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Sample records for em camundongos swiss

  1. Teratogenic effect of retinoic acid in swiss mice Efeito teratogênico do ácido retinóico em camundongo swiss

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    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the types of malformations resulting from the administration of retinoic acid (RA to Swiss mice on different days of pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The experimental groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of RA (70 mg/kg on gestational days 7, 8 and 9 (D7, D8 and D9, while control animals (C received only saline solution. RESULTS: Were obtained: exencephaly (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0, myelomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%, D8:30.9%, D9:0, spina bifida occulta (C:0, D7:29%, D8:41.8%, D90, gastroschisis (C:0, D7:6.4% D8:5.4%, D9:0, omphalocele (C:0, D7:6.4%, D8:14.5%, D9:0, lower limb alterations (C:0, D7:74.1%, D8:80%, D9:0, imperforated anus (C:0, D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%, and tail agenesis/alteration (C: D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%. CONCLUSION: The experimental model using Swiss mice proved to be efficient in the induction of the different types of defects, with the eighth gestational day being the one that most favored the induction of neural tube defect, omphalocele, gastroschisis, lower limb defects, imperforated anus and tail agenesis/alteration. On this basis, this is a useful model for future investigation of neural development and of the formation of the appendicular skeleton.OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de malformação resultantes da administração do ácido retinóico (AR a camundongos Swiss em diferentes dias gestacionais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos fêmeas, linhagem Swiss, prenhes, divididos em 4 grupos com 6 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam uma única injeção intraperitoneal de AR (70mg/Kg nos dias gestacionais 7, 8 e 9 (D7, D8 e D9, enquanto que os animais do grupo controle (C receberam apenas solução salina. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados: exencefalia (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0; mielomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%; D8:30.9%; D9:0; Espina Bífida Oculta (C:0; D7:29%; D8:41.8%; D90; gastrosquise (C:0

  2. On the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi y strain in swiss mice Sobre o parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in Swiss mice was carried out. This strain parasitized preferentially smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers, with low transitory spleen and liver parasitism, as previously found by some Authors, although differing from other reports. These results can be related to the host genetical constitution and/or the degree of the strain virulence at the time of this study. Furthermore, we discuss that the high macrophagotropism reported for this strain in some instances could be an artificially induced condition resulting from its serial maintenance in mice, either for a longer time and/or by using young animals. The heavy parasitism and inflammation observed in the bladder, pancreas and spermatic duct of some inoculated mice, as well as the testis parasitization, were also noteworthy findings.Através deste trabalho fizemos uma revisão do parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster. Esta cepa parasitou preferencialmente as fibras musculares lisas, esqueléticas e cardíacas, sendo baixo e transitório seu parasitismo do baço e fígado, conforme já observado por alguns Autores, embora diferindo de outros achados. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados com o padrão genético do hospedeiro e/ou com o grau de virulência da cepa por ocasião deste estudo. Além do mais, discutimos a possibilidade de que o intenso macrofagotropismo descrito para esta cepa em algumas ocasiões possa ser uma condição artificialmente induzida através de sua manutenção seriada em camundongos por tempo prolongado e/ou pelo uso de animais jovens. Também são dignos de nota, o intenso parasitismo e inflamação da bexiga, pâncreas e canal espermático de alguns animais inoculados, assim como, o encontro de ninhos de amastigotas no testículo.

  3. Surto de varíola murina em camundongos suíços em biotério: Relato de caso An outbreak of mousepox in swiss mice in a laboratory animal facility: Case report

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    S. Diniz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos camundongos suíços foram alojados em um biotério com instalações e condições de manejo adequadas para uma criação de animais convencionais sadios. Após 14 dias de alojamento, dois animais tiveram morte súbita, e em 74 animais (37% foram observados sintomas clínicos como edema da face e das patas. Uma semana após foram observadas lesões generalizadas na pele ou somente no dorso, na face, no focinho e nas patas, nódulos na cauda, e em cinco animais conjuntivite. A necropsia de 10 camundongos indicou alterações como hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e hiperplasia dos gânglios. Amostras do fígado, baço e de lesões da cauda foram inoculadas em membrana corioalantóide (MCA de ovos embrionados de galinha. Após 72 horas foram detectadas lesões necróticas típicas denominadas "pocks". As MCAs foram maceradas e inoculadas em culturas de células Vero e detectado efeito citopático após 72 horas. O diagnóstico da varíola murina foi baseado nos sinais clínicos, lesões, cultivo e na identificação do vírus.Two hundred Swiss mice were housed following the requirements to produce healthy laboratory animals. After 14 days two mice had an acute lethal infection and one week later 74 animals (37% presented multiple skin lesions some of them associated with conjunctivitis. Necropsy of 10 mice with clinical signs (swelling of feet and facial area revealed alterations in the spleen, liver and lymphonodes. Samples of hepatic and splenic tissues and of tail lesions were inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane (MCA of embrionated chicken eggs and pocks lesions were detected. The MCAs were grinded and inoculated in Vero cell cultures and the cytophatic effect was detected after 72 hours. Diagnosis of mousepox was based on clinical signs, lesions and virus isolation and identification.

  4. Gangliosideos e a resposta de hipersensibilidade retardada em camundongos

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    EFS MONTERO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalhos anteriores mostrou-se que os gangliosídeos (GSLs têm um efeito inibitório sobre a proliferação linfocitária e a síntese de IL-2, assim como sobre a reação mista de linfócitos. Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos GSLs sobre a resposta de hipersensibilidade retardada. Foram utilizados 12 camundongos BALB/c, machos, pesando em média 30 gramas, provenientes do biotério setorial da Disciplina de Parasitologia e mantidos por 5 dias para adaptação no biotério setorial da Disciplina de Técnica Operatória e Cirurgia Experimental da UNIFESP-EPM, recebendo água e ração própria para a espécie. Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos, de acordo com as doses de GSLs, da seguinte forma: grupo 3mg. kg-1, grupo 9mg. kg-1 e grupo simulado (veículo. Os animais foram tratados, por via intramuscular, nos dias 0 e 4. O parâmetro avaliado foi o edema da pata traseira esquerda no local da inoculação do antígeno. Os animais foram anestesiados com Cetamina (60mg.kg-1 e Xilazina (10mg.kg-1, por via intramuscular, sendo em seguida submetidos à dissecção da veia jugular direita, por onde foram inoculadas 10(6 hemácias de Carneiro no dia 0, para sensibilização. No dia 4 subsequente, os animais foram novamente anestesiados e receberam, por via subcutânea, 10(8 hemácias de Carneiro, num volume de 0,02ml. Foram realizadas medidas do edema da pata traseira com paquímetro 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas após o desafio. Os dados mostraram que após 48h houve um aumento do edema em animais dos grupos simulado e 3mg (médias=2,3 and 2,1mm, respectivamente, e os camundongos do grupo 9mg não apresentaram aumento importante (média=0,1mm. Entretanto, após 72h, o grupo 9mg apresentou aumento de 1,7mm enquanto, os outros grupos não apresentaram mudança significativa no edema da pata (médias=0,2 e 0,8mm, grupos simulado e 3mg, respectivamente comparados aos dados do dia antecedente. Após 96h, todos os grupos apresentaram

  5. Esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos experimentalmente subnutridos Mansoni schistosomiasis in experimentally undernourished mice

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    Luiz Augusto Magalhães

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Foram constituídos 4 grupos de Mus musculus "Swiss" da seguinte forma: 1 não infectados, normoprotéicos; 2 infectados, normoprotéicos; 3 não infectados, hipoprotéicos e 4 infectados, hipoprotéicos. Os animais foram sacrificados com 60 dias de infecção, aos 90 dias de idade. Verificou-se que os esquistossomos sofreram os efeitos da subnutrição do hospedeiro, principalmente os vermes machos, que além de terem seu desenvolvimento prejudicado, tiveram seu número reduzido aproximadamente pela metade. O número de granulomas foi menor nos roedores subnutridos e o tamanho da lesão foi reduzido. Houve acentuada leucopenia nos animais submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica, principalmente nos infectados subnutridos. A linfopenia e a eosinopenia acentuadas sugeriram que o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro foi afetado pela subnutrição. A taxa de mortalidade foi muito mais elevada nos animais infectados submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Concluiu-se que os camundongos subnutridos resistiram menos à infecção esquistossomótica apesar de terem apresentado menor número de lesões granulomatosas.Mansoni schistosomiasis was studied in mice fed on a low protein diet. Four groups of the Swiss breed Mus musculus were used in an experiment with two factors, each with two levels: 1-non-infected, normal diet; 2 - infected, normal diet ; 3 - non-infected, low protein diet; 4 - infected, low protein diet. The mice were killed for observation at age 90 days, after 60 days of infection, for those infected. It was found that the worms suffered the effects of malnutrition, mainly males, whose population count was cut by half, in addition to poor individual growth. The hepatic granuloma count was found to be smaller in the undernourished group; while the corresponding lesions were also generally smaller. There was a marked leukopenia in

  6. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

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    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  7. Avaliação dos efeitos depressores centrais do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum Pax. e de suas frações em camundongos albinos Evaluation of the central depressor effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum Pax. and its fractions in Swiss mice

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    Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea é uma planta nativa da África tropical conhecida como "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", dentre outros. A planta é utilizada pela população brasileira como detentora de propriedades antiinflamatória, analgésica, dentre outras. Foram avaliados os efeitos depressores sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum (EES e de suas frações - hexânica (FH, clorofórmica (FC e metanol/água (FM. Vários testes foram utilizados em camundongos machos albinos (Mus musculus, dentre eles, o sono induzido por barbitúrico, campo aberto e o teste do rota-rod. O EES foi testado nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, enquanto que a FH foi testada na dose de 10 mg/kg, a FC na dose de 20 mg/kg e a FM na dose de 25 mg/kg. O EES e as frações FH e FC, mas não a FM, apresentaram um possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC, visto que foram capazes de aumentar o tempo parado e diminuir o número de bolos fecais no campo aberto, além de potencializarem o sono induzido por barbitúrico. No teste do rota-rod, observou-se que o EES e as frações não foram capazes de causar incoordenação motora ou relaxamento muscular. Assim, conclui-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações FH e FC do Syandenium umbellatum Pax. possuem possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC.Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea is a native plant from tropical Africa known as "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", among others. The plant is used by Brazilian folks for having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, among others. It was evaluated the depressor effects over the central nervous system (CNS of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum (EES and its fractions - hexane (HF, chloroformic (CF and methanol/water fractions(MF. Several tests were used in Swiss mice (Mus musculus, among them, barbiturate-induced sleep, open field and rota-rod test. The

  8. Model of experimental infection in healthy and immunosuppressed swiss albino mice (Mus musculus using Candida albicans strains with different patterns of enzymatic activity Modelo de infecção experimental em camundongos albino swiss (Mus musculus sadios e imunossuprimidos utilizando cepas de Candida albicans com diferentes padrões de atividade enzimática

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    Guilherme M. Chaves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate Candida albicans virulence in vivo, two strains selected were based on their phospholipase and proteinase activity, and used in a model of experimental infection. One strain, isolated from vaginal secretion, was stocked at the URM Culture Collection for 43 years and presented high phospholipase (Pz=0.217 and proteinase (1.386 U.mL-1 activity. The other strain was a fresh strain isolated from oropharyngeal secretion of an AIDS patient, and presented low phospholipase (Pz=0.482 and proteinase (0.780 U.mL-1 activity. The strains were inoculated via intraperitoneum in immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed mice (Mus musculus and the infection was evaluated over a period of 21 days. Liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys were aseptically removed and the blood of the animals was collected every 72 h. The number of colony forming units (c.f.u isolated from each organ was counted and a histopathologic examination was performed. The freshly isolated strain was more virulent than the stocked strain, as shown by the number of positive cultures and severity of the lesions observed at the histopathologic examination. A correlation between the in vitro enzymatic activity and the in vivo virulence was not observed.Com o objetivo de avaliar a virulência de Candida albicans in vivo, foram selecionadas duas cepas de acordo com a atividade enzimática de fosfolipase e protease, para utilização em modelo de infecção experimental. Utilizou-se um isolado de secreção vaginal, estocado na Micoteca URM por 43 anos com alta atividade de fosfolipase (Pz=0.217 e de protease (1.386 U.mL-1, e outro recém-isolado de secreção orofaríngea de paciente com AIDS, o qual apresentou baixa atividade de fosfolipase (Pz=0.482 e de protease (0.780 U.mL-1. As amostras foram inoculadas por via intra-peritoneal em camundongos (Mus musculus na presença e ausência de imunossupressão e a infecção foi avaliada durante 21 dias. A cada 72 h foram

  9. Acute toxicity of Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, aqueous extract in mice Toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso de Psilocybe cubensis em camundongos

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    Thiago Berti Kirsten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, is a hallucinogen mushroom that has been used since the old times by humans, causing several psychotic effects. P. cubensis contains two tryptamine derivates: psilocybin and psilocin, agonists of the 5-HT2 receptor (serotonin. The main objective of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of P. cubensis aqueous extract (PCAE administration in mice. Male and female adult Swiss mice received PCAE 0.1 mL/10 g i.p., and were observed individually, directly in a glass box and in an open-field. In relation to the data of the control group, PCAE-treated animals presented: an increased gnawing, appearance of wet-dog shakes and a decreased locomotion and rearing frequencies after 29-38 min. Also a clear gender difference was detected, being female mice more sensible to the PCAE than males. It was suggested that PCAE administration produced specific effects on mice behaviors, characteristic of drugs which interfere on central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Finally, the observational methods here employed were efficient to evaluate the toxic effects of the extract.O Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, é um cogumelo alucinógeno usado pelos humanos desde a antiguidade, causando diversos efeitos psicóticos. Ele contém dois derivados triptamínicos: psilocibina e psilocina, agonistas do receptor 5-HT2 (serotonina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar os efeitos da administração do extrato aquoso do P. cubensis (EAPC na toxicidade aguda de camundongos. Camundongos Swiss adultos machos e fêmeas receberam o EAPC e foram observados individualmente, diretamente em uma caixa de vidro e em um campo aberto. Com relação ao grupo controle, animais tratados com EAPC apresentaram: aumento de roer, tremores, decréscimo da locomoção e do levantar após 29-38 min e nenhuma alteração na auto-limpeza. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças quanto ao gênero, sendo

  10. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras

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    Zanotti-Magalhães Eliana Maria

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticamente para o caráter susceptibilidade. Foram observados menores pesos corporais e das visceras em camundongos infectados com cercárias provenientes de moluscos que apresentaram elevado grau de susceptibilidade. A maior susceptibilidade dos moluscos à infecção pelo S. mansoni correspondeu a uma menor sobrevivência dos camundongos infectados. Os resultados fazem crer que a maior adaptação do parasita ao hospedeiro intermediário, traduzidos pelas taxas mais elevadas de susceptibilidade, pode levar a um comportamento diferente deste parasita no hospedeiro definitivo.

  11. Atividade antiinflamatoria da Chuquiraga spinosa subsp. Huamanpinta em ratos e camundongos

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    Sabino Julio Sotelo Cordova

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: A Chuquiraga spinosa Lessing subsp. Huamanpinta Ezcurra, conhecida no Peru como "Huamanpinta" é utilizada na medicina popular como diurético, antiinflamatório e antitTeumático. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória do,' extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH) e suas frações (orgânica e aquosa) em modelos experimentais de inflamação aguda em ratos e camundongos. o EBH da Huamanpinta (250, 500 e 1000 mglkg, v.o.), quando adtpinistrado uma hora antes da indução de inflamaçã...

  12. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

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    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.

  13. Produção deficiente de citocinas Th1 em camundongos BALB/c jovens

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    A. C. Pelizon,

    2009-01-01

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    O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a produção de IFN-γ, IL-12 e IL-4 entre camundongos jovens (5, 12 e 19 dias de idade e adultos (30 dias de idade. As avaliações foram feitas por estimulação, in vitro, de células esplênicas com Concanavalina A (ConA , Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus e lipopolissacarídeo (LPS. Diferentes concentrações de cada estímulo foram testadas e os sobrenadantes das culturas foram coletados após 48 horas de incubação e as concentrações de IFN-γ, IL-12 e IL-4 determinadas por ELISA. Células de camundongos jovens e adultos produziram níveis igualmente elevados de IFN-γ após estímulo com ConA. Somente animais adultos produziram IFN-γ em resposta ao estímulo com S. aureus. Em culturas estimuladas com LPS, a produção desta citocina foi baixa e similar nos animais jovens e significativamente elevada nos animais adultos. Somente células de animais adultos estimuladas com S. aureus foram capazes de produzir IL-12. O único estímulo capaz de induzir níveis detectáveis de IL-4 foi ConA, sendo que estes níveis foram mais elevados nos animais com 12 e 19 dias de idade em comparação com animais neonatos e adultos. A diminuição das doses ótimas dos estímulos não mudou o perfil de produção de cada citocina nos animais jovens. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a idade afeta a produção de citocinas: ocorre maior produção de IL-4 em camundongos jovens e maior produção de IL-12 e IFN-γ em animais adultos. Estas informações são importantes devido ao papel destas citocinas na polarização das respostas imunes nos sentidos Th1 e Th2. Palavras-chave: camundongo; citocina; interferon-gama; interleucina-4; interleucina-12.

  14. Alterações da junção neuromuscular em miopatias experimentais no camundongo

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    Luiz Fernando Bleggi Torres

    1989-01-01

    As alterações morfológicas observadas em junção neuromuscular de dois modelos de miopatia em camundongos são estudadas por métodos histoquímicos para demonstrar atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase e por microscopia eletrônica. Em ambas as situações os resultados obtidos são similares, indicando que a junção neuromuscular permanece intacta mesmo quando a fibra que inerva está sofrendo necrose. Em fibras musculares regeneradas há acentuada simplificação das pregas pós-sinápticas, com reduçã...

  15. Infecção experimental pelo Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com dexametasona

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    Lallo Maria Anete

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O microsporídio Encephalitozoon cuniculi tem sido reconhecido como um patógeno oportunista em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, tais como pacientes com Aids. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver animais farmacologicamente imunossuprimidos como modelo da infecção natural pelo E. cuniculi. MÉTODOS: Foram usados grupos distintos de camundongos Balb-C adultos, imunossuprimidos com diferentes doses de dexametasona (Dx, 3 ou 5 mg/kg/dia por via intraperitoneal fraction three-quarters IP e inoculados com esporos de E. cuniculi por via IP. Também foram usados grupos controle (animais inoculados, mas nãoimunossuprimidos, e animais imunossuprimidos, mas não inoculados. Os esporos de E. cuniculi foram previamente cultivados em células MDCK. Os animais foram sacrificados e submetidos à necropsia aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias pós-inoculação. Fragmentos teciduais foram coletados e processados para análise por microscopia de luz, utilizando-se as técnicas de coloração de Gram -chromotrope e de hematoxilina-eosina. RESULTADOS: Em todos os animais imunossuprimidos e inoculados, porém especialmente naqueles que receberam 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx, os achados de necropsia mais proeminentes foram hepato e esplenomegalia. A inoculação experimental resultou em uma infecção disseminada e não-letal, caracterizada por lesões granulomatosas em diversos órgãos (fígado, pulmões, rins, intestino, encéfalo, porém mais notadamente no tecido hepático. Esporos de E. cuniculi foram observados em poucos animais tratados com 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx aos 35 dias pós-infecção. CONCLUSÕES: Microsporidiose em camundongos imunossuprimidos com Dx fornece um modelo útil para estudos da infecção por microsporídios, assemelhando-se àquela naturalmente observada em indivíduos imunodeficientes com Aids.

  16. Alterações da junção neuromuscular em miopatias experimentais no camundongo

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    Luiz Fernando Bleggi Torres

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações morfológicas observadas em junção neuromuscular de dois modelos de miopatia em camundongos são estudadas por métodos histoquímicos para demonstrar atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase e por microscopia eletrônica. Em ambas as situações os resultados obtidos são similares, indicando que a junção neuromuscular permanece intacta mesmo quando a fibra que inerva está sofrendo necrose. Em fibras musculares regeneradas há acentuada simplificação das pregas pós-sinápticas, com redução de até 50% dos valores normais, comprovado por estudos morfométricos. A ausência de repercussões fisiológicas ou clínicas detectáveis nesses modelos, apesar da significativa hipotrofia da membrana pós-sináptica, sugere que a exuberante quantidade de pregas pós-sinápticas normalmente encontradas nas junções mioneürais pode representar mecanismo anatômico de segurança na transmissão química neuromuscular.

  17. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

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    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.Feeding pattems of R. neglectus collected in palm trees around Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil were investigated. Precipitin tests showed 77.2% of avian blood. In view of these results, a new colony of R. neglectus established in the laboratory was fed regularly on pigeons or mice, in order to verify a possible better adaptation of this insect to the avian blood. As a control group a colony of R neglectus which has been maintained for several years in the laboratory was also observed. The results show a better development of the “new" colony in comparison with the old one, and of those bugs nourished with mice blood. Such findings suggest a poorer biological potential for triatomines maintained for long time in artificial conditions, in comparison with those living in the natural environment. As birds are the main vertebrate inhabitants of palm trees (the natural ecotope of R neglectus, the apparent feeding preference of

  18. Ensaio de potência da alfaepoetina: Comparação de camundongos Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6, BALB/c com o híbrido B6D2F1 /Potency assay of epoetin alpha: Comparison of Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6, BALB/c mice with the hybrid B6D2F1

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    Igor Barbosa da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo comparamos os resultados de ensaios de potência da alfaepoetina (EPOhr realizados com camundongos de diferentes colônias e linhagens (Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6 e BALB/c com aqueles de ensaios conduzidos com o híbrido B6D2F1, o úni-co camundongo recomendado pela Farmacopeia Europeia (FE. Fêmeas de diferentes colônias e linhagens, pesando 16-18 gramas, receberam uma única dose de EPOhr por via subcutânea (30, 90 ou 270 UI/animal, 0,2 mL/camundongo. As potências biológi-cas de apresentações de 4.000 UI/mL da EPOhr foram avaliadas utilizando um material de referência de trabalho de alfaepoetina (3.773 UI/mL anteriormente testado junto ao padrão de referência internacional BRP (European Pharmacopeia Biological Refe-rence Preparation. Os resultados indicaram que camundongos das colônias e linhagens examinadas atingiram critérios estatísticos (FE para um ensaio válido de potência da eritropoietina e, portanto, podem ser considerados como alternativas ao uso do híbrido B6D2F1. Os ensaios com camundongos BALB/c, entretanto, foram os que produziram re-sultados mais semelhantes aos obtidos com os híbridos B6D2F1, em relação à contagem média de reticulócitos em resposta a 30, 90 e 270 UI/camundongo, e aos coefi cientes angulares (inclinação e lineares (intersecção da curva dose-resposta (curvas paralelas praticamente superpostas. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this study we compared the outcomes of epoetin alpha (rhEPO potency assays per-formed with Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with those of the assay conducted with the B6D2F1 hybrid, the only mice recommended by the European Phar-macopoeia (EP. Female mice from different breeding stocks and strains, weighing 16-18 g, received a single subcutaneous injection of (30, 90 or 270 IU per mouse, 0.2 mL per mouse of rhEPO. Biological potencies 4000 IU/mL rhEPO pharmaceutical forms from di-fferent batches

  19. Efeito de Momordica charantia I. Em camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei

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    Helene Mariko Ueno

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS citou a malãria como um dos principais problemas de saúde no Brasil e no terceiro mundo, onde 80% da população recorre à medicina tradicional (popular para sanar vários problemas de assistência médica primária. No que se refere à malária, seu tratamento e controle têm sido dificultados devido às cepas resistentes às drogas comumente utilizadas. Isso torna urgente a busca de novas drogas antimaláncas. Sabe-se que a população utiliza-se de diferentes plantas para o tratamento e cura de vários males, inclusive a malãria. Neste trabalho nos propusemos reavaliar o efeito de Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae sobre camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei. A planta foi testada sob a forma de extratos aquoso e etanólico, na dose de lOOOmg por kg cle peso coipóreo do camundongo, ministrado por via oral, por cinco dias consecutivos da infecção (2º ao 6º. O efeito foi avaliado em função da parasitemia e da sobrevida dos animais. Embora a população indique e utilize essa planta na malária humana, nos ensaios deste trabalho, nas condições do experimento, os extratos de M. charantia não apresentaram atividade satisfatória contra o P. berghei.

  20. EFFECT OF IMPERMEANT CRYOPROTECTANTS ON THE IN VITRO VIABILITY OF FROZEN SPERMATOZOA OF SWISS-ALBINA AND BALB/C MICE (Mus musculus EFEITO DE CRIOPROTETORES IMPERMEÁVEIS SOBRE A VIABILIDADE IN VITRO DE ESPERMATOZOIDES CONGELADOS DE CAMUNDONGOS (Mus musculus DAS LINHAGENS SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c

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    Antonio Sergio Varela Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three disaccharides (sucrose, threalose and lactose used as nonpenetrating cryoprotectants in extender for mice semen. The parameters evaluated were sperm motility (MOT and cleavage rate (CLV after in vitro fertilization in the SWISS-ALBINA and BALB/c lines. The treatments were S1=sucrose; S2=threalose; S3=lactose, for SWISS-ALBINA; and B1=lactose; B2=threalose for BALB/c.  MOT was evaluated after: thawing (THA, centrifugation and re-suspension in P-1 medium (CEN and after 10 minutes of incubation (10M. The MOT for the SWISS-ALBINA line was higher for S2 (P<0.001 in the 3 evaluated steps (47% at DES; 66.5% at CEN and 67.2% at 10M than for S1 (32.5% at DES; 51.5% at CEN and 47.7% at 10M and S3 (30% at DES, 46.5% at CEN and 32.7% at 10M. For the BALB/c line, MOT was superior for B2 than for B1 (P<0.001. Thus, the tested disaccharides, especially threalose, can be recommended for freezing of mice sperm.

    KEY WORDS: Cryopreservation, disaccharides, mice, semen. 

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos dos dissacarídeos sacarose, trealose e lactose, como crioprotetores impermeáveis à membrana plasmática em diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen de camundongos. Para avaliação do sêmen utilizaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: motilidade progressiva (MOT das células espermáticas, e a taxa de clivagem embrionária (TXCL obtida por meio de fertilização in vitro, nas linhagens SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: S1=sacarose; S2=trealose; S3=lactose, para SWISS-ALBINA e B1=lactose; B2=trealose para BALB/c. Avaliou-se a MOT durante as seguintes etapas: descongelação (DES, centrifugação e ressuspensão no meio P-1 (CEN e após dez minutos de incubação (10M. A MOT no S2 para a linhagem SWISS-ALBINA nas três etapas (47% no DES; 66,5% na CEN e 67,2% no 10M foi superior (P<0,001 a S1 (32,5% no DES; 51,5% no

  1. Hepatic pathology in Capillaria hepatica infected mice Patologia hepática em camundongos infectados pela Capillaria hepatica

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    Bruna Magalhães Gotardo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Septal fibrosis of the liver regularly develops in rats infected with Capillaria hepatica. To find out whether such fibrosis also occurs in mice, 20 animals were submitted to infection with either 100 or 300 embryonated eggs and histologically examined after several periods of time, from 30 to 110 days afterwards. Results showed that mice developed acute, severe, diffuse and focal hepatic lesions that were soon modulated to focal areas of fibrosis containing eggs and worm remnants, despite the fact that a few worms remained alive, at least up to 110 days after inoculation. Areas of perisinusoidal fibrosis appeared in the proximity and around focal parasitic lesions, but clear-cut septal fibrosis was not observed. Why septal fibrosis forms in rats, but not in mice during C. hepatica infection, only further studies can clarify. Mice seem to show better host/parasite relationship than rats in regard to C. hepatica infection.A fibrose septal do fígado se desenvolve regularmente em ratos infectados pela Capillaria hepatica. Com o fito de se verificar se tal tipo de fibrose também se desenvolve em camundongos, 20 animais foram infectados com 100 ou 300 ovos embrionados e examinados histologicamente em vários períodos de tempo, entre 30 até 110 dias após inoculação. Os resultados demonstraram que os camundongos desenvolvem inicialmente uma intensa hepatite aguda, difusa e focal, mas logo estas lesões são moduladas, desaparecendo a hepatite reacional difusa e persistindo as lesões em torno de ovos e restos de vermes. Alguns poucos vermes sobreviveram por todo o período experimental. Embora a fibrose perisinusoidal tenha aparecido em torno das lesões fibróticas focais, a fibrose septal não foi observada. Não se sabe por que a fibrose septal se forma no rato infectado por C. hepatica, mas não no camundongo, mas o assunto merece investigação, pois importantes aspectos da fibrogênese hepática poderiam estar implicados. Os camundongos

  2. Efeitos de óleos essenciais de plantas no tempo de sono induzido por cetamina em camundongos

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    Simony Fauth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores mostraram que óleos essenciais voláteis obtidos de plantas potenciam o tempo de sono induzido por pentobarbital e álcool em camundongos. Cetamina é um anestésico muito utilizado em crianças, sendo conhecida por causar uma anestesia dissociativa. Seus efeitos alucinógenos podem ser reduzidos quando administrada em associação a benzodiazepínicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a influência dos óleos de Psidium guyanensis (Araçá azedo, Psidium pohlianum (Araçá doce, Psidium guajava (Araçá goiaba, Rosmarinus officinalis (Alecrim e Lippia alba (Cidreira no tempo de sono induzido por cetamina em camundongos. Os resultados indicam que o tempo de sono induzido por cetamina foi prolongado pelos óleos essenciais de Psidium guyanensis, Psidium pohlianum, Psidium guajava e Lippia Alba mostrando novas possibilidades de associação com a cetamina a fim de prolongar o seu efeito sedativo, proporcionando uma anestesia mais adequada.

  3. Avaliação do efeito cumulativo do antimoniato de meglumina sobre a prole de camundongos swiss: ensaio biológico Evaluate the cumulative effect of meglumine antimoniate on the progeny of swiss mice: biologic assay

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    Michelle Rodrigues dos Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito do antimoniato de meglumina na transferência materno-fetal na geração F1 (prole de matrizes expostas ao composto, e conseqüências em progênies F2. MÉTODOS: Camundongos fêmeas Swiss foram tratados com antimoniato de meglumina, via subcutânea, com administração diária, do sétimo ao 12º dia de gestação (ddg, na dose equivalente a 100mgSb v/kg peso/dia. O grupo controle recebeu apenas o veículo (água destilada. Após o nascimento da prole (geração F1, 59 fêmeas foram examinadas diariamente para determinação do ciclo estral. Quando determinado o ciclo estro, acasalou-se 18 fêmeas com machos da mesma linhagem. No 18º ddg, as fêmeas foram eutanasiadas por câmara de CO2, o abdômen incisado e o útero exposto, quando avaliou-se os sítios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal quanto ao número de reabsorções, fetos vivos e mortos. Todos os fetos e placentas foram pesados para calcular o índice placentário. Três placentas de cada ninhada foram separadas para análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A exposição ao antimoniato de meglumina não interferiu no ciclo estral dos animais tratados, pelo fato de não alterar o intervalo precoital e o índice de fertilidade. Não foram observadas alterações placentárias em progênies F2. CONCLUSÃO: O antimoniato de meglumina não altera a performance reprodutiva das mães expostas cronicamente. Estes dados sugerem que ocorre uma gradual eliminação do antimoniato de meglumina no organismo materno, sem acarretar danos a proles futuras.OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effect of Meglumine Antimoniate on maternal-fetal transference in F1 generations (offspring of dams exposed to the drug, and embryotoxicity in F2 generations. METHODS: Female Swiss mice were treated with daily s.c. injection of Meglumine Antimoniate (100mgSb v/kg bw/day from day 7 until day 12 of pregnancy. The control group received only the vehicle (distilled water. After birth of offspring (F1

  4. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

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    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6

  5. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico

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    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.

  6. Ação antinociceptiva da diacereína em modelos de dor inflamatória e neuropática persistentes em camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas. Programa de Pos-Graduação em Farmacologia. A proposta deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos antinociceptivos da diacereína em modelos de dor inflamatória e neuropática persistentes em camundongos. As ações da diacereína foram comparadas com as da gabapentina, uma droga anti-convulsivante clinicamente utilizada para o controle da dor neuropática. Ambas diacereína e gabapentina foram capazes de r...

  7. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: III. Mortality, body weight and viscera weights

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    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticamente para o caráter susceptibilidade. Foram observados menores pesos corporais e das visceras em camundongos infectados com cercárias provenientes de moluscos que apresentaram elevado grau de susceptibilidade. A maior susceptibilidade dos moluscos à infecção pelo S. mansoni correspondeu a uma menor sobrevivência dos camundongos infectados. Os resultados fazem crer que a maior adaptação do parasita ao hospedeiro intermediário, traduzidos pelas taxas mais elevadas de susceptibilidade, pode levar a um comportamento diferente deste parasita no hospedeiro definitivo.The relationship between the development of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, body weight and mortality rate and the degree of susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila at which infective cercariae developed was studied. The study utilized Swiss mice, SPF, as definitive hosts and populations of snails genetically selected for character susceptibility as intermediate hosts. Low body weight and smaller viscera were observed in infected mice with cercariae originating from snails that showed a high degree of susceptibility. The higher susceptibility of molluscs infected with S. mansoni corresponded to a lower survival of the infected mice. These results lead to the conclusion that the higher degree of adaptation of the parasite to its intermediate hosts, evidenced by the high indexes of susceptibility, leads to different behaviour on the part of this parasite in its definitive

  8. Cryptic infections in mice with the Trypanosoma cruzi CL-14 clone Infecções subpatentes em camundongos pelo clone CL-14 do Trypanosoma cruzi

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    M.A. SOUSA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A infectividade do clone CL-14 do Trypanosoma cruzi para camundongos foi revista utilizando-se como inóculo metacíclicos de cultura em NNN+LIT, pré-incubados ou não com complemento de cobaio. Nos animais inoculados não observamos parasitemia patente, mas a presença do parasito foi confirmada em 30% deles (9/30 através de hemocultivo ou xenodiagnóstico, este examinado aos 100 dias. A positividade das hemoculturas pôde ser evidenciada a partir dos 60 dias quando procederam de camundongos inoculados com metacíclicos tratados com complemento. Nos demais hemocultivos a positividade foi constatada aos 100 dias ou posteriormente. Um reisolado do CL-14 também não determinou parasitemia patente em camundongos até 30 dias após a inoculação. Estes achados são discutidos em relação à proteção imunológica observada em camundongos inoculados com este clone.

  9. Imunogenicidade da cepa avirulenta RV194-2 do vírus rábico em camundongos

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    Rugimar Marcovistz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus rábico RV194-2, uma variante avirulenta da cepa CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard, produz uma infecção inaparente quando inoculado intracerebralmente em camundongos adultos. Sugerindo que a resposta imunológica do hospedeiro permite a eliminação do vírus do sistema nervoso central. Por esta razão foram estudadas a indução de interferon e a resposta imune humoral em camundongos BALB/c inoculados com vírus RV194-2. Durante a infecção, estes camundongos apresentaram elevados níveis de interferon no plasma e no cérebro com altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes anti-rábicos. A 2-5A sintetase. um marcador da ação dos interferons,foi também analisada no cérebro destes animais. Sua atividade, aumentou, paralelamente, á produção de interferon, demonstrando que este interferon é bioquímicamente ativo. O vírus RV194-2 também induziu, 45 dias após sua inoculação, proteção aos animais quando desafiados com a cepa virulenta CVS. Estes resultados demonstram que a cepa RV194-2possui um alto nível imunogênico.RV194-2 rabies virus, an avirulent mutant of CVS strain, induces an inapparent infection limited to the central nervous system (CNS in adult mice inoculated intracerebrally. This fact suggest that immune response of the host is able to eliminate the virus in CNS. For this reason, we have studied the induction of interferon and the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice after RV194-2 inoculation. These mice presented high levels of interferon in the plasma and in the brain, with elevated levels of neutralizing antirabies antibodies. The 2-5A synthetase, an enzyme marker of interferon action, was analyzed in the brain of inoculated animals. Its enhancement in parallel to the interferon production in the brain, showed biochemical evidence that this interferon is active. Forty five days after RV194-2 virus inoculation, mice were protected against a challenge with the CVS virulent strain. The results presented

  10. Modulação da nocicepção em camundongos por receptores ETb para endotelinas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcília Baticy Monteiro Morais

    2006-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia. O presente estudo investigou a importância de receptores ETB para endotelinas na modulação da resposta de camundongos à aplicação de estímulos nociceptivos químico e térmico e mecânico não nociceptivo na pata traseira. A administração intraplantar de sarafotoxina S6c, um agonista seletivo de receptores ETB, causou hiperalgesia à formalina e à capsaicina...

  11. Atividade fisica e neuroproteção em camundongos adultos após indução de status epilepticus por pilocarpina

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    Cesar Renato Sartori

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O modelo de epilepsia induzida por pilocarpina em camundongos reproduz a Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal (ELT) em humanos. Animais submetidos à indução de status epilepticus apresentam alterações comportamentais, eletroencefalográficas e lesão neuronal compatíveis com esta condição. Estudos recentes relatam relevantes efeitos positivos da prática de atividade física sobre o sistema nervoso tanto em humanos como em modelos animais. Dentre estes efeitos figuram o aumento da sobrevivência neu...

  12. A resposta oxidativa em corações de camundongos é modulada por background genético

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    Marco Aurélio Santos-Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: o tabagismo apresenta importante papel sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, entretanto permanecem pouco compreendidos os motivos pelos quais alguns seres humanos as desenvolvem e outros não. OBJETIVO: nosso objetivo foi analisar o perfil redox do coração de diferentes linhagens de camundongos após exposição à fumaça de cigarro. MÉTODOS: camundongos machos suíços (n = 10, C3H (n = 10, BALB/c (n = 10 e C57BL/6 (n = 10 foram expostos à fumaça de cigarro (12 cigarros/dia, enquanto os respectivos controles (n = 10 ao ar ambiente por 60 dias. Após sacrifício, o coração foi retirado para análises bioquímicas. RESULTADOS: embora o conteúdo de malondialdeído não tenha aumentado em nenhum grupo, a atividade da catalase diminuiu no grupo suíço (p < 0,05, BALB/c (p < 0,05 quando comparados aos respectivos grupos-controle, enquanto a mieloperoxidase diminuiu no grupo C3H (p < 0,05 e C57BL/6 (p < 0,001 quando comparados aos respectivos grupos controle. O conteúdo de glutationa reduzida diminuiu nos grupos suíço, C3H, C57BL/6 (p < 0,05 e no grupo BALB/c (p < 0,001 quando comparados com os respectivos controles. Observamos aumento do conteúdo da glutationa oxidada no grupo Suíço (p < 0,05 e diminuição nos grupos C3H (p < 0,05 e BALB/c (p < 0,001 quando comparados aos respectivos grupos-controle. A razão glutationa reduzida/ glutationa oxidada apresentou redução nos grupos suíço e C57BL/6 (p < 0.05 quando comparados aos grupos controle. CONCLUSÃO: o background genético nos camundongos pode influenciar na resposta antioxidante após a exposição à fumaça de cigarro e parece ser um fator determinante para o desequilíbrio redox no suíço e C57BL/6. Compreender as respostas antioxidantes e do background genético C3H e BALB/c podem fornecer importantes informações quanto à resistência cardíaca a fumaça de cigarro.

  13. Investigação de lipofuscina em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos após tratamento com oxamniquine

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    Maria Luiza Silveira Mello

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescencia natural devida à presença de corpos de lipofuscina foi pesquisada em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos adultos jovens tratados com oxamniquine. O objetivo foi buscar uma evidência de indução de envelhecimento celular precoce, com base em dados prévios de acentuação poliploidia, promovida pela droga. Comparando o miocárdio dos camundongos tratados com animais contrôle jovens e velhos, não foi observada a presença de lipofuscina nos seus miócitos. Isto possivelmente se deva a um não comprometimento da eficiência das lipases lisossomiais apesar da acentuação do fenômeno de poliploidização induzida pela droga.

  14. Efeito do tratamento com própolis de Scaptotrigona aff. postica sobre o desenvolvimento do tumor de Ehrlich em camundongos

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    Maria José A. M. Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigado o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis (EHP de Scaptotrigona aff. postica sobre o desenvolvimento do tumor de Ehrlich na forma sólida, sobre a celularidade dos órgãos linfóides dos animais portadores de tumor, bem como, sobre a produção de óxido nítrico (NO pelos macrófagos destes animais. Camundongos Swiss foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, EHP 0,5; EHP 5 e EHP 50, os quais foram tratados por via intraperitoneal com dose única de solução salina (NaCl 0,9%; 0,5; 5 ou 50 mg de EHP/kg de animal, respectivamente. Depois de 48 h do tratamento, os animais foram inoculados com 10(5 células do tumor de Ehrlich nas patas. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com EHP nas doses de 5 e 50 mg/kg inibiu de forma significativa o desenvolvimento do tumor a partir do 6º dia pós-inóculo quando comparado ao controle e ao EHP 0,5. Além disso, houve aumento significativo da celularidade do baço e da medula óssea nos grupos EHP 0,5 e EHP 5 em relação ao controle. A produção de NO estimulada com concanavalina A (ConA apresentou uma significante diminuição nos grupos tratados com EHP em relação ao controle. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento com EHP apresentou efeito antitumoral quando administrado nas doses de 5 e 50 mg/kg, o que pode estar relacionado com a sua composição química e com a inibição da produção de NO.

  15. Basofilia e anisotropia nucleares em células de camundongo após tratamento com oxamniquine

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    Ivanira José Bechara

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a ação da oxamniquine, uma droga utilizada no tratamento da esquistossomose, sobre a cromatina de núcleos de células animais, foram estudados os padrões de basofilia e anisotropia nucleares em hepatócitos, em células do músculo cardíaco e em linfócitos de camundongos adultos jovens. A oxamniquine foi administrada por via oral (436 mg/kg e preparados foram obtidos após diversos tempos de fornecimento da droga aos animais. Nos núcleos corados com azul de toluidina a pH 4,0, após digestão com RNAse, não se encontrou diferença quanto aos padrões de basofilia e anisotropia comparando-se animais tratados com controles. Demonstrou se assim que as moléculas de oxamniquine não se alojam no interior da dupla hélice do DNA, não alteram a sua conformação helicoidal nem se ligam aos grupos fosfatos livres desta macromolécula, diferindo, portanto, da atuação de outro esquistossomicida, o hycanthone.

  16. Organização Topográfica e Quantificação das Vias Trigêmino-Rubrais em Camundongos Distróficos e Normais

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    Pinto, Magali Luci [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    Pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne apresentam alteracoes no sistema nervoso central (SNC). Mudancas no SNC tambem ocorrem nos camundongos distroficos (mdx), incluindo perda de fibras rubro-espinais. Para examinar se outras vias tambem sao reduzidas no mdx, propusemo-nos a estudar a organizacao topografica das vias trigemino-rubrais e quantificar os neuronios do Complexo Trigeminal que se projetam para o nucleo Rubro em camundongos C57BL10 (normais) e distroficos (mdx) de diferentes ...

  17. A resposta oxidativa em corações de camundongos é modulada por background genético The oxidative response of mouse hearts is modulated by genetic background

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    Marco Aurélio Santos-Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: o tabagismo apresenta importante papel sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, entretanto permanecem pouco compreendidos os motivos pelos quais alguns seres humanos as desenvolvem e outros não. OBJETIVO: nosso objetivo foi analisar o perfil redox do coração de diferentes linhagens de camundongos após exposição à fumaça de cigarro. MÉTODOS: camundongos machos suíços (n = 10, C3H (n = 10, BALB/c (n = 10 e C57BL/6 (n = 10 foram expostos à fumaça de cigarro (12 cigarros/dia, enquanto os respectivos controles (n = 10 ao ar ambiente por 60 dias. Após sacrifício, o coração foi retirado para análises bioquímicas. RESULTADOS: embora o conteúdo de malondialdeído não tenha aumentado em nenhum grupo, a atividade da catalase diminuiu no grupo suíço (p BACKGROUND: Smoking plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the reasons why some individuals develop those diseases and others do not remain to be explained. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the redox profile of the heart of different mouse strains after exposure to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male mice of the Swiss (n = 10, C3H (n = 10, BALB/c (n = 10 and C57BL/6 (n = 10 strains were exposed to cigarette smoke (12 cigarettes/day, while their respective controls (n = 10 were exposed to ambient air for 60 days. After being euthanized, their heart was removed for biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Although the malondialdehyde content did not increase in any of the groups, catalase activity decreased in the Swiss (p < 0.05 and BALB/c (p < 0.05 strain mice as compared with their respective control groups, while myeloperoxidase decreased in the C3H (p < 0.05 and C57BL/6 (p < 0.001 strain mice as compared with their respective control groups. The reduced glutathione content decreased in the Swiss, C3H, C57BL/6 (p < 0.05 and BALB/c (p < 0,001 strain mice as compared with their respective control groups. Regarding reduced glutathione content, an increase was

  18. Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos

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    Aliny P. Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg.

  19. Oogram studies in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with dexamethasone Oograma em camundongos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni e tratados com dexametasona

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    Marco Victor Hermeto

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with about 90 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain were treated during five consecutive days with dexamethasone (50 mg/Kg, subcutaneously, starting on the 42th day of infection. Groups of five mice were then daily sacrificed from the first day after onset of treatment until the first day after. The perfusion of the portal system was performed and a piece of the intestine was processed for qualitative and quantitative oograms. This treatment carries to larger numbers of eggs in the tissues of treated mice, when compared with untreated groups. No changes were observed in the kinetics of oviposition, as all stages of viable eggs were observed in the tissues of treated and control mice. These data reinforce the hypothesis of a partial blockade of the egg excretion in immunossupressed mice.Camundongos infectados com cerca de 90 cercárias da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados durante 5 dias consecutivos com dexametasona (50mg/ Kg, subcutaneamente a partir do 42º dia de infecção. Grupos de cinco camundongos foram sacrificados diariamente após o primeiro dia do início do tratamento até o primeiro dia após o término. A perfusão do sistema porta foi feita e fragmentos do intestino foram processados para a realização de oogramas qualitativos e quantitativos. O tratamento leva a um maior número de ovos nos tecidos dos camundongos tratados, se comparado com os grupos não tratados. Nenhuma mudança foi observada na cinética de oviposição, e ovos viáveis em todos os estádios evolutivos foram observados nos tecidos de camundongos tratados e controles. Estes dados reforçam a hipótese de um bloqueio parcial na saída de ovos dos tecidos do intestino para o lúmem intestinal em camundongos imunossuprimidos.

