries, or fallopian tubes and lead to uterine necrosis or infection or to ovarian failure. Incomplete treatment or additional blood supply to the tumor (eg, via an ovarian artery) may result in clinical failure. The common postembolization angiographic end point is occlusion of the uterine arterial branches to the fibroid tumor while antegrade flow is maintained in the main uterine artery. Copyright RSNA, 2005.

  16. Uterine arterial embolization for uterine leiomyoma: efficacy and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Do Yon; Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Ki Hyun; Park, Yong Won; Cho, Jae Sung; Kim, Myung Jun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Je Hwan [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and clinical outcome of uterine arterial embolization as a new approach to the management of uterine leiomyomas. Uterine arterial embolization was performed in 21 patients aged 26-62(mean, 42) years. Twenty of these had menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and mass-related symptoms (low abdominal discomfort, backache, urinary frequency, etc.) and one was diagnosed incidentally. Bilateral uterine arteries were selected individually and polyvinyl alcohol and/or gelfoam was used as an embolic material. Nineteen patients were followed up after embolization. Seventeen (89.5 %)reported satisfactory improvement of symptoms and follow-up sonography three months later showed a 58.5 % reduction in mean myoma volume. In 17 patients (89.5 %), the menstrual cycle returned to normal. All patients experienced pain after the procedure and other complications were vaginal bleeding (26.3 %) and fever (23.8 %). Uterine arterial embolization represents a new approach to the management of uterine leiomyoma-related symptoms. Further investigations and long-term follow-up are, however, enquired.

  17. The diagnosis and treatment of paradoxical embolism: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atooshe Rohani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One in five adults has patent foramen ovale (PFO, which is typically without symptoms. Because of the low pressure in both atria and the anatomical position of the septum secundum, there is no left-to-right shunting and little right-to-left shunting in the general condition; however, when the right atrial pressure increases, this slit-like flap separates and allows right-to-left shunting. According to the Johnson criteria, simultaneous occurrences of arterial emboli, such as those caused by cerebrovascular accident or pulmonary embolism, demonstrate the presence of paradoxical embolism through a PFO. When a patient presents with multivascular arterial embolism, the clinician should perform a contrast transthoracic echo, a transesophageal (TEE, a real-time three-dimensional TEE, and even an intracardiac echocardiography (ICE in order to differentiate between PFO, flat atrial septal defect (ASD and hybrid defects. The randomized trials that have assessed therapeutic interventions for paradoxical embolism have not produced any clear guidelines as to how best to treat this condition. The classic treatment is surgical embolectomy with exploration of the right chambers and the pulmonary arteries under full cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with a history of ≥1 paradoxical embolism may be indicated for device PFO closure.

  18. Computed tomography of acute pulmonary embolism: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Ravenel, James G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the detection, risk stratification and prognosis evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism. This review will discuss the technical improvements for imaging peripheral pulmonary arteries, the methods of assessing pulmonary embolism severity based on CT findings, a multidetector CT technique for pulmonary embolism detection, and lastly, how to avoid overutilization of CT pulmonary angiography and overdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  19. Brain-responsive neurostimulation in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Eric B; Skarpaas, Tara L; Gross, Robert E; Goodman, Robert R; Barkley, Gregory L; Bazil, Carl W; Berg, Michael J; Bergey, Gregory K; Cash, Sydney S; Cole, Andrew J; Duckrow, Robert B; Edwards, Jonathan C; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Goldman, Alicia M; Gwinn, Ryder P; Heck, Christianne; Herekar, Aamar; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Jobst, Barbara C; King-Stephens, David; Labar, Douglas R; Leiphart, James W; Marsh, W Richard; Meador, Kimford J; Mizrahi, Eli M; Murro, Anthony M; Nair, Dileep R; Noe, Katherine H; Park, Yong D; Rutecki, Paul A; Salanova, Vicenta; Sheth, Raj D; Shields, Donald C; Skidmore, Christopher; Smith, Michael C; Spencer, David C; Srinivasan, Shraddha; Tatum, William; Van Ness, Paul C; Vossler, David G; Wharen, Robert E; Worrell, Gregory A; Yoshor, Daniel; Zimmerman, Richard S; Cicora, Kathy; Sun, Felice T; Morrell, Martha J

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin. Subjects with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline. Safety was assessed based on reported adverse events. There were 111 subjects with MTLE; 72% of subjects had bilateral MTL onsets and 28% had unilateral onsets. Subjects had one to four leads placed; only two leads could be connected to the device. Seventy-six subjects had depth leads only, 29 had both depth and strip leads, and 6 had only strip leads. The mean follow-up was 6.1 ± (standard deviation) 2.2 years. The median percent seizure reduction was 70% (last observation carried forward). Twenty-nine percent of subjects experienced at least one seizure-free period of 6 months or longer, and 15% experienced at least one seizure-free period of 1 year or longer. There was no difference in seizure reduction in subjects with and without mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), bilateral MTL onsets, prior resection, prior intracranial monitoring, and prior vagus nerve stimulation. In addition, seizure reduction was not dependent on the location of depth leads relative to the hippocampus. The most frequent serious device-related adverse event was soft tissue implant-site infection (overall rate, including events categorized as device-related, uncertain, or not device-related: 0.03 per implant year, which is not greater than with other neurostimulation devices). Brain-responsive stimulation represents a safe and effective treatment option for patients with medically intractable epilepsy, including patients with unilateral or bilateral MTLE who are not candidates for

  20. Laser interstitial thermal therapy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Y; Wu, Chengyuan; Tracy, Joseph; Lorenzo, Matthew; Evans, James; Nei, Maromi; Skidmore, Christopher; Mintzer, Scott; Sharan, Ashwini D; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    To describe mesial temporal lobe ablated volumes, verbal memory, and surgical outcomes in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) treated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided stereotactic laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT). We prospectively tracked seizure outcome in 20 patients at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital with drug-resistant mTLE who underwent MRI-guided LiTT from December 2011 to December 2014. Surgical outcome was assessed at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and at the most recent visit. Volume-based analysis of ablated mesial temporal structures was conducted in 17 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and results were compared between the seizure-free and not seizure-free groups. Following LiTT, proportions of patients who were free of seizures impairing consciousness (including those with auras only) are as follows: 8 of 15 patients (53%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30.1-75.2%) after 6 months, 4 of 11 patients (36.4%, 95% CI 14.9-64.8%) after 1 year, 3 of 5 patients (60%, 95% CI 22.9-88.4%) at 2-year follow-up. Median follow-up was 13.4 months after LiTT (range 1.3 months to 3.2 years). Seizure outcome after LiTT suggests an all or none response. Four patients had anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) after LiTT; three are seizure-free. There were no differences in total ablated volume of the amygdalohippocampus complex or individual volumes of hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus between seizure-free and non-seizure-free patients. Contextual verbal memory performance was preserved after LiTT, although decline in noncontextual memory task scores were noted. We conclude that MRI-guided stereotactic LiTT is a safe alternative to ATL in patients with medically intractable mTLE. Individualized assessment is warranted to determine whether the reduced odds of seizure freedom are worth the reduction in risk, discomfort, and recovery time. Larger prospective