  20. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise Avaliação do estresse oxidativo em camundongos submetidos ao exercício físico aeróbico

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    Mônica Cruvinel de Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. METHODS: The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA and exercise (GB, each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201.The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009, with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do exercício físico aeróbico sobre o estresse oxidativo em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 camundongos (Swiss, distribuídos em dois grupos: controle-sedentário (GA e exercício (GB cada um contendo dez animais. Todos os animais passaram por um período de adaptação de sete dias. Após os animais do grupo (GB receberam treinamento em roda giratória angulada montada sobre eixo articulado por cinco minutos durante três dias consecutivos. No quarto dia foram submetidos à única sessão de exercício por 45 minutos. A avaliação do estresse oxidativo foi realizada por

  1. Translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice fed an enteral diet containing prebiotics Translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos alimentados com dieta enteral contendo prebióticos

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    Daniele Ferreira da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate the effect of fructooligosaccharide and inulin added to an enteral diet on the translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice. METHODS: Four- to six-week-old Swiss albino mice were divided into nine groups and fed enteral diets containing different combinations of fructooligosaccharide, inulin, antibiotic and corticoid, inoculated or not with Klebsiella pneumoniae. On day 5, the animals of four groups were fed an enteral diet contaminated with approximately 10(10CFU/g of K. pneumoniae. At defined times, two animals of each group were sacrificed and their organs (spleen, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys were aseptically collected, weighed, and analyzed for the presence of typical Klebsiella sp. colonies. RESULTS: A higher number of CFU/g of Klebsiella was detected in the organs of the animals in the immune-suppressed group fed the diet contaminated with K. pneumoniae and without prebiotics. Animals fed the diet enriched with fructooligosaccharide and inulin, at a concentration of 15.3mg/g of body weight, had a shorter period of Klebsiella sp. translocation, compared with those not fed prebiotics in the diet. CONCLUSION: The addition of fructooligosacharide and inulin in enterais diets at a concentration of 15.3mg/g of body weight resulted in the reduction of translocation of Klebsiella for spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidneys of mice that had received the diet contaminated associated or not with antibiotic and imunodepressor drug.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da administração de frutooligossacarídeo e inulina, adicionados à dieta enteral, na translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos albinos suíços, com quatro a seis semanas de vida, foram divididos em nove grupos e tratados com dietas enterais contendo diferentes combinações de frutooligossacarídeos, inulina, antibiótico e corticóide, inoculadas ou não com Klebsiella pneumoniae. No quinto dia de experimento, os animais dos

  2. Estudo histopatológico das lesões causadas pelo veneno de urutu (Bothrops alternatus em músculo esquelético de camundongos

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    L. S. Queiroz

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Veneno bruto de urutu (Bothrops alternatus dissolvido em solução salina fisiológica foi injetado no músculo tibial anterior direito de camundongos adultos na dose de 80 μg. Os músculos foram examinados em cortes de parafina, corados por Hematoxilina e Eosina. Aos 10 minutos já havia intensa hemorragia difusa no M. tibial anterior, mas apenas raras fibras musculares estavam necróticas. Nas horas seguintes, contudo, observou-se rápido aumento do número de fibras afetadas, sendo que às 24 hs o músculo apresentava-se totalmente necrótico. Vasos sangüíneos intramusculares e nas proximidades do M. tibial anterior mostravam necrose hialina da camada média e por vezes trombose. A fagocitose dos restos celulares ocorreu da periferia para o centro e acompanhou-se de regeneração muscular. Após 1 a 2 meses, em vários animais houve recuperação considerável do músculo, embora com persistência de cicatriz. As fibras regeneradas possuiam núcleos centrais e variavam em diâmetro, estando muitas atróficas. Em outros camundongos a regeneração do M. tibial anterior foi muito precária, tendo este sido substituído por tecido fibroadiposo com apenas raras fibras musculares. Os resultados mostram que, apesar da gravidade das lesões iniciais devidas ao veneno, ocorre regeneração muscular em grau variável de animal para animal. Sugere-se que a má regeneração observada em alguns casos poderia ser devida, ao menos em parte, a dano vascular permanente.

  3. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

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    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  4. Mielencefalite espontânea dos camundongos

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    Hermínio Linhares

    1944-02-01

    ástrica deu sempre resultados negativos. Camundongos muito jovens são mais suscetíveis do que os adultos. 9 — O vírus foi sempre isolado ate 90 dias pos-inoculação, do cérebro e da medula de camundongos com paralisia. Animais inoculados por via i.c., que permaneceram aparentemente normais, albergam o vírus no cérebro pelo menos durante 30 dias. 10 — Não foi possível isolar vírus do fígado, pulmão, bago, rim e sangue de camundongos infetados por via intracerebral. 11 — Camundongos que foram inoculados por via i.c. e não apresentaram sintomas de infecção, mostraram-se em geral imunes a uma posterior inoculação de vírus. Os soros de animais convalescentes apresentam anticorpos neutralizantes verificados por provas de proteção. 12 — A inoculação intracerebral do vírus em macaco, coelho, cobaia e rato, todos jovens, não produziu infecção. 13 — As lesões encontradas foram de poliomielencefalite aguda, com atrofia do corno anterior da medula. Ao nível da substancia cinzenta medular e cerebral encontram-se abundantes focos inflamatórios, com predominância de mononucleares, bem como em torno de numerosos vasos. Em certos pontos do cérebro, sobretudo no rinencéfalo, foram vistos focos extensos de encefalite hemorrágica. É evidente que em torno do foco e participando das infiltrações celulares, muitos elementos microgliais puderam ser reconhecidos. As meninges, especialmente a pia-máter, mostraram-se levemente alteradas e assim mesmo em focos esparsos.1 — Two strains of virus which produce myeloencephalitis were isolated from two white swiss mice, from breeding, spontaneously infected, among 7000 mice examined; another strain was obtained by trituration and filtration of the intestines of normal mice. 2 — There were made separately ten serial passages in young and adult mice by intracerebral route. By crossed immunological test it was verified that the three strains were identical, and so only one was continued. 3 — The infective

  5. Effects of misoprostrol on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice Efeitos de misoprostrol sobre convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol em camundongos

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    Francisco das Chagas Medeiros

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of prostaglandin E - analogue misoprostol on the susceptibility to pentilenetetrazol(PTZ - induced seizures were examined in mice. Misoprostol (200-800 mg/kg, given subcutaneously 45 min before the subconvulsive dose of PTZ (30 mg/kg, i.p provoked dose-dependent clonic-tonic seizures (30 to 100% and mortality in mice. At 300 g/kg, s.c, misoprostol pretreatment significantly (pOs efeitos do misoprostrol, um análogo da prostaglandina E, sobre convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ foram estudados em camundongos. Misoprostrol (200-800 mg/Kg administrado por via subcutânea 45 minutos antes da dose subconvulsiva de PTZ (30 mg/Kg, i.p. provocou crises tônico-clônicas (30 a 100% de maneira dose-dependente e mortalidade em camundongos. Na dose de 300 g/Kg, s.c., o pré-tratamento com misoprostrol diminuiu significativamente (p<0,05 o período de latência da primeira convulsão bem como a mortalidade induzida por uma dose convulsiva de PTZ (60 mg/Kg, i.p.. Nesta dose o misoprostrol diminuiu 21 % e 36% os valores de CD50 e de LD50 do PTZ, respectivamente.

  6. Oral candidosis by Candida albicans in normal and xerostomic mice Candidose oral por Candida albicans em camundongos normais e xerostômicos

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    Marilda Aparecida Gonçalves Totti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sialoadenectomy on the development of oral candidosis after one or four inoculations of Candida albicans. Initially, a suspension containing 10(8 cells/ml of C. albicans ATCC 36801 was prepared. Seventy-eight sialoadenectomized mice and a similar amount of mice with normal salivary flow received a single inoculation of C. albicans suspension. Another group with a similar number of mice received 4 inoculations. The control group consisted of 6 sialoadenectomized mice and 6 mice with normal salivary flow that were not inoculated with C. albicans. Candidosis development was studied histologically in the tongue of the animals 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 days after inoculation and at 15-day intervals up to 165 days. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that sialoadenectomy and a higher frequency of yeast inoculation influenced the presence and extension of candidosis lesions.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito da sialoadenectomia sobre o desenvolvimento da candidose oral após uma ou quatro inoculações de Candida albicans. Inicialmente, uma suspensão contendo 10(8 células/ml de C. albicans ATCC 36801 foi preparada. Setenta e oito camundongos sialoadenectomizados e mesma quantidade de camundongos com fluxo salivar normal receberam uma única inoculação de suspensão de C. albicans. Outro grupo, com o mesmo número de camundongos, recebeu 4 inoculações. O grupo controle consistiu de 6 camundongos sialoadenectomizados e 6 com fluxo salivar normal que não foram inoculados com C. albicans. O desenvolvimento de candidose foi estudado histologicamente na língua dos animais em períodos de 1, 2, 3, 5 e 8 dias após a inoculação e em intervalos de 15 dias até 165 dias. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a sialoadenectomia e uma maior freqüência de inoculação influenciaram na presença e extensão das lesões de candidose.

  7. Efeito do Mycobacterium bovis BCG, lipopolissacarideo bacteriano e hidrocortisona no desenvolvimento de imunidade ao Plasmodium berghei em camundongos

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    José J. Ferraroni

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis (BCG aumenta significantemente o desenvolvimento da imunidade nos camundongos CFW, C57BL/6, C57BL/l0ScN e BALB/c (Nu/+ para os estágios eritrocitos do Plasmodium berghei. Camundongos tratados com BCG requerem menos ciclos de infecção com P. berghei e cura pelo Fansidar (pirimetamina + sulfadoxina para desenvolverem imunidade sólida a este parasita do que os controles. Contudo, os animais que receberam BCG 30 dias antes do início da imunização evidenciaram uma perda precoce da imunidade adquirida para o P. berghei, quando comparado com os animais que receberam BCG 14 dias antes ou que não receberam BCG. Assim, sendo, o BCG aumentada a indução na resposta imune do hospedeiro ao P. berghei no curso de infecções subseqüentes. O tratamento de camundongos CFW, BALB/c e C57BL/6 com lipopolissacarídeo bacteriano ou hidrocortisona faz com que os animais requeiram um número maior de ciclos de infecção e cura para tornarem-se imunes ao P. berghei que os controles. O tratamento dos camundongos C57BL/10ScN com hidrocortisona aboliu completamente a sua habilidade de sobrevida subseqüentes a ciclos de infecção com P. berghei e cura pelo Fansidar.

  8. Comportamento de formas sangüícolas do Trypanosoma cruzi obtidas de camundongos utilizados como filtros biológicos, em cultura e em triatomíneo

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO, Rosa Domingues; Belda Neto,Francisco Miguel; Prado Junior,José Clóvis do; Albuquerque,Sérgio

    1986-01-01

    Camundongos normais, utilizados como filtros biológicos, foram inoculados endovenosamente, com tripomastigotas sangüícolas da derivada RCL da cepa RC do T. cruzi. Decorridas 48 horas, os animais foram submetidos ao xenodiagnóstico e à punção cardíaca para semeadura do sangue em meio de Warren. No estômago dos triatomíneos e em cultura a 28°C, os tripomastigotas diferenciaram-se em formas arredondadas (esferomastigotas e/ou amastigotas). Esse comportamento das formas sangüícolas largas tem...

  9. Efeitos do reiki na evolução do granuloma induzido através da inoculação do BCG em hamsters e do tumor ascítico de Ehrlich induzido em camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos da influência do Reiki na evolução do granuloma induzido experimentalmente pela inoculação do BCG no coxim plantar de hamsters, assim como os efeitos da mesma terapia em camundongos portadores do tumor ascítico de Ehrlich in vivo e in vitro. No modelo de inflamação granulomatosa crônica, utilizou-se 40 hamsters machos, os quais após serem inoculados com BCG no dia 0 no coxim da pata posterior direita, foram separados em dois grupos contendo 20 animais em cada. Um grupo...

  10. Processo de reparo em feridas de extração dentária em camundongos tratados com o complexo Symphytum officinale e Calendula officinallis

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    BALDUCCI-ROSLINDO Eleny

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicamentos homeopáticos como o Symphytum officinalle e a Calendula officinallis são dotados de propriedades anti-sépticas, antiinflamatória, cicatrizantes e também agem como promotores da consolidação de fraturas ósseas. Neste trabalho, uniram-se esses dois medicamentos similares em um complexo para verificar o seu efeito no reparo em feridas de extração dentária em camundongos. O complexo Symphytum officinalle e Calendula officinallis nas potências de 6CH e 3CH, respectivamente, foi ministrado por via oral ao grupo tratado durante 5 dias antes e após a extração do incisivo superior direito. No grupo controle, administraram-se 5ml de álcool etílico a 70% diluídos em 30 ml de soro fisiológico. Após a proservação, os animais foram sacrificados, a maxila direita separada da esquerda, fixada e processada para inclusão em parafina. Após a microtomia, os cortes obtidos foram corados pela H/E. A análise histológica mostrou que, tanto no grupo controle como no tratado, o alvéolo dentário estava preenchido por tecido de granulação e tecido ósseo neoformado, com graus variáveis de maturação, rico em osteócitos. No entanto, nos animais tratados, o processo de reparo em feridas após extração dentária do incisivo superior direito mostrou um avanço progressivo de neoformação óssea mais acentuado quando comparado ao grupo controle, em tempos equivalentes. Estes resultados enfatizam as propriedades biológicas do complexo Symphytum officinalle e Calendula officinallis e sua possível utilização como recurso terapêutico na Odontologia.

  11. Sacarose como veículo de suplementação dietética de ácido fólico em camundongos prenhes Saccharose as a vehicle for the supplementation of folic acid in pregnant mice

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    Giovanna Arcaro de Lima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ingestão adequada de folato é essencial durante a embriogênese, e sua deficiência está associada à ocorrência de defeitos no fechamento do tubo neural. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a sacarose é um bom veículo para a suplementação de folato em camundongos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Quarenta camundongos Swiss fêmeas foram divididos nos grupos: C: ração comercial + água ad libitum; DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por 14 dias; D/DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias seguida de ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por mais 14 dias; D: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias. Os animais de todos os grupos experimentais receberam ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água durante os três dias do acasalamento e nos 15 dias restantes até o sacrifício. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos D e D/DS apresentaram alopecia, palidez ocular e adinamia enquanto consumiam água com sacarose sem folato, sinais que foram revertidos quando receberam folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água. Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a prenhez, implantes, fetos vivos, reabsorção, morte fetal tardia, nível sérico de folato e contagem de hemácias ao final do experimento, não tendo sido observadas anomalias congênitas em nenhum dos grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sacarose é um meio adequado para a suplementação de folato na dieta.Adequate folate intake is essential during embryogenesis and its deficiency is associated with neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if saccharose is a good vehicle for the supplementation of folate in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 Swiss female mice were allocated into the following groups: C (commercial mouse food + ad libitum water; DS (folate-free balanced diet

  12. Efeito da adição dietética de milho de alta qualidade protéica em camundongos Effect of adding high-quality protein maize to the diet of mice

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    Aline Castro Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo consistiu em avaliar os efeitos da adição de milho quality protein maize BR473 sobre aspectos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss, fêmeas, 6-7 semanas, foram alimentados com rações comerciais, rações comerciais com milho híbrido (1:1, rações comerciais com milho de alta qualidade protéica (1:1. Foram avaliados, durante 3 meses, o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal e os valores plasmáticos de proteínas, triglicerídeos, colesterol e glicose. RESULTADOS: A adição dietética de milho quality protein maize BR473 reduziu o consumo alimentar e o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal, porém manteve a glicemia e trigliceridemia em relação à adição de milho híbrido na ração comercial. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor eficiência alimentar e os impactos sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos do sangue sugerem o potencial do uso do milho quality protein maize BR473 como um importante complemento para garantir a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of adding quality protein maize BR473 to the diet of mice. METHODS:Female Swiss mice, 6-7 weeks old, were fed commercial diet alone or supplemented with either hybrid maize (1:1 or quality protein maize (1:1. Food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and plasma glucose, proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were evaluated for 3 months. RESULTS: Dietary addition of the quality protein maize BR473 reduced food intake and abdominal fat, yet plasma glucose and triglycerides remained the same when compared with the addition of hybrid maize to the commercial feed. CONCLUSION: A better dietary efficiency and the impacts on the biochemical parameters of the blood suggest that the quality protein maize BR473 is an important complement to guarantee dietary and nutritional security.

  13. Diferença de susceptibilidade à infecção com T. Cruzi entre espécies de triatomíneos alimentados em cão, tatu e camundongo infectados

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de triatomíneos foram alimentadas em cão, tatu e camundongos infectados pelo T. cruzi, para verificação de suas susceptibilidades. Em cão T. infestans e P. megistus se infectaram melhor. Em tatus T. iníestans e T. brasiliensis acusaram melhores índices de infecção, enquanto em camundongos as espécies de Rhodnius e T. brasiliensis foram as melhores infectadas. A positividade dos xenos não pareceu obrigatoriamente relacionada com a riqueza da parasitemia evidenciada através da hemoscopia direta. A positividade dos xenos em camundongos variou de 26 a 96%. Quando a mesma espécie de triatomineos foi usada em tipos diversos de animais, pareceu haver uma tendência para apresentarem diferentes taxas de infecções, de acordo com o animal empregado. Dessa forma, a susceptibilidade dos triatomíneos poderia estar dependente dos fatores: cepa do tripanosoma, espécie e fase do triatomíneo e o tipo do animal infectante.

  14. Atividade gastroprotetora do hidroxicitronelal em modelos de lesÃo gÃstrica aguda em camundongos.

    OpenAIRE

    CÃsar Braga de Holanda OsÃrio

    2011-01-01

    O hidroxicitronelal à um composto amplamente usado como fragrÃncia em cosmÃticos. Este composto pode ser obtido a partir da semi-sÃntese do citronelal, um terpeno isolado do Ãleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon marginatus) ou de cidreira (Melissa officinalis), e tambÃm vÃrias outras plantas. O objetivo deste estudo à demonstrar a atividade gastroprotetora do hidroxicitronelal em modelos de lesÃo gÃstrica aguda. A manipulaÃÃo dos animais e os protocolos experimentais foram registrados no...

  15. Immune response in mice immunized with acidic antigenic fractions from Trypanosoma cruzi cytosol Resposta imune em camundongos imunizados com a fração ácida antigênica do Citosol do Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Susana Gea

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The humoral and cellular immune responses as well as the resistance to infection with bloodstream forms of T. cruzi were studied in mice immunized with acidic antigenic fractions from parasite cytosol, F III and F IV, plus Bordetella pertussis as adjuvant. The immunization with F III induced positive ITH and DTH responses to homologous antigens. In mice immunized with F IV, the ITH was negative and four out of six animals presented positive DTH reactions. In both groups of mice the analysis of IgG aginst T. cruzi showed that the major isotype elicited was IgG1. Specific IgE was also detected in sera from F III immunized mice, thus confirming the presence of homocytothropic antibodies. The parasitemias reached by F III and F IV immunized mice after challenge were lower than those of the controls showing in this way a partial protection against the acute infection. The histological studies of heart and skeletal muscle performed two months after the infection revealed variable mononuclear infiltration in all infected mice despite immunization.As respostas humorais e celulares, assim como a resistência à infecção a formas sanguícolas do T. cruzi foram estudadas em camundongos imunizados com as frações antigênicas ácidas do Citosol parasitário, F III e F IV com Bordetella pertussis como adjuvante. A imunização com F III induziu respostas positivas ITH e DTH aos antígenos homólogos. Em camundongos imunizados com F IV o ITH foi negativo e quatro dos seis animais apresentaram reações DTH positivas. Em ambos os grupos de camundongos a análise de IgG contra T. cruzi mostrou que o principal isotipo produzido foi IgG1. IgE específico foi também detectado em soros de camundongos imunizados com F III, portanto confirmando a presença de anticorpos homocitotrópicos. As parasitemias atingidas pelos camundongos imunizados por F III e F IV após desafio foram mais baixas do que aquelas dos controles mostrando proteção parcial contra a infec

  16. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico New method for dosage of antivenoms sera in baby mice: I-Anticrotalic serum's dosage

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    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.The biological activity of antiserum against venoms can be assessed by "in vivo" tests using pigeons, rabbits, guinea-pigs and adult mice although there is no International standardized reaction for it. The traditional methods using pigeons and adult mice were comparatively studied with those using mice of 4-5 g (6-7 days of age, inoculated by subcutaneous injection. The toxicity of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was initially determined by studying the symptomatology after administration of venom and lethal activity. The comparative study of these three methods showed that the best concordance in the results of the ED100 was obtained using adult and baby mice. The most homogeneous ED100

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DA AÇÃO CICATRIZANTE DA GUAÇATONGA (Casearia sylvestris Sw. EM FERIDAS EXPERIMENTALMENTE INDUZIDAS EM CAMUNDONGOS

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    José Edgard de Oliveira Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. tem longa história na tradição popular e amplo espectro de aplicação na medicina folclórica brasileira, sendo utilizada para diversos fins, como analgésico, anti-inflamatório, antiviral, anti-ulceroso e hemostático em lesões de pele e mucosas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do tratamento tópico com soluções de Casearia sylvestris Sw. em lesões de pele experimentalmente induzidas em camundongos. Foram utilizados 15 animais aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos: GC (tratados com solução fisiológica, G1% (tratados com solução de guaçatonga a 1% e G10% tratados com solução de guaçatonga a 10%. As feridas foram avaliadas e mensuradas nos dias 1, 4, 6, 8 e 13 após a indução das lesões. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos, todavia, observou-se cicatrização completa das feridas no grupo G1% em um prazo menor que os demais, o que sugere que o tratamento com guaçatonga a 1% apresente maior tendência à promoção da cicatrização. Novos estudos avaliando os efeitos de diferentes concentrações da planta em uma população maior de animais são necessários para melhor entendimento dos efeitos da Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre o processo de cicatrização. Guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. has long history in popular traditions and a large spectrum of action on Brazilian folk medicine, applied to several uses, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-ulcer and haemostatic in injuries on skin and mucous. This study has as aim to evaluate efficacy of topic treatment using Casearia sylvestris Sw. solutions in skin wounds experimentally induced on mice. Were used 15 animals randomly distributed to 3 groups: GC (treated with physiologic solution, G1% (treated with solution of guaçatonga to 1% and G10% (treated with solution of guaçatonga to 10%. The wounds were assessed and measured on days 1, 4, 6, 8 and 13

  18. Effects of taurine supplementation and swimming, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis in mice = Efeito da suplementação com taurina e da natação, associadas ou não, sobre a obesidade e homeostase glicêmica em camundongos

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    Iris Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Studies show that physical exercise (PE is associated with a reduced fat accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity, and taurine (TAU improves glucose homeostasis in lean rodents. The aim in this work was evaluate the effects of supplementing TAU and practice of PE, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis on obese MSG-mice. Neonate male Swiss mice received injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG group or saline (CON group. From the 30th to the 90th day of life, one group of animals received TAU in drinking water (MSG TAU group, another was subjected to PE (MSG PE group and a third group underwent both procedures (MSG PE TAU group. Mice treated with MSG become obese, hypertriglyceridemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. The supplementation with TAU and the PE, isolated or associated, reduced the triglycerides (38%, glucose intolerance (around 30% and KITT (79% in MSG-obese animals, but did not influence the accumulation of fat. Interestingly, the combination of both strategies significantly reduced the insulin resistance, compared to animals subjected to isolated strategies. In conclusion, the supplementation with TAU and PE, isolated or associated, did not influence the accumulation of fat in MSG-obese mice, however, reduce the triglycerides and insulin resistance. O exercício físico (EF está associado à redução do acúmulo de gordura e aumento na sensibilidade à insulina e a taurina (TAU melhora a homeostase glicêmica em roedores magros. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com TAU e do EF, associados ou não, sobre a obesidade e a homeostase glicêmica em camundongos obesos-MSG. Camundongos Swiss machos neonatos receberam injeções de glutamato monossódico (grupo MSG ou salina (grupo CON. Do 30º ao 90º dia de vida, um grupo de animais MSG recebeu TAU na água de beber (MSG TAU; outro foi submetido ao EF (MSG EX e um terceiro grupo foi submetido aos dois procedimentos (MSG EX TAU

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DA INDUÇÃO DA RESPOSTA ALERGÊNICA AO AMENDOIM DURANTE O PERÍODO DE DESMAME EM CAMUNDONGOS

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    Andrea PATTI SOBRINHO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A penetração do antígeno pela mucosa intestinal pode resultar em duas situações distintas a tolerância oral, onde se verifica uma redução na resposta imunológica sistêmica, celular e humoral e a alergia alimentar que é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de uma resposta imune sistêmica para o antígeno em questão. Foi realizado um experimento no qual manipulamos camundongos Balb/c a partir de 14º dia de vida com a introdução da semente de amendoim por via oral por períodos crescentes e diferenciados e inoculações subcutâneas com extrato de amendoim. Os resultados pelo método de Elisa evidenciaram que os níveis de anticorpos IgG total mensurados encontra-se com valores inferiores quando comparados ao grupo controle alérgico.Concluímos que a introdução de proteínas alergênicas no período de desmame confere tolerância oral a esses animais.

  20. Leishmania spp. parasite isolation through inoculation of patient biopsy macerates in interferon gamma knockout mice Leishmania spp.: isolamento de parasitos pela inoculação de macerados de biopsias de pacientes em camundongos deficientes em interferon gama

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    Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of Leishmania parasite and species identification are important for confirmation and to help define the epidemiology of the leishmaniasis. Mice are often used to isolate pathogens, but the most common mouse strains are resistant to infection with parasites from the Leishmania (Viannia subgenus. In this study we tested the inoculation of interferon gamma knockout (IFNγ KO mice with biopsy macerates from Leishmania-infected patients to increase the possibility of isolating parasites. Biopsies from twenty five patients with clinical signs of leishmaniasis were taken and tested for the presence of parasites. Immunohistochemical assay (IHC and conventional histopathology detected the parasite in 88% and 83% of the patients, respectively. Leishmania sp. were isolated in biopsy macerates from 52% of the patients by culture in Grace's insect medium, but 13% of isolates were lost due to contamination. Inoculation of macerates in IFNγ KO mice provides isolation of parasites in 31.8% of the biopsies. Most isolates belong to L. (Viannia subgenus, as confirmed by PCR, except one that belongs to L. (Leishmania subgenus. Our preliminary results support the use of IFNγ KO mice to improve the possibility to isolate New World Leishmania species.O isolamento e a identificação da espécie de parasito do gênero Leishmania são importantes para a confirmação e auxiliam na epidemiologia da leishmaniose. Os camundongos são freqüentemente utilizados para isolar patógenos, porém, as linhagens mais comuns de camundongos são resistentes à infecção por parasitos do subgênero Leishmania (Viannia. Neste estudo, avaliamos a inoculação de macerados de biópsias de pacientes infectados em camundongos deficientes do gene do interferon gama (IFNγ KO como um método para aumentar a possibilidade de isolar Leishmania spp. Biópsias de 25 pacientes infectados com Leishmania sp. foram avaliadas para a presença de parasitos pelos métodos de imunohistoqu

  1. Atividade dissacaridásica intestinal da esquistossomose mansônica: estudo evolutivo em camundongos com diferentes cargas de infestação

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    M. G. A. Sadek

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available A esquistossomose mansônica compromete vários órgãos, sendo o intestino e o fígado os mais agredidos. Com a intenção de verificar o comprometimento do intestino delgado, dependente da intensidade e do tempo de infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni, analisou-se a atividade das dissacaridases — lactase, sacarase e maltase — em 112 camundongos, distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo I — controle, grupo II — infestado com 30 cercárias, grupo III — infestado com 60 cercárias. Observamos uma diminuição da atividade lactásica, sacarásica e maltásica do intestino delgado, decorrente da infestação esquistossomdtica, do tempo de infestação e da alteração entre ambos. O íleo é o segmento que demonstrou maior sensibilidade a esquistossomose, tendo uma diminuição das suas dissacaridases a partir da fase inicial de infestação. Opostamente, o jejuno só mais tardiamente mostra essas alterações, exceto em relação a lactase. Detectou-se um aumento da atividade dissacaridásica, inclusive para a lactase, em todos os grupos, com a evolução etária dos animais, quantitativamente menor nos infestados. Cargas de 30 e 60 cercárias devem ser consideradas de mesmo porte, pois produziram ledução semelhante na atividade dissacaridásica.

  2. O etanercepte induz QRS de baixa tensão e disfunção autonômica em camundongos com doença de Chagas experimental

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    Héctor Rodríguez-Angulo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A doença de Chagas é uma doença parasitária tropical causada pelo protozoário flagelado Trypanosoma cruzi. A cardiomiopatia chagásica é caracterizada por distúrbios na regulação autonômica e na condução do potencial de ação nas fases aguda e crônica da infecção. Embora o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α tenha sido associadoà cardiomiopatia em modelos experimentais e em pacientes com doença de Chagas, outros relatos sugerem que o TNF-α pode exercer ações antiparasitárias durante a fase aguda da infecção. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de um blocker TNF-α solúvel, o etanercepte, em parâmetros eletrocardiográficos na fase aguda da infecção experimental com Trypanosoma cruzi. MÉTODOS: Foram feitos eletrocardiogramas em camundongos infectados não tratados e camundongos infectados que foram tratados com etanercepte 7 dias após a infecção. Os parâmetros de variabilidade onda do eletrocardiograma e frequência cardíaca foram determinados utilizando o Chart para Windows. RESULTADOS: O tratamento com etanercepte resultou em uma baixa tensão do complexo QRS e uma redução da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em comparação com a ausência de tratamento. No entanto, os camundongos tratados apresentaram um atraso na queda da curva de sobrevivência durante a fase aguda. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, embora o tratamento com etanercepte promova a sobrevivência em camundongos infectados com uma linhagem virulenta de T. cruzi, o bloqueio do TNF-α gera um complexo de baixa tensão e disfunção autonômica durante a fase aguda da infecção. Esses resultados indicam que a mortalidade durante a fase aguda pode ser atribuída a uma resposta inflamatória sistêmica, em vez da disfunção cardíaca.

  3. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

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    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  4. Avaliação do pigmento de Lawsonia inermis (henna como carreador de antígenos inoculados por via transcutânea em camundongos = Evaluation of Lawsonia inermis (henna pigment as a carrier of antigens inoculated by transcutaneous immunization pigment in mice

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    Biffi, Karoline

    2013-01-01

    Conclusões: As vacinações transcutâneas com antígeno bruto de P. brasiliensis e albumina sérica bovina em suspensão de pigmento de L. inermis não produziram resposta antigênica detectável em camundongos

  5. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

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    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    com 0,5% de extrato de chá branco durante 8 semanas. Foram estudadoso tecido adiposo bem como o perfil lipídico e o estresse oxidativo. A suplementação com chá branco não foi capaz de reduzir a ingestão alimentar, peso corporal ou adiposidade visceral. De forma similar, não foram encontradas diferenças no perfil de lipoproteínas ricas em colesterol. Uma redução de triacilgliceróis sanguíneos, associada ao aumento de lipídios cecais, foi observada no grupo suplementado com chá branco. A suplementação também reduziu o estresse oxidativo no fígado e tecido adiposo. Em conclusão, suplementação com extrato de chá branco (0,5% não interfere no peso corporal ou adiposidade em camundongos obesos. Seus benefícios são restritos redução do estresse oxidativo associada obesidade e melhora da hipertrigliceridemia.

  6. Estudo dos efeitos comportamentais e neuroquÃmicos do extrato padronizado de Justicia pectoralis (chambÃ) em camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Teles VenÃncio

    2009-01-01

    O extrato padronizado de chambÃ, preparado a partir das partes aÃreas da Justicia pectoralis Jacq. var stenophylla Leonard, foi avaliado em modelos animais clÃssicos para screening de drogas com atividade em ansiedade, depressÃo, sedaÃÃo e convulsÃo, tais como, labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE), claro/escuro, campo aberto, rota rod, nado forÃado, suspensÃo da cauda, tempo de sono induzido por pentobarbital e convulsÃo induzida por pentilenotetrazol, e em estudo neuroquÃmico, atravÃs da concentr...

  7. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem> in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem>. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (<em>Lepus timidusem> nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (<em>Lepus timidusem> sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'<em>home rangeem> è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli <em>home rangeem> (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell <em>home rangeem> non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (<em>core areaem> ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  8. Detecção de anticorpo anticoração em camundongos Balb/c imunizados com Streptococcus mutans

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    LEÃO Mariella Vieira Pereira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos para antígenos cardíacos foram analisados por ELISA em 14 soros de camundongos Balb/c hiperimunizados com Streptococcus mutans, inativado pelo formaldeído. Os níveis de anticorpos da classe IgG anticoração e antimiosina elevaram-se significativamente nos animais imunizados quando comparados com os controles, especialmente no grupo A, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos solúveis de S. mutans. Neste grupo, os resultados do "Western Blot" mostraram reatividade com miosina cardíaca e uma banda de 35 kDa. A análise histológica dos corações dos animais do grupo B, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos de superfície do microrganismo, demonstrou a presença de degeneração celular, tipo hidrópica e hialina e focos inflamatórios constituídos de linfócitos e macrófagos no miocárdio e pericárdio. Os resultados deste trabalho reforçam a hipótese da existência de mimetismo antigênico entre tecido cardíaco e S. mutans e chamam a atenção para o risco de desenvolvimento de anticorpos reativos com antígenos próprios induzidos por vacina anticárie com componentes estreptocócicos.

  9. Pathogenicity of different rabies virus isolates and protection test in vaccinated mice Patogenicidade de diferentes isolados do vírus da raiva e teste de proteção em camundongos vacinados

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    Elenice M.S. Cunha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of rabies virus isolated from bats and dogs, and to verify the efficacy of a commercial rabies vaccine against these isolates. For evaluation of pathogenicity, mice were inoculated by the intramuscular route (IM with 500MICLD50/0.03mL of the viruses. The cross-protection test was performed by vaccinating groups of mice by the subcutaneous route and challenged through the intracerebral (IC route. Isolates were fully pathogenic when inoculated by the IC route. When inoculated intramuscularly, the pathogenicity observed showed different death rates: 60.0% for the Desmodus rotundus isolate; 50.0% for dog and Nyctinomops laticaudatus isolates; 40.0% for Artibeus lituratus isolate; 9.5% Molossus molossus isolate; and 5.2% for the Eptesicus furinalis isolate. Mice receiving two doses of the vaccine and challenged by the IC route with the isolates were fully protected. Mice receiving only one dose of vaccine were partially protected against the dog isolate. The isolates from bats were pathogenic by the IC route in mice. However, when inoculated through the intramuscular route, the same isolates were found with different degrees of pathogenicity. The results of this work suggest that a commercial vaccine protects mice from infection with bat rabies virus isolates, in addition to a canine rabies virus isolate.O estudo avaliou e comparou as propriedades patogênicas de cinco isolados do vírus da raiva de morcegos e um isolado do vírus da raiva de cão e analisou a eficácia de vacina comercial contra estes isolados, em camundongos. Para o estudo de patogenicidade camundongos foram inoculados pela via IM com 0,1 mL contendo 500MICLD50/0,03mL das amostras de vírus. Quando inoculados pela via IC, os isolados do vírus da raiva provocaram a morte de 100% dos camundongos. No entanto, 500MICLD50/0,03mL das mesmas amostras, inoculadas pela via IM, ocasionaram mortalidade de: 60,0% quando a amostra

  10. Transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico e cutâneo em camundongos Experimental heterotopic cardiac and cutaneous transplantation in mice

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    Patrícia Sestrheim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo experimental com o objetivo de desenvolver e avaliar a viabilidade das técnicas de transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico abdominal vascularizado e cutâneo em camundongos, criando um instrumento para investigação da eficácia de soluções de preservação, novas drogas imunossupressoras, agentes biológicos, terapia gênica e indução de tolerância imunológica. MÉTODO: Para este estudo, as técnicas utilizadas foram descritas previamente por Corry et al. e Billingham et al. RESULTADOS: O tempo cirúrgico total para a realização dos transplantes cardíacos (n=20 foi, em média, 60,3±6,3 minutos e para os transplantes cutâneos (n=20, 17,75±0,71 minutos. A média de sobrevida dos aloenxertos cutâneos (n=34 e cardíacos (n=24 foi, respectivamente, 7 e 11 dias, enquanto que os isoenxertos sobreviveram por mais de 100 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas se caracterizaram pela fácil reprodutibilidade dos modelos experimentais. As diferenças entre as técnicas não se limitaram às peculiaridades metodológicas ou ao tempo de sobrevida e vascularização, mas principalmente à sua imunogenicidade e suscetibilidade à rejeição.OBJECTIVE: This is an experimental study which aims at developing and evaluating the feasibility of experimental techniques of vascularized and cutaneous abdominal heterotopic heart transplant in mice, creating an instrument of investigation for the effectiveness of prservation solutions, new immunosuppressive drugs, biological agents, genetic therapy and induction of immunological tolerance. METHOD: The techniques used in this work were previously described by Corry et al. and Billingham et al. RESULTS: The total surgical time to perform the cardiac transplants (n=20 was on average 60.3+6.3 minutes and the time of cutaneous transplants (n= 20 17.75+0.71 minutes. The average survival of the cutaneous allografts (n=34 and cardiac (n=24 allografts was 7 and 11 days, respectively, while

  11. Diferença de susceptibilidade à infecção com T. Cruzi entre espécies de triatomíneos alimentados em cão, tatu e camundongo infectados

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de triatomíneos foram alimentadas em cão, tatu e camundongos infectados pelo T. cruzi, para verificação de suas susceptibilidades. Em cão T. infestans e P. megistus se infectaram melhor. Em tatus T. iníestans e T. brasiliensis acusaram melhores índices de infecção, enquanto em camundongos as espécies de Rhodnius e T. brasiliensis foram as melhores infectadas. A positividade dos xenos não pareceu obrigatoriamente relacionada com a riqueza da parasitemia evidenciada através da hemoscopia direta. A positividade dos xenos em camundongos variou de 26 a 96%. Quando a mesma espécie de triatomineos foi usada em tipos diversos de animais, pareceu haver uma tendência para apresentarem diferentes taxas de infecções, de acordo com o animal empregado. Dessa forma, a susceptibilidade dos triatomíneos poderia estar dependente dos fatores: cepa do tripanosoma, espécie e fase do triatomíneo e o tipo do animal infectante.Our observations suggest that T. infestans and P. megistus were easier to infect with Trypanosoma cruzi after feeding on infected dog than two species of Rhodnius. In armadillo better infection rates for T. infestans and T. brasiliensis were obtained while those of species of Rhodnius was low. Also, P. megistus recorded high levei of infection but this results could not be compared. During two months after inoculated, beginning at the 5th day, trypanosomes were detected through xenodiagnosis in armadillos. In mice, four species of triatomids used simultaneously with Rhodnius had a higher infection rate, but Rhodnius was more susceptible than other species. Eight out 10 mices inoculated with two different virulent strains of T. cruzi died in a period of four months, two surviving for more than 11 months. The per- centage of positive xenodiagnosis of these mices during the first two months after inoculation varied from 28-96 %. The positivity of xenodiagnosis could not always be correlated with patent

  12. Estudo dos componentes nutricionais e imunológicos na perda de peso em camundongos com alergia alimentar

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    Leticia Figueiredo Moreira

    2006-01-01

    As alergias são doenças crônicas caracterizadas por um aumento na capacidade de linfócitos B de sintetizarem imunoglobulina do isotipo IgE contra antígenos que entram no organismo pela da inalação, ingestão ou penetração pela pele conduzindo a uma hiperatividade imunológica, inflamação alérgica e, como visto em nosso modelo, perda de 20% do peso corpóreo em animais BALB/c sensibilizados. O antígeno alimentar utilizado foi ovalbumina, administrado uma semana após sensibilização, via solução...

  13. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da evolução de cercarias irradiadas a nível da pele, pulmões e sistema porta, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the evolution of gamma-irradiated cercariae at the skin, lungs, and portal system, in mice

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    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a migração do Schistosoma mansoni (cepas LE e SJ em oito grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos, infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercarias não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad, 20 Krad e 40 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, Na pele, observou-se uma diminuição progressiva das taxas de recuperação em função do tempo e, nos pulmões e sistema porta, verificou-se uma relação inversa significativa entre as taxas de recuperação total e as doses de irradiação. A dose de 20 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos parasites, de ambas as cepas, dos pulmões até o sistema porta, enquanto a de 40 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos mesmos da pele para os pulmões.The migration of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains has been studied in eight groups of outbred Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus, which were previously infected with ca 450 cercariae, transcutaneously. The infection of mice was performed with non irradiated cercariae (control groups, or with gamma-irradiated cercariae, at the schedule of 3, 20 and 40 Krad. Regarding the skin, a progressive decrease was detected for the recovery rates, related to the time of infection. As far as the lungs and portal system are concerned, a significant inverse correlation was observed between the total recovery rate and the irradiation dosages. The dose of 20 Krad practically hinders the migration of the parasites (in both strains from the lungs to the portal system, whereas the dose of 40 Krad prevents the migration of most of the parasites from the skin to the lungs.

  14. Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone

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    Claudia Cristina Pedigone Cruz

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal. Os demais grupos receberam em dose única: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg, tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg. A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas.A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidone; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

  15. Eficácia da vacina anti-rábica ERA em camundongos, frente a quatro diferentes variantes antigênicas do vírus da raiva

    OpenAIRE

    Erbolato,Elcio Benedito; Silva,Egon Vieira da; Miguel,Omar; Sureau,Pierre; Germano,Pedro Manuel Leal

    1989-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia da vacina anti-rábica preparada em cultura primária de tecido renal de suínos, a partir da amostra ERA, na prevenção da raiva em camundongos, frente a quatro cepas antigenicamente distintas do vírus rábico, duas originadas de cão. C/SP e C/NG, uma originada de morcego, DR-19, e uma cepa fixa, CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard). O perfil antigênico desta cepa foi determinado pela técnica dos anticorpos antirrábicos monoclonais antinucleocapside. Os animais foram vacinados, ao...

  16. Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920: nota prévia sobre a histopatologia em camundongos infectados experimentalmente

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    Cecilia de Scorza

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Ratones machos (cepa NMRI de 3 y 5 gr, inoculados i.p. con 8 x 10(6 y 9 x 10(4 metatripo- mastigotes/gr cosechados de cultivo LIT de 12 días de repique de la cepa "Perro-82" de Trypanosoma rangeli fueron procesados, em determinados períodos postinoculación, para seccionar y teñir con hematoxilina-eosina y Giemsa-colofonio trozos de corozón, hígado, bazo, pulmones, fémur, riñon, intestino, estómago, cerebro, cerebelo, esternón y columna vertebral. Se detallan los resultados preliminares sobre la histopatologia provocada por el T. rangeli en los cinco primeros órganos citados. Los tejidos conjuntivos subcutáneo, periosteal, intersticial y peribronquial, así como las miocélulas del corazón fueron altamente parasitados por amastigotes y tripomastigotes. Se discuten las posibles razones de la disminución del parasitismo tisular cuando la parasitemia se encontró en sus niveles máximos, así como la escasa inflamación obtenida en los tejidos parasitados. Las observaciones de varios autores sobre el comportamiento del protozoario en humanos y en animales de laboratorio así como los resultados descritos en este trabajo, plantean la posibilidad de que determinadas cepas de T. rangeli, en condiciones particulares, podrían causar alteraciones patológicas en el mamífero.

  17. Antiamnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. bark extract in mice Avaliação da atividade antiamnésica da casca de C. phlomidis Linn. em camundongos

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    anumanthachar Joshi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae is known as Agnimantha in sanskrit. Bark of the plant is used in treating various nervous disorders. In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropic agent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate short term and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p. were employed to induce amnesia in mice. To delineate the mechanism by which C. phlomidis exerts nootropic action, its effect on brain acetyl cholinesterase levels were determined. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. Pretreatment with C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 successive days significantly improved learning and memory in mice. It reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine, diazepam and natural ageing. It also decreased the acetyl cholinesterase levels in the whole brain. The bark of C. phlomidis can be of enormous use in the management of treatment of cognitive disorders such as amnesia and Alzheimer's disease.Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae é conhecida como Agnimantha em sânscrito. A casca da planta é utilizada no tratamento de várias disfunções neurológicas. No presente estudo, C. phlomidis foi investigada pelo seu potencial como agente nootrópico em camundongos. O extrato aquoso de C. phlomidis (100 e 200 mg/kg, p.o. foi administrado por seis dias consecutivos tanto para camundongos jovens quanto para idosos. Modelos comportamentais exteroceptivos, tais como labirinto em cruz elevada e paradigma de esquiva passiva foram empregados para avaliar memória recente e tardia, respectivamente. Escopolamina (0,4 mg/kg i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. foram empregados para induzir amnésia em camundongos. A

  18. Morfologia e desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 em infecções unissexuais experimentalmente produzidas no camundongo Morphology and development of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in unisexual infections produced experimentally in mice

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    Eliana Maria Zanotti

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni em infecções unissexuais no camundongo. Os esquistossomos fêmeos apresentaram-se menos desenvolvidos do que os machos. Houve correlação entre o comprimento dos machos e o número de testículos. Verificou-se que o isolamento sexual é prejudicial aos dois sexos, principalmente à fêmea.The Schistosoma mansoni development in mice submitted to unisexual infections was studied. The single female worms developed less than the single males. There was correlation between the male's length and the number of his tests. It was verified that sexual isolation of the schistosomes is prejudicial to both sexes, mainly for the female.

  19. Avaliação experimental do atordoamento da tireóide em camundongos Experimental assessment of thyroid stunning in mice

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    Marcelo Tatit Sapienza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O atordoamento do tecido tireoidiano após doses diagnósticas de iodo-131 é descrito como causa de baixa captação e resposta insatisfatória a doses terapêuticas subseqüentes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental do atordoamento tireoidiano pós-actínico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Um total de 63 camundongos recebeu dose equivalente de 45 Sv na tireóide, mediante irradiação com iodo-123. Esta dose é similar à estimada para os remanescentes tireoidianos após administração de 185 MBq (5 mCi de iodo-131 para pesquisa de corpo inteiro. As medidas de captação tireoidiana de uma dose traçadora de iodo-131 foram efetuadas em subgrupos de nove animais, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12 e 26 dias após a irradiação. A captação nestes subgrupos foi correlacionada à de um grupo controle de nove animais não irradiados. RESULTADOS: A captação de iodo no grupo controle foi de 9,26%. Não foi observada variação significativa do valor médio de captação no período de tempo estudado. Houve aumento da variância das medidas efetuadas cinco dias após a irradiação, quando quatro dos nove animais apresentaram captação menor que 60% da média do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve queda sistemática da captação nos animais submetidos à dose de 45 Sv, notando-se, entretanto, tendência a maior flutuação na captação cinco dias após a irradiação. Estes achados podem ser decorrentes de diferenças interespécies ou podem indicar que o atordoamento com doses nesta faixa dependa de características individuais ou anormalidades funcionais prévias, que se somam ao efeito da radiação.OBJECTIVE: Thyroid tissue stunning after iodine-131 doses is a known cause of low uptake and unsatisfactory response to subsequent therapeutic doses. The objective of this study was to develop an experimental model of postactinic thyroid stunning. METHODS: A total of 63 mice received an equivalent dose of 45 Sv on the thyroid

  20. Pathogenicity of Rhodococcus equi in mice, isolated from environment, human and horse clinical samples Patogenicidade atogenicidade em camundongos de isolados clí- clínicos, nicos, ambientais e humanos de Rhodococcus equi

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    Mateus M. Costa

    2006-09-01

    cido micólico e alguns produtos codificados por um grande plasmídeo de 85-90Kb foram descritos como fatores de virulência. Entretanto, a patogênese da infecção e a susceptibilidade dos potros não s��o completamente entendidas. Nove cepas carreando o plasmídeo e isoladas de potros doentes, um isolado de paciente humano imunossuprimido, e seis cepas sem plasmídeo (4 de fezes, 1 de pastagem e 1 de paciente humano imunossuprimido foram inoculadas em camundongos imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida. As alterações patológicas e a viabilidade das células de R. equi no fígado foram verificadas depois do terceiro, sexto e décimo dia após a inoculação para isolados clínicos e depois do primeiro, terceiro e sexto dia para isolados de pacientes humanos. Na necropsia foram detectados infiltrado de macrófagos e lesões piogranulomatosas no fígado e baço dos camundongos após o sexto dia da inoculação. Para isolados clínicos, somente os plasmídeo positivos foram virulentos, mas para os humanos, ambos os isolados (plasmídeo positivos e plasmídeo negativos foram virulentos. Ambos os grupos de camundongos imunossuprimidos inoculados com isolados ambientais mostraram alterações patológicas. Todos os isolados foram incapazes de matar camundongos imunocompe-tentes.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni in mice: modulation of granulomatous response after reinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos: modulação da resposta granulomatosa pós reinfecção e tratamento quimioterápico

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    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Mice previously infected with Schistosoma mansoni, and cured by specific treatment (400mg/kg oxamniquine, p. o. in the chronic phase of the disease, were reinfected 20 days after treatment to assess their capacityfor modulation ofthe granulomatous response. Histopathologic examination of the animals ' liver, at 60 days after reinfection, evidenced the presence of typical granulomas of the chronic phase in most animals. This infer that the capacity for modulation of the granulomatous response had been maintained, thus preventing a new acute phase of the disease. Conversely, a group of previously infected mice, untreated and submitted to reinfection, showed reactivation of the granulomatous response in 50% of the animals. The possible implications of these findings in human schistosomiasis mansoni are discussed.Para verificar a capacidade de modulação da resposta granulomatosa na esquistossomose murina, após cura quimioterápica, camundongos previamente infectadosforam curados com oxamniquina (400mg/kg, p. o. e reinfectados 20 dias após tratamento. O exame histopatológico do fígado dos animais, aos 60 dias após reinfecção, mostrou, na maioria deles, a presença de granulomas nafase produtiva, típicos da fase crônica da doença, pertnitindo a inferência de que a capacidade de modulação da resposta granulomatosa foi mantida, prevenindo assim uma outra fase aguda da doença. Por outro lado, um grupo de camundongos previamente infectados e submetidos a reinfecção mostrou a reagudização da resposta granulomatosa em 50% dos animais. As possíveis implicações destes achados na esquistossomose mansoni humana são discutidas.

  2. A novel model of distal colon cancer in athymic mice Novo modelo de câncer de cólon distal em camundongos atímicos

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    Denise Gonçalves Priolli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present a novel adenocarcinoma model in athymic mice. METHODS: Seven athymic mice were used. Colon diversion and distal fistula were made. Adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated in the submucosa of fistula. Tumor growth was monitored daily. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI was performed to identify the tumor. RESULTS: The model of distal colon cancer is feasible. Tumor detection was possible by both, macroscopically and molecular imaging. All resections demonstrated poorly differentiated tumors. Colon obstruction occurred in one case, similarly to evolution in human tumors of distal colon. CONCLUSION: The proposed model of distal colon cancer is feasible, allows for easy monitoring of tumoral growth by both, macroscopically and molecular imaging, and is suitable for studying the evolution of tumor with implementation of cytotoxic therapy in vivo.OBJETIVO: Apresentar novo modelo de adenocarcinoma distal em camundongos atímicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados sete camundongos atímicos. Desvio do cólon distal e fístula foram feitas. Células de adenocarcinoma foram inoculadas na submucosa da fístula. O crescimento do tumor foi monitorado diariamente. Cintilografia com 99mTc-MIBI foi realizada para identificar o tumor. RESULTADOS: O modelo de câncer de cólon distal é viável. Detecção do tumor foi possível macroscopicamente e por imagem molecular. Todas as ressecções demonstraram tumores pouco diferenciados. Obstrução do cólon ocorreu em um caso, de forma semelhante à evolução em tumores humanos do cólon distal. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de câncer do cólon distal proposto é viável, permite a monitorização fácil do crescimento tumoral macroscopicamente e por imagem molecular, sendo adequado para o estudo da evolução de tumor com aplicação de terapia citotóxica in vivo.

  3. Estudo morfológico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57 BL10 submetidos à ingestão prolongada de etanol

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    João Batista Guedes e Silva; Lisboa,Jorge A. da Costa; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Os efeitos do alcoolismo crônico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos bem nutridos foram estudados morfologicamente com a finalidade de se avaliar a hipótese de que o etanol exerce um papel tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. Foram usados 30 camundongos C57BL10 machos, adultos jovens, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo A (controle) consistindo de 10 camundongos que beberam água e Grupo B (alcoólico) de 20 camundongos que beberam etanol a 25%. Todos os animais receberam" uma ração balanc...

  4. Avaliação do cetoconazol em camundongos inoculados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pela histopatologia de fígado e baço e pela intradermorreação de paracoccidioidina

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    Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos machos albinos, foram inoculados por via intravenosa com 0,5xl07 células leveduriform.es viáveis de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis da amostra rotulada como Pb 2052 e tratados diariamente com cetoconazol nas dosagens de 50 e 100mg/kg durante 50 dias e em seguida sacrificados. Observou-se o número de parasitas .formação de granulomas no fígado e baço e reação de hipersensibilidade retardada usando-se antígeno de P. brasiliensís preparada segundo Fava Neto, inoculado na pata direita do animal. Verificou-se que: 1. cetoconazol diminuiu acentuadamente o número de parasitas encontrados no fígado e baço; 2. não havia diferença entre o número de granulomas formados no baço e fígado de animais tratados e não tratados; 3. a intensidade dos testes cutâneos tardios foram similares em todos os animais.

  5. Efeito do concentrado de plasma em falhas ósseas provocadas em fêmures de camundongos como estimulação de formação óssea: estudo experimental Effect of plasma concentrate on bone defects induced in mice fêmurs via stimulation of bone formation: an experimental study

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    Alberto Tesconi Croci

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudam experimentalmente o efeito do concentrado de plasma na estimulação óssea em camundongos. Foram utilizados dez camundongos isogênicos de linhagem gioto, onde após a coleta do sangue periférico de um camundongo, foi centrifugado este sangue e obtido um concentrado de plasma; foi utilizado o concentrado de plasma em falhas ósseas na região distal do fêmur, alternando-se os lados direito e esquerdo, sendo um lado com falha óssea isolada e o outro com falha óssea mais o concentrado de plasma e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Observou-se que o plasma não leva à estimulação da formação do calo ósseo, não ocorrendo aumento do processo inflamatório, e havendo apenas uma tendência a formar mais matriz óssea com o seu uso.In this trial the authors investigated the effect of plasma concentrate on bone callus formation in mice. Ten mice of the Gioto isogenic mouse strain were used; samples of peripheral blood of each mouse were collected and centrifuged, giving a plasma concentrate that was used to investigate bone defects at the distal region of the femur; the right and left sides were used alternately, and one side showed a single bone defect; the plasma concentrate was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. It was noticed that the plasma concentrate did not lead to any stimulation of bone callus formation and no inflammatory effect increase has occurred; also, its use showed only a tendency to increase bone matrix formation.

  6. Porcine peritoneum as source of biocompatible collagen in mice Peritônio suíno como fonte de colágeno biocompatível em camundongos

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    Cristina Jardelino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the biocompatibility and biodegradability of a membrane made from porcine peritoneum. METHODS: The membrane (5x5 mm was inserted in the subcutaneous tissue on the back of 15 mice, which were killed after 1, 3 and 9 weeks (ISO 10993-6. The cellular components of the inflammatory response and degradation of the membrane were analyzed in hematoxylin-eosin-stained histological sections. RESULTS: After one week, mononuclear cells were observed inside the membrane. After three weeks, the material was almost completely absorbed. After nine weeks, there was no presence of material and there were signs of tissue remodeling. There was neither a foreign body reaction nor signs of tissue necrosis. CONCLUSION: The collagen membrane derived from porcine peritoneum is biocompatible and bioabsorbable when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of mice.OBJETIVO: Investigar a biocompatibilidade e biodegradabilidade de uma membrana feita de peritônio suíno. MÉTODOS: A membrana (5x5 mm foi inserida no tecido subcutâneo dorsal de 15 camundongos, que foram mortos após uma, três e nove semanas (ISO 10993-6. Os componentes celulares da resposta inflamatória e a degradação da membrana foram analisados em cortes corados em hematoxilina-eosina. RESULTADOS: Após uma semana, células mononucleares foram observadas dentro da membrana. Após três semanas, o material foi quase completamente absorvido. Após nove semanas, não houve presença do material e houve sinais de remodelação tecidual. Não houve reação de corpo estranho nem sinais de necrose tecidual. CONCLUSÃO: A membrana colágena derivada de peritônio suíno é biocompatível e bioabsorvível quando implantada no tecido subcutâneo do camundongo.

  7. O uso do aspirado de medula óssea de ilíaco em falhas ósseas de fêmures de camundongos: estudo experimental The use of inhaled bone marrow of ileum in bone failures of femurs of rats: experimental study

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    Alberto Tesconi Croci

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudam a utilização de medula óssea em camundongos como estimulação da formação de calo ósseo. Foram utilizados dez camundongos adultos machos de linhagem isogênica gioto com peso de aproximadamente 250 gramas, e realizadas falhas ósseas na região distal do fêmur com alternância do lado direito e esquerdo, divididos em grupos A e B, sendo como controle camundongos com falha óssea isolado e com falhas ósseas com medula óssea colhida previamente de cada camundongo. Após análise qualitativa e quantitativa foi observado que o uso do aspirado de medula óssea não leva à estimulação da formação do calo ósseo e não há o aumento de processo inflamatório local.The aim of this study is to analyze the bone marrow employment in rats to stimulate the bone callus formation. Ten adult rats were used, male, isogenic, gioto lineage, approximate weight of 250 grams. Bone failures were produced at femur distal portion, alternating the right and left sides, and they were divided in group A and B. The control was held in rats presenting an isolated bone failure or having their bone marrow previously collected After quantitative and qualitative analysis, it was observed that the bone marrow utilization does not lead to the bone callus formation and there isn't an increase in the local inflammation process.

  8. Comportamento das cepas Y e Peruana do Trypanosoma cruzi no camundongo, após passagem em diferentes meios Behavior of the Y and Peruvian strains of Trypanasoma cruzi in mice, ofter passage through different media

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    Juracy B. Magalhães

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar se o comportamento morfobiológico e histopalógico de cerpa do Trypanosoma cruzi é mantido após modificações no seu meio de manutenção e multiplicação, foram estudados oito grupos de infecção experimental em camundongos com as cepas Y e Peruana, após manutenção nas seguintes condições cultura acelular em meio de Warren, criopreservação em Nitrogênio líquido durante trinta dias, passagem em triatomíneos e passagem em camundongos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: parasitemia, mortalidade, sobrevida, morfologiaq dos parasitos no sangue periférico, tropismo tíssular e lesões histopatológicoas. Tanto com a cepa Y como Peruana, cada grupo experimental foi dividido em dois subgrupos de acordo com a dose de inóculo, sendo um inoculado com 10.000 e outro com 50.000 formas tripomastigotas, menos o inoculado com formas de triatomíneos em que o inóculo foi apenas com 10.000 tripomastigotas. Observou-se na infecção pela cepa Y, retardo na evolução da parasitemia nos inoculados com formas de cultura e atenuação de virulência com o inóculo de 10.000 formas. Os caracteres básicos da cepa foram mantidos com predominância de macrofagotropismo na fase inicial da infecção e miotropismo nas fases tardias,predominância de forma delgadas e elevada patogenicidade, com 100% de mortalidade embora com variação nos periodos de sobrevida. Na infecção pela cepa Peruana observou-se também retardo da evolução da parasitemia com o inóculo de 10.000 formas provenientes de triatomíneos, de cultura e de criopreservação. Entretanto, as características morfológicas, o tropismo tissular e a patogenicidade foram mantidos.The behavior of two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y and Peruvian strains in experimental mouse infection, after being passed through different conditions of maintainance and cultivation was studied. The conditions were: Warren's acellular culture medium, cryopreservation in liquid

  9. Infecção experimental de camundongos albinos com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, previamente submetidas a ação de termofosfato magnesiano

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    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada infecção experimental de camundongos albinos ("Swiss inbred" com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, submetidas à ação do adubo termofosfato magnesiano (Tfm, usualmente utilizado em latossolos tropicais e capaz, quando ingerido, de provocar o bloqueio da ovogênese de moluscos planorbídeos. Nas condições do experimento, observou-se a infecção dos roedores. Porém, o número de ovos eliminados pelo grupo controle, representado por cinco camundongos, foi sensivelmente maior que o do grupo Tfm, ainda que a recuperação de vermes, por perfusão, tenha sido bem menor. Do grupo Tfm, foram recuperados 163 (98,2% vermes adultos machos e apenas 3 (1,8% fêmeas, isoladas. Do grupo controle, a perfusão proporcionou 53 vermes adultos, sendo 13 machos, 18 fêmeas e 11 casais. Cada camundongo foi exposto a 150 cercárias.Experimental infection of white mice (Swiss inbred with LE strain Scistosoma mansoni cercariae submitted to the action of magnesium thermophosphate (Tfm, usually used in tropical latosoils, was performed. This product is able to block ovogenesis of planorbid molluscs. In these experimental conditions, rodents were infected. But, the number of eggs released by the control group (five mice was markedly greater than that of the Tfm group, although a short number of worms were recovered by perfusion. From the Tfm group, 163 adult worms (98,2% were recovered and only 3 females (1,8%. Of the control group, perfusion recovered 62 adult worms (22 male worms, 18 female and 11 couples. Each mice was exposed to 150 cercariae.

  10. Efeito protetor do Nitrosil-RutÃnio (Cis[Ru(bpy)2SO3NO]+(PF6) em modelos experimentais de lesÃes gÃstricas em camundongos â envolvimento da via NO/GCs/KATP

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    Ana Paula MacÃdo Santana

    2013-01-01

    IntroduÃÃo: LesÃes gÃstricas relacionadas ao consumo excessivo de antiinflamatÃrios nÃo esteroidais (AINEs) e etanol possuem um importante papel na gastroenterologia clÃnica. FÃrmacos com aÃÃo anti-secretÃria gÃstrica, como os inibidores da bomba de prÃtons, representam a principal opÃÃo na terapia destas patologias. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do doador de NO nitrosil-rutÃnio (Rut-NO) na defesa da mucosa gÃstrica em modelos experimentais de lesÃo gÃstrica em camundongos e a participaÃÃo da gu...

  11. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

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    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. Con

  12. Avaliação do cetoconazol em camundongos inoculados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pela histopatologia de fígado e baço e pela intradermorreação de paracoccidioidina

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    Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos machos albinos, foram inoculados por via intravenosa com 0,5xl07 células leveduriform.es viáveis de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis da amostra rotulada como Pb 2052 e tratados diariamente com cetoconazol nas dosagens de 50 e 100mg/kg durante 50 dias e em seguida sacrificados. Observou-se o número de parasitas .formação de granulomas no fígado e baço e reação de hipersensibilidade retardada usando-se antígeno de P. brasiliensís preparada segundo Fava Neto, inoculado na pata direita do animal. Verificou-se que: 1. cetoconazol diminuiu acentuadamente o número de parasitas encontrados no fígado e baço; 2. não havia diferença entre o número de granulomas formados no baço e fígado de animais tratados e não tratados; 3. a intensidade dos testes cutâneos tardios foram similares em todos os animais.Male albino mice were inoculated intravenously with0,5 x IO7viabley eastforms of P. brasiliensis (strain 2052, These animals were treated with two doses of ketoconazole (50and 100mg/kg during fifty days and the sacrificed. VSe studied the presence of P. brasiliensis, the inflammatory granulomatous response of liver and spleen and the anti P. brasiliensis delayed hypersensitivity response measured by the footpad test after 48 hours. It was observed that: 1. animals infected and treated with ketoconazole showed reduction in the number of fungi in the organs studied; 2. there was no difference in the number of granulomas among animals treated and non-treated; 3. the cutaneous delayed tests intensity was similar in all animals.

  13. Identificação da Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona em camundongos geneticamente selecionados, para a alta e baixa produção de anticorpos, através da técnica de imunoperoxidase em tecido renal e isolamento bacteriano em meio de Fletcher Identification of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in mice genetically selected for high and low antibody production, by means of the immunoperoxidase technique in renal tissue and bacterial isolation in Fletcher medium

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    Maria Cristina Santos Haanwinckel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a presença da Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para a alta e baixa resposta a anticorpos. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao isolamento bacteriano, imunohistoquímica (imunoperoxidase em cortes de tecido renal e coloração através da hematoxilina-eosina. A técnica de imunoperoxidase apresentou-se pouco mais sensível em relação ao cultivo, entretanto, ambas foram bons parâmetros de identificação do agente. Presença de lesões renais mais intensas ocorreram em períodos em que houve maior número de bactérias isoladas em meio de cultivo. Camundongos da linhagem HIV-A conseguiram eliminar as leptospiras com maior eficiência e rapidez em relação as linhagem LIV-A, entretanto o estudo demonstrou que ambas linhagens da seleção IV-A foram eficientes em controlar o processo infeccioso.The present work had the objective of identifying the presence of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in mice that had been genetically selected for high and low response to antibodies. All the animals were subjected to bacterial isolation, immunohistochemical analysis (immunoperoxidase in renal tissue sections and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The immunoperoxidase technique was little more sensitive than culturing, but both were good parameters for agent identification. More severe renal lesions were present at times when there were greater numbers of bacteria isolated in culture medium. Mice of the lineage HIV-A were able to eliminate the Leptospira more efficiently and faster than the lineage LIV-A could. However, the study demonstrated that both lineages of the IV-A selection were efficient in controlling the infectious process.

  14. Evaluation of the immune response to CRA and FRA recombinant antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi in C57BL/6 mice Avaliação da resposta imune em camundongos C57BL/6 imunizados com os antígenos recombinantes CRA e FRA de Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated in 44 C57BL/6 mice immunized with the Trypanosoma cruzi recombinant antigens CRA and FRA. Both antigens induced cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity response. The levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 were high in CRA immunized mice. IgG3 was the predominant isotype. Although no difference in antibody levels was observed in FRA-immunized mice when compared to control mice, both antigens were able to induce lymphoproliferation in immunized mice. Significant differences were observed between incorporation of [³H]- thymidine by spleen cell stimulated in vitro with CRA or FRA and the control group. These results suggest that CRA and FRA could be involved in mechanisms of resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.As respostas imune humoral e celular foram avaliadas em 44 camundongos C57Bl/6 imunizados com os antígenos recombinantes CRA e FRA de Trypanosoma cruzi. Ambos antígenos induziram reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo imediato. Os níveis de IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b e IgG3 foram elevados nos camundongos imunizados com CRA. IgG3 foi o isotipo predominante. Nenhuma diferença nos níveis de anticorpos foi observada em camundongos imunizados com FRA em relação aos animais controle. No entanto, ambos antígenos foram capazes de induzir proliferação de linfócitos em camundongos imunizados. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre a incorporação da timidina - [³H] pelas células esplênicas estimuladas com CRA ou FRA e o grupo controle. Esses resultados sugerem que CRA e FRA poderão estar envolvidos nos mecanismos de resistência à infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi.

  15. Animais de laboratório: o camundongo

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    M. CHORILLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A experimentação animal nas pesquisas científicas tem contribuído sobremaneira para o desenvolvimento da ciência e tecnologia, promovendo ao longo dos anos a descoberta de medidas profiláticas e tratamentos de enfermidades que acometem os seres humanos. Animais de várias espécies têm sido utilizados nos últimos tempos, sendo os camundongos os mais intensamente utilizados e os mais profundamente conhecidos cientificamente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento bibliográfico, incluindo os trabalhos do nosso grupo, sobre o emprego de camundongos na experimentação animal, abordando sua biologia geral, fisiologia de reprodução, sistemas de criação, genética, habitação, alimentação, manejo, dor e eutanásia, técnicas de risco desenvolvidas na experimentação, coleta de sangue, experimentos farmacológicos e toxicológicos. Embora tendências atuais preconizem a utilização de métodos alternativos (estudos in vitro, culturas de células, etc., os modelos animais, como os camundongos, apresentam como principal vantagem o fornecimento de informações sobre o organismo como um todo, fato que não é conseguido com outros métodos, o que ainda possibilita o seu emprego em pesquisas científicas. Palavras-chave: experimentação animal; camundongo; biologia geral; técnicas de risco na experimentação.

  16. Grape extract and α-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice Efeito do extrato de uva e α-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doença cardiovascular

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    Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado

  17. Proteção pela glucana em modelo experimental de sepse

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    Freitas Janaina Cristiana de Oliveira Crispim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho avaliou-se a ação da glucana b ® 1-3 insolúvel, um polissacarídeo extraído da parede celular interna do fungo Saccharomyces cerevisae, como agente imunoestimulante inespecífico em camundongos submetidos a modelo de sepse experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 73 camundongos Swiss, os quais receberam glucana em diferentes doses pelas vias intraperitoneal (i.p.. Sepse difusa foi induzida através da técnica de ligadura e punção do ceco, transfixado e drenado com fio multifilamentar. RESULTADOS: Os animais tratados com glucana apresentaram um aumento significante no número de leucócitos no lavado peritoneal, diminuição no número de unidades formadoras de colônias bacterianas. Observou-se um aumento significante na sobrevida dos animais tratados com glucana insolúvel, a qual proporcionou um maior controle da infecção bacteriana por aumentar o número de células de defesa. CONCLUSÃO: A glucana insolúvel, quando usada em camundongos por via intraperitoneal, em modelo de sepse abdominal, contribuiu para melhorar a sobrevida, induziu proteção contra a formação de colônias bacterianas no líquido peritoneal e aumentou a migração leucocitária.

  18. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice Efeitos ansiolíticos das cascas de Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, em teste do labirinto em cruz elevada e teste de esconder esferas, em camundongos

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    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, é uma árvore do tipo decidua, comumente conhecida como "Medshingi" na da região Toranmal de Maharashtra, na Índia. Uma pasta da casca é aplicada em fraturas ou luxação dos ossos e usada como veneno de peixe; o suco da casca é usada em casos de menorragia e leucorréia. Das folhas da planta foi isolado crisina-7-rutinoside. O presente estudo foi realizado para investigar os efeitos ansiolíticos do extrato metanólico (DFBM, acetato de etila (DFBEA e compostos isolados DFB (V + VI de D. falcata utilizando a casca do tronco em modelos animais. Os efeitos ansiolíticos foram estudados por labirinto em cruz elevada (EPM e o ensaio de esconder esferas de mármore (MBT. Os extratos bruto e seco DFBM DFBEA foram preparados em doses de 100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, enquanto que o composto DFB (V + VI foi preparado em doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg e foram administrados em camundongos para avaliação da atividade ansiolítica. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produziram efeitos

  19. Estudo da expressão de galectina-3 em carcinomas de língua de camundongos Study of the galectin-3 expression in tongue carcinomas of mice

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    Paulo Rogério de Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A galectina-3 (Gal-3 é uma lectina de mamíferos ligante de resíduos b-galactosídeos. Numerosos estudos têm mostrado que a Gal-3 apresenta importantes papéis na biologia tumoral, atuando em fenômenos como apoptose, metástase e transformação maligna. No entanto, em carcinomas de cabeça e pescoço, a real significância da sua expressão ainda é pouco compreendida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão de Gal-3 em tumores de língua induzidos experimentalmente em camundongos desafiados com o carcinógeno 4-nitroquinolona-1-óxido (4NQO. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois camundongos C57BL/6, machos, foram desafiados com 4NQO na água de beber por 16 semanas e sacrificados em diferentes períodos depois do tratamento. Após o sacrifício, as línguas foram removidas, processadas, coradas por hematoxilina e eosina (HE e microscopicamente analisadas quanto à presença de carcinoma. Ensaio imuno-histoquímico para detecção do antígeno Gal-3 e análise descritiva da sua expressão nos tumores induzidos foram realizados. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, foram produzidos 15 tumores. No tecido epitelial não-neoplásico, forte imunorreatividade foi observada apenas na camada parabasal. Nas camadas mais superficiais a intensidade de marcação foi mais fraca, e na camada basal variou de ausente a fraca. Todos os carcinomas bem diferenciados exibiram fraca marcação, exceto nas áreas queratinizantes. No único caso de carcinoma pouco diferenciado, forte imunorreatividade para Gal-3 foi observada. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados descritivos mostram que a transformação maligna é acompanhada de redução da intensidade de expressão da Gal-3 e que o aumento da sua expressão com a perda da diferenciação neoplásica sugere a sua vinculação com agressividade tumoral.BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (Gal-3 is a b-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin. Numerous studies have demonstrated that Gal-3 plays an

  20. Activity of praziquantel against Hymenolepis nana, at different development stages, in experimentally infected mice Atividade do praziquantel sobre diferentes estágios evolutivos do Hymenolepis nana, em camundongos infectados experimentalmente

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    Rubens Campos

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Single doses of praziquantel were administered by oral route, at various time intervals, following the experimental infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana eggs (2000 per animal, to investigate the drug action against different development stages of the parasite. It was shown that either 25 or 50 mg/kg given on the 4th day after inoculation had just a partial effect against the cysticercoids. Moreover, 25 mg/kg given on the 7th day was not able to kill all juvenile forms as well. However, this dose administered on the 10th day, when the parasites had reached maturity taut oviposition was not yet initiated was 100% efficacious. The same degree of efficacy was achieved with the administration of 25 mg/kg on the 14th day when the fully mature worms already lay eggs. These animal findings indicate that in the treatment of human hymenolepiasis praziquantel, 25 mg/kg, should be taken twice, 10 days apart, so that the second dose kills the larval and juvenile forms which have survived the first one. This should be particularly recommended for treating H. nana infection in close communities.O praziquantel foi administrado oralmente, em dose única, a intervalos variáveis de tempo, subseqüentes à inoculação experimental de camundongos com ovos (2000 por animal do Hymenolepis nana, objetivando-se investigar a ação da droga sobre os diferentes estágios evolutivos do parasita. Demonstrou-se que tanto 25 quanto 50 mg/kg, administrados no 4.° dia após a inoculação, apresentavam um efeito apenas parcial sobre as formas cisticercóides. Ademais, a dose de 25 mgAg empregada no 7.° dia também não era capaz de matar todas as formas jovens. Entretanto, essa mesma dose utilizada no 10° dia, quando o parasita já atingiu a maturidade mas ainda não iniciou a postura de ovos, mostrou-se 100% eficaz. Igual grau de eficácia foi alcançado com 25 mg/kg administrados no 14.º dia, quando o parasita se encontra em plena fase de oviparidade. Esses achados

  1. A comparison between the novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies (SP1 and B644 and mouse antibodies for evaluating estrogen receptor in breast tumors Uma comparação entre os novos anticorpos monoclonais de coelho (SP1 e B644 e anticorpos de camundongo para detecção de receptores de estrógeno em carcinomas mamários

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    Rafael Malagoli Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies has been released recently for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR receptor evaluation in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Aims: We compared novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies anti-ER SP1 (LabVision® and B644 (Cell Marque® to mouse monoclonal antibodies 1D5 (Dako® and 6F11 (Novocastra® using a tissue microarray of breast carcinomas. METHODS: Two cylinders (2 mm diameter of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue were obtained from 24 invasive breast carcinomas and immunostained by using the anti-ER rabbit and mouse antibodies and the streptavidin-biotin detection system (Biogenex®. Immunostaining was evaluated considering positive those tumors in which more than 10% of the tumor cell nuclei stained. The stain intensity was also evaluated as weak (1, moderate (2, and strong (3. Results: Both rabbit antibodies against ER have similar staining pattern to each other and also to 6F11, but significantly stronger scores compared to mouse 1D5. The rabbit antibodies allow better cost/benefit because of higher working dilutions compared to mouse antibodies using the same procedure. CONCLUSION: The new rabbit antibodies against ER are highly sensitive and reliable in clinical and research immunohistochemical testing of breast carcinomas.INTRODUÇÃO: Uma nova geração de anticorpos monoclonais de coelho tem sido produzida para detecção de receptores de estrógeno (RE e progesterona (RP pela imuno-histoquímica em câncer de mama. OBJETIVO: Comparamos os novos anticorpos monoclonais de coelho anti-RE SP1 (LabVision® e B644 (Cell Marque® com anticorpos monoclonais de camundongo 1D5 (DAKO® e 6F11 (Novocastra® utilizando um tissue microarray de carcinomas mamários. METODOLOGIA: Dois cilindros (2 mm de diâmetro de tecido fixado em formol e embebido em parafina foram retirados de 24 carcinomas mamários invasivos e corados pela imuno-histoquímica utilizando-se os anticorpos de

  2. Effect of black tea in diethylnitrosamine-induced esophageal carcinogenesis in mice Efeito do chá preto sobre a carcinogênese esofágica induzida por dietilnitrosamina em camundongos

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    Átila Varela Velho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of black tea on esophageal carcinogenesis induced by the oral administration of diethylnitrosamine (DEN. METHODS: A population of 120 female mice (Mus musculus, strain CF1 were studied for 160 days. The animals were assigned to two control groups and three treatment groups. The control groups received water or tea throughout the study period, while the three experimental groups received DEN weekly, for three consecutive days, and water, tea, or both, in the other days of the week. On completion of the 160-day period, the animals were killed and their esophagi promptly examined macroscopically and subsequently submitted to histopathology (using the hematoxylin-eosin technique. RESULTS: In the comparative analysis between the treatment groups, tumor incidence (macroscopy was significantly lower in those animals that received black tea besides the carcinogen. As regards the histopathologic changes, there was a greater number of low grade epithelial lesions in the same groups (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do chá preto sobre a carcinogênese esofágica experimental induzida pela administração oral de dietilnitrosamina (DEN. MÉTODOS: Durante 160 dias foi estudada uma população de 120 camundongos fêmeas, gênero Mus musculus, da cepa CF1, dividida em dois grupos controles e três grupos de tratamento. Os grupos controles receberam água ou chá durante todo o período do estudo. Os três grupos tratados receberam DEN semanalmente, durante três dias consecutivos, e água, chá ou ambos, nos demais dias da semana. Ao completar o período de 160 dias foram efetuadas as eutanásias dos animais e seus esôfagos foram analisados macroscopicamente (a fresco e, posteriormente, à histopatologia (empregando a técnica da hematoxilina e eosina - HE. RESULTADOS: Na análise comparativa entre os grupos de tratamento, a incidência tumoral (macroscopia foi significativamente menor naqueles animais que receberam chá preto, al

  3. Eficácia da vacina anti-rábica ERA em camundongos, frente a quatro diferentes variantes antigênicas do vírus da raiva Evaluation of ERA anti-rabies vaccine against four different antigenic strains of rabies virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elcio Benedito Erbolato; Egon Vieira da Silva; Omar Miguel; Pierre Sureau; Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

    1989-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia da vacina anti-rábica preparada em cultura primária de tecido renal de suínos, a partir da amostra ERA, na prevenção da raiva em camundongos, frente a quatro cepas antigenicamente distintas do vírus rábico, duas originadas de cão. C/SP e C/NG, uma originada de morcego, DR-19, e uma cepa fixa, CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard). O perfil antigênico desta cepa foi determinado pela técnica dos anticorpos antirrábicos monoclonais antinucleocapside. Os animais foram vacinados, ao...

  4. Estudo imunohistoquímico do remodelamento pulmonar em camundongos expostos à fumaça de cigarro Immunohistochemical study of lung remodeling in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

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    Samuel Santos Valença

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Muitos estudos sobre enfisema são realizados com exposição de animais à fumaça de cigarro durante um longo tempo, focando o tipo de célula envolvida no desequilíbrio protease/antiprotease e a degradação da matriz extracelular. A expressão aumentada de metaloproteinases no enfisema está associado com citocinas e evidências sugerem um papel importante da metaloproteinase de matriz-12 (MMP-12. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a detecção de inibidor tissular de metaloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2, fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α e interleucina-6 (IL-6 por métodos imunohistoquímicos no pulmão de camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram expostos 3 vezes ao dia a fumaça de 3 cigarros por um período de 10, 20, 30 ou 60 dias através de uma câmara de inalação (grupos CS10, CS20, CS30 e CS60, respectivamente. O grupo controle foi exposto às mesmas condições ao ar ambiente. RESULTADOS: Nós observamos um aumento progressivo de macrófagos alveolares no lavado broncoalveolar dos grupos expostos. O diâmetro alveolar médio, um indicador de destruição alveolar, aumentou em todos os grupos expostos quando comparado ao grupo controle. O índice imunohistoquímico (II para MMP-12 aumentou nos grupos CS10, CS20 e CS30 em paralelo a uma redução do II para TIMP-2 nos grupos CS10, CS20 e CS30. O II para as citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 aumentou em todos os grupos expostos quando comparado ao grupo controle. Enfisema foi observado no grupo CS60, com alterações na densidade de volume de fibras colágenas e elásticas. CONCLUSÕES: Estes achados sugerem que a fumaça de cigarro induz enfisema com uma participação importante do TNF-α e da IL-6 sem a participação de neutrófilos.OBJECTIVE: Various studies of emphysema involve long-term exposure of animals to cigarette smoke, focusing on the cell type involved in the protease/antiprotease imbalance and on extracellular matrix degradation. In emphysema, increased expression of

  5. Efeito da goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada no metabolismo de lipídeos e na aterogênese de camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Rodrigues; Xisto,Marilene Diniz; Penna,Michele Groenner; Matosinhos,Izabela Mascarenhas; Leal,Matheus Calab; Portugal,Luciane Rodrigues; Leite, Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Observar os efeitos da goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada no metabolismo de colesterol e na formação de placa aterosclerótica em aorta de camundongos deficientes no receptor LDL, euglicêmicos ou com hiperglicemia induzida por estreptozotocina. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis camundongos deficientes para o receptor de LDL foram divididos em quatro grupos de nove animais: grupos euglicêmicos, alimentados com dieta aterogênica padrão (controle euglicêmico) ou suplementada com 7,5% de goma guar ...

  6. Perfis clínico e hematológico de camundongos submetidos ao envenenamento escorpiônico experimental por Tityus fasciolatus

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    P.T.C. Guimarães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o quadro clínico do veneno decorrente do envenenamento por Tityus fasciolatus e sua ação refletida nos componentes hematológicos no modelo murino. Para o estudo do perfil hematológico, foram utilizados 54 camundongos Swiss CF1, machos, com 30g, distribuídos em três grupos (G (n=18 inoculados via subcutânea com: 50µL de PBS (G1; 24µg de veneno de T. fasciolatus (G2 e 8µg de veneno de T. serrulatus (G3. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três subgrupos (n=6 de acordo com o momento da coleta de sangue que foi estipulada em uma, oito e 24h após a inoculação do veneno, e foram realizados o hemograma e a dosagem de proteínas totais e fracionadas. O veneno de T. fasciolatus na dose de 24µg causou piloereção, comportamento nociceptivo, secreção nasal e oral acentuada, dispneia, prurido na face e reflexos exacerbados. No exame hematológico, foram observadas policitemia relativa e leucocitose com linfocitose.

  7. Efeitos farmacológicos do extrato aquoso de Solidago chilensis Meyen em camundongos Pharmacological effect of aqueous extract from Solidago chilensis Meyen on mice

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    F.L. Assini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul (Brasil encontrada principalmente na região Sul do Brasil onde é conhecida popularmente como arnica-do-mato. Na medicina popular, ela é utilizada como diurética, cicatrizante, e anti-inflamatória. No presente trabalho, os efeitos farmacológicos do extrato aquoso das raízes de S. chilensis foram avaliados em modelos experimentais in vivo de atividade tipo-antidepressiva, antiinflamatória, antinociceptiva, e locomotora. O extrato (25, 100 e 250 mg kg-1 foi administrado por via oral 30 min antes dos experimentos comportamentais. Os resultados mostram que, nas doses utilizadas, o extrato aquoso de S. chilensis não apresentou atividade tipo-antidepressiva apesar de induzir efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório significativos. Uma redução da atividade locomotora foi observada com a maior dose (250 mg kg-1 administrada, sugerindo efeito sobre o sistema nervoso central. Em conclusão, os resultados estão de acordo com a literatura acerca dos efeitos analgésicos e antiinflamatórios da planta, sugerindo também uma atividade do extrato de S. chilensis sobre o sistema nervoso central. Essas observações, porém, não excluem um possível efeito relaxante muscular periférico do extrato.Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae is a species native to South America (Brazil, found especially in the south region of Brazil, where it is commonly known as "arnica-do-mato". In folk medicine, it has been used as diuretic, healing and anti-inûammatory. In the present study, the pharmacological effects of aqueous extracts from roots of S. chilensis were assessed in vivo in experimental models for antidepressant, anti-inflammatory and locomotor-type activity. The extract (25, 50 and 250 mg kg-1 was administered by the oral route 30 minutes prior to behavioral tests. Results indicate that, at the employed levels, aqueous extract from S. chilensis did not show antidepressant

  8. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies; Fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade em processo inflamatorio agudo induzido por carragenina em pata de camundongos - estudos de dosimetria

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    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-07-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm{sup 2}, spot area of 0.028 cm{sup 2}). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  9. Determination of lethal doses 50 and 100 of propofol in lipid emulsion nor nanoemulsion intraperitoneally in miceDeterminação das doses letal 50 e 100 do propofol em nanoemulsão ou em emulsão lipídica pela via intraperitoneal em camundongos

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    Martielo Ivan Gehrcke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of a drug can interfere with its absorption into the circulatory system and may result in changes in the dose required to achieve that particular effect. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50 and 100 (LD100 of a nanoemulsion of propofol and the lipid emulsion in mice intraperitoneally. One hundred sixty animals weighing 36.47±4.6g, which were distributed randomly into two groups: NANO and EMU who received propofol 1% in the nanoemulsion and lipid emulsion, respectively, intraperitoneally. Began with a dose of 250mg/kg (n=10 and from this isdecreased or increased the dose until achieving 0 and 100% of deaths in each group thus formed were seven subgroups in NANO (each subgroup n = 10 at doses 200, 250, 325, 350, 400, 425 and 475 mg/kg and in EMU eight subgroups (n= 10 each subset 250, 325, 350, 400, 425, 475, 525 and 575 mg/kg. In the CONTROL group (n=10 animals received saline in the largest volume used in the other groups to rule out death by the volume injected. Analysis of LD 50 and LD 100 were obtained by linear regression. The LD 50 was 320, 95 mg / kg and 4243, 51mg / kg and the LD 100 was445.99 mg / kg and 595.31 mg / kg to groups NANO and EMU, respectively. It follows that nanoemulsion is propofol in 25% more potent compared to the lipid emulsionintraperitoneally. A formulação de um fármaco pode interferir na sua absorção para o sistema circulatório, podendo resultar em alterações da dose necessária para que se consiga determinado efeito. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as doses letais 50 (DL 50 e 100 (DL100 do propofol em nanoemulsão e emulsão lipídica em camundongos pela via intraperitoneal. Foram utilizados 160 animais pesando 36,47 ± 4,6g, os quais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: NANO e EMU que receberam propofol à 1% em nanoemulsão e em emulsão lipídica, respectivamente, pela via intraperitoneal. Iniciou-se com a dose de 250mg/kg (n=10 e a partir

  10. Inibição da expressão de ciclooxigenase 2 em feridas cutâneas de camundongos NOD submetidos à terapia a laser de baixa intensidade Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in NOD mice cutaneous wound by low-level laser therapy

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    Carolina de Lourdes Julião Vieira Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (LLLT tem sido relatada como importante moduladora da cicatrização de feridas cutâneas aumentando a proliferação fibroblástica associada ao aumento da expressão da citocina fator transformador de crescimento- β2 (TGF-βB2. OBJETIVO: No presente estudo foram avaliados os efeitos da LLLT sobre a expressão da enzima ciclooxigenase 2 (COX2 no sítio do reparo tecidual utilizando o modelo experimental com camundongos diabéticos não obesos (NOD para estudar a cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 camundongos NOD, destes 14 ficaram diabéticos e foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo I (n=7 foi submetido a um procedimento cirúrgico de feridas cutâneas e o grupo II (n=7 foi submetido a um procedimento cirúrgico de feridas cutâneas e tratados com LLLT. O grupo II foi submetido à LLLT nos seguintes parâmetros: 15 mW de potência, dose de 3,8 J/cm² e tempo de aplicação de 20 segundos. Após sete dias do ato cirúrgico e após aplicação do laser, os animais foram eutanasiados com sobredose de anestesia e amostras das feridas foram colhidas para posterior análise histopatológica, histomorfométrica e imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: A LLLT promoveu a inibição da expressão da COX2 em feridas cutâneas de camundongos diabéticos. CONCLUSÃO: Em conjunto, os resultados sugeriram que a LLLT é capaz de modular negativamente a expressão da enzima COX2 contribuindo para o controle da resposta inflamatória em feridas cutâneas de camundongos NOD.BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been reported to modulate the healing of wounds by inducing an increase in fibroblast number associated with increased expression of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effect of LLLT on expression of COX2 at the site of tissue repair was evaluated, using an experimental model with non obese diabetic mice (NOD to study

  11. Labelling of 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid with Technetium-99m: biodistribution study in Swiss mice; Marcacao do acido 5-etil-5-fenilbarbiturico com tecnecio-99m: estudo da biodistribuicao em camundongos Swiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana B.E.; Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Gutfilen, Bianca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Alves, Andreia Coelho; Machado-Silva, Jose R. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    1996-07-01

    The 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid (phenobarbital) is used as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant drug. We decided to label it with technetium-99m. In order to determine the optimal conditions, different concentrations of this drug were incubated with various stannous chloride solutions. Then, {sup 99m}Tc was added and chromatography was performed using 0.9% NaCl solution, acetone and n-butyl alcohol as the mobile phase. Using a solution of 0.01 mg/ml stannous chloride and 1.0 mg/ml phenobarbital over 92% of the radioactivity bound to phenobarbital {sup 99m}Tc-phenobarbital. In the biodistribution study, {sup 99m}Tc-phenobarbital was administered in mice intraperitoneal. The main uptake of the labeled drug was in the liver, blood, kidneys, spleen and stomach. The phenobarbital is also used as anesthetic drug in animals. Earlier studies confirm that this drug can dislocate the adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni to mesenteric vein towards the liver and portal vein, so that we used infected animals, radioactivity was not found in isolated worms and we can conclude that the phenobarbital has an indirect action in relation to the displacement of the worms. (author)

  12. Óleo de copaíba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. em padrões reprodutivos de camundongos e no desenvolvimento embriofetal Copaiba oil (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. on mouse reproductive patterns and embryonic or fetal development

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    A.C.S. Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais sempre foi bem difundida, porém hoje se faz necessária uma abordagem científica para comprovar sua eficácia. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a possível toxicidade materna e teratogenicidade do óleo de copaíba, um óleo resina exudado do tronco de Copaifera langsdorfii, muito utilizado na medicina natural. Três doses de óleo de copaíba, administradas por gavage durante 5 dias do período gestacional de fêmeas de camundongos, foram testadas 0,3 mL Kg-1, 0,6 mL Kg-1 e 0,9 mL Kg-1 (p.c.. Em relação ao ganho de peso materno, peso dos órgãos, número de fetos vivos e implantes e viabilidade fetal, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. Os dados demonstram que este fitoterápico não apresenta toxicidade materna. Com relação às médias de peso e comprimento fetal dos grupos tratados, houve diferença estatística quando comparados ao controle, mas os fetos ainda se encontravam dentro do peso adequado à idade de prenhez. A prole das fêmeas tratadas não apresentou malformações ou alterações externas, viscerais e esqueléticas. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que o óleo de copaíba, nas doses administradas e período estudado, não apresentou toxicidade materna ou causou teratogenicidade na prole das fêmeas tratadas. Portanto, podemos considerar seu uso seguro durante o período gestacional.The use of medicinal plants has always been widely spread, but today a scientific approach is needed to prove their efficiency. The present study was performed to evaluate the possible maternal toxicity and teratogenicity of copaiba oil, a resin oil exudate from the trunk of Copaifera sp., extensively used in natural medicine. Three copaiba oil levels, administered through gavage for 5 days during the gestational period of female mice, were tested: 0.3 mL Kg-1, 0.6 mL Kg-1 and 0.9 mL Kg-1 (b.w.. As regards maternal weight gain, organ weight, live fetus number, implants and fetal

  13. Comportamento experimental de amostras de Schistosoma mansoni em relação às formas clínicas de esquistossomose: I. Estudo em camundongos Experimental behavior of samples of Schistosoma mansoni in relation to clinical forms of schistosomiasis: I. Study in mice

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    Mario José da Conceição

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Como já descrevemos em publicação anterior (Conceição, 1985, foram isoladas 20 amostras de S. mansoni de pacientes do sexo masculino com idades entre 13 e 30 anos, autóctones do distrito de Capitão Andrade, município de Itanhomi, no Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. Das amostras, seis eram portadores de esquistossomose-infecção (tipo I, seis da forma hepatointestinal (tipo II e oito da forma hepatoesplênica (tipo III, adaptadas inicialmente, à B. glabrata da mesma área. Cada uma das amostras foi inoculada em 48 camundongos em lotes de 16, respectivamente com 25,50 e 100 cercárias, mantendo-se 12 animais não infectados, com controles. Após 90 dias perfundiu-se o sistema porta de 12 animais (quatro de cada lote. Os animais mortos naturalmente em diversos períodos e a metade de cada lote sacrificada aos 90 e 180 dias foram estudados através dos seguintes parâmetros: 1§ determinação dos pesos de fígado, baço, pulmão e intestino; 2§ contagem de ovos em intestinos (proximal e mediano e grosso (distal. O número de vermes obtidos pela perfusão nos três grupos em média de 21,9%, 22% e 17,8%% para os tipos I, II e III. A mortalidde natural média dos camundongos submetidos à infecção com 25, 50 e 100 cercárias, foi respectivamente, 12,4%, 23,2% para o grupo I; de 4,7% 19,3% e 22,2% para o grupo II e 11,4%, 29,5% e 41,6% para o grupo III, apresentando-se, portanto, proporcional aos inóculos. O peso dos órgãos dos animais infectados bem como o número de ovos de S. mansoni foi sempre proporcional ao inóculo e a contagem mais elevada nas partes mediana e proximal do intestino nos três grupos. Concluiu-se que não houve correlação entre as formas clínicas da esquistossomose e o comportamento das amostras de S. mansoni em camundongo, ressaltando-se que as alterações parasitológicas encontradas foram proporcionais ao inóculo empregado e ao tempo de infecção, evidenciando os aspectos quantitativos na determina

  14. Exercício físico reduz a hiperglicemia de jejum em camundongos diabéticos através da ativação da AMPK Physical exercise decreases fasting hyperglycemia in diabetic mice through AMPK activation

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    Mônica F. de Pádua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A deficiência na captação de glicose em tecidos periféricos e o aumento da gliconeogênese hepática são fenômenos fisiopatológicos observados em pacientes diabéticos do tipo 2. O exercício físico é considerado um importante aliado para a melhora do perfil glicêmico em pacientes diabéticos; entretanto, os mecanismos envolvidos nesse processo não estão completamente elucidados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da proteína AMPK no controle glicêmico em camundongos diabéticos após o exercício físico. MÉTODOS: Durante o jejum, o teste de tolerância à insulina (ITT e a técnica de Western blot foram combinados para avaliar a homeostase da glicose em camundongos diabéticos (ob/ob e db/db submetidos a uma única sessão de natação. RESULTADOS: A hiperglicemia de jejum, a severa resistência à insulina e a deficiência na sinalização da via AMPK/ACC no músculo e no fígado observadas nos camundongos diabéticos foram revertidas após a sessão de exercício. A restauração da via AMPK/ACC reduziu a expressão da enzima gliconeogênica PEPCK no fígado e aumentou a translocação do GLUT4 no músculo esquelético. Esses dados apontam que a ativação da via AMPK/ACC induzida pelo exercício físico é importante para a redução da glicemia de jejum em modelos experimentais de diabetes tipo 2. Esses dados abrem novas frentes para o entendimento de como a atividade física controla da homeostase da glicose em pacientes diabéticos.INTRODUCTION: The deficiency in glucose uptake in peripheral tissues and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis are physiopathological phenomena observed in type 2 diabetes patients. Physical exercise plays an important role in the improvement of glycemic profile in diabetic patients; however, the mechanisms involved in these processes have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: to assess the role of AMPK protein in the glycemic control of diabetic mice after exercise. METHODS: During fasting

  15. Antibody responses elicited in mice immunized with Bacillus subtilis vaccine strains expressing Stx2B subunit of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Resposta de anticorpos obtidas em camundongos imunizados com linhagens vacinais de Bacillus subtilis expressando a subunidade B da Stx2 de Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrágica

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    P.A.D.P. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    células vegetativas e esporos. Camundongos imunizados com células vegetativas e esporos pela via oral desenvolveram títulos anti-Stx2B baixos, mas específicos, de IgG sérico e IgA fecal, enquanto camundongos imunizados com esporos recombinates desenvolveram resposta anti-Stx2B apenas após a administração pela via parenteral. No entanto, anticorpos produzidos em camundongos imunizados com a linhagem recombinante de B. subtilis não inibiram os efeitos tóxicos da toxina nativa em condições in vitro e in vivo, sugerindo que a quantidade e/ou a qualidade da resposta imune gerada não suportam uma neutralização efetiva da Stx2 produzidas por linhagens de EHEC.

  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: immunohistochemichal detection in mouse and bovine tissues using a Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus Vírus respiratório sincicial bovino: detecção por imunoistoquímica em tecidos de camundongos e bovinos usando AcM contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano

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    R.S. Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An immunoistochemical (IHC test was developed to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in cell cultures and tissues of experimentally infected mice and calves, using a commercial monoclonal antibody (Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, as a less expensive alternative, instead of producing specific monoclonal antibodies to BRSV. Clinical samples from calves suffering respiratory disease were also submitted to this test. IHC detected BRSV antigens in mouse tracheas (3, 5 and 7 days post-infection and lungs (5 and 7 days post-infection, and in one of three lungs from experimentally infected calves. Lungs samples from two naturally infected calves were tested and resulted positive for BRSV by the IHC test. These results suggest that this test may be used in the future for diagnosis as well as a useful tool to assess the distribution of BRSV infections in Brazilian herds.Desenvolveu-se um teste de imunohistoquímica (IHQ para detecção do vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV multiplicado em cultivo celular e em tecidos de camundongos e bezerros infectados experimentalmente, utilizando um anticorpo monoclonal comercial contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV, como uma alternativa para eliminar os custos de produção de anticorpos monoclonais específicos para o BRSV. Amostras clínicas de bezerros com sintomatologia respiratória foram analisadas. A técnica mostrou-se eficiente na detecção de antígenos do BRSV em traquéias (3, 5 e 7 dias pós-infecção e pulmões (5 e 7 dias pós-infecção dos camundongos infectados e em uma das três amostras de pulmões dos bezerros infectados experimentalmente. Amostras de pulmões de dois animais com infecção natural foram positivas para BRSV. Conclui-se que o teste de IHQ pode ser usado no diagnóstico das infecções por BRSV e na avaliação da distribuição dessas infecções nos rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.

  17. Effects of mitomycin C on infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes after epithelial scrape injury in the mouse cornea Efeito da mitomicina C na infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares após lesão epitelial em córnea de camundongo

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    Ana Cecília Souza Leão Escarião

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether mitomycin C (MMC alters appearance and disappearance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN in the cornea stroma, using an epithelial scrape injury in eye mouse model. METHODS: Twenty-mice underwent mechanical epithelium debridement in the central cornea using 20% ethanol. After the scrape, the right eye received 0.02% MMC for one minute, while the left eye received physiological saline. The animals were sacrificed on days 1, 2, 5, and 14 after surgery, and corneal whole mounts were prepared for histology. PMN distribution was analyzed in digitized microscope images. Cell division in the cornea was determined by immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, which was injected intraperitoneally before the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS: Epithelial scrape injury triggered infiltration of PMNs into the corneal stroma. An analysis of PMN distribution revealed that there was no difference between eyes treated with and without MMC at all time points. BrdU labeling showed that 0.02% MMC for one minute blocked keratocyte proliferation completely. CONCLUSION: MMC treatment regimen, which is common in clinical practice, inhibits keratocyte proliferation during wound healing, but when used at 0.02% for one minute, it does not affect PMN infiltration into the corneal stroma, and subsequent movement toward the injury site, or the disappearance of PMNs from the stroma, in the mouse epithelial injury model.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi determinar se a mitomicina C (MMC altera o aparecimento dos leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN no estroma corneano após abrasão epitelial central, utilizando olhos de camundongo como modelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte camundongos foram submetidos à abrasão epitelial em córnea central utilizando etanol a 20%. Após a lesão, o olho direito recebeu MMC a 0,02% por 1 minuto, enquanto o olho esquerdo recebeu solução salina. Os animais foram sacrificados em 1, 2, 5 e 14 dias após a cirurgia e

  18. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

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    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that

  19. Avaliação in vitro do efeito imunomodulador do leite materno de camundongos infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni

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    Sales,Iana Rafaela Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    A alta prevalência de esquistossomose crônica em gestantes, bem como em mulheres em idade fértil, tem sido amplamente relatada. Esta condição materna é capaz de alterar a resposta imune do descendente em longo prazo. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro do leite materno de mães infectadas pelo Schistosoma mansoni em esplenócitos e caracterizar os peptídeos encontrados nesse leite. Para isso, camundongos fêmeas infectadas ou não, tiveram seu leite coletado no 12º dia ...

  20. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ductal adenocarcinoma induced by DMBA in mice: effects of alcohol and caffeine Neoplasia pancreática intraepithelial e adenocarcinoma ductal induzidos pelo DMBA em camundongos: efeitos do álcool e da cafeína

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    Luiz Roberto Wendt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of alcohol and caffeine in a pancreatic carcinogenesis mouse model induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA, according to the PanIN classification system. METHODS: 120 male, Mus musculus, CF-1 mice were divided into four groups. Animals received either water or caffeine or alcohol or alcohol + caffeine in their drinking water. In all animals, 1 mg of DMBA was implanted into the head of the pancreas. After 30 days, euthanasia was performed; excised pancreata were then fixed in formalin, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and categorized as follows: normal ducts, reactive hyperplasia, PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, PanIN-3 or adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: PanIN lesions were verified in all groups. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15% of animals in the caffeine group, 16.6% in the water group, 23.8% in the alcohol + caffeine group and 52.9% in the alcohol group (POBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do álcool e da cafeína na carcinogênese pancreática induzida pelo 7,12-dimetilbenzantraceno (DMBA em camundongos, descrevendo as lesões de acordo com a classificação das neoplasias pacreáticas intraepiteliais (PanIN. MÉTODOS: 120 camundogos machos, Mus musculus, CF-1 foram divididos em quatro grupos. Animais receberam água ou cafeína ou álcool ou álcool + cafeína para beber. Em todos animais, 1 mg de DMBA foi implantado na cabeça do pâncreas. Após 30 dias, eutanásia foi realizada, o pâncreas foi removido, fixado em formalina e corado com hematoxilina e eosina sendo classificado em: ductos normais, hiperplasia reativa, PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, PanIN-3 ou adenocarcinoma. RESULTADOS: Neoplasias pancreáticas intraepiteliais foram encontradas em todos grupos. Adenocarcinoma foi detectado em 15% dos animais do grupo cafeína, 16,6% do grupo água, 23,8% do grupo álcool + cafeína e 52,9% do grupo álcool (P<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental de carcinogênese pancreática em camundongos utilizando DMBA induz

  1. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da fertilidade e sobrevida de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas com 3 Krad, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad, in mice

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    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, com a finalidade de observar o efeito da irradiação gama sobre a fertilidade das fêmeas e a sobrevida dos vermes no sistema porta. A partir do 33º dia ocorre uma certa estabilidade na população dos vermes sobreviventes, ficando esta população constante, notadamente em relação à cepa LE, até o final das observações (90º dia. Concluiu-se que esta dose de radiação gama impede a produção de ovos dos vermes em 98,1% dos camundongos infectados, sendo mortos todos os ovos detectados; as fêmeas são mais resistentes à irradiação e o efeito desta sobre a mortalidade dos machos somente se torna estatisticamente significativo a partir do 61º dia de infecção. O longo tempo de permanência de vermes adultos irradiados estéreis no sistema porta de camundongos e o seu provável envolvimento no desenvolvimento de imunoproteção, tipo imunidade concomitante sem as implicações imunopatológicas para o hospedeiro, são discutidos nesse trabalho.The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus, experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains, by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a non-irradiated (control groups, and b irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60. From the 33rd day on, some estability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day, notedly in relation to the LE strain. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad is able to hinder the worm egg

  2. Arquitetura comparativa dos pulmões de camundongos normais e afetados pela Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne

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    Thais B. Lessa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD é uma doença genética de caráter recessivo que caracterizada por fraqueza muscular progressiva de cintura pélvica e escapular evoluindo para insuficiência respiratória e, ou cardíaca. O camundongo mdx é um modelo amplamente utilizado para estudos da DMD. Apesar do fenótipo destes animais serem mais suave, estes apresentam o principal músculo respiratório, o diafragma com morfologia e bioquímica semelhante à DMD humana, fato este que pode comprometer a função respiratória e consequentemente os pulmões. Foi realizado um estudo anatômico descritivo do parênquima pulmonar dos pulmões de 5 animais modelo mdx comparando estes com os pulmões de 5 camundongos BALB/C57 (Mus musculus. Os pulmões foram analisados macroscopicamente e através de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os achados sugerem que o modelo mdx apresenta morfologia pulmonar semelhante aos camundongos BALB/C57 e que seu uso deve ser cauteloso e criterioso em ensaios clínicos que aborde este órgão.

  3. Hyperimmune antirabies sera titration by standard mouse neutralization and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests, comparing results of different laboratories Titulação de soros anti-rábicos hiperimunes, através da soroneutralização em camundongos e contraimunoeletroforese. Comparação dos resultados obtidos em diferentes laboratórios

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    Ana Maria Díaz

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the rabies antibody level of twenty-four hyperimmune equine sera, Standard Mouse Neutralization (SMN and Couterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE tests were carried out, both at the Instituto Butantan (IB and Instituto Panamericano de Protección de Alimentos y Zoonosis (INPPAZ. Statistical analysis has shown a correlation (r of 0.9317 between the SMN and CIE performed at the IB, while at the INPPAZ it scored 0.974. Comparison of CIE data of both laboratories yielded a correlation of 0.845. The CIE technique has shown to be as sensitive and efficient as the SMN in titrating antirabies hyperimmune equine sera. Based on CIE results, a simple, rapid and inexpensive technique, tilers of sera antibody can be reliably estimated in SMN test.Para a determinação do nível de anticorpos de vinte e quatro amostras de soros eqüinos hiperimunes contra a Raiva, foram utilizadas as técnicas de soroneutralização em camundongos (SN e contraimunoeletroforese (CIE. As provas foram realizadas nos Institutos Butantan (IB e Panamericano de Protección de Alimentos y Zoonosis (INPPAZ. A análise estatística demonstrou que para a SN e CIE feitas no IB, a correlação foi de r=0,9317, enquanto que no INPPAZ foi de r=0,974. Comparando-se os dados obtidos pela CIE nos dois laboratórios observou-se uma correlação de r=0,845. A técnica de CIE demonstrou ser tão sensível e eficiente quanto a SN na titulação de soros anti-rábicos hiperimunes de origem eqüina. Assim, com base nos resultados de CIE, que é uma técnica simples, rápida e econômica, pode-se estimar os títulos de anticorpos dos soros em SN.

  4. Association between maternal-fetal genetic histocompatibility and maternal undernutrition in mice: influence on intrauterine growth Associação entre histocompatibilidade genética materno-fetal e desnutrição materna em camundongos: influência no crescimento fetal

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    Celso M. Rebello

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal-fetal genetic histocompatibility and the association of that condition with maternal undernutrition regarding fetal growth and litter size. STUDY DESIGN: Fetuses that were either syngeneic or allogeneic with the mothers were bred, using mice of well-defined syngeneic strains (A/J and Balb/c. Pregnant mice were fed using either unrestricted normal diet with 22% protein, consumed ad libitum, or a diet containing 14% protein, with intake restricted to 70% of that consumed by the unrestricted group. At the end of gestation, the number of fetoplacental units and fetal losses, the fetal and placental weight, and the weights of fetal brain and liver were recorded. RESULTS: Fetuses from undernourished mothers showed a reduction in body, placental, and brain weight (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da histocompatibilidade genética materno-fetal e sua associação com a desnutrição materna em relação ao crescimento fetal e número de fetos. MÉTODOS: Fetos singênicos ou alogênicos em relação às respectivas mães foram obtidos através de cruzamentos de camundongos com linhagens genéticas bem definidas (A/J e Balb/c. As fêmeas grávidas foram alimentadas ad libitum com dieta normal contendo 22% de proteínas ou dieta com restrição, contendo 14% de proteína e aporte máximo de 70% do total consumido pelo grupo em dieta livre. No final da gestação, o número de unidades feto-placentárias e de perdas fetais, o peso da placenta e do feto, assim como o peso do cérebro e do fígado foram anotados. RESULTADOS: Os fetos das mães submetidas à desnutrição mostraram redução no peso corpóreo, placentário e cerebral (p<0.01, sendo que a associação entre a compatibilidade genética materno-fetal resultou em maior restrição ao crescimento fetal (p<0.01. Foi observada uma redução no número de fetos viáveis por fêmea entre os animais do grupo de restri

  5. Caracterização fenotípica de camundongos knockout para neurolisina.

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    Diogo Manuel Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    A oligopeptidase neurolina (E.C.3.4.24.16; nln ) foi identificado pela primeira vez em membranas sinápticas de cérebro de ratos como sendo capaz de participar no metabolismo de peptídeos bioativos, como neurotensina e bradicinina. Recentemente, foi sugerido que a ausência de Nln pode melhorar a sensibilidade a insulina. Aqui, nós mostrado que camundongos knockout para Nln (KO) são mais tolrerantes à glicose, sensíveis à insulina e apresentam maior gliconeogênese. Os animais KO apresentou um a...

  6. Avaliação da eficácia da azitromicina e pirimetamina em camundongos infectados por cepa cistogênica de Toxoplasma gondii Evaluation of the efficacy of azithromycin and pyrimethamine, for treatment of experimental infection of mice with Toxoplasma gondii cystogenic strain

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    Susana A.Z. Lescano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficácia da administração prolongada de azitromicina e pirimetamina em camundongos infectados com cepa cistogênica de Toxoplasma gondii. Os animais foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com um cisto de T. gondii e, após 20 dias, divididos em quatro grupos: GI infectados não tratados, GII infectados e tratados concomitantemente com pirimetamina (12,5mg/kg/dia e azitromicina (100mg/kg/dia, GIII infectados e tratados com a mesma dose de pirimetamina e GIV infectados e tratados da mesma forma com azitromicina. O tratamento, via oral, estendeu-se por 120 dias; após este período os animais foram sacrificados e foi feita a contagem dos cistos no cérebro. A associação de ambos os medicamentos proporcionou melhores resultados, diminuindo a contagem de cistos no cérebro dos animais tratados de forma concomitante.The efficacy of prolonged administration of azithromycin and pyrimethamine was evaluated in mice experimentally infected with cystogenic strain of Toxoplasma gondii. The animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with one cyst of T. gondii and after 20 days were allocated into four groups: GI, infected without treatment; GII, infected and treated with the association of pyrimethamine (12.5mg/kg/day and azithromycin (100mg/kg/day; GIII, infected and treated with the same dose of pyrimethamine; and GIV, infected and treated in the same way with azithromycin. The oral treatment lasted 120 days, after this period all the animals were sacrificed and the count of cysts in the brain was done. The association of both drugs provided the best results, by diminishing the cyst count in the brain of the animals treated in this way.

  7. Expressão de galectina-3 e beta-catenina em lesões pré-malignas e carcinomatosas de língua de camundongos Galectin-3 and beta-catenin expression in premalignant and carcinomatous lesions in tongue of mice

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    Juliana Moreira de Almeida Sant'ana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A galectina-3 (GAL3 apresenta importantes papéis na biologia tumoral e recentemente foi mostrada a sua participação na via de sinalização Wnt, translocando a beta-catenina para o núcleo. Expressão alterada de GAL3 e beta-catenina tem sido descrita em cânceres, mas não há estudos avaliando a expressão de ambas em displasias e carcinomas desenvolvidos em modelos de carcinogênese de língua. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a expressão de GAL3 e beta-catenina em lesões displásicas e carcinomas induzidos experimentalmente em língua de camundongos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Vinte camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram desafiados com 4NQO na água de beber por 16 semanas e sacrificados na semana 16 e 32. Após o sacrifício, as línguas foram removidas, processadas, coradas por hematoxilina e eosina (HE para detecção de displasias e carcinomas. Ensaio imuno-histoquímico foi realizado para determinar o índice de positividade para GAL3 e beta-catenina nessas lesões, bem como uma correlação entre elas em carcinomas. RESULTADOS: O número de camundongos afetados por carcinoma aumentou entre as semanas 16 e 32 (22,2% vs. 88,9% e o de displasia diminuiu (66,7% vs. 11,1%. Um aumento de células positivas para beta-catenina não membranosa e GAL3 citoplasmática foi observado nas displasias e nos carcinomas, mas essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa. No entanto, um aumento estatisticamente significativo de GAL3 nuclear foi observado na evolução de displasia para carcinoma (p = 0,04. Nenhuma correlação foi encontrada entre beta-catenina e GAL3. CONCLUSÃO: Tanto nas displasias quanto nos carcinomas a via de sinalização Wnt está ativa, e o aumento de GAL3 nuclear nos carcinomas sugere um papel na transformação maligna do epitélio lingual.INTRODUCTION: Galectin-3 plays pivotal role in tumor biology and its participation in Wnt signaling pathway translocating beta-catenin into the nucleus has been recently demonstrated

  8. Toxicity and teratogenicity evaluation of fenproporex in mice fetuses descending from parents that were exposed to this drug during intrauterine life Avaliação da toxicidade e da teratogenicidade do femproporex em fetos de camundongos provenientes de pais expostos à droga durante a vida intra-uterina

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    Camila Queiroz Moreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fenproporex is an anorectic drug that is transformed into amphetamine in the organism. The use of amphetaminic compounds during pregnancy increases the risk of exencephaly, cleft palate and cardiac malformations. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryo-fetal development, embryotoxicity and possible teratogenic effects in mice fetuses descending from parents that were exposed to fenproporex duringintra-uterine development. Pregnant females were treated daily, by gavage, with 15 mg/kg of fenproporex during all the gestation. When the off springs reached the adult age, they were mated with integral mice, obtaining the2nd generation. On the 18th gestational day, female mice were killed. It was observed that fenproporex did not alter significantly placent weight, fetuses length, rate of postimplantation loss, visceral and skeletal analysis. This may have occurred due to the decrease of the amphetamine effects on the 2nd generation. However, there was statistically significant difference in relation to the fetuses weight. The reduction of fetal weight is used as parameter to evidence toxic effects of asubstance. Therefore, the results suggest that fenproporex presented fetaltoxicity in the tested experimental conditions. Femproporex é um anorexígeno que se transforma em anfetamina no organismo. O uso de compostos anfetamínicos durante a gravidez aumenta o risco de exencefalia, de fenda palatina e de malformações cardíacas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento embriofetal, a embriotoxicidade e possíveis efeitos teratogênicos em fetos de camundongos provenientes de pais que foram expostos ao femproporex durante o desenvolvimento intra-uterino. As fêmeas prenhes foram tratadas diariamente, via gavage, com 15 mg/kg de femproporex, durante toda a gestação. Quando as progênies atingiram a idade adulta, foram acasaladas com camundongos íntegros, obtendo-se a 2ª geração. No 18º dia de prenhez, as fêmeas foram mortas

  9. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

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    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiol

  10. Comparison of three diagnostic techniques for the detection of leptospires in the kidneys of wild house mice (Mus musculus Comparação de três métodos de diagnóstico para detecção de leptospiras em rins de camundongos selvagens (Mus musculus

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    Carlos A. Rossetti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild house mice (Mus musculus were trapped in an urban area, near railways, in Santa Fe city, Argentina. Both kidneys from each mouse were removed for bacteriological and histological examination. One kidney was inoculated into Fletcher semi-solid medium and isolates were serologically typed. The other kidney was microscopically examined after hematoxylin-eosin, silver impregnation and immunohistochemical stains. Leptospires, all of them belonging to the Ballum serogroup, were isolated from 16 (39% out of 41 samples. The presence of the agent was recorded in 18 (44% and in 19 (46% out of 41 silver impregnated and immunohistochemically stained samples respectively. Additionally, leptospires were detected in high number on the apical surface of epithelial cells and in the lumen of medullary tubules and they were less frequently seen on the apical surface of epithelial cells or in the lumen of the cortical tubules, which represents an unusual finding in carrier animals. Microscopic lesions consisting of focal mononuclear interstitial nephritis, glomerular shrinkage and desquamation of tubular epithelial cells were observed in 13 of 19 infected and in 10 of 22 non-infected mice; differences in presence of lesions between infected and non-infected animals were not statistically significant (P=0,14. The three techniques, culture, silver impregnation and immunohistochemistry, had a high agreement (k³0.85 and no significant differences between them were detected (P>0.05. In addition, an unusual location of leptospires in kidneys of carrier animals was reported, but a relationship between lesions and presence of leptospires could not be established.Foram capturados 41 camundongos (Mus musculus na região urbana, próximo à ferrovia da cidade de Santa Fé, Argentina. Os rins de cada animal capturado foram removidos para estudos bacteriológicos e histológicos. Um dos rins foi imerso em meio semi-sólido de Fletcher para isolamento de

  11. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

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    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Efeito do extrato  de Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco) sobre a implantação e o desenvolvimento embrinário e placentário em camundongos.

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    Camila Figueira Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Nos dias atuais, a utilização de fitoterápicos tem crescido acentuadamente. No Brasil, um país cuja flora nativa é riquíssima, tem-se investido substancialmente em pesquisas nesta área. Isto se deve, em parte, à necessidade de novos medicamentos, ao interesse na comercialização destes produtos, ao interesse na preservação da cultura popular e da reserva da flora nacional. Paralelamente a este cenário, está a crença de que medicamentos fitoterápicos são inofensivos em circunstâncias especiais ...

  13. Avaliação dos efeitos centrais dos florais de Bach em camundongos através de modelos farmacológicos específicos Evaluation of central effects of Bach Flowers Remedies in mice using specific pharmacological models

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    Márcia M. De-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os Remédios Florais de Bach (RFB, constituem um método alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na terapêutica de várias patologias em muitos países do mundo. Os RFB são reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ação dos RFB ainda não tenha sido elucidado, eles vêm sendo indicados para o tratamento de várias doenças neuropsiquiátricas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar possíveis efeitos centrais dos RFB em modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de substâncias com efeitos ansiolíticos, hipnóticos, antidepressivos e neurolépticos. Para tanto, camundongos receberam um tratamento agudo via oral (0,45 mL 1 hora antes dos testes. Os resultados mostraram que os florais Gorse e, em conjunto, White chestnut, Agrymony e Vervain exibiram perfis antidepressivo e hipnótico, respectivamente. No modelo de ansiedade foi detectado efeito ansiolítico do floral Agrymony. Entretanto, não foram observados efeitos neurolépticos do floral Clematis. Os resultados nos levam a sugerir que os efeitos centrais dos florais avaliados podem ser parcialmente detectados através de modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de agentes psicotrópicos.The Bach Flowers Remedies (BFR's are worldwide used as an alternative therapeutical approach for several pathologies, being considered by WHO as natural therapy since 1956. Despite the unknown mechanism of action, the BFR's have been widely used on treatment of several neuropsychiatry diseases. Based on pharmacological models used to detect ansiolitic, antidepressant, hypnotic and neuroleptyc effects of different substances, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible central effects of the BFR's. For this purpose, albino mice received BFR's treatment (0.45 mL by oral route 1 hour prior to each test. The results revealed that the Gorse flower alone and a mix of White chestnut, Agrymony and Vervain showed antidepressant and hypnotic effects

  14. Estudo da expressão de proteínas da via Wnt e Hedgehog na carcinogênese bucal em camundongos wild-type e knockout para o gene da galectina-3

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    Santos, Débora de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O carcinoma epidermóide (CE) é a neoplasia mais comum da cavidade oral e a cada ano mais de 300.000 novos casos são diagnosticados em todo o mundo. Para compreender as alterações moleculares associadas ao seu desenvolvimento, bem como para identificar marcadores diagnósticos e prognósticos para CE, muitos trabalhos têm utilizado modelos de carcinogênese bucal em animal desafiados com o carcinógeno 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide (4NQO). A galectina-3 (Gal-3) é uma proteína pertencente à família das ...

  15. Capacidade da matriz extracelular da medula óssea de induzir proliferação de células mielóides in vitro no modelo de desnutrição protéica em camundongos Capacity of the extracellular matrix of the bone marrow to induce proliferation of myeloid cells in vitro in model of protein malnutrition in mice

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    Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo verificar se a matriz extracelular (MEC obtida da medula óssea de camundongos com desnutrição protéica energética sustenta a sobrevivência, se induz proliferação de células mielóides, bem como avaliar a capacidade desta MEC de interagir com citocinas hematopoiéticas in vitro. Camundongos machos "Swiss" foram submetidos à desnutrição protéica (4% de caseína até que perdessem 20% do peso inicial e o grupo-controle foi mantido com uma dieta contendo 14% de caseína. A medula óssea foi extraída com tampão PBS suplementado com 1 mg de aprotinina/mL. Os ensaios de proliferação foram realizados com a linhagem mielóide FDC-P1, pelo método colorimétrico de redução do MTT. A MEC obtida tanto do grupo-controle como do desnutrido induziu proliferação celular in vitro. Os ensaios de interação foram realizados com IL-3 e GM-CSF na concentração de 10 ρg e 500 ρg/mL, que demonstraram efeito sinérgico e efeito regulatório, respectivamente. A MEC obtida de animais do grupo desnutrido quando submetida ao ensaio de ligação ao GM-CSF mostrou maior proliferação celular do que a MEC obtida de animais do grupo-controle (pThe aim of this study was to verify the capacity of the extracellular matrix (ECM obtained from bone marrow of malnourished mice to sustain survival and to induce the proliferation of myeloid cells. We also verified the capacity of the tests to interact with in vitro hematopoietic cytokines. Male "Swiss" mice were submitted to protein malnutrition with a diet content of '4% casein until they lost 20% of the original weight, while the group-control was kept with a diet content of 14% of casein. The bone marrow was extracted with 1.0 mg of aprotinin/mL in PBS. The proliferation tests were carried out with myeloid cell line FDCP-1, by the colorimetric method of reduction of the MTT. The obtained ECM from nourished and undernourished mice induced cellular proliferation invitro. Tests

  16. O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica induzido por n-methyl-n-nitrosourea em ratos F344 e camundongos C3H é válido para os ratos Wistar? Experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for F344 rats and C3H mices is valid for Wistar rats?

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    Lissandro Tarso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O N-metil-N-nitrosourea (MNU tem ação cancerígena direta, induzindo tumores em várias espécies em uma variedade de órgãos, incluindo o estômago de ratos. Tratamento do MNU na água de beber por 25-42 semanas, seletivamente, induz carcinoma gástrico glandular de ratos F344 e camundongos C3H. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental para indução seletiva de câncer no estômago glandular de ratos Wistar com MNU. MÉTODOS: Um total de 48 ratos Wistar machos com oito semanas, foram utilizados no presente estudo. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich foi dissolvido em DMSO e liberada água potável ad libitum por um período variando de 16 a 70 semanas. Após 16 semanas, quatro ratos foram selecionados aleatoriamente e mortos. Depois, de seis em seis semanas, quatro animais também foram mortos até 70 semanas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sobrevivência foi superior a 90%. Ocorreu a indução de dois adenocarcinomas, um carcinoma espinocelular e um sarcoma. A incidência de adenocarcinoma gástrico foi de 4,5% (0,5 a 15. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica em ratos Wistar, utilizando MNU dissolvido na água, não mostrou viabilidade prática neste estudo, devido à baixa taxa de adenocarcinoma gástrico que ocorreu.BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU is a direct acting carcinogen, inducing tumors in several species in a variety of organs, including stomach of rats. Treatment of MNU in the drinking water for 25-42 weeks selectively induced glandular gastric carcinoma in F344 rats and C3H mice. AIM: To establish an experimental model for selective MNU induction of glandular stomach cancer in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 48 males eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in the present study. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich was dissolved in DMSO and provided as the drinking water ad libitum for a period ranging from 16 to 70 weeks. After 16 weeks, four rats were randomly selected and killed. After every six weeks four animals

  17. Avaliação do mecanismo de ação do efeito tipo ansiolítico da inalação do óleo essencial de lavanda em camundongos

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    Chioca,Lea Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O uso do óleo essencial de lavanda, com finalidade terapêutica, é uma prática milenar. Trabalhos tem demonstrado efeito tipo ansiolítico do óleo essencial de lavanda em estudos clínicos e pré-clínicos. Porém, pouco se sabe a respeito da farmacologia do óleo essencial de lavanda, o que constitui um obstáculo à credibilidade do seu efeito sobre a ansiedade. Sendo assim, o objetivo geral do presente trabalho foi avaliar o envolvimento da neurotransmissão GABAérgica, serotoninérgica e nit...

  18. Efeito do estímulo biomecânico no crescimento da mandíbula, do côndilo e do disco articular em camundongos jovens e idosos

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    Tagliaro, Maria Luisa

    2006-01-01

    O avanço mandibular através das técnicas ortopédicas funcionais é atualmente utilizado em pacientes jovens para estimular o crescimento mandibular. A morfologia da mandíbula depende da manutenção da cartilagem condilar. As mudanças degenerativas na articulação temporomandibular associadas ao envelhecimento podem influir na forma da mandíbula e reduzir o potencial de crescimento quando estimulado pelo tratamento com aparelho funcional. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar as mudanças morfológi...

  19. Evidência da ação antiparasitária da azitromicina na infecção experimental de camundongos pelo Plasmodium berghei

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    Gakiya Erika

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A azitromicina debelou a infecção experimental de camundongos pelo Plasmodium berghei quando administrada, pela via oral e durante 28 dias, na dose de 100mg/kg, iniciada no mesmo dia em que os animais foram infectados. Mediante uso de 10mg/kg houve insucesso. Os resultados obtidos suscitam investigações complementares sobre a referida atividade antiparasitária desse medicamento.

  20. Expressao genica associada ao estresse oxidativo no coracao de camundongo apos isquemia intestinal

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    Frederico Somaio Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O fenômeno da isquemia e reperfusão intestinal é um evento frequente na clínica e está associado a repercussões deletérias em órgãos a distância, em especial ao coração. OBJETIVO: Investigar a expressão gênica do estresse oxidativo e defesa antioxidante no coração de camundongos isogênicos, submetidos a isquemia e reperfusão intestinal (IR. MÉTODOS: Doze camundongos (C57BL/6 foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo IR (GIR com 60 min de oclusão da artéria mesentérica superior, seguidos de 60 min de reperfusão. Grupo Controle (GC submetidos a anestesia e a laparotomia sem o procedimento de IR observados por 120 min. As amostras de intestino e coração foram processadas pelo método (RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase - quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction para determinar a expressão gênica de 84 genes relacionados ao estresse oxidativo ("t" de Student, p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se no tecido intestinal (GIR uma expressão significantemente aumentada em 65 (74,71% genes em relação ao tecido normal (GC, e 37 (44,04% genes estiveram hiperexpressos (maior que três vezes o limiar permitido pelo algoritmo. No tocante aos efeitos da I/R intestinal a distância no tecido cardíaco verificou-se a expressão significantemente aumentada de 28 genes (33,33%, mas somente oito genes (9,52% se hiperexpressaram três vezes acima do limiar. Quatro (7,14% desses oito genes se expressaram simultaneamente nos tecidos intestinal e cardíaco. No GIR notaram-se cardiomiócitos com núcleos de menor tamanho, picnóticos, ricos em heterocromatina e raros nucléolos, indicando sofrimento cardíaco. CONCLUSÃO: A I/R intestinal promoveu a hiperexpressão estatisticamente significante de oito genes associados ao estresse oxidativo a distância no tecido miocárdico.

  1. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and ethanol on pregnancy outcome in mice Efeito do diabetes mellitus induzido por aloxana e etanol na gestação de camundongos

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    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of ethanol, diabetes mellitus and the combination of both on mouse fetuses. METHODS: We used 24 female Swiss mice, dividing them into four groups of 6 each: control (C, ethanol (E, diabetes (D (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL and diabetes + ethanol (DE. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (40 mg/kg on day 7 of pregnancy. Groups E and DE received 4 g/kg of 25% v/v ethanol intraperitoneally, whereas groups C and D received saline. On day 18, all fetuses were harvested. RESULTS: In group DE the following anomalies were found: exencephaly, situs inversus totalis, situs inversus partialis, eyelid skin tag and one animal from group E had pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Ethanol administration partially reverted diabetes-fetal resorption caused by diabetes, yet it induced late fetal death. Both diabetes and ethanol reduced placental diameter and increased its weight. Ethanol had more effect on fetal length in males than in females, however, such bias was not found for diabetes. Ethanol prevented diabetes-induced tail shortening in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, although ethanol might improve energy metabolism in early gestation, it causes cell damage that leads to cardiovascular, limb and neural tube defects, late fetal death and reduced placental size.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito do etanol, do diabetes mellitus (DM e da associação de ambos sobre os fetos de camundongo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas de camundongos Swiss divididas em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: controle (C; etanol (E; diabetes (D (glicemia > 200 mg/dl, e diabetes + etanol (DE. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana (40 mg/kg no dia 7 da gestação. Os animais dos grupos E e DE receberam 4 g/kg de solução a 25% v/v de etanol intraperitoneal (IP, enquanto os animais dos grupos C e D receberam salina. No dia 18, todos os fetos foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas as seguintes

  2. Parâmetros morfofisiológicos testiculares de camundongos (Mus musculus suplementados com geleia real Morphophysiological parameters of mice (Mus musculus testicles supplemented with royal jelly

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    A.C.T. Morais

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da geleia real sobre os parâmetros morfofisiológicos testiculares de camundongos (Mus musculus. Utilizaram-se 57 machos Swiss, com quatro meses de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos: T1: solução fisiológica, via intraperitoneal; T2: 0,1mg de geleia real, via intraperitoneal; T3: 0,2mg de geleia real, via intraperitoneal; T4: água destilada, via oral; T5: 0,1mg de geleia real, via oral; e T6: 0,2mg de geleia real, via oral. Após 45 dias de suplementação com geleia real, os animais sacrificados e pesados tiveram seus testículos coletados, incluídos em parafina e corados com hematoxilina/eosina. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto aos: pesos corporal e testicular, índice gonadossomático, diâmetro tubular, altura do epitélio, comprimento total dos túbulos seminíferos, comprimento tubular por grama de testículo, índices tubulossomático e leydigossomático e valores de proporção volumétrica referentes à túnica própria, epitélio seminífero, vaso sanguíneo e vaso linfático. Foi encontrada diferença entre T1 e T3 em relação aos túbulos seminíferos e ao espaço intertubular.The effects of royal jelly on the morphophysiological parameters of mice (Mus musculus testicles were studied. Fifty-eight male Swiss mice were evaluated. They were four-month old and were randomly distributed in six treatments: T1: physiological solution, intraperitonial route; T2: 0.1mg of royal jelly, intraperitonial route; T3: 0.2mg of royal jelly, intraperitonial route; T4: distilled water, orally; T5: 0.1mg of royal jelly, orally; and T6: 0.2mg of royal jelly, orally. After 45 days of supplementation with royal jelly, the animals were weighted, slaughtered, and the testicles collected, included in paraffin, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. No differences among treatments were observed for: body and testicular weights, gonadossomatic index, tubular diameter, epithelial height, total

  3. Chronic toxicological effects of ultradiluted solutions of Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu on healthy mice: a preliminary study Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Efectos toxicológicos crónicos de altas diluciones de Euphorbia tirucalli en ratones sanos: estudio preliminar.

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    Morgana Castelo Branco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex extracted from Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant popularly known as Aveloz, is used in complementary medicine to induce tumor regression. However, as this latex has toxic effects when administered orally in ponderal doses, the present study was designed to assess the effects of high dilutions in healthy mice over a period of 18 weeks. The Aveloz latex-high diluted solutions (latex-HD were obtained through the interaction of two processes: 1:100 dilution in mass and succussion, using ethanol 70% as a solvent, in the homeopathic dilutions of 5, 15 and 30cH, following Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira. Control solutions without latex were compounded (ethanolic-HD in the same dilutions and were administered simultaneously. The animals which received latex-HD 30cH showed a significant increase in food consumption (p Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli; Aveloz; Toxicology; High Dilutions; Mice.   Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Resumo O látex extraído de Euphorbia tirucalli, planta conhecida popularmente como Aveloz, é utilizado em medicina complementar para induzir regressão tumoral. No entanto, como este látex tem efeitos tóxicos quando administrado por via oral em doses ponderais, este estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os efeitos de altas diluições do mesmo em camundongos sadios por um período de 18 semanas. As altas diluições do látex do Aveloz (látex-HD foram obtidas através da interação de dois processos: diluição 1:100 em massa e sucussão, utilizando etanol 70% como solvente, nas diluições homeopáticas 5, 15 e 30cH, de acordo com a Famracopéia Homeopática Brasileira. Soluções de controle sem o látex (etanol-HD foram

  4. Remodelamento miocárdico após grandes infartos converte potenciação pós-pausa em decaimento da força em ratos

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    Danilo Sales Bocalini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A Contração Pós-Repouso (CPR do músculo cardíaco fornece informações indiretas sobre a manipulação de cálcio intracelular. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi estudar o comportamento da CPR e seus mecanismos subjacentes em camundongos com infarto do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Seis semanas após a oclusão coronariana, a contratilidade dos Músculos Papilares (MP obtidos a partir de camundongos submetidos à cirurgia sham (C, n = 17, com infarto moderado (MMI, n = 10 e grande infarto (LMI, n = 14, foi avaliada após intervalos de repouso de 10 a 60 segundos antes e depois da incubação com cloreto de lítio (Li+ em substituição ao cloreto de sódio ou rianodina (Ry. A expressão proteica de SR Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA2, trocador Na+/Ca2+ (NCX, fosfolambam (PLB e fosfo-Ser (16-PLB foi analisada por Western blotting. RESULTADOS: Os camundongos MMI apresentaram potenciação de CPR reduzida em comparação aos camundongos C. Em oposição à potenciação normal para camundongos C, foram observadas degradações de força pós-repouso nos músculos de camundongos LMI. Além disso, a Ry bloqueou a degradação ou potenciação de PRC observada em camundongos LMI e C; o Li+ inibiu o NCX e converteu a degradação em potenciação de CPR em camundongos LMI. Embora os camundongos MMI e LMI tenham apresentado diminuição no SERCA2 (72 ± 7% e 47 ± 9% de camundongos controle, respectivamente e expressão protéica de fosfo-Ser16-PLB (75 ± 5% e 46 ± 11%, respectivamente, a superexpressão do NCX (175 ± 20% só foi observada nos músculos de camundongos LMI. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados mostraram, pela primeira vez, que a remodelação miocárdica pós-IAM em camundongos pode mudar a potenciação regular para degradação pós-repouso, afetando as proteínas de manipulação de Ca(2+ em miócitos.

  5. Acute toxicity of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. root extract in mice: determination of both approximate and median lethal doses Toxicidade aguda de extrato de raízes de Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. em camundongos: determinação da dose letal aproximada e da dose letal mediana

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    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2008-12-01

    "mamacadela" e possui, na sua composição química, furocumarinas fotossensibilizantes. O principal uso terapêutico do BG é no tratamento do vitiligo, uma doença despigmentante da pele com prevalência de aproximadamente 1-2% da população mundial. Há um produto no mercado (Viticromin®, que é comercializado com tal finalidade, havendo poucos dados disponíveis acerca da toxicidade experimental, ao lado de eficácia clínica comprovada. Portanto, o desenvolvimento de estudos de toxicidade pré-clínica foi proposto (dose letal aproximada, DLA e dose letal mediana, DL50 para o exsudato da raiz de BG em animais de laboratório. Foram utilizados camundongos machos, albinos, pesando entre 25 e 30 g, em boas condições sanitárias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum. O pó de BG foi suspenso em solução salina 0,9% com 0,5% de cremofor e administrado p.o. (gavage e intraperitonealmente. A DL50 foi obtida através do método de regressão linear de Lichtfield & Wilcoxon (1949, utilizando um software de domínio público. Foram formados 6 grupos de 10 animais para cada via de administração, incluindo grupo controle, e o número de mortes foi observado durante 14 dias; o grupo controle recebeu uma emulsão de solução salina 0,9% com 0,5% de cremofor. Antes de estabelecer a DL50 e visando reduzir o número de animais utilizados, determinou-se a DLA, utilizando 1 animal por dose (a próxima dose 50% maior do que a dose anterior, até identificar a dose letal para 1 animal. Assim, a DLA p.o. foi de 3750 mg/kg e a DLA i.p., 2920 mg/kg. A DL50 p.o. foi de 3517,54 mg/kg e a DL50 i.p. foi 2871,76 mg/kg. O produto foi considerado possuir baixa toxicidade, considerando apenas uma dose neste ensaio de toxicidade aguda.

  6. AUMENTO DA EXPRESSÃO DE ?-CATENINA E CADERINA NO CORAÇÃO DE CAMUNDONGOS NA FASE AGUDA E CRÔNICA DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR Trypanosoma cruzi UPREGULATION OF ?-CATENIN AND CADHERIN EXPRESSION IN HEARTS OF MICE IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL Trypanosoma cruzi infection

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    Tatyane Penha Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas das junções de aderência têm sido associadas ao mecanismo patológico da miocardiopatia chagásica. Objetivando determinar a natureza dessas alterações, infectaram-se dez camundongos machos Swiss Webster com 25 dias de idade por via intraperitoneal com uma cepa tipo III de Trypanosoma cruzi na dose de 1,0 x 104 tripomastigotas/camundongo. Cinco camundongos infectados foram sacrificados no 14° dia (pico de parasitemia de infecção (grupo A e outros cinco camundongos (grupo C três meses após a inoculação, representando a fase crônica da infecção. Inocularam-se dez animais com solução estéril de cloreto de sódio 0,9%, sendo sacrificados no 14° dia (grupo CA e cinco ao final do terceiro mês (grupo CC, para servirem como controles não-infectados. As junções de aderência foram analisadas a partir do lisado total dos corações submetido a western blotting para pan-caderina e β-catenina. A análise do western blotting revelou aumento da expressão de pan-caderina na fase aguda (2,1x ± 0,89, p= 0,048 e crônica (2,1x ± 0,92, p= 0,05 quando comparadas com seus respectivos controles. Em relação à β-catenin, os resultados mostraram o mesmo padrão caracterizado pelo aumento de seus níveis na fase aguda (6,8x ± 4,65, p= 0,047 e crônica (3,65x ± 1,93, p= 0,033 em comparação aos controles. Assim, estes resultados indicam a associação das proteínas de junção de aderência aos eventos patológicos em corações de camundongos infectados por T. cruzi.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Doença de Chagas, junções de aderência, miocardite, western blotting.
    Adherens junctions proteins have also been envolved in pathological mechanism of chagasic myocardiopathy. Aimed to determine the nature of these alterations, ten Swiss Webster male mice, 25 days-old were infected with a Type III strain of Trypanosoma cruzi through intraperitoneal (IP route with 1.0 x 104 trypomastigotes/mouse. Five infected mice were

  7. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis

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    Pereira Luiz Eloy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.

  8. Alterações da histoarquitetura pulmonar de camundongos neonatos expostos à hiperóxia

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    Renata B. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da exposição à hiperóxia (100% de oxigênio sobre a histoarquitetura pulmonar de camundongos neonatos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos neonatos da linhagem Balb/c foram expostos à hiperóxia (GH (100% de oxigênio (n = 10 em uma câmara (15 x 20 x 30 cm por 24 horas, com fluxo de 2 L/min. O grupo controle (GC (n = 10 foi exposto a normóxia em um mesmo tipo de câmara e pelo mesmo tempo. Após a exposição, os animais foram sacrificados por decapitação, os pulmões foram removidos para análise histológica e processados de acordo com a rotina do laboratório. Cortes de 3 µm de espessura foram corados com hematoxilina e eosina (H&E. A análise morfométrica foi realizada com o objetivo de analisar macrófagos presentes na luz alveolar, densidade de superfície (Sv de trocas gasosas, densidade de volume (Vv de parênquima pulmonar e áreas de atelectasias. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada diminuição do número de macrófagos alveolares (MØ no GH (GH = 0,08±0,01 MØ/mm²; GC = 0,18±0,03 MØ/mm²; p = 0,0475, Sv de troca gasosa no GH (GH = 8,08 ± 0,12 mm² /mm³; GC = 8,65 ± 0,20 mm² /mm³; p = 0,0233, Vv de parênquima pulmonar no GH (GH = 54,7/33,5/83,5 %/mm²; GC = 75/56,7/107,9 %/mm²; p < 0.0001 quando comparado com o GC. Entretanto, houve aumento de áreas de atelectasias no GH (GH = 17,5/11,3/38,4 atelectasia/mm²; GC = 14/6,1/24,4 atelectasia/mm²; p = 0,0166 quando comparado com o GC. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que a hiperóxia promoveu alterações na histoarquitetura pulmonar, aumentando áreas de atelectasia e hemorragia alveolar difusa.

  9. Avaliação dos efeitos induzidos pelo ácido nicotínico e pela nicotinamida sobre a migração de neutrófilos induzida por diferentes estímulos inflamatórios em camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, alguns estudos demonstraram que o ácido nicotínico (NIA) e a nicotinamida (NIC), vitaminas da família B3, além das conhecidas funções nutricionais também apresentavam propriedades anti-inflamatórias. Para melhor entender como o tratamento com essas vitaminas interfere no processo de migração celular para o foco inflamatório, camundongos Balb/c machos, com massas entre 20-25 g, foram desafiados com carragenina (CG 200 g/cavidade-0,1 mL), zimosano (ZYM 200 g/cavidade-0,1 mL...

  10. Alterações quantitativas das células de purkinje na moléstia de chagas experimental no camundongo Quantitative study of Purkinje cells in the acute phase of experimental Chagas' disease

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    Edymar Jardim

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor estudou quantitativamente as células de Purkinje em cortes semi-seriados do cerebelo de camundongos inoculados experimentalmente com T. cruzi,tendo verificado considerável destruição neuronal na fase aguda da enfermidade.A quantitative study of Purkinje cells was done through semi-serial sections of cerebellum of mice experimentally innoculated by Trypanosoma cruzi. Avery marked neuronal destruction was found in the acute phase of Chagas' disease.

  11. Ácido linoléico conjugado: efeitos no perfil lipídico e na composição corporal de camundongos exercitados Conjugated linoleic acid: effects on lipid profile and body composition of exercised mice

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    Silvio Anderson Toledo Fernandes; Antônio José Natali; Mateus Camaroti Laterza; Bruno Gonzaga Teodoro; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do CLA associado à dieta hiperlipídica sobre o perfil lipídico e composição corporal de camundongos knockout para o gene da ApoE exercitados. Métodos: 32 camundongos foram divididos e submetidos à dieta normo e hiperlipídica suplementadas ou não com 1% de CLA. Todos realizaram exercício físico em esteira, durante 12 semanas. Utilizou-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os animais que ingeriram dieta hiperlipídica com CLA aumen...

  12. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

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    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.A laboratory technician was accidentally infected with the LE strain of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae maintained in our laboratories. After 5 months infection parasitological examination revealed 108 eggs/g faeces. Althrough treated with oxamniquine, the infection still persisted (6 eggs/g of faeces. An isolate (SSF was obtained from that person and maintained in Biomphalaria glabrata - Swiss mouse by alternate passage. The experimental comparative results between the newly obtained SSF isolate and the original LE strain showed that the differences in pre-patent period, the mice infectivity level and the schistosomicidal response to hycanthone, oxamniquine and praziquantel was not statistically significant. On the other hand the number of miracidia recovered from intestines and livers of equally infected mice was twice as miich in the LE strain than

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and mouse bioassay in commercial cuts of pork from experimentally infected pigs Detecção do Toxoplasma gondii por PCR e bioensaio em camundongo em cortes comerciais de carnes de suínos infectados experimentalmente

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    V.S. Tsutsui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of T. gondii in commercial cuts of pork (ham, tenderloin, spareribs and arm picnic by PCR and bioassay from experimentally infected pigs, was evaluated. Eighteen mixed breed pigs were divided into two groups (G. The G1 animals (n=10 were infected with 4 x10(4 oocysts of the T. gondii VEG strain and the G2 animals (n=8 were used as control. Pigs of both groups were slaughtered at 59th day after infection, and meat samples were collected for bioassay and PCR. All animals from G1 were positive by at least one or both tests, and all control animals were negative. T. gondii was identified in pork by mouse bioassay and PCR in 27/40 (67.5% and in 9/40 (22.5% of the evaluated samples, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the distribution of tissue cysts from commercial cuts of pork by bioassay (P>0.05. However, statistical differences were observed when mouse bioassay and PCR were compared (PAvaliou-se a presença de T. gondii em cortes comerciais de carne suína (pernil, lombo, costela e paleta, por meio do bioensaio e PCR, em animais experimentalmente inoculados. Dois grupos (G foram formados. Os animais do G1 (n=10 foram inoculados com 4 x10(4 oocistos da cepa VEG e os do G2 (n=8 permaneceram como grupo-controle, não inoculado. Todos os animais foram abatidos no dia 59 após a infecção, quando foram colhidas as amostras de carne para a realização das provas de bioensaio e da PCR. Todos os suínos do G1 apresentaram-se positivos a pelo menos um dos testes de diagnóstico ou a ambos, e os do grupo-controle permaneceram negativos. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação aos tipos de cortes comerciais e à presença do parasita no bioensaio (P>0,05. O bioensaio foi capaz de detectar T. gondii em 27/40 (67,5% amostras e a PCR em 9/40 (22,5%. O estudo mostrou diferença entre o bioensaio e a PCR (P<0,01.

  14. Efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo de camundongos Apo E

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    Larissa Froede Brito

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A aterosclerose é uma doença inflamatória crônica de origem multifatorial que ocorre em resposta à agressão endotelial. O fungo Monascus ruber apresenta atividade hipocolesterolêmica e polifenóis presentes no resíduo de café apresentam atividade antioxidante, podendo auxiliar na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares. O resíduo de café possui quantidade significativa de açúcares fermentescíveis, constituindo-se em substrato apropriado para o cultivo de fungos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo lipídico de camundongos knockout Apo E. MÉTODOS: O ensaio biológico foi realizado com 30 camundongos knockout para o gene Apo E, divididos em cinco grupos e submetidos a diferentes tratamentos. Foi realizada a prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação de compostos fenólicos dos resíduos fermentado e sem fermentar. O soro dos animais foi analisado utilizando kits enzimáticos e o tecido aórtico incluso em parafina e corado com H/E para realização da análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O resíduo de café sem fermentar 2%, em relação ao grupo controle, diminuiu em 42% o nível sérico de triacilgliceróis e em aproximadamente 41% a fração VLDL-c. Os grupos dos animais alimentados com 10% de resíduo não fermentado e 2% de resíduo fermentado diminuíram a área de lesão 10,5% e 15,4%, respectivamente, quando comparados ao controle. O resíduo fermentado apresentou um teor de compostos fenólicos superior ao resíduo não fermentado. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostra que a fermentação do resíduo de café apresenta potencial efeito benéfico sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente a aterosclerose.

  15. Influência da dieta hiperglicêmica e do diabetes aloxânico sobre a vitalidade do Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, em camundongos experimentalmente infectados The influence of hyperglicemic diet and aloxanic diabetes on the vitality of Schistosoma mansoni in experimentally infected mice

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    Luiz Augusto Magalhães

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados alguns efeitos da dieta rica em açúcar e do diabetes aloxânico em Mus musculus albinos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Os resultados mostraram que: 1 o número de granulomas nos animais tratados pela aloxana foi significativamente menor do que nos animais não tratados por esta droga; 2 é possível que nos animais tratados pela aloxana exista algum fator que prejudique o desenvolvimento e a postura dos esquistossomos.Some effects of a sugar-rich diet and of the aloxanic diabetes in albino mice (Mus musculus infected with Schistosoma mansoni were considered. The results showed: 1. the number of granulomata for the aloxane treated animals was significantly lower than the number for untreated animals. 2. one may, then, surmise that the aloxane treatment generates conditions that inhibits the development and oviposition of S. mansoni.

  16. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

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    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  17. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  18. Concepção analítica de implantação da área física para biotério destinado a ratos e camundongos livres de patógenos específicos (S.P.F.), em ambiente ergonomicamente projetado na Universidade do Vale do Itajaí

    OpenAIRE

    Barboza, Ilse

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção O presente trabalho apresenta metodologias de como planejar este ambiente, a fim de proporcionar a quem interessar, subsídios básicos para a construção de um Biotério eficaz. Com leituras diversas de materiais produzidos por instituições e especialistas envolvidos com as atividades de produção e manejo de animais de Biotério, pode ser construída a referid...

  19. A susceptibilidade à nicotina e etanol é afetada pela exposição à nicotina, fumaça de cigarro e etanol durante o período gestacional: alterações comportamentais e eletrofisiológicas no período pós-natal de camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Uma questão particularmente relevante é o fato de exposições precoces a drogas de abuso durante o desenvolvimento potencialmente aumentarem a susceptibilidade a estas drogas posteriormente durante o desenvolvimento. No presente estudo utilizando estudos comportamentais e eletrofisiológicos, investigamos efeitos tardios da exposição de camundongos à fumaça de cigarro, à nicotina e ao etanol durante o período que corresponde à gestação em humanos. Para tal, esta tese foi dividida em 2 estudos. ...

  20. Survival rates of mouse blastocyst vitrified in dimethylformamide based solutions associated with ethylene glicol or 1-2 propanediol Sobrevivência de embriões de camundongo vitrificados em soluções com dimetilformamida associadas ao etilenoglicol ou 1-2 propanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodriguez Villamil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dimethylformamide (DF associated with ethylene glycol (EG or 1-2 propanediol (PROH during vitrification, on the in vitro development of mouse blastocysts. Cryoprotectant toxicity was evaluated exposing embryos into three different equilibrium solutions (ES composed by DF, EG or PROH mixtures (10% v/v of each in mPBS + 0.5% PVA at different interval times (1, 3 and 10min. In a second experiment, embryos were exposed to the same ES (either 1 or 3min, following for the three respectively vitrification solutions (VS (20% v/v of each for 30s. After 72 hours of in vitro culture, embryo hatching and expansion rates were similar for the ES1 and ES2 equilibration solutions during the time interval of 1 or 3min. However embryos exposed for 10 min to the DF equilibration solutions, had lower survival rates than EG-PROH solution (PO objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da dimetilformamida (DF associada com etileno glycol (EG ou 1-2 propanediol (PROH durante a vitrificação, no desenvolvimento in vitro de blastocistos murinos. A toxicidade dos crioprotetores foi avaliada ao expor os embriões as três soluções de equilíbrio (ES compostas pelas misturas de DF, EG ou PROH (10% v/v de cada em mPBS + 0,5% PVA, em diferentes intervalos de tempo (1, 3 e 10min. Em um segundo experimento, os embriões foram expostos as mesmas ES (durante 1 e 3min, seguido da exposição as três respectivas soluções de vitrificação (VS (20% v/v de cada durante 30seg. Após 72 horas de cultivo in vitro, as taxas de expansão e eclosão dos embriões expostos durante os períodos de 1 e 3min às soluções de equilíbrio ES1 e ES2 foram semelhantes. No entanto, os embriões expostos durante 10min às soluções de equilíbrio com DF apresentaram taxas de sobrevivência inferiores à solução de EG-PROH (P<0,01. Além disso, as taxas de sobrevivência dos embriões expostos à DF-PROH (ES+VS foram menores que as dos

  1. Estudo do potencial terapÃutico dos Ãsteres metÃlico, etÃlico e butÃlico do Ãcido cinÃmico no tratamento da obesidade induzida por dieta hipercalÃrica em camundongos.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Roberto Neves Solon

    2016-01-01

    A prevalÃncia da obesidade aumentou dramaticamente em todo o mundo. Como o excesso de peso contribui para o aparecimento e agravamento de doenÃas crÃnicas como diabetes tipo-2, hipertensÃo, doenÃa cardiovascular, derrame, depressÃo, vÃrios tipos de cÃncer e outras condiÃÃes, a prevenÃÃo e o tratamento eficaz da obesidade devem reduzir a morbidade, mortalidade e custo da atenÃÃo à saÃde. O tratamento farmacolÃgico da obesidade tem produzido resultados decepcionantes. Muitos medicamentos para o...

  2. SeparaÃÃo materna prolongada induz desnutriÃÃo e inflamaÃÃo sistÃmica com deficiÃncia de igf-1 e leptina e alteraÃÃes hipocampais em camundongos lactentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ãtalo Leite Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    A separaÃÃo materna prolongada (SMP) pode causar uma desnutriÃÃo energÃtico-proteica devido à restriÃÃo do leite materno, o que pode levar a alteraÃÃes no hipocampo, alÃm de afetar a barreira intestinal, induzindo translocaÃÃo bacteriana e inflamaÃÃo sistÃmica. Um estudo recente mostrou uma correlaÃÃo negativa entre marcadores inflamatÃrios sistÃmicos e nÃveis sÃricos do fator de crescimento insuliniforme 1 (IGF-1) em crianÃas desnutridas com baixa estatura. Contudo, ainda hà uma lacuna no co...

  3. Desenvolvimento das barras imunosorventes de agitação e avaliação das técnicas extração sortiva em barra de agitação, microextração em sorvente empacotado e cromatografia líquida para análise de antidepressivos em amostras de plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Zampieri Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, os anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais anti-fluoxetina foram produzidos em coelhos e camundongos, respectivamente, por imunização com o conjugado fluoxetina-soroalbumina bovina. Os anticorpos obtidos foram caracterizados em função da especificidade contra o fármaco por ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) e posteriormente, purificados por afinidade em coluna fluoxetina-agarose labmade. Os anticorpos purificados foram imobilizados covalentemente na superfície vítrea das b...

  4. Importância do camundongo mdx na fisiopatologia da distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    OpenAIRE

    Seixas,Sandra Lopes; Lagrota-Cândido,Jussara; Savino, Wilson; Quirico-Santos,Thereza

    1997-01-01

    O camundongo mdx desenvolve distrofia muscular recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X (locus Xp21.1) e não expressa distrofina. Embora não apresente intensa fibrose do tecido muscular e acúmulo de tecido adiposo, é considerado o modelo animal mais adequado da distrofia muscular de Duchenne. As alterações estruturais no tecido muscular associadas à mionecrose e presença do infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de linfócitos e monócitos/macrófagos sugerem uma participação do sistema imunológico nest...

  5. Tendência genética para características produtivas em bovinos da raça Pardo-Suíça Genetic trend in productive traits to Brown Swiss breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vieira de Araújo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados registros de produção de leite e de gordura de 4.959 lactações, de 2.414 vacas da raça Pardo-Suiça, filhas de 70 reprodutores, com partos observados de 1985 a 1998, em 51 rebanhos. Foram estimadas as tendências genéticas para as produções de leite (PL305ME e de gordura (PG305ME, ajustadas à idade adulta e 305 dias de lactação. A tendência genética para os reprodutores foi estimada pela regressão linear dos valores genéticos dos reprodutores, em função do ano de parto de suas filhas, ponderados pelo número de filhas do reprodutor em cada ano de parto. O modelo animal utilizado para estimar os valores genéticos incluiu os efeitos fixos de rebanho, ano-época de parto e grupo genético do animal, além dos efeitos aleatórios, genético aditivo, de ambiente permanente e ambiente temporário. As médias para as produções de leite e gordura foram 6085,79 ± 1627,73 kg e 225,60 ± 60,46 kg, respectivamente. A tendência genética estimada para os reprodutores foi 33,01 ± 15,27 e 1,98 ± 0,61 kg/ano para PL305ME e PG305ME, respectivamente. Para vacas a tendência genética correspondeu a 20,54 ± 2,04 e 0,93 ± 0,06 kg/ano para PL305ME e PG305ME, ajustadas para idade adulta, respectivamente.Records of 4959 lactation in 1985 to 1998 of 2414 Brown Swiss cows breed, daughters of 70 sires in 51 herds, were used to estimate the genetic trend for milk and fat yield adjusted for 305 days of lactation and mature age of cows (PL305ME and PG305ME. The genetic trend for sires was estimated using a linear regression of the breeding values of the sires to their daughters calving year, averaged to number of daughters in each calving year. The genetic trend of the cows was estimated using a linear regression of their estimates breeding values averaged to number of observation in each year of calving. The animal model used to estimate the breeding values, inclued the fixed effects of herd, year-season of calving

  6. Avaliação toxicológica e reprodutiva de camundongos machos adultos tratados com femproporex = Fenproporex treatment in male mice: behavior and toxicology reproductive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Baroneza

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O femproporex é utilizado no mundo todo como potente anorexígeno. Esteestudo visa esclarecer se o uso diário de femproporex provoca toxicidade comportamental e/ou reprodutiva em camundongos machos adultos. Para tanto, foram utilizados 40 camundongos, divididos em quatro grupos experimentais, cada um contendo dez animais. Um dos grupos recebeu, via gavage, apenas água, e os outros foram tratados diariamente com femproporex, nas doses de 7,5, 15 e 30 mg kg-1, por um período de 40 dias. Como resultados, verificou-se que o femproporex não alterou a evolução normal da massa dos animais analisados, e concluiu-se que a utilização da droga não promoveu toxicidade comportamental, verificada nos testes de natação forçada e de campo aberto; e reprodutiva, quando verificados genotoxicidade, síntese de testosterona, morfologia de espermatozóides e histologia testicular. Assim sendo, concluiu-se que o femproporex, na concentração e delineamentos experimentais propostos por este trabalho, não apresentou potencial toxicológico.Fenproporex is used worldwide as a powerful anorectic drug.This study was designed to evaluate whether daily intake of fenproporex would lead to behavioral and/or reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. Fourty male mice were used, divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. The control group received only water by gavage, whereas the experimental groups were treated daily with fenproporex in the doses of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg kg-1, for a period of 40 days. The results demonstrated that fenproporex did not alter the normal evolution of the animals’ body mass; it also showed that the use of the drug did not promote behavioral toxicity (open-field and forcedswimming tests or reproductive toxicity (genotoxicity, changes in the morphology of spermatozoa and testicular histology. Thus, the present results indicate that fenproporex, in the evaluated dose and experimental conditions, does not present behavioral and reproductive

  7. Desenvolvimento do testículo de camundongo da fase fetal até a idade adulta Development of the mouse testis from fetal period to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozangela de Lucca Martins Sachetim

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do testículo de camundongo foi estudado desde o 15º dia de gestação até a idade adulta. As lâminas preparadas para estudo histológico em microscópio óptico foram tratadas pela técnica do ácido periódico - Schiff e pela hematoxilina de Harris (PAS + H. Na fase fetal, os túbulos seminíferos estão constituídos por gonócitos e células de sustentação imaturas. No tecido intersticial, observam-se as células de Leydig. A espermatogênese inicia-se logo após o nascimento. O epitélio seminífero torna-se mais espesso aos 14 dias pós-natal, onde se observam espermatócitos em prófase meiótica. Aos 21 dias pós-natal, o epitélio seminífero contém espermatogônias, espermatócitos e células de Sertoli. As primeiras espermátides são observadas aos 28 dias pós-natal e, aos 42 dias, já ocorrem espermátides maduras. Desde os 49 dias pós-natal, são observados espermatozóides na luz dos túbulos seminíferos. A partir dos 56 dias pós-natal, o epitélio seminífero, bem como o tecido intersticial, apresentam aspecto e características típicos do testículo do camundongo adulto.The development of mouse testis was studied from 15th day of fetal life up to adult age. The prepared slides for histological study in light microscopy were stained by periodic acid - Schiff and Haematoxylin of Harris (PAS + H. The results show that in fetal life the seminiferous tubules are constituted by gonocytes and immature sustentation cells. In the interstitial tissue, Leydig cells are found. Spermatogenesis begins soon after birth. The seminiferous epithelium becomes thicker at day 14 postnatal when spermatocytes in meiotic prophase are observed. At day 21 postnatal the seminiferous epithelium contains spermatogonia, spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. The first spermatids are observed at day 28 postnatal and at day 42 postnatal mature spermatids occur. From day 56 postnatal on the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the

  8. Statelessness determination: the Swiss experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hamann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While a detailed law on statelessness determination is recommended by UNHCR and others, Swiss practice in statelessness determination has evolved without one. Despite this, Swiss practice has been shown to be rather progressive, at least in some areas of statelessness recognition and includes better treatment of the stateless in comparison with refugees.

  9. Eliminação de Toxoplasma gondii pela urina de camundongos durante a fase aguda da infecção experimental Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in the urine of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Rocha

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos albinos heterogenéticos da linhagem Swiss, foram experimentalmente infectados, via subcutânea, com taquizoítos de uma cepa de Toxoplasma gondii de baixa virulência. Todos morreram durante a fase aguda da infecção, entre 7 e 9 dias após a infecção (DAI. Demonstrou-se, utilizando a bioprova, que 80% dos animais eliminou T. gondii pela urina. Nos rins, observou-se, entre outras alterações, hemorragia intersticial intertubular e presença de hemácias íntegras nos espaços subcapsulares de Bowmann de alguns glomérulos. Discutiu-se sobre os possíveis mecanismos de eliminação de T. gondii na urina dos animais infectados. Analisou-se alguns aspectos relacionados com a eliminação de formas infectantes de T. gondii na urina destes animais e a transmissão da toxoplasmose na naturezaToxoplasma gondii tachizoites from an avirulent strain, were used to subcutaneously infect mice (Swiss outbred strain. All died 7 to 9 days after infection (DAI during acute phase infection. Eighty per cent eliminated T. gondii forms by urine. This was determined through infectivity test in normal mice (bioprove. Interstitial intertubular hemorrhage were the more frequently observed lesion in renal histology. Whole erythrocytes could also be seen in some glomerular Bowmann's sub-capsular space. T. gondii elimination mechanism is discussed, together with the relationship between these observations and natural toxoplasmosis transmission.

  10. Efeitos da hiperprolactinemia sobre o útero de camundongos no proestro Hyperprolactinemia effects on the female mice uterus during proestrous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Teixeira Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito da hiperprolactinemia induzida pela metoclopramida sobre o endométrio e miométrio de camundongos fêmeas na fase de proestro. MÉTODOS: 24 camundongos fêmeas foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: GCtr/controle e GExp/tratadas com metoclopramida (6,7 µg/g por dia. Após 50 dias, os animais foram sacrificados na fase de proestro, e o sangue foi coletado para determinação dos níveis de estradiol, progesterona e prolactina. Os cornos uterinos foram removidos e fixados em formol a 10%; foram, então, processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes de 4 µm foram corados pela hematoxilina-eosina (H/E. Na análise morfológica, foi utilizado microscópio de luz, da marca Carl Zeiss, com objetivas variando de 4 a 400 X, para caracterização de cada corte histológico. Na análise morfométrica, foi avaliada a espessura do epitélio superficial, da lâmina própria e do miométrio, com auxílio de um analisador de imagem (AxionVision, Carl Zeiss acoplado ao microscópio de luz (Carl Zeiss. A análise estatística foi realizada pela ANOVA seguida pelo teste Wilcoxon. O valor de p foi considerado significante quando PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of hyperprolactinemia induced by metoclopramide on the endometrium and myometrium of female mice in the proestrus phase. METHODS: 24 female mice were randomly divided in two groups: CtrG/control and ExpG/treated with metoclopramide (6.7 mg/g daily. After 50 days, the animals were sacrificed in the proestrus phase, and the blood was collected to determine the levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin. The uterine horns were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed before being included in paraffin. Slices of 4 µm were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H/E. In the morphological analysis, a Carl Zeiss light microscope, with objectives varying from 4 to 400 X was used for each histological slice characterization. In the morphometrical analysis, the superficial

  11. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  12. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  13. Determinação do número de cercárias provenientes de cepas diferentes de Schistosoma mansoni que conseguem penetrar, sob determinadas condições de laboratório, em Mus musculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Magalhães

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores determinaram, o número de cercárias provenientes de cepas diferentes de S. mansoni que conseguem penetrar em camundongos de laboratório. Concluem pelo maior poder de penetração de uma das linhagens estudadas.

  14. Isolamento do Toxoplasma gondii de exsudato peritoneal e órgãos de camundongos com infecção experimental Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from peritoneal exsudates and organs of experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia M. Ferreira Jamra

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados exsudatos peritoneais e órgãos (cérebro, coração, pulmão e músculo estriado de 53 camundongos infectados experimentalmente pelo Toxoplasma gondii, sendo 21 na fase aguda e 32 na crônica. Camundongos albinos, machos, de cerca de 25 g e 2 meses de idade foram inoculados, por via intraperitoneal, com 0,5 ml de exsudato peritoneal (taquizoitas ou macerado de cérebro (cistos de camundongos previamente infectados. O exame a fresco foi feito no exsudato peritoneal, entre 3 e 12 dias após inoculação e no cérebro, após 10 dias. Foram realizadas inoculações de macerados de órgãos em novos camundongos (repiques para a recuperação do parasita no exsudato ou no cérebro. Na infecção aguda as positividades foram, ao exame a fresco: exsudato peritoneal 19/19, pulmão 12/14, músculo 6/9, coração 4/9 e cérebro 1/3. Após inoculação: exsudato peritoneal 5/5, cérebro 2/2, coração 19/19, pulmão 13/13 e músculo 14/17. Após estes últimos resultados foram registrados 9 novos órgãos positivos. A positividade final (igual à recuperação do parasita foi: exsudato peritoneal 19/19 (100%, coração 15/17 (88,5%, músculo 12/14 (85,7%, pulmão 14/14 (100% e cérebro 2/3 (66,6%. Na infecção crônica, que transcorreu entre 10 e 495 dias, as positividades foram, ao exame a fresco: cérebro 28/32, coração 0/4 e músculo 0/4. Após repique: cérebro 6/6, coração 14/29 e músculo 16/26. Neste exame foi revelado um novo camundongo positivo elevando para 29 o total de camundongos positivos ou 90,6%. O resultado final foi: cérebro 28/32 (87,5%, músculo 16/28 (57,15% e coração 14/31 (45,1%. No fim da pesquisa, aos 495 dias, o cérebro apresentava grandes cistos ao exame a fresco e coração e músculo mostravam-se positivos através da inoculação. Conclusões: 1º nos camundongos o toxoplasma persistiu por 495 dias no cérebro, coração e músculo estriado; 2º o exame a fresco do pulmão pode substituir ou

  15. Abordagens terapêuticas em modelo experimental de distrofia muscular

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Bueno Júnior

    2012-01-01

    As distrofias musculares são doenças genéticas causadas por mutações em diferentes genes caracterizadas por degeneração muscular, prejuízos locomotores e, geralmente, morte precoce. Dentre elas, a de Duchenne, causada por mutações no gene que codifica para a proteína distrofina, é a mais comum e grave, tendo os camundongos MDX como modelo experimental mais utilizado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi testar quatro abordagens terapêuticas potencias neste modelo animal, divididas em dois experi...

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi strains: behavior after passage into authoctonous or foreign species of triatomine (biological and biochemical patterns Cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi: comportamento após passagem em triatomíneos autóctones ou não autóctones (padrões Biológicos e Bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy B Magalhães

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of T. cruzi strains from S. Felipe - BA (19 SF, 21 SF and 22 SF classified as Type II Zymodeme 2, was investigated after passage through the authoctonous (P. megistus and foreign vectors (T. infestans and R. prolixus. For each strain Swiss mice were infected: I - with blood forms (control; II - with metacyclic forms (MF from P. megistus; III - with MF from T. infestans; IV - with MF from R. prolixus. Inocula: MF from the three species of triatomine, 60 to 120 days after feeding in infected mice, adjusted to 10 4. Biological behavior in mice (parasitemia, morphology, mortality, virulence and pathogenicity after passage through triatomine was compared with data from the same strain in control mice. Isoenzymic electrophoresis (ASAT, ALAT, PGM, GPI were also performed after culture into Warren medium. The three strains maintained the isoenzyme profiles (zymodeme 2, in the control groups and after passages through different species of triatomine. Biological characterization disclosed Type II strains patterns for all groups. An increased virulence was observed with the 22 SF strain isolated from P. megistus and T. infestans and higher levels of parasitemia and predominance of slender forms in mice inoculated with the 19 SF and 21 SF from these same species. Results indicate that the passage through the two species T. infestans and P. megistus had a positive influence on the virulence of the regional strains of S. Felipe, regardless of being autocthonous (P. megistus or foreign to the area (T. infestans.Foi estudada a influência da passagem de cepas do T. cruzi de São Felipe - BA (19 SF, 21 SF e 22 SF, Tipo II, Zimodema 2, no vetor autóctone (P. megistus e em vetores não autóctones (T. infestans e R. prolixus. Para cada cepa, camundongos suíços de 10 a 12 g foram inoculados com I - formas sanguícolas (controles; II - metacíclicos do P. megistus; III - metacíclicos de T. infestans; IV - metacíclicos do R. prolixus. O in

  17. An immunofluorescence test for diagnosis of ophthalmic herpes in a mouse corneal model Imunofluorescência para diagnóstico de herpes oftálmico usando como modelo córneas de camundongos infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 ophthalmic disease is the most common cause of corneal blindness in humans world-wide. Current culture techniques for HSV take several days and commercially available HSV laboratory based diagnostic techniques vary in sensitivity. Our study was conducted to evaluate the use of a quicker and simpler method to herpes ophthalmic diagnosis. Corneal smears were made by firm imprints of infected mouse eyes to glass slides, after smears were fixated with cold acetone, and an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method was performed using monoclonal antibodies in a murine model of ophthalmic herpes. Eye swabs from infected mice were inoculated in Vero cells for virus isolation. Cytology and histology of the eye were also performed, using hematoxylin-eosin routine. Mouse eyes were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy for evidence of herpetic disease at various times postinoculation. We made a comparative evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and speed of methods for laboratory detection of HSV. Our results indicate that this IIF method is quick, sensitive, specific and can be useful in the diagnosis of ophthalmic herpes as demonstrated in an animal model.A doença oftálmica do vírus herpes simplex do tipo 1 (HSV-1 é a causa mais comum de cegueira córnea em humanos mundialmente. Técnicas de cultura atuais para HSV levam vários dias e laboratórios de HSV comercialmente disponíveis estabelecem que as técnicas diagnósticas variam em sensibilidade. Nosso estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a aplicação prática de um método mais rápido e simples para diagnosticar o herpes oftálmico. Decalques córneos foram feitos por impressões firmes de olhos de camundongos a lâminas de vidro, depois os decalques foram fixados com acetona fria, e um método de imunofluorescência indireta (IIF foi executado empregando anticorpos monoclonais no modelo murino de herpes oftálmico. Swabs de córnea foram inoculados em células Vero

  18. Encounters between Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois and domestic sheep in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information regarding spatio-temporal relationships and encounters of sympatric domestic sheep, Alpine ibex (<em>Capra ibex ibexem> and Alpine chamois (<em>Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapraem> in the Swiss Alps were systematically registered to evaluate the possibility of an interspecific transmission of infectious agents on pastures. Observations were performed in alpine regions of four Swiss cantons during the 1997 and 1998 mountain summer grazing season. In the main study area, Val Chamuera (canton of Grisons, a consistent reduction in the number of ibexes was observed after the arrival of sheep on the pasture. Some ibexes remained for a longer time in the area, but in general, ibexes and sheep did not use the same compartments of the area simultaneously. However, a salt lick for sheep attracted the ibexes, and several encounters were recorded in the compartments close to this salt lick. Several encounters registered in other areas of the Swiss Alps also occurred in the neighbourhood of a salt lick; however, in other cases different species were attracted by rich pastures. The study indicates that encounters (0-50 m between free-ranging individuals of different Caprinae species, domestic and wild, are not uncommon events in the Alps. Therefore, encounters can be considered to be a predisposing factor for interspecific transmission of infectious agents such as <em>Mycoplasma conjunctivaeem>, causing keratoconjunctivitis in chamois, ibex, domestic sheep and goats.

  19. Efeitos da intoxicação crônica com o etanol na evolução da Tripanosomíase cruzi experimental no camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildete das Graças Lima Gomes

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para estudar o efeito da intoxicação crônica com o etanol (solução a 7% como única fonte de líquido sobre a evolução da infecção pelo T. cruzi em camundongos: (1 animais após 60 dias de infecção com cepa miotrópica do T. cruzi foram submetidos à intoxicação crônica com o etanol durante 6 meses; (2 animais cronicamente intoxicados com etanol durante 5 meses foram infectados com a mesma cepa do T. cruzi e, continuando a ingestão do etanol, foram acompanhados até 45 dias após a infecção. Os animais infectados e tratados com etanol apresentaram, em relação aos que não ingeriram álcool etílico: (a mortalidade semelhante nos dois experimentos; (b parasitemia mais alta na fase aguda e parasitemia patente mais freqüente na fase crônica; (b miocardite com exsudato inflamatório menos intenso e fibrose miocárdica mais extensa na fase crônica; (c no músculo esquelético, miosite menos intensa e arterite com trombose hialina menos freqüente.

  20. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics. Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  1. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  2. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  3. Análise da ação ansiolítica e anticonvulsivante de Indigofera suffruticosa MILL em roedores

    OpenAIRE

    Malheiros Chaves, Thaís

    2010-01-01

    Indigofera suffruticosa Mill, conhecida popularmente por Anil do Campo, é utilizada na Medicina tradicional como agente antiespasmódico, sedativo, diurético e antiinflamatório. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação anticonvulsivante e ansiolítica desta planta através do extrato metanólico de suas folhas. Camundongos albinos Swiss foram submetidos às doses de 100, 300 e 500mg/kg do extrato metanólico. Para investigação da ação anticonvulsivante os animais sofreram a ação dos segu...

  4. Avaliação toxicológica e reprodutiva de camundongos machos adultos tratados com femproporex - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1089 Fenproporex treatment in male mice: behavior and toxicology reproductive analysis - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O femproporex é utilizado no mundo todo como potente anorexígeno. Este estudo visa esclarecer se o uso diário de femproporex provoca toxicidade comportamental e/ou reprodutiva em camundongos machos adultos. Para tanto, foram utilizados 40 camundongos, divididos em quatro grupos experimentais, cada um contendo dez animais. Um dos grupos recebeu, via gavage, apenas água, e os outros foram tratados diariamente com femproporex, nas doses de 7,5, 15 e 30 mg kg-1, por um período de 40 dias. Como resultados, verificou-se que o femproporex não alterou a evolução normal da massa dos animais analisados, e concluiu-se que a utilização da droga não promoveu toxicidade comportamental, verificada nos testes de natação forçada e de campo aberto; e reprodutiva, quando verificados genotoxicidade, síntese de testosterona, morfologia de espermatozóides e histologia testicular. Assim sendo, concluiu-se que o femproporex, na concentração e delineamentos experimentais propostos por este trabalho, não apresentou potencial toxicológicoFenproporex is used worldwide as a powerful anorectic drug. This study was designed to evaluate whether daily intake of fenproporex would lead to behavioral and/or reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. Fourty male mice were used, divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. The control group received only water by gavage, whereas the experimental groups were treated daily with fenproporex in the doses of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg kg-1, for a period of 40 days. The results demonstrated that fenproporex did not alter the normal evolution of the animals’ body mass; it also showed that the use of the drug did not promote behavioral toxicity (open-field and forced-swimming tests or reproductive toxicity (genotoxicity, changes in the morphology of spermatozoa and testicular histology. Thus, the present results indicate that fenproporex, in the evaluated dose and experimental conditions, does not present behavioral and

  5. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  7. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  8. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  9. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  10. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  11. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Document Server

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  12. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Document Server

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  13. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  14. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  15. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  16. Expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This chapter draws on data and findings from several video studies to describe the quality of mathematics teaching in Switzerland. The focus is on features of instructional practice and quality as core components of classroom behavior that reflect the teacher’s expertise in creating optimal learning opportunities. The didactic triangle is used as the basis for describing the profile of expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction in terms of three interdependent dimensions of ins...

  17. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  18. Análises morfoquantitativa e do código químico do receptor purinérgico P2X2 no plexo mioentérico do íleo de camundongos obesos fêmeas e machos (ob/ob).

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Sanae Mizuno

    2010-01-01

    As atividades intestinais são coordenadas pelo sistema nervoso entérico e, disfunções na motilidade intestinal são observadas em indivíduos obesos. O ATP é um co-transmissor e seus receptores estão distribuídos nos neurônios entéricos constituindo a família P2X e P2Y. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a expressão do receptor P2X2 e o código químico nos neurônios mioentéricos na obesidade. Foram utilizados íleo de camundongos obesos machos (OBM) e fêmeas (OBF) (C57BL/6J ob/ob), e co...

  19. Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania Vacinação de camundongos C57BL/10 contra leishmaniose com promastigotas mortas de diferentes cepas e espécies de Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mayrink

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin® and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective immunity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines composed of single Leishmania stocks can provide protection to C57BL/10 mice against L. (L. amazonensis infection.Estudos anteriores revelaram que uma vacina preparada com promastigotas mortas de cinco cepas de Leishmania pode induzir uma imunidade protetora para a leishmaniose tegumentar americana no homem e em modelos experimentais. Um dos problemas do uso desta vacina é a complexidade de sua composição e a necessidade de se incorporar diferentes cepas de Leishmania. Por esta razão, extratos antigênicos de cada uma das cinco cepas constituintes da vacina foram preparados e usados individualmente em estudos imunológicos com camundongos C57BL/10. A Leishvacin® e a vacina monovalente PH8 induziram os maiores níveis de Interferon-g (IFN-gama detectado no sobrenadante de células esplênicas dos animais vacinados. Cada grupo imunizado com vacinas monovalentes desenvolveram uma imunidade protetora seis meses após a infecção desafio com promastigotas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre os grupos vacinados. Pode-se concluir que vacinas compostas por cepas isoladas de Leishmania protegem camundongos C57BL/10 contra, pelo menos, da infecção por L. (L. amazonensis.

  20. Potential of Pandanus odoratissimus as a CNS depressant in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Raju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several neuropharmacological effects of methanolic leaf extract of Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (family; Pandanaceae were studied in albino mice using various experimental models. The effect of PO on the CNS was studied by using different neuropharmacological paradigms including spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance and potentiation of Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation and acute toxicity studies were also carried out where LD50 >2000 mg/kg was considered non-toxic through acute exposure in rats by the oral route. The methanolic leaf extract (50,100 and 200 mg/kg i. p. produced a reduction in spontaneous motor activity, motor coordination and prolonged Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time. Preliminary qualitative chemical studies indicated the presence of steroids, saponins, terpinoids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and phenolics in the extract. These observations suggest that the leaf of Pandanus odoratissimus contains some active principles which possess potential CNS-depressant actionEstudaram-se alguns efeitos neurofarmacológicos do extrato metanólico de Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (família Pandanaceae em camundongos albinos, usando vários modelos experimentais. O efeito do PO no SNC foi estudado por meio de diferentes paradigmas neurofarmacológicos, como atividade motora espontânea, desempenho na haste rotatória e a potenciação do tempo de sono em camundongos albinos pelo pentobarbital sódico. A avaliação fitoquímica preliminar e os estudos de toxicidade aguda foram realizados e a DL50 >2000 mg/kg é considerada não tóxica, por meio da exposição aguda, por via oral, em ratos. O extrato metanólico de folha (50,100 e 200 mg/kg i. p. produziu redução da atividade motora espontânea, da coordenação motora e tempo prolongado de sono pelo pentobarbital sódico. Estudos químicos qualitativos preliminares indicaram a presença de esteróide, saponinas

  1. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  2. Gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from barks of Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae in rats Efeito gastroprotetor do extrato hidroalcoólico da casca da Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Cosmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae is used in folk medicine to treat skin wounds and gastric disorders. This study evaluates the potential of crude hydroalcoholic extract (EHA as gastroprotective and its acute toxicity. Swiss mice were treated with EHA by oral (p.o. and intraperitoneal (i.p. routes with doses of 0.125 to 10 g/kg and were observed until 14 days after the administration of the extract. The calculated LD50 of EHA after i.p. administration was 480 mg/kg in mice and the LD50 values of EHA by the oral route were calculated to be up to 10 g/kg in mice. Wistar rats were orally pretreated with EHA (30, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg before induction of gastric lesions by 70% ethanol (0.5 mL/animal, p.o., indomethacin (20 mg/kg, s.c. and hypothermic restraint stress (during 3 h at 4 ºC. The EHA protected the gastric mucosa against lesions induced by ethanol, but did not reduce the stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. When the EHA was injected into the duodenal lumen (i.d., the volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretion of rats with pylorus ligature was not altered with different doses of the extract. Results therefore suggest that the cytoprotective effect of this extract against the direct necrosing action of ethanol and its effect were not related with reduction of gastric acid secretion.Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae é utilizada na medicina tradicional para o tratamento de lesões cutâneas e distúrbios gástricos. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o potencial gastroprotetor e a toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto hidroalcóolico da Persea major Kopp (EHA. Camundongos Swiss foram tratados com EHA pelas vias oral (v.o. e intraperitoneal (i.p. com as doses de 0,125 a 10 g/kg e foram observados por 14 dias. A DL50 calculada após administração i.p. de EHA foi de 480 mg/kg e superior a 10 g/kg pela via oral, em camundongos. Ratos Wistar foram pré-tratados oralmente com EHA (30, 100,300 e 1000 mg/kg antes da indução de les

  3. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.

  4. Efeito da goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada no metabolismo de lipídeos e na aterogênese de camundongos Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on lipid metabolism and atherogenesis of mice

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    Luciana Rodrigues Fernandes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar os efeitos da goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada no metabolismo de colesterol e na formação de placa aterosclerótica em aorta de camundongos deficientes no receptor LDL, euglicêmicos ou com hiperglicemia induzida por estreptozotocina. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis camundongos deficientes para o receptor de LDL foram divididos em quatro grupos de nove animais: grupos euglicêmicos, alimentados com dieta aterogênica padrão (controle euglicêmico ou suplementada com 7,5% de goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada (goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada euglicêmico e grupos hiperglicêmicos alimentados com dieta aterogênica padrão (controle hiperglicêmico ou suplementada com 7,5% de goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada (goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada hiperglicêmico. Após quatro semanas de experimento foram medidos: ingestão alimentar, ganho de peso, glicemia, colesterol plasmático e hepático, assim como lesão aterosclerótica na aorta torácica e abdominal. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostram que a suplementação de goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada levou ao aumento do colesterol hepático e plasmático em animais euglicêmicos, mas sem aumento na área de lesão aterosclerótica na aorta. Em animais hiperglicêmicos, a redução no colesterol plasmático não foi estatisticamente significante, mas no que se refere à lesão da aorta, observou-se redução significante. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a goma guar parcialmente hidrolisada pode reduzir a aterosclerose associada ao Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to observe the effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis in the aorta of euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic LDL receptor deficient mice. METHODS: Thirty six LDL receptor deficient mice were divided into 4 groups of 9 animals: euglycemic groups fed on hypercholesterolemic diet without or supplemented with 7.5% of

  5. Descrição de um protocolo experimental para estudos cardiofisiológicos em camundongos

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    Sarah Soares de Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preparing and application electrode method for cardiophysiological study performed in mice in order to relate the results obtained with these experiments to humans by means of comparative physiology. The study consisted of monitoring the state of mouse cardiophysiological parameters using an electrocardiograph during intravenous administration of subanesthetic ketamine. The final result was obtained by spectral analysis which outlined changes in cardiac activity of the animal after the drug injection, leading to the reduction of RR-interval duration and to the sharp fall in the low frequency (LF component signal. This result points out that there was an increase in heart rate after pretreatment of atropine and subsequent administration of ketamine.

  6. Atividade antinociceptiva do extrato etanólico do fruto de Solanum acanthodes Hook.f. em camundongos

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    A.F. Bento

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Solallum acanthodes. popularmente conhecido como "jurubeba", foi estudada com o objetivo de avaliar suas propriedades antinocicept i vas nos modelos de nociccpção induzida pela I'ormalina e glutamato. Para isto foi utilizado o extrato elanólico dos frutos (EES da planta. Os resultados apresentaram altos níveis de significância, demonstrando o potencial analgésico de S. acanthodes.

  7. Antagonistic and protective effects against Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium by Lactobacillus murinus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice Efeitos antagonista e protetor contra Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhimurium por Lactobacillus murinus no trato digestivo de camundongos gnotobióticos

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    Ana Luiza Sampaio Vasconcelos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, production of antagonistic substances by Lactobacillus murinus against enteropathogenic bacteria was evaluated in vivo as well as a possible protective effect against an oral challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium using a gnotobiotic animal model. A higher mean survival time (P No presente estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonistas por Lactobacillus murinus contra bactérias enteropatogênicas foi avaliada in vivo assim como um possível efeito protetor contra um desafio oral com Salmonella Typhimurium utilizando um modelo animal gnotobiótico. Um maior tempo médio de sobrevida (P < 0,05 foi observado nos animais associados com L. murinus (7,89 ± 3,83 dias quando comparado com os controles (4,44 ± 0,73 dias. Lactobacillus murinus exerceu um potente efeito antagonista in vivo contra S. sonnei e com menos intensidade contra S. Typhimurium como revelado pelos halos de inibição ao redor das fezes dos animais associados com L. murinus. Os diâmetros dos halos de inibição ao redor dos conteúdos intestinais aumentaram ao longo do trato digestivo, seguindo proporcionalmente os níveis populacionais de L. murinus nas respectivas porções intestinais. Concluindo, o presente estudo mostra que a associação com L. murinus em camundongos gnotobióticos retarda a morte após um desafio oral com S. Typhimurium e que compostos inibitórios difusíveis obtidos em ensaios in vitro foram também produzidos in vivo e podem ser responsáveis por este efeito.

  8. Behavior in Mus musculus of Schistosoma mansoni from mollusks treated with hydrocortisone Comportamento em Mus musculus do Schistosoma mansoni oriundo de moluscos tratados com hidrocortisona

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    Deborah Regina Serrano

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty mice were exposed to cercariae from mollusks treated with hydrocortisone and another 20 mice received cercariae from non-treated mollusks. The behavior of the parasites from the two groups of mollusks was compared based on the ability of cercariae to penetrate mice, on the total number of worms recovered after eight weeks of infection, on the relationship between the number of penetrating cercariae and the number of recovered worms and on the number of eggs in the feces. Treating the mollusks with hydrocortisone did not alter the ability of cercariae to penetrate mice nor did it affect the total number of worms recovered. The number of female worms, the number of coupled worms and the number of eggs in the feces were greater in mice infected by cercariae from mollusks treated with hydrocortisone.Vinte camundongos foram expostos a cercárias oriundas de moluscos tratados com hidrocortisona e outros vinte receberam cercárias de moluscos não tratados. O comportamento dos parasitas dos dois grupos foi comparado com base na habilidade das cercárias em penetrar nos camundongos, no número total de vermes recuperados, após oito semanas de infecção, na relação entre o número de cercárias penetrantes e o número de vermes recuperados e o número de ovos nas fezes. O tratamento dos moluscos com hidrocortisona não alterou a habilidade das cercárias em penetrar nos camundongos nem afetou o número total de vermes recuperados. O número de vermes fêmeas, o número de vermes acasalados e o número de ovos nas fezes aumentaram em camundongos infectados por cercárias de moluscos tratados com hidrocortisona.

  9. Papel do receptor P2X7 em modelo murino de infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Junior,André Avelino dos

    2012-01-01

    A tuberculose (TB) continua sendo uma das principais causas de morte no mundo, devido à grande capacidade de adaptação do bacilo que pode sobreviver em diferentes condições dentro e fora do hospedeiro humano. Estudos prévios mostraram evidências de que polimorfismos no receptor purinérgico P2X7 estão associados ao aumento da suscetibilidade à TB. O presente estudo objetivou analisar o papel do receptor purinérgico P2X7, na infecção por M. tuberculosis em camundongos, e os possíveis mecanismos...

  10. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  11. Swiss EMBnet node web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquet, Laurent; Bordoli, Lorenza; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Pagni, Marco; Jongeneel, C Victor

    2003-07-01

    EMBnet is a consortium of collaborating bioinformatics groups located mainly within Europe (http://www.embnet.org). Each member country is represented by a 'node', a group responsible for the maintenance of local services for their users (e.g. education, training, software, database distribution, technical support, helpdesk). Among these services a web portal with links and access to locally developed and maintained software is essential and different for each node. Our web portal targets biomedical scientists in Switzerland and elsewhere, offering them access to a collection of important sequence analysis tools mirrored from other sites or developed locally. We describe here the Swiss EMBnet node web site (http://www.ch.embnet.org), which presents a number of original services not available anywhere else.

  12. Estudo morfológico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57 BL10 submetidos à ingestão prolongada de etanol Study of ultrastructural alterations in gastrocnemius muscle of C57 BL10 mice after prolonged ethanol ingestion

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    João Batista Guedes e Silva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do alcoolismo crônico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos bem nutridos foram estudados morfologicamente com a finalidade de se avaliar a hipótese de que o etanol exerce um papel tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. Foram usados 30 camundongos C57BL10 machos, adultos jovens, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo A (controle consistindo de 10 camundongos que beberam água e Grupo B (alcoólico de 20 camundongos que beberam etanol a 25%. Todos os animais receberam" uma ração balanceada de laboratório e foram mantidos nesse regime ad libitum nas mesmas condições ambientais durante 48 semanas e pesados uma vez por semana. O consumo diário de dieta e a ingestão calórica foram calculados tendo os animais apresentado substancial ganho de peso, não mostrando qualquer sinal de desnutrição. Ao final do experimento os animais foram sacrificados para estudos morfológicos. Pela microscopia óptica não foram encontradas alterações. Importantes anormalidades foram observadas pela microscopia eletrônica em todos os espécimens.O retículo sarcoplasmático mostrou-se freqüentemente dilatado, resultando na formação de grandes vesículas e envolvendo as cisternas terminais com deslocamento das tríades. Áreas de estreitamento, ruptura e perda de miofibrilas ocorreram assim como zonas de completa desorganização de miofibrilas com perda do padrão estriado normal. As mitocondrias estavam em linhas gerais dentro dos limites da normalidade. Agregados tubulares peculiares vistos comumente na paralisia periódica e outras condições patológicas humanas, foram encontrados tanto no músculo dos camundongos controles como no dos alcoólicos. Os nervos intramusculares assim como as junções neuromusculares mostravam-se normais. Importantes anormalidades nos capilares musculares foram observadas, consistindo de tumefação das células endoteliais e de espessamento da lâmina basal. Difusa infiltração lipídica microvesicular

  13. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

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    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  14. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  15. Morphometric study of the postnatal growth of the parotid gland of the mouse Estudo morfométrico do crescimento pós-natal da glândula parótida do camundongo

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    Tiago Turri de Castro Ribeiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the mouse parotid glands during 7 and 35 days of postnatal life was studied by morphometric methods. The mass of the gland, the volume of each morphological compartment, and the cell number in each compartment were evaluated. The data obtained for each evaluated dimension were adjusted by an exponential equation, of the type Y = a.e k.x, thus permitting the calculation of their mean duplication time (T D, i.e., an estimation of their growth rate. Analysis of the results showed a marked 1,424% increase in the gland mass during the whole studied period, with T D = 7.10 days. This growth occurred by increases in absolute volume of acini, intercalated ducts, striated ducts, excretory ducts and stroma, with percentual increases of 3,048%, 417%, 2,662%, 2,594% and 367%, respectively, and T Ds of 5.62, 11.71, 5.55, 5.47 and 14.45 days, respectively. Analysis of the cell number growth in each compartment showed increases of 1,904%, 285%, 1,228%, 1,090% and 286%, respectively, and T Ds of 6.62, 20.40, 7.19, 7.26 and 14.51 days, respectively. Based on the present results, we concluded that the growth of the mouse parotid glands from day 7 to day 35 of age occurred by intense cell accumulation, mainly in the acini, striated ducts and excretory ducts, with a growth rate sensibly higher than that of the intercalated ducts and stroma.O crescimento das glândulas parótidas do camundongo durante 7 e 35 dias de vida pós-natal foi estudado por métodos morfométricos. A massa glandular, o volume de cada compartimento morfológico e o número de células em cada compartimento foram avaliados. Os dados obtidos para cada dimensão avaliada foram ajustados por equação exponencial, tipo Y = a.e k.x, permitindo o cálculo do seu tempo de duplicação médio (T D, ou seja, uma estimativa da sua velocidade de crescimento. A análise dos resultados mostrou a ocorrência de um marcante aumento de massa glandular no período estudado de 1.424%, com T D = 7

  16. Captura de lipossomas pelas placas de Peyer de camundongos após administração oral Uptake of liposomes by Peyer´s patches following per os administration in mice

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    Gilson Andrade Ramaldes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi marcar uma proteína utilizada como modelo, a soro albumina bovina (SAB, com 99mTecnécio (99mTc, encapsular a rroteína marcada (99mTc-SAB em lipossomas e empregar este marcador para quantificar a 99m c-SAB capturada pelas placas de Peyer de camundongos Balb/c após administração oral. A 99mTc-SAB (taxa de marcação=94,9±2,4%; n=25 foi encapsulada em lipossomas multilamelar (MLV, unilamelar de pequeno tamanho (SUV ou unilamelar de grande tamanho (LUV compostos de fosfatidilcolina de soja (PC; PC e colesterol (CH (razão molar 8/2; PC, CH e fosfatidilglicerol (PG (razão molar 7/2/1 ou distearoilfosfatidilcolina (DSPC, CH e PG (razão molar 7/2/1. Utilizando eletroforese em gel de agarose e imunoeletroforese contra uma imunoglobulina anti-SAB específica, foi verificado que a SAB não sofreu degradação após ter sido marcada com 99mTc e encapsulada em lipossomas. 99mTc-SAB encapsulada em SUV compostos por PC/CH/PG ou DSPC/CH/ PG foi preferencialmente capturada pelas placas de Peyer. A captura de 99mTc-SAB encapsulada em LUV foi reduzida quando comparada com aquela observada para SUV com a mesma composição em lipídios. 99mTc-SAB encapsulada em MLV compostos por PC/CH/PG ou DSPC/CH/PG e em SUV compostos de PC ou PC/CH não foi capturada pelas placas de Peyer. Os resultados indicam que SUV pode ser um carreador para antígenos instáveis no trato gastrintestinal, tornando-os potencialmente capazes de induzir a resposta imunológica das mucosas.The aim of this study was to employ a model protein, the bovine serum albumin (SAB, radiolabelled with 99mTechnetium (99mTc (99mTc-SAB and encapsulated into liposomes, in order to determine the amount de 99mTc-SAB taken up by Peyer´s patches following per os administration in mice Balb/c. The 99mTc-SAB, labelling yield of 94.9±2.4 % (n=25, was encapsulated within multilamellar large vesicles (MLV, small unilamellar vesicles (SUV or large unilamellar vesicles (LUV

  17. Tentativa de tratamento específico, por meio da ticlopidina, de pacientes com doença de Chagas em fase crônica

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    Rassi Anis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em investigação experimental, a ticlopidina mostrou ser ativa no sentido de diminuir a parasitemia e a mortalidade quando avaliada a infecção de camundongos pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Por isso, este fármaco foi administrado a 12 pacientes com doença de Chagas, em fase crônica. Houve utilização de 150, 200 ou 250mg, durante 90 dias, conforme se tratasse de crianças, adolescentes ou adultos, respectivamente. Ficou documentado cabal insucesso sob os pontos de vista parasitológico e sorológico.

  18. Action of the medicine Canova® on peritoneal resident macrophages infected with Trypanosoma cruzi = Ação do medicamento Canova® em macrófagos peritoniais residentes infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Vanessa Tagawa Cardoso de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20 million of people are chronically infected withTrypanosoma cruzi in Latin America. The present work investigated the action of the homeopathic medicine Canova® on in vitro experimental infections with T. cruzi Y strain, using Swiss mice resident peritoneal macrophages. Our results demonstrated that Canova®induced a decrease in the production of H2O2 and TNF-a at 20 and 40% concentrations when compared to the control RPMI. However, when compared with this medicine excipient, a significant decrease in these mediators was observed with Canova® at 40% concentration only. The production of NO and phagocytic activity were not affected. TNF-a inhibits T. cruzi replication in peritoneal macrophages in vitro, becoming an important agent of infection control by this parasite. Within this context, Canova®, unlike what has been reported with other infections, would function as a stimulator of the infection, since it inhibited the production of TNF-α by peritoneal resident macrophages in vitro. Further studies should be carried out with elicited macrophages, in order to confirm the inhibitoryactivity of Canova® on the production of TNF-α and other mediators in macrophages infected by T. cruzi.Aproximadamente 20 milhões de pessoas são cronicamente infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi na América Latina. O presente trabalhoinvestigou a ação do medicamento homeopático Canova® em infecções experimentais “in vitro” com Trypanosoma cruzi, cepa Y, usando macrófagos residentes peritoniais de camundongos Swiss. Os resultados indicaram que Canova® induz a diminuição significativa da produção de H2O2 e TNF-α em concentrações de 20 e 40%, quando comparado com ocontrole RPMI. Quando comparado com o excipiente do medicamento, observou-se diminuição na concentração destes mediadores apenas na concentração de 40%. A produção de NO e a atividade fagocítica não foram afetadas. TNF-α inibe a replicação do protozoário em

  19. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...... by more than 40% with most of the response occurring in two quarters immediately before and after the source tax was introduced. The estimates imply an elasticity of Swiss deposits with respect to the net-of-source-tax-rate in the range 2.5-3....

  20. Valores de referência de parâmetros bioquímicos no sangue de duas linhagens de camundongos Reference values for blood-based biochemical parameters in BALB/C and C57BL/6 wild-type mice

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    Aline Silva Almeida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Conhecer os parâmetros bioquímicos individuais de animais de laboratório utilizados na experimentação é importante, pois eles servirão como parâmetros para avaliar alterações funcionais em órgãos e como base para estabelecer valores de referência. OBJETIVO:Estabelecer valores de referência bioquímicos do sangue em camundongos das linhagens BALB/c e C57BL/6 selvagens do Biotério da Disciplina de Biologia Celular da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM. Materiais e métodos: Foram utilizados 30 camundongos (BALB/c e C57BL/6 selvagem. Os exames realizados foram glicose, triglicérides, colesterol, proteínas totais, albumina, amilase, ácido úrico, uréia, fosfatase alcalina (kits Wiener, e as determinações foram realizadas no equipamento BIOPLUS-2000. RESULTADOS:Entre os nove analitos observou-se que quatro (albumina, glicose, proteínas totais e colesterol apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as linhagens. Padronizamos como valores de referência para os camundongos os valores do intervalo de confiança (IC. Nos analitos em que houve diferença significativa entre as linhagens (p INTRODUCTION: Identifying individual biochemical parameters of laboratory animal species is important inasmuch as they may be used in the evaluation of functional changes in organs and in the establishment of reference values. OBJECTIVE: To establish biochemical reference values for blood tests in BALB/c and C57BL/6 wild-type mice from the Vivarium of the Department of Cellular Biology at the Federal University of "Triângulo Mineiro". MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty wild-type mice of the lineages BALB/c and C57BL/6 were used to evaluate the serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, uric acid, urea and alkaline phosphatase. The determinations were performed in a BIOPLUS-2000 analyzer. Results: Four out of the nine analytes (albumin, glucose, total proteins and

  1. Sanitary profile in mice and rat colonies in laboratory animal houses in Minas Gerais: I - Endo and ectoparasites Perfil sanitário de colônias de camundongos e ratos de biotérios de Minas Gerais: I - Endo e ectoparasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Bicalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary conditions of 13 animal houses in nine public institutions in Minas Gerais, and the presence of endo and ectoparasites of mice and rats colonies kept in these facilities were evaluated. Data about barriers to prevent the transmission of diseases and a program of sanitary monitoring were obtained through a questionnaire and local visit. Parasitological methods were performed for diagnosing mite, lice, helminthes, and protozoa parasites in 344 mice and 111 rats. Data have shown that the majority of the animal houses had neither proper physical environment nor protection barriers to prevent the transmission of infections. Parasitological results have shown that only one animal house (7.7% had parasite free animals, whereas the others have presented infected animals and the prevalences of parasites in the mice colonies were: Myobia musculi (23.1%; Myocoptes musculinus (38.5%; Radfordia affinis (15.4%; Syphacia obvelata (92.3%; Aspiculuris tetraptera (23.1%; Hymenolepis nana (15.4%; Spironucleus muris (46.2%; Giardia muris (46.2%; Tritrichomonas muris (53.8%; Trichomonas minuta (61.5%; Hexamastix muris (7.7%; and Entamoeba muris (84.6%. As for the rat colonies, the prevalences were: Poliplax spinulosa (8.1%; Syphacia muris (46.2%; Trichosomoides crassicauda (28.6%; Spironucleus muris (85.7%; Tritrichomonas muris (85.7%; Trichomonas minuta (85.7%; Hexamastix muris (14.3% and Entamoeba muris (85.7%.Avaliaram-se as condições sanitárias de 13 biotérios de nove instituições públicas do estado de Minas Gerais, bem como a presença de endo e ectoparasitos nos camundongos e ratos criados nesses biotérios. Os dados sobre barreiras contra infecções e sobre o programa de monitoramento sanitário dos animais foram obtidos por meio de um questionário e de visitas aos biotérios. Métodos parasitológicos foram utilizados para o diagnóstico de ácaros, piolhos, helmintos e protozoários em 344 camundongos e 111 ratos. A maioria dos biot

  2. The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice O efeito das propriedades antioxidantes do extrato aquoso do alho e da Nigella sativa como agentes anti-esquistossômicos no camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla S. EL Shenawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant and anti-schistosomal activities of the garlic extract (AGE and Nigella sativa oil (NSO on normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. AGE (125 mg kg-1, i.p. and NSO (0.2 mg kg-1, i.p. were administrated separately or in combination for successive 28 days, starting from the 1st day post infection (pi. All mice were sacrificed at weeks 7 pi. Hematological and biochemical parameters including liver and kidney functions were measured to assess the progress of anemia, and the possibility of the tissue damage. Serum total protein level, albumin, globulin and cholesterol were also determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels were determined in the liver tissues as biomarkers for oxidative and reducing status, respectively. The possible effect of the treatment regimens on Schistosoma worms was evaluated by recording percentage of the recovered worms, tissue egg and oogram pattern. Result showed that, protection with AGE and NSO prevented most of the hematological and biochemical changes and markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of schistosomiasis mice compared to the infected-untreated ones. In addition, remarkable reduction in worms, tissue eggs and alteration in oogram pattern were recorded in all the treated groups. The antioxidant and antischistosomal action of AGE and NSO was greatly diverse according to treatment regimens. These data point to these compounds as promising agents to complement schistosomiasis specific treatment.O propósito deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos anti-oxidantes e anti-esquistossômicos do extrato de alho (AGE e do óleo da Nigella sativa (NSO em camundongos normais e infectados com S. mansoni. AGE (125 mg/kg, i.p. e NSO (0,2 mg/kg, i.p. foram administrados separadamente ou em combinação por 28 dias sucessivos começando do primeiro dia pós infecção (p.i.. Todos os camundongos foram sacrificados sete semanas p.i. Parâmetros hematol

  3. Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bätzing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Die schweizerischen Berggebiete in der Politik [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Translated from French (see below. Zurich, Switzerland: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2014. 136 pp. CHF 24.00, € 21.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-7281-3604-6. Reviewed: La montagne Suisse en politique [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Lausanne, Switzerland: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013. 128 pp. CHF 17.50. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-2-88915-043-4.

  4. Importância do camundongo mdx na fisiopatologia da distrofia muscular de Duchenne The importance of mdx mouse in the pathophysiology of Duchenne's muscular distrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lopes Seixas; Jussara Lagrota-Cândido; Wilson Savino; Thereza Quirico-Santos

    1997-01-01

    O camundongo mdx desenvolve distrofia muscular recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X (locus Xp21.1) e não expressa distrofina. Embora não apresente intensa fibrose do tecido muscular e acúmulo de tecido adiposo, é considerado o modelo animal mais adequado da distrofia muscular de Duchenne. As alterações estruturais no tecido muscular associadas à mionecrose e presença do infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de linfócitos e monócitos/macrófagos sugerem uma participação do sistema imunológico nest...

  5. Efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo de camundongos Apo E Effect of dry coffee residues fermented with Monascus ruber on the metabolism of Apo E mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Froede Brito

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A aterosclerose é uma doença inflamatória crônica de origem multifatorial que ocorre em resposta à agressão endotelial. O fungo Monascus ruber apresenta atividade hipocolesterolêmica e polifenóis presentes no resíduo de café apresentam atividade antioxidante, podendo auxiliar na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares. O resíduo de café possui quantidade significativa de açúcares fermentescíveis, constituindo-se em substrato apropriado para o cultivo de fungos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo lipídico de camundongos knockout Apo E. MÉTODOS: O ensaio biológico foi realizado com 30 camundongos knockout para o gene Apo E, divididos em cinco grupos e submetidos a diferentes tratamentos. Foi realizada a prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação de compostos fenólicos dos resíduos fermentado e sem fermentar. O soro dos animais foi analisado utilizando kits enzimáticos e o tecido aórtico incluso em parafina e corado com H/E para realização da análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O resíduo de café sem fermentar 2%, em relação ao grupo controle, diminuiu em 42% o nível sérico de triacilgliceróis e em aproximadamente 41% a fração VLDL-c. Os grupos dos animais alimentados com 10% de resíduo não fermentado e 2% de resíduo fermentado diminuíram a área de lesão 10,5% e 15,4%, respectivamente, quando comparados ao controle. O resíduo fermentado apresentou um teor de compostos fenólicos superior ao resíduo não fermentado. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostra que a fermentação do resíduo de café apresenta potencial efeito benéfico sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente a aterosclerose.BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, which occurs in response to endothelial injury. The fungus Monascus ruber has hypocholesterolemic activity, and the

  6. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  7. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  8. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  9. Cern reaches for new frontiers (SWISS MADE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Beaumont, Adam

    2006-01-01

    "For more than 50 ears scientists at CERN, the world's largest particle physics lboratory, have been unravelling the secrets of the universe, But what is life like inside the European Organization for Nuclear Research of the Swiss-French border? Two young scientists share their experiences with swissinfo."

  10. PCR para o diagnóstico da angiostrongilíase abdominal em tecido humano e resultados em camundongos tratados com enoxaparina

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    A angiostrongilíase abdominal (AA) é uma doença causada pelo nematódeo Angiostrongylus costaricensis, tendo como hospedeiros definitivos roedores silvestres e hospedeiros intermediários moluscos terrestres. No homem, hospedeiro acidental, pode causar infartos intestinais e pseudotumorações, que podem complicar com peritonite e sepse. O diagnóstico definitivo é realizado pelo estudo histopatológico de peças cirúrgicas, ao serem identificadas estruturas parasitárias como vermes, ovos ou larvas....

  11. Sistemas de liberação controlada com bupivacaína racêmica (S50-R50 e mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25: efeitos da complexação com ciclodextrinas no bloqueio do nervo ciático em camundongos Sistemas de liberación controlada con bupivacaína racémica (S50-R50 y mescla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25: efectos de la complexación con ciclodextrinas en el bloqueo del nervio ciático en ratones Drug-delivery systems for racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 and bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25: cyclodextrins complexation effects on sciatic nerve blockade in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos adversos associados ao uso de bupivacaína levaram à procura por novos anestésicos locais (AL com perfil de bloqueio semelhante e menos tóxicos, surgindo novas preparações como a mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25. Os sistemas de liberação controlada, contendo AL em carreadores como ciclodextrinas (CD, têm como objetivo melhorar a eficácia anestésica e o índice terapêutico dessas drogas. Este estudo visou a preparação, a caracterização e a avaliação da eficácia anestésica dos complexos de inclusão da mistura enantiomérica da bupivacaína (S75-R25 e da bupivacaína racêmica (S50-R50 com hidroxipropilb-ciclodextrina (HPb-CD comparando-os com as preparações atualmente utilizadas na clínica. MÉTODO: Os complexos de inclusão foram preparados misturando-se quantidades apropriadas de HPb-CD e S50-R50 ou S75-R25 nas razões molares (1:1 e 1:2 e caracterizados por estudos de solubilidade de fases. Determinaram-se as constantes de afinidade (K de cada AL pela HPb-CD. Os bloqueios motor e sensorial induzidos pelas drogas livres e complexadas foram avaliados, em camundongos, através do bloqueio do nervo ciático. Para a realização dos experimentos, utilizaram-se três concentrações de AL: 0,125%; 0,25% e 0,5%. RESULTADOS: Os estudos de solubilidade indicaram a formação de complexos de inclusão de S50-R50 e S75-R25 com HPb-CD, com valores de constante de afinidade (K similares para os dois anestésicos: 14,7 M-1 (S50-R50:HP-bCD e 14,3 M-1 (S75-R25:HP-bCD. Os testes em animais mostraram que a complexação potencializou o bloqueio nervoso diferencial induzido pelos AL: i a duração do bloqueio motor induzido por S75-R25 foi similar à do S50-R50, mas menos intenso (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los efectos adversos asociados al uso de bupivacaína llevaron a la búsqueda por nuevos anestésicos locales (AL con perfil de bloqueo semejante y menos tóxicos, surgiendo nuevas

  12. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  13. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A; K\\'{e}p\\'{\\i}r\\'{o}, Ibolya

    2006-01-01

    We consider Swiss-cheese brane universes embedded asymmetrically into the bulk. Neither the junction conditions between the Schwarzschild spheres and the sorrounding Friedmann brane regions with cosmological constant $\\Lambda $, nor the evolution of the scale factor are changed with respect to the symmetric case. The universe expands and decelerates forever. The asymmetry however has a drastic influence on the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Instead of the two branches of the symmetric case, in the asymmetric case four branches emerge. Moreover, the future pressure singularity arising in the symmetric case only for huge values of $\\Lambda $ becomes quite generic in the asymmetric case. Such pressure singularities emerge also when $\\Lambda=0$ is set. Then they are due entirely to the asymmetric embedding. For generic values of $\\Lambda $ we introduce a critical value of a suitably defined asymmetry parameter, which separates Swiss-cheese cosmologies with and without pressure singularities.

  14. No Swiss-cheese on the brane

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A

    2004-01-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  15. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  17. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    CERN Document Server

    Lavinto, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi holes in $\\Lambda$CDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius $r_b=50$ $h^{-1}$Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB. We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% l...

  19. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  20. Evolução das imunoglobunilas envolvidas na resposta imune de camundongos ao Schistosoma mansoni The evolution of immunoglobulins involved in the immune response to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a evolução das imunoglobulinas envolvidas na resposta imune de camundongos ao Schistosoma mansoni durante oito semanas de infecção, utilizando soros pluri-específicos como reativos biológicos e a técnica da imunoeletroforese bidimensional. Os resultados expressaram modulação da resposta imune humoral, tanto em soros de animais parasitados (I como nos normais, tomados como controle (C. Aumentos relativos dos níveis de imunoglobulinas entre estes dois grupos foram constatados pela relação I/C. Foi possível verificar o aparecimento de uma resposta primária, ocorrida entre o início da doença e a segunda semana de infecção, constituída de IgM e IgA, e uma secundária, iniciada na sexta semana de infecção, constituída pelas IgA; IgG1 e IgM, com aumentos relativos de 4.5; 3 e 2 vezes normal.The evolution of immunoglobulins involved in the immune response of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni was studied by using plurispecific sera and the bi-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis technique. Determinations of the level of different immunoglobulins in infected animals and control groups which were mantained under similar conditions detected significant variations in both groups over the 8 weeks of observation. The study of the relationship (I/C between the level of immunoglobulins of the infected animals (I and that of corresponding control (C showed that the infected animals presented a primary response (1-2 weeks after infection date and a secondary response that was initiated in the 6th week of infection, with levels of IgA, IgG and IgM that were respectively 4.5, 3 and 2 times higher than those of corresponding control.

  1. Esporos e toxinas de Clostridium botulinum dos tipos C e D em cacimbas no Vale do Araguaia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Aires M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a ocorrência e distribuição de esporos e toxinas de Clostridium botulinum tipos C e D em 300 cacimbas empregadas como bebedouro de bovinos em 130 propriedades rurais localizadas em 12 municípios do Vale do Araguaia, Estado de Goiás. A presença de esporos foi determinada indiretamente pelo cultivo em meio de cultura, seguido da inoculação e neutralização em camundongo das amostras de sedimento do interior das cacimbas, e do solo superficial e fezes de bovinos, coletadas ao seu redor. A presença de toxina foi avaliada diretamente pela inoculação em camundongo do sedimento filtrado das cacimbas, também seguida da neutralização em camundongo com antitoxinas C e D. A presença de esporos de C. botulinum foi significativamente maior (p<0,05 nas fezes de bovinos (31%, quando comparadas com os resultados das amostras de solo superficial (19% e dos sedimentos (10%. Foram detectadas toxinas botulínicas dos tipos C, D, ou classificadas como pertencentes ao complexo CD, em seis amostras (2% das 300 cacimbas. Das 130 propriedades trabalhadas, em 122(93,85% foram encontrados esporos ou toxinas de Clostridium botulinum em pelo menos uma das variáveis pesquisadas, enquanto somente 8(6,15% não apresentaram qualquer contaminação A idade e profundidade das cacimbas estiveram associadas com a freqüência de detecção de esporos e toxinas. Assim, quanto mais velhas e rasas, maior a freqüência do isolamento de esporos e toxinas. A contaminação das cacimbas do Vale do Araguaia goiano com esporos e toxinas do Clostridium botulinum tipos C e D demonstra o risco potencial permanente e crescente para a ocorrência da intoxicação botulínica de origem hídrica nos bovinos.

  2. Imunização de camundongos com "vacina" viva avirulenta de Trypanosoma cruzi: IV. ensaio de esquema de "vacinação"[ign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Menezes

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available A parasitemia e o exame histológico revelaram que, aparentemente camundongos que receberam duas doses de "vacina" reagiram melhor a vma infecção virulenta do T. cruzi do que animais "vacinados'' uma única vez. Nestes a infecção realizada quatro ou dez semanas depois da imunização não alterou substancialmente a resposta imunitária medida pela parasitemia, percentual de mortalidade e grau da resposta tissular. Animais unicamente "vacinados", com uma ou duas doses, não apresentaram alterações histológicas diferentes das dos animais normais. Êstes mostraram quase sempre um discreto grau de inflamação crônica focal no miocáráio, e fígado.

  3. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  4. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  5. Infecção via oral por Trypanosoma evansi em animais de laboratório Oral infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rats and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a infecção de Trypanosoma evansi pela via oral em ratos e camundongos, através de sangue contaminado de ambas as espécies. Dez ratos e dez camundongos foram alocados em quatro grupos iguais A e B (ratos, C e D (camundongos. Os grupos A e C receberam sangue contaminado de um rato e o grupo B e D de um camundongo, através de uma sonda. O volume de sangue administrado foi de 0,2ml, o qual apresentava uma concentração de 10(7 tripanossomas ml-1. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatura e umidade constantes (25°C e 80% UR, sendo realizados esfregaços sanguíneos diários para identificar o período pré-patente e a evolução do parasita na circulação. Nos grupos A e B, o período pré-patente variou de 19 a 25 dias, e o período entre a detecção dos parasitas e a morte dos animais foi em média de 12,7 dias. Os camundongos do grupo C e D não apresentaram infecção pelo parasita, sendo estes avaliados por 60 dias. Os ratos foram susceptíveis a infecção por T. evansi pela via oral; entretanto, os camundongos não se contaminaram com o protozoário por via digestiva.In this research, Trypanosoma evansi infection was tested in rats and mice by oral ingestion of contaminated blood. Groups of ten rats and ten mice were disposed in four experimental groups: A and B (rats, C and D (mice. The groups A and C were contaminated by rat-contaminated blood; B and C groups by mouse-contaminated blood. The blood was given using a probe filled with 0.2ml of contaminated blood with 10(7 trypanosomes ml-1. These animals were maintained at constant temperature and humidity (25°C and 80% UR. Dairy blood smear were done to identify the prepatent period and evolution of parasite in the circulation. In the A and B groups, the pre latency period varied from 19 to 25 days and the period of parasite detection and animals death was an average of 12.7 days. The C and D groups did not present infection by the parasite even when evaluated for 60 days

  6. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Sigve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  7. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Sigve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  8. Estudo da patogenicidade para camundongos recém-nascidos de amostras de echovirus tipo 9 isoladas de casos de meningite durante um surto epidêmico no Rio de Janeiro Pathogenicity for newborn mice of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do echovirus tipo 9 para camundongos recém-nascidos foi estudada, utilizando-se 12 amostras isoladas em cultura de células primárias de rim de macaco, a partir do liquor de crianças com meningite. Os animais inoculados com o fluido da primeira passagem em células desenvolveram paralisia flácida, após um período de 5 dias, com a morte ate o 8º dia. Os especimens originais de liquor não continham suficiente vírus para provocar sinais clínicos nos animais inoculados no período de 21 dias de observação. Ao exame histopatológico os animais doentes apresentaram miopatia necrotizante da musculatura paravertebral, língua e diafragma. Animais inoculados que não desenvolveram paralisia durante o período de observação apresentaram miosite discreta, sem que tenha sido encontrada necrose das fibras musculares.The pathogenicity for baby-mice of 12 strains of echovirus type 9, isolated in primary monkey kidney cells, from liquor specimens of children with meningitis, have been studied. The animals inoculated with the first passage in tissue culture show after a period of 5 days, a flaccid paralysis and died by the 8th day after inoculation. The original liquor specimens did not contain enough virus to cause clinical signs in the inoculated animals, during the 21 days of observation. Histopathologicals studies in the sick animals, show a necrosis of the paravertebral muscles, tongue and diafragm. Inoculated animals wich did not develop paralysis during the observation period, show light miositis without necrosis of the muscle tissue.

  9. Sincronização fótica e não fótica dos ritmos circadianos em roedores subterrâneos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) e roedores modelo de laboratório (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Eugênio de França Laurindo Flôres

    2016-01-01

    Nosso grupo de pesquisa estuda ritmos circadianos em um roedor subterrâneo do gênero Ctenomys, o tuco-tuco. Nesta tese, apresentarei dados sobre sincronização fótica e não-fótica dos ritmos circadianos em tuco-tucos, e sobre sincronização não-fótica em camundongos. Investigamos a sincronização fótica em tuco-tucos por meio de uma abordagem conjunta de campo e laboratório. Inicialmente medimos o ciclo claro/escuro natural percebido por animais mantidos em áreas cercadas em campo, utilizando ap...

  10. Redução na concentração de glicose no cérebro de camundongos inoculados com liquido cefalorraquiano de pacientes com esclerose lateral amiotrófica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Godoy

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores analisam, por técnica cromatográfica, as concentrações de glicose no cérebro de camundongos inoculados com L.CR de 4 pacientes com ELA. Foi encontrada redução na, concentração do carboidrato no material estudado, sugerindo a presença de fator extrínseco veiculado pelo LCR.

  11. Acute inflammatory response to a foreign body in Calomys callosus Perfil de migração celular agudo induzido pela presença de corpo estranho em Calomys callosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kipnis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Calomys callosus are wild rodents present in the Brazilian savannas that were adapted to the laboratorial conditions. These animals are resistant to infections that induce chronic inflammatory responses (<em>Trypanosoma cruziem> and <em>Paracoccidioides brasiliensisem>. The objective of this work was to characterize the acute inflammatory reaction, prompted by the subcutaneous implementation of a foreign body. Twenty seven <em>C. callosusem> and thirty B10A mice received implant and were comparatively analyzed during 144 hours. Circular cover slides implanted in <em>C. callosusem> showed predominance of macrophages and eosinophils whereas in the mice, the neutrophils followed by the macrophages were the migratory dominant cells (p <0.05. It was concluded that <em>C. callosusem> present inflammatory mechanisms for the removal of foreign body different from the ones found in the other rodents as well as in the human beings.

     

    KEY WORDS: Acute inflammation, cover slip, granuloma, histology, wild rodents.

    Calomys callosus são roedores silvestres presentes no cerrado brasileiro, que foram adaptados às condições laboratoriais. Trata-se de animais que apresentam resistência às infecções que induzem respostas inflamatórias crônicas (<em>Trypanosoma cruziem> e <em>Paracoccidioides brasiliensisem>. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a reação inflamatória, na fase aguda, induzida pela implantação subcutânea de um corpo estranho. Vinte e sete <em>C. callosusem> e trinta camundongos (B10A foram implantados e analisados comparativamente durante 144 horas. Lamínulas implantadas em <em>C. callosusem> mostraram predomínio de macrófagos e eosinófilos, enquanto que, nos camundongos, os neutrófilos seguidos pelos macrófagos foram as células migratórias dominantes (p< 0,05. Conclui-se que os <em>C. callosusem

  12. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. em animais exóticos de companhia no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA infecção por algumas espécies ou genótipos de Cryptosporidiumrepresenta um risco em potencial para a saúde pública, principalmente por causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças de zero a cinco anos de idade e em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Embora existam alguns relatos de infecção por Cryptosporidiumem animais de companhia, sua participação na epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana é incerta, e a literatura sobre esse tema ainda é bastante escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e realizar a classificação molecular deCryptosporidiumspp. em amostras fecais de animais exóticos criados como animais de estimação no Brasil. Um total de 386 amostras de seis espécies de animais foi colhido e armazenado em solução de dicromato de potássio 5% a 4°C. Os oocistos foram purificados por centrífugo-sedimentação em água/éter, seguindo-se a extração de DNA genômico e a realização da nestedPCR para amplificação de fragmento parcial do gene da subunidade 18S do rRNA. Positividade para Cryptosporidiumspp. foi observada em 11,40% (44/386 das amostras. O sequenciamento de fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de Cryptosporidium tyzzeri em camundongos,Cryptosporidium murisem camundongos, hamster e chinchila, Cryptosporidium parvumem chinchila, Cryptosporidiumgenótipo hamsterem hamstere Cryptosporidiumsp. em porquinho-da-índia. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que há uma variedade de espécies de Cryptosporidiumpresentes em animais exóticos de companhia no Brasil. Os dados sugerem que esses animais podem participar da epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana, particularmente por seu estreito convívio.

  13. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  14. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  15. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  16. Terapia celular em doenças pulmonares: existem perspectivas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João T. Ribeiro-Paes

    Full Text Available A terapia celular poderia ser conceituada de forma ampla e genérica como o emprego de células para tratamento de doenças. Apesar de um número não tão expressivo de relatos tendo o pulmão como objeto de estudo na terapia celular em pacientes humanos, há dados consistentes da literatura, tanto em humanos, quanto em modelos animais,que evidenciam a migração de células-tronco da medula óssea para o pulmão,em diferentes situações experimentais. Esses resultados forneceram o embasamento experimental para o emprego de células-tronco na regeneração do tecido pulmonar em modelos animais. Em nosso laboratório, vários projetos de pesquisa têm sido conduzidos com a finalidade de avaliar a resposta pulmonar (morfológica e funcional ao tratamento com células-tronco adultas em camundongos com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC induzida experimentalmente. Os resultados obtidos, aliados àqueles de outros grupos de pesquisa, permitem aventar a possibilidade de aplicação, a curto prazo, da terapia celular em pacientes com DPOC. Em outra patologia pulmonar, fibrose cística (FC, cuja abordagem terapêutica com células-tronco apresenta aspectos particulares em relação às patologias pulmonares crônico-degenerativas, há avanços promissores e potencialmente interessantes; no entanto, os resultados podem ser considerados incipientes e deve-se assinalar, portanto, que a associação da terapia gênica e celular apresenta-se como uma alternativa possível, mas ainda muito distante quanto à sua consolidação e incorporação como opção terapêutica segura e eficaz em FC. Por outro lado, tendo por embasamento os resultados obtidos em modelos experimentais, é possível postular que a terapia celular com células-tronco hematopoéticas (ou de outras fontes encerra perspectivas consistentes de aplicação em diversas outras patologias pulmonares humanas, especialmente em DPOC.

  17. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  18. Importância do camundongo mdx na fisiopatologia da distrofia muscular de Duchenne The importance of mdx mouse in the pathophysiology of Duchenne's muscular distrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lopes Seixas

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O camundongo mdx desenvolve distrofia muscular recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X (locus Xp21.1 e não expressa distrofina. Embora não apresente intensa fibrose do tecido muscular e acúmulo de tecido adiposo, é considerado o modelo animal mais adequado da distrofia muscular de Duchenne. As alterações estruturais no tecido muscular associadas à mionecrose e presença do infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de linfócitos e monócitos/macrófagos sugerem uma participação do sistema imunológico nesta miopatia. Além disso a modulação na expressão dos componentes da matriz extracelular no microambiente muscular nas várias fases da doença (início, mionecrose, regeneração indicam um papel importante do conjuntivo no direcionamento das células inflamatórias para o foco da lesão muscular. O camundongo mdx coloca-se como um excelente modelo para o estudo dos mecanismos patogenéticos da mionecrose e regeneração na distrofia muscular de Duchenne, possibilitando inclusive o desenvolvimento de estratégias terapêuticas mais adequadas.The mdx mouse develop an X-linked recessive muscular dystrophy (locus Xp21.1 and lack dystrophin expression. Despite showing less intense myofibrosis and scarce deposition of fatty tissue, mdx mice are considered an adequate animal model for studies on the pathogenesis of Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. Marked histological alterations in the muscular tissues associated to myonecrosis and inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate (lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages suggest a participation of the immune system in this myopathy. Modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM components in the muscular tissue during all phases (onset, myonecrosis and regeneration of disease, indicate an important role for the ECM driving inflammatory cells to the foci of lesion. Therefore mdx mice should be regarded as an important tool for studies on pathogenetic mechanisms of Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. Such

  19. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of annually resolved environmental variations during the Allerød interstadial is presented using 81 fossil Scots pine tree-ring series from Gaenziloo and Landikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. The absolute age of the trees ranges between 11,920 and 10,610 14C BP, which was determined...... by wiggle-matching radiocarbon ages to the Cariaco 14C data set. From the two sites we created a composite floating Allerød chronology on the basis of their 632 years of overlap (r = 0.57), after individual spline detrending. Merging both data sets resulted in a Lateglacial tree-ring chronology covering...... 1050 years. Regional curve standardization (RCS) was applied to preserve low-frequency information. Growth behavior of the fossil trees was compared with a recent composite pine data set from the central Swiss Alps and reveals distinct differences. The new Allerød RCS chronology reveals major...

  20. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  1. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  2. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  3. Análise comportamental e histológica de um modelo animal da doença de Parkinson em camundongos suíços

    OpenAIRE

    GARCEZ, Daniela Rosa

    2011-01-01

    A Doença de Parkinson (DP) é uma das doenças neurodegenerativas mais comuns relacionadas com a idade, e apresenta sintomatologia com alterações motoras clássicas que estão relacionadas com a degeneração dos neurônios dopaminérgicos da SNpc e a diminuição de dopamina no estriado. Modelos animais da DP são instrumentos importantes utilizados por pesquisadores para uma maior compreensão de mecanismos patológicos envolvidos na doença e para a ava...

  4. Bioensaios e estudo da atividade anti-inflamatória da semente de sucupira (Pterodon emarginatus, Vogel), utilizando camundongos em modelo experimental de osteoartrite.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A sucupira é uma árvore de copa larga que a medicina popular utiliza como alternativa de tratamento para diversas enfermidades, destas são conhecidas às ações do óleo essencial extraído de suas folhas, casca do tronco, tubérculos ou raiz, porém o uso da sua semente ainda é pouco discutido na comunidade científica. Objetivando determinar o potencial anti-inflamatório, potencial analgésico, sua quantidade mínima necessária para estabelecer sua ação, sua toxicidade e a indução na formação do fib...

  5. Action of the schistosomotic spleen in male mices on the regulation of thyroid hormones; Possivel influencia do baco esquistossomotico em camundongos machos na modulacao dos hormonios tireotroficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, S.R.S.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Neves, E.S.; Silveira, M.F.G. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia

    1997-12-01

    For the purpose to study the action of the schistosomotic spleen on the regulation of TSH, T4 and albumin levels in serum, spleens from adults mice infected by Schistosoma mansoni were homogeneized, centrifuged and cromatographed in a column of Sephadex G-100, resulting in two proteans fractions (I and II). The biologic activity was determinated through the administration of the fractions by intraperitoneal way (IP), in male mice aged 27-30 days, in a period of three following days. Five days after the last administration, the animals were sacrified and their blood was collected for obtainment of serum and determination of TSH, T4 and albumin levels. Obtained results showed that the albumin levels no change when compared to control and that fraction I infected change the TSH and T4 levels, but the fraction II infected no change this levels. These results suggest that spleens from mice infected by S. mansoni have a factor that modifies the hormonal regulation in level hypophysial and the synthesis of thyroid hormones (T4), changing the basal metabolism. The seric levels of TSH and T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay using I-125. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Remodelamento miocárdico após grandes infartos converte potenciação pós-pausa em decaimento da força em ratos Miocárdio remodelado después de grandes infartos en ratas convierte potenciación post-pausa en disminucion de la fuerza Myocardial remodeling after large infarcts in rat converts post rest-potentiation in force decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Sales Bocalini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A Contração Pós-Repouso (CPR do músculo cardíaco fornece informações indiretas sobre a manipulação de cálcio intracelular. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi estudar o comportamento da CPR e seus mecanismos subjacentes em camundongos com infarto do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Seis semanas após a oclusão coronariana, a contratilidade dos Músculos Papilares (MP obtidos a partir de camundongos submetidos à cirurgia sham (C, n = 17, com infarto moderado (MMI, n = 10 e grande infarto (LMI, n = 14, foi avaliada após intervalos de repouso de 10 a 60 segundos antes e depois da incubação com cloreto de lítio (Li+ em substituição ao cloreto de sódio ou rianodina (Ry. A expressão proteica de SR Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA2, trocador Na+/Ca2+ (NCX, fosfolambam (PLB e fosfo-Ser (16-PLB foi analisada por Western blotting. RESULTADOS: Os camundongos MMI apresentaram potenciação de CPR reduzida em comparação aos camundongos C. Em oposição à potenciação normal para camundongos C, foram observadas degradações de força pós-repouso nos músculos de camundongos LMI. Além disso, a Ry bloqueou a degradação ou potenciação de PRC observada em camundongos LMI e C; o Li+ inibiu o NCX e converteu a degradação em potenciação de CPR em camundongos LMI. Embora os camundongos MMI e LMI tenham apresentado diminuição no SERCA2 (72 ± 7% e 47 ± 9% de camundongos controle, respectivamente e expressão protéica de fosfo-Ser16-PLB (75 ± 5% e 46 ± 11%, respectivamente, a superexpressão do NCX (175 ± 20% só foi observada nos músculos de camundongos LMI. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados mostraram, pela primeira vez, que a remodelação miocárdica pós-IAM em camundongos pode mudar a potenciação regular para degradação pós-repouso, afetando as proteínas de manipulação de Ca(2+ em miócitos.FUNDAMENTO: La Contracción pos pausa (CPP del músculo cardíaco provee informaciones indirectas sobre la manejo del calcio intracelular. OBJETIVO

  7. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  8. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  9. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  10. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya

    2007-07-01

    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  11. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations In The Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, H.

    The reconstruction of preindustrial glacier fluctuations in the Swiss Alps reveals the natural range of Holocene climate variability against which the present-day climatic situation can be judged. The results of very recent research on the Great Aletsch and Gorner Glaciers (Valaisian Alps), the Lower Grindelwald Glacier (Bernese Alps) shed light on the glacier fluctuations during the last 3200 years. These glaciers have, at max- imum extensions, penetrated below the timberline and have even reached inhabited areas resulting in sometimes massive destruction. Losses of buildings, woods and pas- tures are the conditions governing the methods used for the reconstruction of glacier length fluctuation through time. The main methods are: historical - the interpretation of pictorial and written historical records, glazio-archaeology - the search for anthro- pogenic traces that are directly related to changes in glacier size/length and scientific - the radiocarbon dating of fossil soils (palaeosols) and wood found in glacier fore- fields. Numerous samples of palaeosols and fossil wood (tree trunks, roots and macro- remains) found in the glacier forefield were radiocarbon dated. Owing to the good condition of several fossil tree trunks, dendrochronological analyses were also con- ducted. The dendrochronological analysis of fossil trees has supplied much reliable evidence of glacier fluctuations through its proven exactness (a single year resolution) which is impossible to obtain with the radiocarbon method alone.

  12. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  13. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  14. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  15. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  16. Botulismo tipo C em ganso ocorrido em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in a goose at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves, caracterizando-se por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de botulismo em ganso, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ao exame clínico, o animal apresentava-se com um quadro de paralisia flácida dos músculos do pescoço, das pernas e asas, além de apresentar ainda desprendimento de penas. A necropsia não revelou lesões significativas. Foi colhido o soro do animal e submetido ao teste de soroneutralização em camundongo, que identificou a toxina de C. botulinum tipo C.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, that affects mammals and birds, characterized by a flaceid paralysis. This report describes a case of botulism in a goose in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical examinations showed dropping feathers and flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the wings, legs and neck. post-mortem examination showed no significant gross or macroscopic lesions C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the serum of the affected animal through serum neutralization test in mice.

  17. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  18. Aspectos imunológicos da infecção de seis linhagens isogênicas de camundongos por três diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi Immunological aspects of infection of 6 inbred strains of mice by 3 different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Andrade

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados aspectos da imunidade humoral e celular em seis linhagens de camundongos isogênicos (BALB/c, B-10, C3H, A/J, AKR e DBA infectados por três cepas do Trypanosoma cuzi, representantes dos três tipos de cepas da classificação de Andrade (cepas Peruana, 21SF e Colombiana. A imunidade celular, avaliada pelo teste de hipersensibilidade cutânea tardia contra antigenos do parasita, estava suprimida. A avaliação dos níveis de imunoglobulinas (imunodifusão radial, mostrou queda precose de IgG1 e elevação de IgM em praticamente todas as linhagens infectadas por qualquer das cepas estudadas. A elevação de IgG2a e/ou IgG2b foi mais intensa nas linhagens mais resistentes. Os níveis de anticorpos anti-T, cruzi (Imunofluorescência indireta e ELISA não se correlacionam com a sobrevida dos animais. Apesar de diferenças entre as linhagens observou-se uma regularidade na resposta do hospedeiro e a manutenção dos padrões biológicos que caracterizam os tipos de cepa.We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses in 6 inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, B-10, C3H, A/J, AKR and DBA infected with 3 Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Peruvian, 21 SF and Colombian, which are the standards for the 3 strains Types of Andrade's classification. Negative delayed-type hipersensitivity reactions to parasite antigens were evidence of suppressed cell-mediated immunity. An early drop of IgG1 and rise of IgM levels were observed in almost all mouse strains infected by any T. cruzi strain. Elevation of IgG2a and/or IgG2b levels was higher in resistant mouse strains. Anti-T. cruzi antibody levels (Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA did not correlate with survival. Despite some differences among mouse strains there was a definition of an overall pattern of host response and the maintenance of biological standards which characterize the basic types of T. cruzi strains.

  19. Localization of Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a transcripts during early mice tooth development by in situ hybridization Localização de transcritos de Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a durante as fases iniciais do desenvolvimento dentário de camundongos por hibridização in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Daumas Nunes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH analysis was carried out for the detection of Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a transcripts during mice odontogenesis from initiation to cap stage. Bmp-4 was expressed early in the epithelium and then in the underlying mesenchyme. Shh expression was seen in the odontogenic epithelial lining thickening, being stronger in the enamel knot area, during the cap stage. Wnt-5a transcripts were expressed only in the mesenchyme during the initiation, bud and cap stages, with strong expression in the dental mesenchyme during the bud stage. The present results showed that Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a are expressed since the very early stages of tooth development, and they suggest that the Wnt-5a gene is expressed in different cell populations than Bmp-4 and Shh.No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa não isotópica por hibridização in situ a fim de se detectar a presença de transcritos de Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a durante as fases iniciais da odontogênese em camundongos, desde a iniciação até o estágio de capuz. No estágio de iniciação, observou-se expressão precoce de Bmp-4 no epitélio e no mesênquima subjacente, enquanto que a expressão de Shh ocorreu durante o estágio de capuz, na região de espessamento do revestimento epitelial odontogênico, tornando-se mais intensa na área de nó do esmalte. Os transcritos de Wnt-5a foram expressos somente no mesênquima durante os estágios de iniciação, botão e capuz, com intenso sinal na região no mesênquima na fase de botão. Estes resultados mostraram que Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a são expressos desde os estágios mais precoces do desenvolvimento dentário, sugerindo que o gene Wnt-5a seja expresso em populações celulares distintas daquelas que expressam Bmp-4 e Shh.

  20. Associação de betabloqueadores e treinamento físico na insuficiência cardíaca de camundongos Asociación de betabloqueantes y entrenamiento físico en la insuficiencia cardíaca de ratones Association of physical training with beta-blockers in heart failure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Somolanji Vanzelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca (IC conta atualmente com diversos tipos de intervenções. Dentre elas, destacam-se a terapia com betabloqueadores (BB e o treinamento físico (TF. Contudo, os efeitos da associação dessas terapias são pouco estudados. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do tratamento com BB, metoprolol (M e carvedilol (C associados ao TF na IC em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos modelo genético de IC induzida em camundongos por hiperatividade simpática. Inicialmente, dividimos os animais com IC em: sedentários (S; treinados (T; tratados com M (138 mg/kg (M ou C (65 mg/kg (C. Na segunda parte, dividimos os grupos em S; treinado e tratado com M (MT e treinado e tratado com C (CT. O TF consistiu em treinamento aeróbico em esteira por 8 semanas. A tolerância ao esforço foi avaliada por teste progressivo máximo e a fração de encurtamento foi avaliada (FE por ecocardiografia. O diâmetro dos cardiomiócitos e a fração de colágeno foram avaliados por meio de análise histológica. Os dados foram comparados por ANOVA de um caminho com post hoc de Duncan. O nível de significância foi considerado p FUNDAMENTO: El tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca (IC cuenta actualmente con diversos tipos de intervenciones. De entre ellas podemos destacar la terapia con betabloqueantes (BB y el entrenamiento físico (EF. Con todo, los efectos de la asociación de estas terapias son poco estudiados. OBJETIVO: Verificar los efectos del tratamiento con BB, metoprolol (M y carvedilol (C asociados al EF en la IC en ratones. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos modelo genético de IC inducida en ratones por hiperactividad simpática. Inicialmente, dividimos los animales con IC en: sedentarios (S; entrenados (E; tratados con M (138 mg/kg (M o C (65 mg/kg (C. En la segunda parte, dividimos los grupos en S; entrenado y tratado con M (ME y entrenado y tratado con C (CE. El EF consistió en entrenamiento aeróbico en estera por 8 semanas. La

  1. Diagnosis and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Brazilian slaughterhouses Diagnóstico e isolamento de Toxoplasma gondii em equídeos de frigoríficos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Evers

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in Brazil. We collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six Brazilian states. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT cut-off titre ≥ 1:64, and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. Among the 398 horses, positivity for T. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6% by IFAT and in 14 (3.5% by mouse bioassay. In 12 of those 14 bioassays, mice were positive only by IFAT (cut-off titre ≥ 1:16, T. gondii being isolated in the remaining two. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of 18S rDNA to differentiate among T. gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis neurona, we found that two of the 14 brains were positive for T. gondii only. For genotyping of the two isolates and the PCR-positive brain, we performed PCR-RFLP based on 13 markers, and SAG2 all samples were Toxoplasma gondii type I. Collectively, IFAT of horse sera and mouse bioassay identified positivity in 60 (15% of the samples. Our results show that some horses sent to slaughter in Brazil have been exposed to T. gondii.O objetivo do estudo foi investigar anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e isolar o parasita do cérebro de equídeos abatidos em matadouros-frigoríficos no Brasil. Colheram-se amostras de 398 cérebros e sangue de equídeos machos e fêmeas de idades variadas, provenientes de seis estados brasileiros. As amostras de soro foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI para T. gondii (ponto de corte ≥ 64, e os fragmentos de cérebros foram submetidos ao bioensaio em camundongos. Por meio da IFI, 46 (11,6% equídeos foram soropositivos. Pelo bioensaio em camundongos, 14 (3,5% cérebros de equídeos testados foram positivos. Em doze dos bioensaios, os camundongos foram positivos somente pela IFI (ponto

  2. Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as…

  3. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  4. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  5. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  6. Interdisciplinarity in Swiss Schools: A Difficult Step into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisla, Gianni; Bausch, Luca; Bonoli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Multi- and interdisciplinary education is a major postulate in the Swiss school system and has considerable weight in educational programs and learning objectives, both in compulsory school and at the upper secondary school level. However, materializing this postulate still poses problems at the political and institutional level, where the…

  7. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  8. Sino-Swiss center for cassava technology launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Under the joint sponsorship of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), the Shanghai Center for Cassava Biotechnology (SCCB) has been established at the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology(SIPE), SIBS.

  9. Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5) em bovino infectado pelo vírus da raiva

    OpenAIRE

    Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Franco, Ana Claudia; Teixeira, Marjorie Fátima Beck; Esteves,Paulo Augusto; Schaefer,Rejane; Schmidt, Eduardo; Lemos, Ricardo Amaral; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2003-01-01

    O encéfalo de um bezerro macho, de um ano de idade, que morreu com sinais de doença neurológica, foi submetido ao laboratório para diagnóstico de raiva. O exame histopatológico revelou mielite moderada, meningoencefalite leve com infiltração perivascular e corpúsculos de Negri nas células de Purkinje do cerebelo. A infecção pelo vírus rábico foi ainda confirmada por imunofluorescência direta e por inoculação em camundongos. Além disso, um herpesvírus foi isolado dos tecidos do encéfalo. O vír...

  10. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  11. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of two endodontic cements in a macrophage culture Avaliação da citotoxicidade de dois cimentos endodônticos em cultura de macrófagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Emanoel de Souza Queiroz

    2005-09-01

    obtenção do hermético selamento marginal, sendo sua biocompatibilidade dependente do somatório das respostas de cada célula presente na região periapical. Por conseguinte, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar em cultura de macrófagos peritoneais de seis camundongos Swiss, a citotoxicidade de dois cimentos endodônticos, um à base de resina epóxica (Sealer 26 e outro contendo óxido de zinco e eugenol (Endofill, quanto a indução da produção de óxido nítrico. Após a presa e pulverização, alíquotas de 100ml da suspensão contendo 18mg/mL dos respectivos cimentos foram adicionados em placa de cultura de tecido de 96 poços, contendo a cultura de macrófagos na concentração de 5,0X10(6 células/ml. Após 48 horas de incubação, a 37ºC, em 5% de CO2, foi feita a leitura em um leitor ELISA automático para se averiguar a liberação de óxido nítrico. Verificou-se, para o cimento Sealer 26, que a produção de óxido nítrico oscilou de 36,1 a 313,0 mimols, com média de 143,82±111,03, enquanto para o Endofill estes valores foram significativamente menores (p=0.01, variando de 50,8 a 125,7, com média de 80.33±28,42 mols. Nos grupos controles positivo e negativo a média de liberação de óxido nítrico foi de 162,75mimols e 4,42mimols, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre o grupo controle positivo e o cimento Sealer 26 (p>0.05. Portanto, o cimento Sealer 26 causou, significativamente, maior toxicidade aos macrófagos, possivelmente devido aos seus componentes, a exemplo da resina epóxica e ao formaldeído, liberados durante a sua reação de polimerização.

  12. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  13. Anatomical features of the urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. An essential translational tool Características anatômicas da cateterização da uretra e bexiga de camundongos e ratos fêmeas. Instrumento essencial na pesquisa pré clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present fundamental anatomical aspects and technical skills necessary to urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. METHODS: Urethral and bladder catheterization has been widely utilized for carcinogenesis and cancer research and still remains very useful in several applications: from toxicological purposes as well as inflammatory and infectious conditions to functional aspects as bladder dynamics and vesicoureteral reflux, among many others. RESULTS: Animal models are in the center of translational research and those involving rodents are the most important nowadays due to several advantages including human reproducibility, easy handling and low cost. CONCLUSIONS: Although technical and anatomical pearls for rodent urethral and bladder access are presented as tackles to the advancement of lower urinary tract preclinical investigation in a broaden sight, restriction to female animals hampers the male microenvironment, demanding future advances.OBJETIVO: Apresentar aspectos anatômicos fundamentais e habilidades técnicas necessárias para cateterismo da uretra e bexiga em ratos e camundongos fêmeas. MÉTODOS: Cateterismo vesical tem sido amplamente utilizado na pesquisa do câncer e carcinogênese, além de várias outras aplicações, desde fins toxicológicos, condições inflamatórias e infecciosas até aspectos funcionais como a dinâmica vesical e refluxo vesico-ureteral, entre muitos outros. RESULTADOS: Os modelos animais estão no centro da investigação de translação e os roedores são os mais importantes devido a várias vantagens, incluindo reprodutibilidade humana, o fácil manuseio e baixo custo. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de permitir o desenvolvimento da investigação pré-clínica do trato urinário inferior, o modelo se restringe aos animais do sexo feminino, de modo que avanços futuros são necessários.

  14. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  15. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.

    2005-04-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  16. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; Giger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the fram...

  17. Botulismo tipo C em perus em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in turkeys in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves e é caracterizado por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de botulismo em perus, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Os animais apresentavam incoordenação motora, paralisia flácida das patas, asas e pescoço. Em um intervalo de 24 horas, todos os 29 animais do plantel vieram a óbito. Na necropsia, observou-se a presença de larvas de mosca no inglúvio. Nos soros coletados, foi identificada a toxina botulínica tipo C pelo teste de soroneutraliza��ão em camundongos.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. It affects mammals and birds, and is characterized by flaccid paralysis of the limbs. This report describes an outbreak of botulism in turkeys of various ages in the city of Santa Luzia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animals showed incoordination followed by flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the legs, wings and neck. Within 24 hours, all 29 (100% turkeys died. The post-mortem examination revealed the presence of fly larvae in the crop and the C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the sera of two affected animals by serum neutralization test.

  18. Swiss Armed Forces Conscription and Militia System: Must They Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    capacities must assume public duties and consequences in an extra professional and volunteer capacity. This expression specific to Switzerland is...by a solid link of trust. The author makes a side note that conscription is lucky, when it comes to pedagogy and relations in the Swiss society. In...Forces. Personal engagement, non- professional and time limited made by male and female citizens in order to accomplish public tasks allotted to the

  19. Reshuffling the pack in the Swiss hospital market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmüller, Bernard; Bienlein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Swiss hospitals face two major changes: one is the introduction of DRG as the currency for payment and the other one is the shortage of personnel due to demographic changes. They will do so by strengthening their accounting systems to be able to calculate costs per patient. First steps to attract new personnel are taken withiin the new professional educational system. A third change, the evolving landscape of social health insurance companies, is hard to predict.

  20. Modelling longevity bonds: Analysing the Swiss Re Kortis bond

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A key contribution to the development of the traded market for longevity risk was the issuance of the Kortis bond, the world's first longevity trend bond, by Swiss Re in 2010. We analyse the design of the Kortis bond, develop suitable mortality models to analyse its payoff and discuss the key risk factors for the bond. We also investigate how the design of the Kortis bond can be adapted and extended to further develop the market for longevity risk.

  1. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies I: Mass Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include non-zero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  2. Insertion devices at the Swiss Light Source (phase I)

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, T; Imhof, A; Patterson, B D; Patthey, L; Quitmann, C; Schulze-Briese, C; Abela, R

    2001-01-01

    The insertion devices under construction for phase I of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are described. Five undulators and one wiggler will be installed in four straight sections of the third generation 2.4 GeV SLS storage ring, under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute. To provide undulator radiation in the energy range from 10 eV to 18 keV, both long period and short period, small gap undulators will be installed.

  3. Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Delaloye, R.; Lambiel, C; I. Gärtner-Roer

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of rock glacier surface velocities over the two last decades and the destabilization of several landforms show that permafrost creep conditions are changing in the Alps. This article summarizes and presents current understanding of creep behaviour of rock glaciers in the Swiss Alps and emphasises changes that have occurred over the last years and decades. The almost homogeneous interannual behaviour of rock glaciers despite different geometry and activ...

  4. The Concept of English Philologists’ Training at Swiss Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zasluzhena Alla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of plurilingual approach usage to the study of foreign languages has been made actual on case study of Swiss universities. Basic concepts of English philologists’ formation at Swiss universities have been determined. These components have been analyzed with relation to their relevance to the prospective philologist in English Linguistics and Literature. The attention has been focused on the effectiveness of Swisss higher education up to the indicator “skills” (Global Information Technological Report 2014, Networked Readinnes Index, NRI according to the World Economic Forum on the development of information technologies in different countries. The emphasis has been made on mutual interaction between sectors of secondary and higher education, that contributes to the quality improvement of education in the country. Some steps in the process of modernization in primary and secondary education have been indicated, such as the usage of the Swiss version of the European Language Portfolio; development of “Profession-related Language Competence Profile for Foreign Language Teachers at Lower Secondary Schools”, “The Passepartout Language Teacher Profile”. Attention is paid to the following changes of teachers’ training: its belonging to tertiary study; mandatory practice-teach for English teachers in English-speaking countries, the required level of command of English language as admission to study in Bachelor and Master programs; capability to work in other linguistic regions, which in turn causes the requirements on quality assurance of particular region language proficiency according to the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

  5. The SWISS-MODEL Repository—new features and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Tauriello, Gerardo; Studer, Gabriel; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (SMR) is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the automated SWISS-MODEL homology modeling pipeline. It currently holds >400 000 high quality models covering almost 20% of Swiss-Prot/UniProtKB entries. In this manuscript, we provide an update of features and functionalities which have been implemented recently. We address improvements in target coverage, model quality estimates, functional annotations and improved in-page visualization. We also introduce a new update concept which includes regular updates of an expanded set of core organism models and UniProtKB-based targets, complemented by user-driven on-demand update of individual models. With the new release of the modeling pipeline, SMR has implemented a REST-API and adopted an open licencing model for accessing model coordinates, thus enabling bulk download for groups of targets fostering re-use of models in other contexts. SMR can be accessed at https://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository. PMID:27899672

  6. Switzerland Committed to Innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade von Bremen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Switzerland showed its commitment to innovation in health care since the early 80th, implementing agencies and government units with the mission to promote and to appropriately govern innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology Assessment (SNHTA was founded in 1998.

    The aim is the promotion and implementation of Health Technology Assessment projects in Switzerland by providing a neutral forum for the identification and the pursuit of common interests. This includes the coordination, exchange and dissemination of experiences of HTA projects and the implementation of the results. The collaboration in international projects is a priority. Ultimately SNHTA has the goal to improve efficacy, cost effectiveness and social accountability. An inventory survey amongst the members confirmed a high level of diverse specialised competencies, mainly employed within the institution. Only 20% of the HTA specific competencies are used for external activities.

    The need for integration of all partners in the field of innovation in a network has been recognised by the Swiss government. This lead to the creation of a webplatform in which all players involved in the business of medical technologies are involved.

    This platform (swiss medtech, includes patients, insurers, industry, universities and professional organisations. The joined activities include agreements on intellectual property and the integrated patient care chain. New ways to connect players in innovation are needed to face the challenge of increasing costs and diminishing resources.

  7. THE SWISS BALL AND ITS USE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Ionela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Each Physical Education lesson begins by warming-up, a phase when the exercises must be nice andhave to eliminate the tension accumulated during the other classes. The Swiss balloon actions allow us to noticethe manner in which our body is capable of working in all three plans (forward, backwards, lateral.Before beginning training, it is especially important that we very well know the Swiss balloonsexercises, for these not only solicit the great muscular groups, but also the deeper ones, not forgetting themuscles from around joints.The unstable surface of the Swiss balloon forces us to focus on the stabilizing muscles. If this condition is not fulfilled, we are not able to practice any exercise. Right before each particular execution, the muscles of the energy center must be contracted. (the area surrounding the basin, the back and the bottom.The balloon shapes are adapted to the natural curves of the backbone and through their unstable surface force the body to establish equilibrium and keep this state of balance, the moves being perfectly coordinated

  8. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice; Avaliacao morfofuncional de pele humana conservada em glicerol e submetida a radiacao gama: estudo em camundongos atimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  9. Angiostrongilose abdominal: profilaxia pela destruição das larvas infectantes em alimentos tratados com sal, vinagre ou hipoclorito de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Maria Zaniní

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A infecção acidental humana pelo Angiostrongylus costaricensis ocorre com elevada prevalência em certas áreas do Brasil meridional, eventualmente se manifestando como doença abdominal severa. Profilaxia é importante, pois não hã tratamento medicamentoso. Um dos modos de transmissão é a ingestão de frutas e vegetais contaminados com a mucosidade de moluscos infectados, os hospedeiros intermediários deste parasita. Larvas de terceiro estágio obtidas do ciclo mantido em laboratório foram incubadas a 5°C por 12 horas, em vinagre, solução saturada de cloreto de sódio e hipocloríto de sódio a 1,5%. A viabilidade das lamas tratadas foi testada através da inoculação em camundongos albinos. Os percentuais de larvas que estabeleceram infecção foram: 0% com hipocloríto de sódio, 1,8% com salmora e 2,4% com vinagre. Em conclusão, todas as substâncias - de baixo custo e disponíveis nas áreas endêmicas - reduziram à população de lamas viáveis e podem ser úteis na descontaminação de alimentos para profilaxia da angiostrongilose abdominal.

  10. Possibilidade de transmissão do TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI através de transferência de tecido renal em modelo murino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pauletti Gonçalves

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Chagas, cujo agente etiológico é o protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, é uma das endemias de maior importância no continente americano. Esta infecção pode levar a diversos distúrbios orgânicos nos seres humanos, o que leva à necessidade de diversos cuidados do ponto de vista médico-assistencial. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a possibilidade de transmissão do Trypanosoma cruzi através da transferência de tecido renal entre camundongos BALB/c. Para tanto, 20 animais com testes sorológicos e histológicos positivos para a presença do protozoário foram sacrificados, seus órgãos (coração e rim foram removidos e foi produzido um macerado a partir destes. Este macerado foi injetado em dois grupos (controle/coração e experimental/rim, cada um com 15 camundongos. Cada um dos grupos foi dividido em três subgrupos: animais imunossuprimidos com ciclosporina ou hidrocortisona e animais que não receberam imunossupressores. Ao fim de dois meses após a inoculação do macerado, os animais foram sacrificados e submetidos a teste sorológico. Foi observada uma alta taxa de mortalidade dos animais inoculados com 100.000 formas de parasitas da cepa Y; assim como se pode estabelecer uma relação inversa quanto à cronicidade e o número de formas inoculadas. Também se constatou após sorologia, a presença de anticorpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi nos imunossuprimidos que receberam macerado de tecido cardíaco e renal de animais previamente contaminados com o parasito.

  11. Efeito protetor do complexo de rutÃnio (II) (cis-[RuCl(qui)(bpy)2]PF6) contra lesÃo gÃstrica induzida por naproxeno: possÃvel papel regulador da enzima guanilato ciclase solÃvel

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ãder Enzo Albuquerque Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    IntroduÃÃo: Os AINEs sÃo um dos principais agentes que contribuem para a patogÃnese da Ãlcera gastrintestinal e representam um importante fator etiolÃgico por serem comumente utilizados na prÃtica clÃnica. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito protetor do complexo de rutÃnio (II) (cis-[RuCl(qui)(bpy)2]PF6), contra a lesÃo gÃstrica induzida por naproxeno (NPX) em camundongos. MÃtodos: Foram utilizados camundongos Swiss (18-22g). Mensuramos os nÃveis de GMPc incubando amostras de tecidos gÃstricos com DMS...

  12. Tumor induction in Swiss mice by filtrable agent and Salmonella typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamazaki,Yukio

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Combined inoculation of a cell-free extract of leukotic tissue of D103 mice and Salmonella typhimurium into adult Swiss mice induced leukosis and solid tumors. The induced solid tumors were histologically multifarious, and were transplantable in Swiss mice, but not in other strains of mice.

  13. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the p

  14. Estudos sôbre reservatórios e vectores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. XXIV. Variação dos dados biométricos obtidos em amostras do T. cruzi isolados de casos humanos da Doença de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferriolli Filho

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo biométrico de 10 amostras de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de casos humanos da doença de CHAGAS, nove mantidas em camundongos brancos jovens e uma mantida em ratos brancos jovens, mostrou a existência de grandes variações amostrais. Assim os valores do comprimento total médio das diferentes amostras variaram entre 16,3μ e 21,8μ., enquanto os valores do índice nuclear médio oscilaram entre 0,93 e 1,52. Êstes resultados ampliam os limites de variações amostrais até agora observadas no T. cruzi, especialmente os que se referem ao índice nuclear médio.

  15. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  16. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  17. Histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on Swiss albino mice spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatogenesis is a highly conserved and regulated process and it is sensitive to fluctuations in the physical and chemical environment. Gemcitabine is a novel antimetabolic anticancer drug used frequently in the treatment of many cancers. This study aimed to investigate the histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on spermatogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Gemcitabine in high and low doses (80 and 40 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally to inbred Swiss albino mice. Gross testicular features and seminiferous tubular histomorphometry was studies at the end of 7 th , 14 th day and at 2 months sperm shape abnormalities were studied. Results: Seminiferous tubular morphology was altered significantly, showing a reduction in height, perimeter and area in a dose dependent manner. Sertoli cell number decreased. Basement membrane thickness was reduced and it appeared to be permanent, with statistically insignificant changes even after 2 months. There was a reduction of intertubular spaces. Sperms have shown banana heading, decapitation and loss of normal hook of head. The effects were partially reversible at the end of 2 months. Conclusion: It was concluded that gemcitabine affects the process of spermatogenesis adversely in a dose and time dependent manner and the effects are partially reversible.

  18. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  19. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  20. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  1. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  2. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  3. DIETA HIPERLIPÍDICA E ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO: EFEITOS NOS LIPIDIOS SÉRICOS, PESO E COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORAL DE CAMUNDONGOS APO E(-/-) EXERCITADOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Anderson Toledo Fernandes; Instituto Federal do Sudeste de Minas Gerais; Antônio José Natali; Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Bruno Gonzaga Teodoro; Uniersidade Federal de Viçosa; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia; Mateus Camaroti Laterza; Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora; Maria do Carmo Gouveia Pelúzio; Universidade Federal de Viçosa

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: Estratégias têm sido utilizadas para a prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares e aumento de peso. Sendo assim, muito tem sido falado sobre alimentos funcionais e seus efeitos benéficos para a saúde humana e, em especial do Ácido Linoleico Conjugado. Objetivo: Simular condição de indivíduos que fazem atividade física, mas consomem dieta rica em gordura e fazem suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA), avaliando os efeitos destes sobre os lipídios séricos, peso e composição c...

  4. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  5. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  6. Mental Preparation and Evaluation: A Sportpsychological Project with the Swiss Orienteering National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzl, Reto

    1994-01-01

    Lists the training themes and levels of intervention of a psychological orienteering project for Swiss athletes. Presents an outline for preparation and evaluation of team or individual performance over time on technical, physical, mental, and environmental aspects of orienteering. (SV)

  7. Costs and Benefits of Dual Apprenticeship: Lessons from the Swiss System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhard, Siegfried; Bossio, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    After compulsory schooling, nearly two-thirds of Swiss youth undertake apprenticeships. Although it has been an efficient and effective system, young people are losing interest and businesses are questioning the time and costs involved in changing economic conditions. (SK)

  8. 77 FR 53248 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Swiss Treasures: From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Papyrus and Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and Barth'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... exhibition ``Swiss Treasures: From Biblical Papyrus and Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and...

  9. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  10. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  11. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  12. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  13. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  14. Chiral Swiss rolls show a negative refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2009-07-22

    Chiral Swiss rolls, consisting of a metal/dielectric laminate tape helically wound on an insulating mandrel, have been developed to form the basis of a highly chiral metamaterial. We have fabricated these elements using a custom-built machine, and have characterized them. We find that the permeability, permittivity, and chirality are all resonant in the region of 80 MHz. The chirality is so strong that it can be directly measured by observing the magnetic response to an applied electric field, and is larger than either the permeability or the permittivity. We have estimated the refractive indices from these data, and find both strong circular dichroism and a wide frequency range where the refractive index is negative.

  15. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  16. Performance of the SwissQuantum network over 21 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Legré, Matthieu; Monat, Laurent; Robyr, Samuel; Trinkler, Patrick; Ribordy, Grégoire; Thew, Rob; Walenta, Nino; Gisin, Nicolas; Buntschu, François; Perroud, Didier; Litzistorf, Gerald; Tavares, Jose; Ventura, Stefano; Junod, Pascal; Voirol, Raphael; Monbaron, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we present the architecture and results of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution (QKD) network. This three nodes triangular quantum network was running from March 2009 to January 2011 in the Geneva metropolitan area. The three trusted nodes were located at the University of Geneva (Unige), the CERN and the University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland in Geneva (hepia Geneva). This quantum network was deployed to prove reliability of QKD in telecommunication network over a long period. To facilitate integration of QKD in telecommunication network, this quantum network was composed of three layers: a quantum layer, a key management layer, and an application layer. The keys are distributed in the first layer; they are handled in the second layer; and they are used in the third layer.

  17. Copy Number Variation in Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro; Schiavini, F

    CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits....... The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV...... regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data...

  18. SwissTex France at ITMA ASIA+CITME 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ SwissTex France SAS (previously known under the brands Verdol,ICBT,Rieter FYT and RITM),a major player in the field of textile machinery with 100 years experience in yarn machinery,is going to participate in ITMA ASIA+CITME show being held June 22-26,2010,at Booth D22.Hall W2 and present one of the most complete ranges for textile machinery.It offers today a very complete range on the market of:twisting machines for embroidery and sewing thread applications,single and double covering machines for hosiery,stockings,sportswear and technical yarns,air covering machines for hosiery,stockings and sportswear...and combined machines to twist and shrink nylon yarn through thermal treatment.

  19. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It aims to study the CMB temperature fluctuations by the means of the exact inhomogeneous Szekeres model. So far the impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations has been almost exclusively studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast of cosmic structures is larger than 1 this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without approximations such as small amplitude of the density contrast. This will allow us to examine the impact of light propagation effects on the CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities introduce - via light propagation effect...

  20. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies II: Spherical Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Swiss - cheese model, consisting of a Lema\\^itre - Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois - Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  1. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  2. How did the swiss cheese plant get its holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Adult leaf fenestration in "Swiss cheese" plants (Monstera Adans.) is an unusual leaf shape trait lacking a convincing evolutionary explanation. Monstera are secondary hemiepiphytes that inhabit the understory of tropical rainforests, where photosynthesis from sunflecks often makes up a large proportion of daily carbon assimilation. Here I present a simple model of leaf-level photosynthesis and whole-plant canopy dynamics in a stochastic light environment. The model demonstrates that leaf fenestration can reduce the variance in plant growth and thereby increase geometric mean fitness. This growth-variance hypothesis also suggests explanations for conspicuous ontogenetic changes in leaf morphology (heteroblasty) in Monstera, as well as the absence of leaf fenestration in co-occurring juvenile tree species. The model provides a testable hypothesis of the adaptive significance of a unique leaf shape and illustrates how variance in growth rate could be an important factor shaping plant morphology and physiology.

  3. Antecedents and Covariates of Alcohol Consumption among Swiss Male Conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vetter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption frequency in a sample of Swiss conscripts (n=25,611 in order to identify factors that predispose for frequent consumption. A self-report of drinking frequencies, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables, was collected at psychiatric baseline screening. Based on univariate analyses, relevant variables were included in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Six percent were abstainers, 15% reported rarely drinking, 53% occasional drinking, 24% regular drinking and 2% daily drinking. Except for substance use, most associations followed a “J”-shaped curve across the categories of alcohol frequency. Abstinence and frequent drinking can be perceived as deviations from the social norm. Both behaviors are associated with more psychosocial stressors and might be therefore special targets for further studies and new prevention programs.

  4. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  5. 渐变五行K·SWISS Verstad SPT Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊

    2008-01-01

    1966年,一对热爱网球运动的瑞士兄弟宝纳(Art Brunner)和艾奈斯宾纳(Eamest Brunner)创立了K·SWISS品牌。凭着满腔热诚,他们造出了席卷全球的全皮网球鞋——K·SWISS经典鞋(K·SWISS Classic),鞋身上优美经典的五行间设计在面世后立即引起轰动。鞋品的选科、设计、功能一丝不苟,充分表现优雅舒适的典范。形象高雅大方,易于迎合衣着配饰,一直深受高贵典雅的时尚一族的青睐。

  6. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  7. Young people, parents and radical right voting. The case of the Swiss People's Party

    OpenAIRE

    Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the relationship between parents’ preference for the Swiss radical right party SVP and their attitudes toward immigrants and the EU, and their offspring’s preference for the SVP. Disaggregating fathers’ and ...

  8. Swiss Neutrality and Collective Security: The League of Nations and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Sergio Stupan, Comment la Suisse a adhéré au Pacte de la Société des Nations (Lausanne: Université de Lausanne, 1943), 77ff. 40 In accepting these...resulted in a successful referendum.153 Active pacifist movements were established during World War I. According to Sergio Stupan, these movements...may be categorized into two groups. The first group, the Franco -Swiss Freemasons, the Swiss Peace Society, and the Socialists, had an “international

  9. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  10. Development and validation of a food pyramid for Swiss athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mannhart, Christof; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Food-guide pyramids help translate nutrient goals into a visual representation of suggested food intake on a population level. No such guidance system has ever been specifically designed for athletes. Therefore, the authors developed a Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes that illustrates the number of servings per food group needed in relation to the training volume of an athlete. As a first step, an average energy expenditure of 0.1 kcal . kg(-1) . min(-1) for exercise was defined, which then was translated into servings of different food groups per hour of exercise per day. Variable serving sizes were defined for athletes' different body-mass categories. The pyramid was validated by designing 168 daily meal plans according to the recommendations of the pyramid for male and female athletes of different body-mass categories and training volumes of up to 4 hr/d. The energy intake of the meal plans met the calculated reference energy requirement by 97% +/- 9%. The carbohydrate and protein intakes were linearly graded from 4.6 +/- 0.6-8.5 +/- 0.8 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2-1.9 +/- 0.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1), respectively, for training volumes of 1-4 hr of exercise per day. The average micronutrient intake depended particularly on the dietary energy intake level but was well above the dietary reference intake values for most micronutrients. No tolerable upper intake level was exceeded for any micronutrient. Therefore, this Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes may be used as a new tool in sports nutrition education (e.g., teaching and counseling).

  11. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  12. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  13. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries.

  14. Prevention of dental accidents in Swiss boxing clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifkovits, Tatjana; Kühl, Sebastian; Connert, Thomas; Krastl, Gabriel; Dagassan-Berndt1, Dorothea; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Boxing involves a high risk of dental trauma due to the impact of enormous external forces against the head. Wearing a mouthguard is, therefore, mandatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental trauma as well as the utilization and quality of mouthguards in Swiss boxing clubs. In order to achieve this, data on the mouthguards of 217 boxers in total were collected using questionnaires and examination forms, which were statistically evaluated. Out of the 217 boxers, 75 (34.6%) had already experienced a dental accident, but only 8 (10.7%) of them while practicing their sport. Professional boxers were most frequently affected by dental trauma (p = 0.001). Crown fractures were most often observed, followed by tooth dislocations. All interviewed athletes owned a mouthguard, which they used much more consistently during full-contact sparring (practice fighting) than during regular partner exercises. Most of the boxers used prefabricated mouthguards, which could be individually adapted using the “boil and bite” system. The majority of the athletes received their mouthguards from the boxing club. Impaired speaking when wearing a mouthguard was, by far, the problem most frequently mentioned by the athletes. In terms of these bothering factors, custom-made mouthguards from dentists received the best rating (p = 0.002). The quality of the mouthguard was assessed by evaluating the following criteria: coverage of the buccolabial surface, occlusal support of the opposing dentition, thickness of the occlusal layer, and rounded edges. Of the 215 mouthguards examined, 193 (89.8%) were insufficient (p = 0.002). Despite the observed deficiencies, only a few dental injuries occurred during boxing. This study shows that although basic preventive measures do exist in Swiss boxing, they should be improved substantially by providing better instruction and more information.

  15. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  16. SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Marco; Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; Arnold, Konstantin; Studer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Tobias; Kiefer, Florian; Gallo Cassarino, Tiziano; Bertoni, Martino; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. Fully automated servers such as SWISS-MODEL with user-friendly web interfaces generate reliable models without the need for complex software packages or downloading large databases. Here, we describe the latest version of the SWISS-MODEL expert system for protein structure modelling. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure. The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models. The accuracy of the models generated by SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated by the CAMEO system. The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building. In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. SWISS-MODEL is available at http://swissmodel.expasy.org/.

  17. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  19. Prevalência de anticorpos neutralizantes para o arbovirus Piry em individuos da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de um inquérito sorológico pesquisando anticorpos para arbovírus, em habitantes da região de Ribeirão Preto, 202 soros foram testados por neutralização em camundongos, para o vírus Piry. Trata-se de um vesículo-vírus (Rhabdoviridae isolado em Belém do Pará, das vísceras de um marsupial e do sangue de um caso humano. O Piry é causa de doença humana aguda febril. Desconhece-se seus reservatórios animais, vetores e seu ciclo biológico. Os 202 soros testados foram obtidos por venopunção, de moradores adultos em áreas rurais e urbana da cidade de Ribeirão Preto. Os resultados mostraram prevalência de 14,3% de anticorpos neutralizantes para o vírus Piry. Conclui-se que infecções pelo Piry, ou outro agente antigenicamente relacionado, ocorram endemicamente nesta região.

  20. Swiss-cheese D3- D7 soft SUSY breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We address issues related to (i) a proposal for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology as regards reconciliation of requirements of different gravitino masses within the same string-theoretic framework, as well as (ii) evaluation of soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses in the context of type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the "big" divisor Σ as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. In addition, we also include perturbative α-corrections and non-perturbative world-sheet instanton corrections to the Kähler potential as well as Euclidean D3-instanton superpotential. First, using the toric data for the aforementioned Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau and GLSM techniques, we obtain in the large volume limit, the geometric Kähler potential for the big (and small) divisor(s) in terms of derivatives of genus-two Siegel theta functions. Next, we show that as the mobile space-time filling D3-brane moves from a particular non-singular elliptic curve embedded in the Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau to another non-singular elliptic curve, it is possible to obtain 10 12 GeV gravitino during the primordial inflationary era as well as, e.g., a TeV gravitino in the present era, within the same set up for the same volume of the Calabi-Yau stabilized at around 10ls6. Then by constructing local (i.e. localized around the location of the mobile D3-brane in the Calabi-Yau) appropriate involutively-odd harmonic one-form on the big divisor that lies in coker(H∂¯,-(0,1)(CY)→iH∂¯,-(0,1)(Σ)) and extremizing the potential, we show that it is possible to obtain an O(1)g from the wrapping of D7-branes on the big divisor due to competing contributions from the Wilson line moduli relative to the divisor volume modulus. To permit gaugino condensation, we take the rigid limit of the

  1. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaghofer Richard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no. The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis. Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2% and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%. The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%, followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%. Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time

  2. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  3. SEBARAN STASIONER PADA SISTEM BONUS-MALUS SWISS SERTA MODIFIKASINYA (Stationary Distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System and its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonus-Malus System is a system in actuary that introduce the premium class (state partition, where the state is influenced by the number of annual claims reported by the policy holder. We could base the determination of the state on the stationary distribution that represent the number of policy holders in any state. Swiss Bonus-Malus System has 22 state. The number of state that involved in this system result in the difficulty of stationary distribution determination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study a method to obtain stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System by recursive formula, with this recursive formula, the stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System can be determined easier. Modification of this system with infinite state result in the changes of recursive formula to obtain the stationary. This changes including the determining of base value of the recursive formula. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem Bonus-Malus merupakan sistem dalam aktuaria yang memperkenalkan pembagian kelas premi (state yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah klaim yang diajukan oleh pemegang polis tiap tahunnya. Penetapan state dalam sistem ini didasarkan pada pencarian sebaran stasioner yang menyatakan banyaknya pemegang polis dalam tiap state. Sistem Bonus-Malus Swiss (BMS memiliki 22 state. Banyaknya state yang terlibat dalam sistem ini mengakibatkan sulitnya penentuan sebaran stasioner pada sistem BMS tersebut. Karena itu dalam tulisan ini dipelajari suatu metode penentuan sebaran stasioner dari sistem BMS tersebut, yaitu dengan menggunakan formula rekursif. Dengan formula rekursif ini, sebaran stasioner sistem BMS dapat ditentukan dengan mudah. Modifikasi sistem BMS untuk jumlah state yang tak hingga mengakibatkan perubahan pada formula rekursif untuk mencari sebaran stasionernya. Perubahan ini meliputi penetapan nilai awal dari formula rekursif tersebut. Kata kunci: sebaran stasioner, formula rekursif, sistem Monus-Malus Swiss.

  4. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  5. Diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis in cattle in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Booth, Marcia C; Tor, Elizabeth R; Odermatt, Arnold

    2002-02-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, several cattle of a group of 80 heifers died acutely on a pasture in the Swiss Alps. The animals were Found dead between July 9th and 15th eachyear. Only 1 animal was examined on post-mortem, and no significant lesions were found. Aconitum vulpera, A napellus, and Delphinium elatum were identified in the pasture. The presence of diterpenoid alkaloid-containing plants in the pasture, the rapid death of the animals, and the lack of pathologic lesions suggested diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis as a cause of death. A multiresidue alkaloid screen using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector was employed on rumen, abomasal, small intestine, and cecal contents from the I heifer. Deltaline, deltamine, and lycoctonine were identified. Aconitine was found in all gastrointestinal samples using a sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology for aconitine analysis. The findings ofditerpenoid alkaloids in the gastrointestinal contents confirmed exposure to Delphinium and Aconitum spp, possibly resulting in sudden death.

  6. On cosmological observables in a swiss-cheese universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Valerio; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter--distance relation, in the luminosity-distance--redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark ma...

  7. Cosmological observables in a Swiss-cheese universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a Swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter-distance relation, in the luminosity-distance-redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark matter models may lead to interesting effects on photon trajectories.

  8. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  9. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  10. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  11. and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn...... Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  12. Response pattern's of immunoglobulins evaluation in different lineages of mice infected with T. cruzi; Avaliacao do padrao de resposta de imunoglobulinas em diferentes linhagens de camundongos frente a infeccao por T.cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andreia dos Santos

    2006-07-01

    The present work has employed different mice lineages (A/J, C57BL/6, B6AF1, BXA1 and BXA2) that were challenged with different doses of T. cruzi. The objective was to evaluate the pattern of immunoglobulins response presented by resistant and susceptible mice to T. cruzi as well as the lineages developed from the matting between them. So that evaluation was done by using lineages serums' sample, analyzed by ELISA's method. In agreement with the results observed all the lineages presented higher response to IgG2a and IgG2b, if compared with the titles to IgG1. IgG1 immunoglobulins involve a type Th2 pattern response which expressed allergic immunological responses, while IgG2 involves a pattern response Th1 that expresses cellular immunological response. The different lineages used in this research also presented different immunological response pattern by the infection with T. cruzi. Mice of the lineage C57BL/6 are resistant to the infection, while the animals of the lineage A/J are susceptible. The animals of the lineage B6AF1 are more resistant to the infection than their original parental C57BL/6. The immunological response developed by hybrid mice present traces of both susceptible and resistant parental A/J and C57BL/6, respectively. The animals of the lineage BXA1 can be considered resistant to the infection, but they don't present the same control as that presented by those of the lineages B6AF1 and C57BL/6. The animals of the lineage BXA2 can be considered susceptible to the infection, but they can control it for a long period, surviving like this, longer than the animals of the lineage A/J. In addition it was observed that the IgG2b immunoglobulins are very important to the resistance of mice to T. cruzi infection. (author)

  13. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmd{sup mdx}/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA; Determinacao de elementos de relevancia clinica em tecidos biologicos de camundongos distroficos Dmd{sup mdx}/J por AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-07-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD{sup mdx}/J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd{sup mdx}/J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  14. Activity of praziquantel against Hymenolepis nana, at different development stages, in experimentally infected mice Atividade do praziquantel sobre diferentes estágios evolutivos do Hymenolepis nana, em camundongos infectados experimentalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Campos; BRESSAN, M.C.R.V.; Evangelista,M. G. B. F.

    1984-01-01

    Single doses of praziquantel were administered by oral route, at various time intervals, following the experimental infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana eggs (2000 per animal), to investigate the drug action against different development stages of the parasite. It was shown that either 25 or 50 mg/kg given on the 4th day after inoculation had just a partial effect against the cysticercoids. Moreover, 25 mg/kg given on the 7th day was not able to kill all juvenile forms as well. However, th...

  15. Antiamnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. bark extract in mice Avaliação da atividade antiamnésica da casca de C. phlomidis Linn. em camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is known as Agnimantha in sanskrit. Bark of the plant is used in treating various nervous disorders. In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropic agent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate shor...

  16. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: estudo da imunidade intestinal em camundongos C57Bl/6j experimentalmente vacinados com taquizoitos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  17. Comparative morphocytologic study of native and irradiated crotoxin on CBA/J mice tissues and cells; Estudo morfocitologico comparativo de crotoxina nativa e irradiada em tecidos e celulas de camundongos CBA/J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardi, Bruno A.

    1995-12-31

    Snake venoms submitted to gamma radiation are better immunogens, have less toxic activity and maintain immunogenic and antigenic properties, favoring its use in anti-sera production which is the main therapy in human accidents. Severe human accidents attributed to neurotoxicity, are caused by Crotalus durissus terrificus, which main toxin - crotoxin - acts on neuro muscular junctions, as detected by electrophysiological studies and could be detoxified by gamma radiation. In order to evaluate the biological effects of this irradiated protein, we analyzed, at morphological and immunohistochemical levels, organs and cells from CBA/J mice challenged with crude venom or purified crotoxin, in an acute intoxication model. Both toxins were submitted to 2 kGy irradiation with a Co-60 source, in water solution. (author). 140 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m} Tc-thalidomide in BALB/c mice: comparison of endovenous and intraperitoneal administration; Farmacocinetica da talidomida marcada com tecnecio-99m em camundongos BALB/C: comparacao entre via endovenosa e intraperitoneal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Motta, Ana Paula R.; Cardoso, Rejane C.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogenic agent that is being used in the treatment of lung tuberculosis infection, HIV-1, lupus eritomatosus and host graft disease. This is due to its efficient immunosuppressive action. We have chosen the technetium-99 m, for the labeling of thalidomide for to test the possibility of the thalidomide as a radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, we are studying the behaviour of this labeled drug through the biodistribution in mice (intraperitoneal and endovenous via). The percentage of radioactivity per gram was determined for each organ. So much the inoculation by intraperitoneal as endovenous via showed that kidney had the largest uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-thalidomide in each period of time tested. In the control animal, free {sup 99m} Tc was found in the stomach. (author) 13 refs., 8 tabs.; e-mail: bernardo at uerj.br

  19. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation into the continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest... importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Colombia into the continental United States. Based on that analysis, we have concluded that the application... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia....

  1. Enterotoxemia em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson M. Colodel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos surtos de enterotoxemia em caprinos em cinco propriedades no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais afetados eram, normalmente, encontrados mortos ou apresentavam evolução aguda de 2 a 3 horas com acentuada depressão, cólicas abdominais e diarréia profusa com fibrina. Em duas propriedades relataram-se casos com a evolução de até 12 horas. Em treze animais necropsiados observaram-se aumento de líquidos nas cavidades abdominal, torácica e pericárdica, congestão e hiperemia da serosa e mucosa do intestino, conteúdo do cólon líquido com fibrina além de hemorragias de serosa e fibrina. Em um animal constatou-se microangiopatia cerebral caracterizada por acúmulo de material homogêneo e eosinofílico no espaço perivascular. No conteúdo intestinal, colônias com bastonetes morfológica e bioquimicamente sugestivos de Clostridium perfringens foram caracterizadas no estudo bacteriológico. A soroneutralização em camundongos com conteúdo intestinal dos animais afetados, revelou a presença da toxina épsilon. Estes achados evidenciam a enterotoxemia como doença de importância para criação de caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul.Five outbreaks of caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied. The animals were found dead or had a clinical course that usually lasted 2-3 hours. From two farms a clinical manifestation period of 12 hours was reported. Clinical signs were characterized by depression, marked abdominal discomfort, profuse watery diarrhea with fibrin clots, and death. Thirteen necropsies were performed and hydropericardium, hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum were commonly found. The mucosa and serosa of the colon were congested, and its contents was watery with multiple fibrin clots. Serosal hemorrhages and fibrin clots in the gallbladder were also seen. Fibrinous colitis and thyphilitis were the most frequent histological changes. Cerebral microangiopathy was observed in one case, which was

  2. Tétano em bovinos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul: estudo de 24 surtos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. Quevedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos vinte e quatro surtos de tétano ocorridos no ano 2009 em bovinos de corte em propriedades situadas na região de influência do Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico (LRD, sul do Rio Grande de Sul. Todos os rebanhos foram submetidos a procedimentos de vacinação e/ou aplicação de anti-helmíntico entre 8 e 25 dias antes do aparecimento dos primeiros sinais clínicos. O tempo de evolução variou de 12 horas até quatro dias. Os sinais clínicos observados foram: prolapso da terceira pálpebra, andar rígido, dificuldade de flexão dos membros e permanência em decúbito lateral com os membros estendidos e afastados do solo (paralisia espástica, pálpebras muito abertas, sialorréia, hiperexcitabilidade, orelhas eretas, trismo mandibular, acúmulo de alimento na cavidade oral e presença de espuma na boca e narinas em alguns casos. Alguns bovinos apresentavam área de necrose e edema hemorrágico circundada por exsudato purulento nos músculos onde havia sido aplicado algum medicamento. O soro sanguíneo e fragmentos de músculo com lesão de animais afetados foram coletados para posterior inoculação em camundongos. No exame histopatológico não foram evidenciadas alterações. O quadro clínico associado aos dados epidemiológicos e a ausência de lesões histológicas permitiram o diagnóstico de tétano. A infecção, provavelmente ocorreu durante o procedimento de vacinação, através injeções intramusculares utilizando agulhas contaminadas. Apesar do tétano não ser uma clostridiose importante na região fica evidenciado que surtos podem ocorrer em função de condições epidemiológicas adequadas e cuidados devem ser tomados para evitar perdas econômicas importantes como as que ocorreram no ano 2009 na região.

  3. Resposta taquicárdica e controle autonômico no exercício físico em modelo genético de insuficiência cardíaca Tachycardic response and autonomic control in physical exercise in genetic model of cardiac insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma F. Cunha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da atividade nervosa simpática e a taquicardia em repouso ou durante esforços físicos estão associados ao aumento da morbimortalidade, mesmo na ausência de sinais clínicos de doença cardíaca. Sabendo-se da importância dos receptores α2A/α2C-adrenérgicos na modulação da atividade nervosa e frequência cardíaca (FC, o presente trabalho utiliza um modelo genético de cardiomiopatia induzida por excesso de catecolaminas circulantes baseado na inativação gênica dos receptores α2A/α2C-adrenérgicos em camundongos (α2A/α2CKO para verificar a resposta da FC ao exercício físico (EF, assim como o controle simpatovagal da FC ao EF. Testou-se a hipótese de que haveria resposta taquicárdica exacerbada durante o EF nos camundongos α2A/α2CKO mesmo quando a função cardíaca ainda estivesse preservada em repouso, sendo o receptor α2A-adrenérgico o principal responsável por essa resposta. Camundongos machos da linhagem C57Bl6J, controle (CO e com inativação gênica para os receptores α2A (α2AKO, α2C α2CKO e α2A/α2CKO foram submetidos a um teste de tolerância ao esforço físico. Outros dois grupos de camundongos, CO e α2A/α2CKO, foram submetidos ao bloqueio farmacológico dos receptores muscarínicos e β-adrenérgicos e ao EF progressivo para se avaliar a contribuição simpatovagal para a taquicardia de EF. Observou-se intolerância ao esforço físico (1.220 ± 18 e 1.460 ± 34 vs. 2.630 ± 42m, respectivamente e maior taquicardia ao EF (765 ± 16 e 792 ± 13 vs. 603 ± 18bpm, respectivamente nos camundongos α2AKO e α2A/α2CKO vs. CO. Além disso, o balanço autonômico estava alterado nos camundongos α2A/α2CKO pela hiperatividade simpática e menor efeito vagal cardíaco. Esses resultados demonstram a importância dos receptores α2A/α2C-adrenérgicos no controle autonômico não só no repouso, mas também durante o EF, sendo o receptor α2A-adrenérgico o responsável pela hiperatividade simp

  4. CERN’s Rugby Club to play the Swiss Cup semi-finals: come and support the CERN team!

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    On Saturday 25 June, the CERN’s Rugby Club will be playing in the Swiss Cup semi-final against the Hermance Rugby Club. Although the CERN club has had a less than stellar year in the Swiss national first division, they earned a place in the Cup semi-final after beating Bern 30 – 0 and La Chaux-de-Fonds 38 – 7. The club last made it to the Swiss Cup semi-finals in 2002, where they lost to Hermance (the most successful Swiss rugby club, followed closely by CERN’s). Show your support for the CERN team and help them reach the Swiss Cup final by going to the 25 June match at 15.00 in the CERN pitch.  

  5. ENET News November 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, November 2004, Nr. 59 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This last edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)'s magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include a review of energy research in Switzerland in general and the work of the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in particular and a look at the basis for energy-economical perspectives in Switzerland. Further articles take a look at activities in the solar-chemical area, biomass and small-hydro projects, wind and geothermal energy as well as solar heating, photovoltaics and the use of ambient heat. Energy-efficiency in the buildings and traffic areas and combustion and combined heat and power are further topics covered. Nuclear energy and process engineering, fuel cells and activities in the international sector are examined. The publication is completed with a list of recent publications in the energy area.

  6. Design and Test of Wire-Scanners for SwissFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Orlandi, G L; Brands, H; Heimgartner, P; Ischebeck, R; Kammerer, A; Löhl, F; Lüscher, R; Mohanmurthy, P; Ozkan, C; Schlott, V; Schulz, L; Rippstein, B; Seiler, C; Trovati, S; Valitutti, P; Zimoch, D

    2016-01-01

    The SwissFEL light-facility will provide coherent X-rays in the wavelength region 7-0.7 nm and 0.7-0.1 nm. In SwissFEL, view-screens and wire-scanners will be used to monitor the transverse profile of a 200/10pC electron beam with a normalized emittance of 0.4/0.2 mm.mrad and a final energy of 5.8 GeV. Compared to view screens, wire-scanners offer a quasi-non-destructive monitoring of the beam transverse profile without suffering from possible micro-bunching of the electron beam. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and beam-test of the SwissFEL wire-scanner prototype will be discussed.

  7. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  8. DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.

  9. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008; Eidgenoessische Energieforschungskommission CORE. Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, K.

    2009-07-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  10. How would Swiss consumers decide if they had freedom of choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, P.; Scholderer, Joachim; Ermen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Swiss expressed their negative attitude towards genetic engineering in agriculture by voting in favor of a ban to use genetically modified (GM) crops in domestic agriculture. At the same time, certain GM food products remain approved but are not on offer since retailers assume...... that consumers would shun labeled GM food. In our study we tested this claim by conducting a large-scale field study with Swiss consumers. In our experimental design, three clearly labeled types of corn bread were offered at five different market stands across the French and German-speaking part of Switzerland...... choice analysis show that Swiss consumers treat GM foods just like any other type of novel food. We conclude from our findings that consumers tend to appreciate transparency and freedom of choice even if one of the offered product types is labeled as containing a genetically modified ingredient...

  11. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  12. Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from <em>Euphorbia proliferaem> and Their Neuroprotective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiang Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of<em> em>>Euphorbia proliferaem>. Their structures were elucidated as 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-14<em>α-O>-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1, 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β-O>-propion-yl-5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-tetra-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2, and 2<em>α>,14<em>α-di-O>-benzoyl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3 on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  13. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  14. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  15. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante; Luigi Gallo; Paolo Carnier; Riccardo Dal Zotto

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS), calving interval (CI), angularity (ANG), strength (FV) and milk yield (MY) on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits re...

  16. Protection for structures in extreme earthquakes: Full Base Isolation (3-D) by the Swiss Seismafloat System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudacher, K.

    1985-02-01

    Full Base Isolation (FBI, 3-D), an antiseismic concept for structures, adds vertical flexibility to horizontal base isolation (HBI, 2-D). Extensive experimental testing at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the University of California, Berkeley, has shown FBI to be a practicable way to reach the final goal of earthquake protection, i.e. elastic behavior of the structural frame in extreme earthquakes. Swiss engineers pioneered base isolation by the construction of the Pestalozzi School at Skopje in 1968. Further development has made Integral Earthquake Protection possible for structures and their contents. (orig.).

  17. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  18. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  19. [Swiss Bechterew's Disease Association: a patient self-help organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, H

    1991-06-04

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the third most common form of rheumatism and as such of considerable economic and social significance due to its early outbreak, its course of flare-ups and its remissions, chronic persistence and risk of early invalidity. As there is no basic therapy, the main emphasis of modern treatment lies on the practice of regular and intensive AS-specific physical exercise, complemented by suitable sports. In these circumstances, the active cooperation of the patients themselves is of utmost importance; therefore, it was obvious that the information of AS patients on their disease and their interest to improve their physical and psychological situation would be further encouraged by the foundation of a self-assistance organization for AS patients, thereby lightening the blow fate had dealt them. The Swiss Ankylosing Spondylitis Association (Schweizerische Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, SVMB, Société de la spondylarthrite ankylosante, SSSA, Società svizzera morbo di Bechterew, SSMB), founded in 1978, has its headquarters in Zurich (Röntgenstrasse 22, CH-8005 Zurich, Tel. 01 272 78 66) and strives for the following: --the organization of local and regional therapy groups for AS gymnastics and sports --information for patients and their families on all aspects concerning AS --preparation of 'contact' meetings between AS patients to exchange experiences and thoughts --information for doctors on the latest developments in the field of AS and about the activities of the AS Society --promotion of research in the field of AS and its related diseases --information to the general population about the physical aspects of AS and the problems confronting AS patients --cooperation with other AS societies within the framework of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation, ASIF.

  20. Mapping organic carbon stocks of Swiss forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, M.; Papritz, A.; Baltensweiler, A.; Walthert, L.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration into forest sinks offsets greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto protocol. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for reporting greenhouse gas emissions. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the above ground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because of its high spatial variability. To date the greenhouse gas inventory relies only on sparse data and regionally differentiated predictions of SOC stocks in forest soils are currently not possible. Recently, more soil data and new explanatory variables for statistical modeling like high resolution elevation data and satellite images became available. Based on data from 1'033 sites, we modeled SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m including the organic layer for the Swiss forested area. We used a novel robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit a linear regression model with spatially correlated errors to the C stock data. For the regression analysis we used a broad range of covariates derived from climate data (precipitation, temperature, radiation), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) and spectral variables representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main cartographic categories of an overview soil map were used to broadly represent the parent material. The numerous covariates, that partly correlated strongly, were reduced to a first subset using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). This subset of covariates was then further reduced based on cross validation of the robustly fitted spatial model. The levels of categorical covariates were partly aggregated during this process and interactions between covariates were explored to account for nonlinear dependence of C stocks on the covariates. Using the final model, robust kriging prediction and error maps were computed with a resolution of one hectare.

  1. Comparative study of the sedative and antinociceptive effects of levomepromazine, azaperone and midazolam in laboratory animals Estudo comparativo dos efeitos sedativos e antinociceptivos de levomepromazina, azaperone e midazolam em animais de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mataqueiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The sedative and antinociceptive effects of levomepromazine, azaperone and midazolam were studied in rats and mice using three behavior evaluation methods. Both exploratory behavior and spontaneous locomotor activity were significantly diminished in a spontaneous locomotor activity test in open field when using levomepromazine and azaperone. However, the azaperone effects were short lived in comparison to levomepromazine effects. Midazolam caused reduction in exploratory activity with no effect in spontaneous locomotion. When assessing the antinociceptive effect in the tail flick reflex latency test after infliction of a pain stimulus in rats, tested drugs did not show any antinociceptive effect. The drugs studied were able to abolish the writhing reflex in mice when compared to control. Levomepromazine, azaperone and midazolam, at the doses were able to inhibit the exploratory behavior in rats, proving their sedative effect. Regarding the antinociceptive effects for visceral pain, these drugs were able to block contortions in mice.Os efeitos sedativos e antinociceptivos da levomepromazina, azaperone e midazolam foram avaliados utilizando-se três testes de comportamento em ratos e camundongos. No teste da atividade locomotora espontânea em campo aberto observou-se que tanto o comportamento exploratório como a atividade locomotora espontânea foram significativamente diminuídos quando se utilizou levomepromazina e azaperone. O efeito causado pelo azaperone foi menos prolongado quando comparado ao da levomepromazina. O midazolam causou diminuição do comportamento exploratório sem alterar a atividade locomotora espontânea. Quando se avaliou o efeito antinociceptivo por meio da latência para o reflexo da retirada da cauda em ratos após estímulo doloroso, as drogas não apresentaram nenhum efeito antinociceptivo observável. No teste das contorções em camundongos, os fármacos foram capazes de abolir as contorções quando comparados ao

  2. Otimização da reação de polimerase em cadeia para detecção de Toxoplasma gondii em sangue venoso e placenta de gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalding Silvia Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de Toxoplasma gondii no sangue venoso e na placenta de gestantes pela reação de polimerase em cadeia pode facilitar o diagnóstico pré-natal da toxoplasmose congênita. Foram avaliadas gestantes IgM-reagentes e os seus filhos. Além das dosagens de IgG, IgM, IgA e reação de avidez de IgG (MEIA, foram realizadas a técnica de imunoperoxidase e a inoculação em camundongos. De cada amostra foi efetuada amplificação gênica com primers do gene B1 e novos primers do gene TGR (chamados ABGTg7 C1 e N1. É preciso observar que o tratamento poderia ser responsável por uma diminuição da infecção. Desta forma, o diagnóstico negativo confirmaria a eficiência do tratamento preventivo na replicação parasitária no útero. A reação de polimerase em cadeia mostrou-se sensível e específica; evidenciou a presença de um a dez taquizoítas; pode ser utilizada com segurança e confiabilidade, além de tornar rápido o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose congênita, sendo, assim, ferramenta importante na avaliação pré-natal.

  3. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  4. Desafios atuais da pesquisa em toxicologia: Avaliação da toxicidade de nanomateriais manufaturados para o desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Fernandes Delgado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanomateriais são partículas ou fibras que possuem pelo menos uma das três dimensões na faixa de tamanho entre 1 e 100 nm. Em virtude das suas propriedades físico-químicas ímpares as nano partículas têm uma variedade de usos na indústria e cada vez mais fazem parte do nosso cotidiano. Entretanto, apesar do número crescente de produtos da nanotecnologia chegando ao mercado, a avaliação dos riscos das NPs para saúde está na sua infância. Os efeitos nocivos das NPs sobre o desenvolvimento pré-natal tem sido ainda menos investigados. Este artigo sumariza a literatura sobre os efeitos das NPs sobre o desenvolvimento. Os estudos são em geral muito recentes e incluem experimentos ex vivo empregando invertebrados e vertebrados não-mamíferos, ensaios in vitro (células tronco embrionárias de camundongos e in vivo em roedores. Muito pouco tem sido publicado a respeito dos efeitos das NPs na placenta e sobre a passagem das NPs da mãe para o embrião e feto humanos. Algumas limitações dos ensaios ex vivo e in vitro para evidenciar potenciais perigos das NPs para o desenvolvimento prenatal humano são discutidas nesta revisão. As diferenças de estrutura e função entre a placenta de roedores e a placenta humana no período inicial da gravidez e a possível relevância delas para a transferencia transplacentária de NPs também são comentadas.

  5. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  6. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  10. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon coastal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a foliage disease caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, which is specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The goal of this study was to reconstruct the history of the disease and determine the climatic conditions that influence the di...

  11. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  13. Just Scan It!-Weapon Reconstruction in Computed Tomography on Historical and Current Swiss Military Guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Binder, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, has been increasingly implemented in both historic and recent postmortem forensic investigations. It aids in determining cause and manner of death as well as in correlating injuries to possible weapons. This study illuminates the feasibility of reconstructing guns in computed tomography and gives a distinct overview of historic and recent Swiss Army guns.

  14. What Can US Single-Payer Supporters Learn From the Swiss Rejection of Single Payer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    On September 27, 2014, Swiss voters rejected a proposal to replace their system of about 60 health insurance companies offering mandatory basic health coverage with a single public insurer, the state, which would offer taxpayer-funded coverage of all medically necessary care. The Swiss and the U.S. media, academia, and business sectors, from conservative and liberal camps, interpreted the results to mean a rejection of single payer and a preference for a privately run system, with important implications for health reform in the United States. While on the surface mainstream interpretations appear reasonable, I argue that they have little basis on fact because they rely on assumptions that, while untrue, are repeated as mantras that conveniently justify the continuation of a model of health insurance that is unraveling, less conspicuously in Switzerland, dramatically in the United States. To make my case, I describe the dominant narrative about Swiss health care and mainstream interpretations of the latest referendum on health reform, unpack the problem within these interpretations, and conclude by identifying what lessons the Swiss referendum contains for single payer advocates in the United States in particular and for those who struggle for social and economic rights more generally.

  15. The Swiss "Willensnation" at Risk: Teachers in the Cultural Gap during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…

  16. Application of The Real_time Swiss Permanent GPS Network 'agnes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, E.; Grünig, S.; Hug, R.; Schneider, D.; Wiget, A.; Wild, U.

    The Swiss Federal Office of Topography (S+T) has been building up and operating an automated GPS network for Switzer-land (AGNES) since 1998. The final ex- pansion of 29 permanently operating GPS tracking stations was reached at the end of 2001. AGNES is a multipurpose network serving scien-tific applications (geody- namics and atmospheric research) as well as surveying applications (ref-erence frame maintenance, densification of the reference frame). In addition, a positioning service is offered on a commercial basis under the pro-duct name swipos-GIS/GEO (Swiss Positioning Service for GIS and Geodetic Applications). The paper focuses on the different applications and the results achieved so far. In the field of geody- namics, results of a kinematic model of the tectonic movements in the Swiss Alps derived from GPS time series will be shown. Since end of 2001 the S+T contributes hourly zenith path delay estimates with a time delay of 1:15 hours to the European COST-716 project and to MeteoSwiss as additional information for numerical weather prediction. Furthermore results of the high-precision real-time positioning service swipos-GIS/GEO (accuracy 0.01-0.1m) using the GSM technique for broadcasting differ-ential corrections are presented with the focus on improving the performance (ambiguity initialization, coordinate repeatability) by using the virtual reference sta- tion concept.

  17. Who Seeks Career Counselling? A Prospective Study of Personality and Career Variables among Swiss Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Elif; Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether career adaptability, personality, attitude towards career counselling and some demographic variables predict the help seeking behaviour in career counselling among 330 Swiss adolescents in eighth grade. The results indicated that boys were less likely to seek help and that career related variables and attitude but…

  18. Bruikbaarheid van Swiss-NIH muizen in de beenmerg micronucleus test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap AGAC; Bergkamp WGM

    1988-01-01

    Daar binnen het RIVM behoefte is aan een in vivo test voor het detecteren van clastogene agentia werd nagegaan of Swiss-NIH muizen geschikt zijn voor het gebruik in de muis beenmerg micronucleustest. De micronucleustest is een in vivo test waarbij chemisch geinduceerde clastogene effecten kunnen

  19. Young Learner Writing Performance in Swiss Elementary Schools--Which Teacher Variables Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder Buechel, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary school English language teachers in Swiss public schools often question the role of writing in early years language instruction because there is a significant disparity in messages they receive from Board of Education members, from fellow teachers and from teacher trainers. This study describes the issues concerning writing in the first…

  20. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  1. Neue Welle an IFRS: Wechseln schon bald mehr Firmen zu Swiss GAAP FER?

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Marc; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Seit 2008 wechseln an der SIX kotierte Firmen vermehrt den Rechnungslegungsstandard von den IFRS zu Swiss GAAP FER (FER). Mit IFRS 9 (Finanzinstrumente), IFRS 15 (Erlöse aus Verträgen mit Kunden) und IFRS 16 (Leasingverhältnisse) werden die Anwender einmal mehr mit weitreichenden Änderungen konfrontiert.

  2. Where is the risk? Price, yield and cost risk in Swiss crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Risk management strategies are of increasing importance in agriculture. An important question is, what type of risk management strategies are required to reduce farmers’ income risks. Applying a variance decomposition approach using data of more than 3000 Swiss farms over a five year time period, th

  3. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (Psoccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  4. Swiss Children's Moral and Psychological Judgments about Inclusion and Exclusion of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to…

  5. The effect of agricultural policy change on income risk in Swiss agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.; Mann, S.

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the effect of agricultural policy reforms on income variability of Swiss farmers. The observed heterogeneity in income risks across farms and time is explained with farm and regional characteristics. FADN data are used to construct coefficients of variation of total household inco

  6. Effects of agricultural policy reforms and farm characteristics on income risks in Swiss agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of agricultural policy reform – specifically the change from market to direct payment support – on income variability of Swiss farming households. In addition, the observed heterogeneity in income risks across farms and time is explained

  7. Learning Documentations in VET Systems: An Analysis of Current Swiss Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Valentina; Cattaneo, Alberto; Gurtner, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Swiss vocational education and training (VET) is defined as a dual-track system where apprentices weekly alternate between vocational school and a (real) workplace. At the workplace, they have to keep a learning documentation throughout their training, in which they are expected to regularly document their professional development. The actual use…

  8. Haemodynamic Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit: Results from a Web-Based Swiss Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Siegenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this survey was to describe, in a situation of growing availability of monitoring devices and parameters, the practices in haemodynamic monitoring at the bedside. Methods. We conducted a Web-based survey in Swiss adult ICUs (2009-2010. The questionnaire explored the kind of monitoring used and how the fluid management was addressed. Results. Our survey included 71% of Swiss ICUs. Echocardiography (95%, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC: 85%, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD (82% were the most commonly used. TPTD and PAC were frequently both available, although TPTD was the preferred technique. Echocardiography was widely available (95% but seems to be rarely performed by intensivists themselves. Guidelines for the management of fluid infusion were available in 45% of ICUs. For the prediction of fluid responsiveness, intensivists rely preferentially on dynamic indices or echocardiographic parameters, but static parameters, such as central venous pressure or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, were still used. Conclusions. In most Swiss ICUs, multiple haemodynamic monitoring devices are available, although TPTD is most commonly used. Despite the usefulness of echocardiography and its large availability, it is not widely performed by Swiss intensivists themselves. Regarding fluid management, several parameters are used without a clear consensus for the optimal method.

  9. Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquee, 2003 (Swiss Bulletin for Applied Linguistics, 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heather, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This issue, written in English and French, focuses on the increasing role of English in Switzerland, as it affects both the general public and the education system. The articles include the following: "The Function of English in Swiss Advertisement" [written in French] (Marc Bonhomme); "Unpacking before Take-Off: English for Swiss…

  10. Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquee, 2002 (Swiss Bulletin for Applied Linguistics, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamzik, Kirsten, Ed; Roos, Eva, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue, written in German and French, is a collection of articles that were presented to the Swiss Association for Applied Linguistics during 2001 and which can be categorized as "linguistic biographies" organized under the auspices and support of the Forum du bilingualisme (Forum of Bilingualism) in Bienne (Biel) and the…

  11. Young people, parents and radical right voting. The case of the Swiss People's Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the relati

  12. Irreducible Vagueness<em/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that Blur Building, Diller & Scofidio's architectural project for the Swiss Expo 2002, demonstrated performatively and interactively how contemporary worldmaking involves cultural and technological invention and construction both, implying our cultural co-evolution with ubiqui......This article argues that Blur Building, Diller & Scofidio's architectural project for the Swiss Expo 2002, demonstrated performatively and interactively how contemporary worldmaking involves cultural and technological invention and construction both, implying our cultural co......-evolution with ubiquitous computing and media such that "worlding" must today be approached and approximated as a question of realities that mix virtuality and actuality. This article not only touches upon the actual inventions produced in this project--with its atmospheric architecture of tensegrity structures, its vast...

  13. Estradiol enhances object recognition memory in Swiss female mice by activating hippocampal estrogen receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana M; Bastos, Cristiane P; de Souza, Jéssica M; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal function and improves performance in several memory tasks. Regarding the object recognition paradigm, E2 commonly act as a cognitive enhancer. However, the types of estrogen receptor (ER) involved, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. In the present study, we asked whether E2 enhances object recognition memory by activating ERα and/or ERβ in the hippocampus of Swiss female mice. First, we showed that immediately post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of E2 (0.2 mg/kg) allowed object recognition memory to persist 48 h in ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss female mice. This result indicates that Swiss female mice are sensitive to the promnesic effects of E2 and is in accordance with other studies, which used C57/BL6 female mice. To verify if the activation of hippocampal ERα or ERβ would be sufficient to improve object memory, we used PPT and DPN, which are selective ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively. We found that PPT, but not DPN, improved object memory in Swiss female mice. However, DPN was able to improve memory in C57/BL6 female mice, which is in accordance with other studies. Next, we tested if the E2 effect on improving object memory depends on ER activation in the hippocampus. Thus, we tested if the infusion of intra-hippocampal TPBM and PHTPP, selective antagonists of ERα and ERβ, respectively, would block the memory enhancement effect of E2. Our results showed that TPBM, but not PHTPP, blunted the promnesic effect of E2, strongly suggesting that in Swiss female mice, the ERα and not the ERβ is the receptor involved in the promnesic effect of E2. It was already demonstrated that E2, as well as PPT and DPN, increase the phospho-ERK2 level in the dorsal hippocampus of C57/BL6 mice. Here we observed that PPT increased phospho-ERK1, while DPN decreased phospho-ERK2 in the dorsal hippocampus of Swiss female mice subjected to the object recognition sample phase

  14. The role of glaciers for Swiss hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In Switzerland, hydropower represents over 50% of the total annual electricity production. Given the Alpine setting of the country, this hydropower production (HPP) strongly relies on the natural storage of discharge in form of ice and snow over months to decades. The sensitivity of glacier-fed HPP systems with respect to climate change depends on how the today's production and the infrastructure design relies on the seasonal streamflow delay expected from the natural storage effect of snow and ice. For low-head run-of-river HPP plants built on large lowland rivers, the ongoing glacier retreat (resulting in strong summer melt) currently sustains higher flows during summer months, an effect that will certainly be reduced once the glaciers will have reached a critical size. This effect will also modify the inflow to the large storage HPP plants that have been designed to shift large amounts of meltwater inflows from summer to winter. The management of these reservoirs will certainly have to be adapted to future inflow patterns. An interesting case are high-head run-of-river plants (with heads from 100 to 1100 m) that short-circuit a given river reach. Future regime shifts with less sustained summer flow and more concentrated spring melt flows might critically reduce the annual production due to intake overflow during spring and reduced flow during summer. In this work, we discuss the role of glaciers for these different HPP types in detail, including an overview of how glacier retreat might influence their production. This comprehensive study synthesizes up-to-date estimations of glacier mass change since the 1980s and its influence on high Alpine discharge regimes and state-of-the art simulations of potential future glacier discharge regimes. We also attempt an extrapolation to the country level based on a hydropower GIS database that has been developed for economic purposes. Ongoing Swiss research on sediment production and management might complete this picture

  15. Model for Formation of Martian Residual Cap Depressions (Swiss Cheese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    In an effort for explain the formation of the `Swiss-cheese' terrain visible on the southern residual cap of Mars (Thomas et al., Nature, 404,2000); we have developed a radiative model to follow the growth/decay of an initial depression due to sublimation/condensation of carbon dioxide. The pits making up this terrain have many distinctive features; they are shallow (~10m deep), with steep walls and flat floors and contain an interior moat that runs along the bottom of the walls. Their diameters range from a few 10's of meters to a kilometer. The model accounts for incident sunlight, emitted thermal radiation, and scattered short and long wave radiation. We have included the effects of a layer of water ice placed under the carbon dioxide at adjustable depth. The water ice layer is free to store heat during the summer (when the carbon dioxide has been removed) through subsurface diffusion of heat. Release of this heat at the end of the summer can inhibit frost formation. We have investigated many cases involving pure dry ice with constant albedo, albedo as a function of insolation, and differing albedo for fresh and residual frost (the latter has lower albedo). In most cases the initial depressions heal themselves and disappear into the surrounding terrain. Cases involving the layer of water ice provide a much closer approximation to the shape of the observed features (especially the flat bottoms). A problem arises of how much exposed water ice we can have during the summer season and still have temperatures averaged over the footprint of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer be close to the carbon dioxide sublimation temperatures. The depth to the water ice layer is a strong controlling factor of the evolution of depression shape and depth in our model. Matching this shape with observations yields important information regarding the depth to any putative water ice layer within the residual cap itself. It is known from laboratory measurements that carbon dioxide is too

  16. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  17. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of <em>Elaeis guineensisem>: Characterization, <em>in Vitroem> and <em>in Vivoem> Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested <em>Elaeis guineensis em>Jacq> em>(Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that <em>E. guineensisem> exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the <em>E. guineensisem> extracts was observed against <em>C. albicansem> whereby <em>E. guineensisem> extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited <em>C. albicansem> growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on <em>C. albicansem>. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated <em>C. albicansem>. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. <em>In vivoem> antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with <em>C. albicansem> and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.<em> em>

  18. A high-resolution CNV map across Brown Swiss cattle populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Teresa Matilde Maria Prinsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic studies and their use in selection programs are having a strong impact in dairy cattle selection (E. Liu et al., 2010. The first aim was to create a high resolution map of CNV regions (CNVRs in Brown Swiss cattle and the characterization of identified CNVs as markers for quantitative and population genetic studies. CNVs were called in a set of 164 sires with PennCNV and genoCN. PennCNV identified 2,377 CNVRs comprising 1,162 and 1,131 gain and loss events, respectively, and 84 regions of complex nature. GenoCN detected 41,519 CNVRs comprising 3,475 and 34,485 gain and loss events, respectively, and 3,559 regions of complex ones. Consensus calls between algorithms were summarized to CNVRs at the population level. GenoCN was also used to identify total allelic content in consensus CNVRs. Moreover, population haplotype frequencies were calculated. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was established between CNVs and SNPs in and around CNVRs. In this study the potential contribution of CNVs as genetic markers for genome wide association studies (GWAS has been assessed thanks to PIC and LD values. The next aim is to investigate genomic structural variation in cattle using dense SNP information in more than 1000 samples of the Italian and Swiss Brown Swiss breed genotyped on HD Bovine BeadChips. Today there is still no CNV map available across Brown Swiss populations belonging to different countries. This study therefore expands the catalogue of CNVRs in the bovine genome, delivers an international based high-resolution map of CNVRs specific to Brown Swiss dairy cattle and will lastly provide information for GEBV estimation with CNVs.

  19. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of <em>Chlamydomonas> reinhardtiiem> <em>npq2em> Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from<em> Chlorella zofingiensisem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella zofingiensisem> (<em>Czzep> has been isolated<em>. em>This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czzep> has been found in the <em>C. zofingiensisem> genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of <em>Czzep> were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of <em>Czzep> gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the <em>Chlamydomonas> mutant <em>npq2em>, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The <em>Czzep> gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in <em>npq2em>. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm. These results show that <em>Chlamydomonas> can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications.

  20. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  1. A Decade of a Freeze on Appointments: The Case of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, H.

    1986-01-01

    Factors promoting excellence in a technical university and requirements for obtaining or maintaining it are examined, and the problems encountered by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in achieving excellence in a decade of retrenchment are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Energy as a competitive factor - Opportunities for the Swiss economy; Wettbewerbsfaktor Energie - Chancen fuer die Schweizer Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-02-15

    This report Swiss for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews opportunities offered to the Swiss economy by regarding energy as a competitive factor. Goals set in Switzerland regarding the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions and measures taken in this area are commented on. The report takes a look at measures that are technically and economically implementable in the building and transport areas. The costs and investment involved in the implementation of a particular scenario are examined. The chances offered to Swiss companies in the area of replacements for fossil fuels are examined. Market potentials in the areas of renewable energy sources and energy productivity are reviewed as are related financial services and workplace effects.

  3. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from <em>Gymnosperma> <em>glutinosum> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of<em> Gymnosperma glutinosumem> (Asteraceae leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1 and (+-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-<em>ent>-labd-7-ene (2, as well as the new <em>ent>-labdane diterpene (−-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-<em>ent>-labd-8(9-ene (3. In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4 was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the <em>in vitroem> L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1 and the new <em>ent>-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the <em>ent>-labdane 2 showed significant (<em>p> < 0.05 and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78% against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.

  4. TOXINAS PARALISANTES EM MEXILHÃO Perna perna EM ÁREAS DE CULTIVO DA COSTA SUL DO BRASIL: ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. SCHRAMM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Santa Catarina é responsável por aproximadamente 93% da produção de mexilhões (Perna perna e ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivados no país. Embora possuam grande valor nutricional, eventualmente podem representar risco para a saúde do consumidor quando contaminados por agentes tóxicos, como por exemplo, toxinas produzidas por algas, ou ficotoxinas. Algumas ficotoxinas nocivas aos seres humanos têm como vetores os moluscos filtradores que podem acumular essas substâncias nos tecidos quando espécies de microalgas produtoras de toxinas estão presentes na água. A saxitoxina, produzida por alguns dinoflagelados, provoca a Síndrome do Envenenamento Paralisante pelo consumo de Moluscos, do inglês, Paralytic Shellfish Poison - PSP, que é um sério problema para a aqüicultura. Este estudo descreve a contaminação de mexilhões Perna perna por ficotoxinas da PSP com origem na ocorrência da microalga Gymnodinium catenatum em águas marinhas do litoral norte de Santa Catarina nos meses de abril e maio de 2006. Foram coletadas 22 amostras de água do mar e mexilhões em 10 pontos do litoral abrangendo 175Km da costa do Estado. As análises envolveram contagem de algas nocivas na água por microscopia óptica e a quantificação de ficotoxinas da PSP na carne de mexilhões através de bioensaios com camundongos e de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - HPLC. Os resultados comprovam a ocorrência, em baixas concentrações, destas ficotoxinas na carne de mexilhões cultivados e mostram a necessidade da inclusão desses contaminantes como parâmetro para a certificação da qualidade de moluscos bivalves destinados ao consumo humano.

  5. Swiss Foundation Code 2009 principles and recommendations for the establishment and management of grant-making foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, Thomas; Janssen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The «Swiss Foundation Code 2009» takes up and completes the first European Good Governance Code for grant-making foundations, published in 2005. It contains practical governance guidelines regarding the establishment, organization, management and monitoring of grant-making foundations as well as making due reference to support activities, financial and investment policies. The abridged English version of the „Swiss Foundation Code 2009“ contains 3 principles and 26 recommendations – but not the extensive commentary parts.

  6. To dope or not to dope: Neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of abuse among Swiss university students

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa J Maier; Liechti, M E; Herzig, F; Schaub, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. Study aim: To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university ...

  7. To Dope or Not to Dope: Neuroenhancement with Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse among Swiss University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa J Maier; Liechti, Matthias E.; Fiona Herzig; Schaub, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. STUDY AIM: To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university students. ...

  8. Gentrifiers and their choice of housing: characteristics of the households living in new developments in Swiss cities

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the literature on residential mobility in order to address the housing choice of gentrifiers and its different dimensions (profile, trajectories, and motivations). The gentrification literature is reviewed in regard to these dimensions. Empirical material is based on questionnaires sent to the inhabitants of new high-status developments (new-build gentrification) in two Swiss cities (Zurich and Neuchâtel). By pointing out some of the characteristics found in the Swiss cont...

  9. Emprego de compostos organometálicos mononucleares de paládio(II na ativação de macrófagos peritoneais de camundongos Activation of mice peritoneal macrophages by palladium(II organometallic mononuclear compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tonon de Almeida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune responses are mediated by a variety of cells that, when activated, produce a number of molecules. Macrophages are the first cells to take part in the immune response releasing many compounds in the extracellular environment such as H2O2. Taking into account this aspect we evaluated the activation of an immunological system, in vitro, by determining the H2O2 released in cultures of peritoneal macrophage cells from Swiss mice in the presence of organopalladated compounds of the type [Pd(dmba(X(dppp], dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, dppp = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphinepropane, X = Cl, N3, NCO, NCS. An excellent activation of macrophages by the [Pd(dmba(X(dppp] compounds was observed and the influence of the X ligand on the immune response could be verified.

  10. em arquitetura e urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sala Minucci Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Está sendo desenvolvido projeto de pesquisa denominado Geometria Fractal e suas Aplicações em Arquitetura e Urbanismo, com o fito de estudar e desenvolver ferramentas analíticas e propositivas para serem aplicadas em arquitetura e urbanismo, com base em conceitos provenientes da geometria fractal.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains<em> em>of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from <em>Pelargonium graveolensem> Ait. (family <em>Geraniaceae>, against one standard <em>S. aureus em>strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical <em>S. aureusem> strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from <em>P. graveolensem> has strong activity against all of the clinical <em>S. aureusem> isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  12. Histopatologia da esquistossomose mansoni em fígado de Mus musculus infectado por amostras humanas de fase aguda e crônica da periferia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Dulce Vilela de Carvalho

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrataforam infectados com miracídios obtidos de ovos de Schistosoma mansoni, encontrados em fezes de indivíduos de 7 a 18 anos, da região de Lagoa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG. Os pacientes de fase aguda se infectaram em uma primeira visita ao foco. Os da fase crônica eram moradores próximos aos focos. Para cada caso clínico, isolou-se a respectiva amostra do parasita. Foram infectados pela cauda 55 camundongos fêmeas com 70 ± 10 cercárias. Cortes histológicos de fígados, corados por HE, tricrômico de Gomori, impregnação metálica pela prata, e PAS foram observados à microscopia óptica. Não houve diferenças estatísticas em relação às médias das mensurações dos diâmetros dos granulomas referentes às amostras e datas de sacrifícios. Os granulomas apresentaram fase exsudativa do tipo Ha (reação de inflamação mista e IIIa (granuloma com células epitelióides. Com amostras de pacientes em fase aguda o padrão predominante foi a Ha na 7ª semana. Na 10.ª semana predominaram granulomas do tipo IIIa. Nas amostras de pacientes em fase crônica, verificou-se uma mescla de granulomas do tipo Ha e IIIa na 7ª semana. Na 10ª semana predominou o tipo IIIa. Alguns aspectos histopatológicos de fígados foram descritos e comparados com aqueles existentes na literatura.

  13. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  14. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  15. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzian, Alessandra Fernandes; Melo, José Aparecido de Oliveira; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027), but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  16. USING THE TUNNEL PENDING ISSUE OR RENEWAL OF SWISS AND/OR FRENCH LEGITIMATION DOCUMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    Members of the CERN personnel, whose: Carte spéciale or Attestation de fonctions issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and/or Carte de légitimation or Attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are in the process of being issued or renewed, are authorized to use the Tunnel on condition that they are in possession of: their national identity card (if the Swiss and French regulations so permit) or national passport; their blue CERN card (access card); an attestation drawn up by the Cards Office certifying that the above-mentioned documents are in the process of being issued or in the case of renewal a certified photocopy of the documents, issued by the Users' Office (for Users) or the Cards Office (for all other members of the personnel). Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  17. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Economic considerations; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Oekonomische Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Staub, C. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Joerg Leimbacher, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic considerations involved in defining the basics for the handling of levies on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The report first takes a look at the current situation, the reasons behind the Swiss water levy concept and the reasons why they have to be newly regulated. Changes in market factors are discussed, e.g. the liberalisation of the power market and past and future price developments. Also, the situation on the spot and futures markets for electricity is discussed. The actual production costs for hydropower are discussed and compared with other means of electricity generation. Proposals for readjusting the regulations concerning water levies are discussed.

  18. EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE ON THE KIDNEY AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA STUTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of potassium bromate toxicity on histological,haematological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. Mice were orally administered with potassiumbromate at the rate of 150 mg/kg body weight daily in a single dose for 30, 60 and 120 days. The chemicalsignificantly reduced the RBC count (p<0.01 Hb% (p<0.01 and platelet count (p<0.01, while it increasedsignificantly the urea (p<0.01 and creatinine level (p<0.01 and decreased total protein and Albumin (p<0.01Histopathological examination showed degenerative changes of tubular cells, cytoplasma vacuolation, cellularinfiltration, tubular dilation with eosinophilic debris and clear cell cytoplasm were observed. These findingssuggest that KBrO3 affects the physiological and biochemical activities of Swiss albino mice

  19. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Druzian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027, but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  20. Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, R.; Turton, H.

    2011-10-15

    This comprehensive report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). This is a flexible model which explicitly depicts plausible pathways for the development of the Swiss electricity sector, while dealing with inter-temporal variations in demand and supply. TIMES is quoted as having the capability to portray the entire energy system from resource supply, through fuel processing, representation of infrastructures, conversion to secondary energy carriers, end-use technologies and energy service demands at end-use sectors. The background of the model's development and a reference energy system are described. Also, electricity end-use sectors and generating systems are examined, including hydropower, nuclear power, thermal generation and renewables. Environmental factors and the calibration of the model are discussed, as is the application of the model. The document is completed with an outlook, references and six appendices

  1. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoudam Bhaigyabati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

  2. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  3. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  4. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  5. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii: diagnosis of experimental and natural infection in pigeons (Columba livia by serological, biological and molecular techniques Toxoplasma gondii: diagnóstico da infecção experimental e natural em pombos (Columba livia por métodos sorológicos, biológicos e moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sartori Lima de Godoi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to diagnose experimental and natural Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigeons (Columba livia by serological, biological and molecular techniques. Twelve pigeons, free of infection, were inoculated with 50 sporulated oocysts of T. gondii (VEG sample and four remained uninfected controls. Four birds (three infected and one control were euthanized at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days post-infection (dpi, and their tissues were used to perform a bioassay in mice and nested-PCR using B1 gene as target. Blood was obtained weekly and it was tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and modified agglutination test (MAT. Seven (58.3% out of 12 inoculated pigeons were positive by serological techniques and titers ranged between 1:40 and 1:5120 by MAT and between 1:512 and 1:4096 by IFAT. Complete agreement was seen between the results obtained by serological techniques and nested-PCR in seven positive birds. In the bioassay in mice, five (41.7% out of 12 pigeons inoculated were positive to T. gondii. Only one pigeon died at 23 dpi due to toxoplasmosis. A second study with free-living pigeons was performed for detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Birds were captured in the municipalities of São Paulo, Ibiúna and Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. All 126 free-living birds were negative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by MAT (titer O presente estudo teve por objetivo diagnosticar a infecção experimental e natural pelo Toxoplasma gondii em pombos (Columba livia por técnicas sorológicas, biológicas e moleculares. Doze pombos, livres de infecção, foram inoculados com 50 oocistos esporulados de T. gondii (amostra VEG, e quatro permaneceram como controles não infectados. Aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias pós-infecção (dpi, quatro aves (três infectadas e uma controle foram sacrificadas e com seus tecidos realizou-se bioensaio em camundongos e nested-PCR, utilizando-se B1 como gene

  7. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  8. Benefits of an ISO 9001 certification--the case of a Swiss regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of a quality management project leading to an ISO 9001 certification in a Swiss regional hospital. It describes the motivations for the project, the process that was followed and the benefits of the approach. It also shows its limitations, problems encountered as well as costs and resources involved. The emphasis is on practical issues. Choices that were made are discussed and lessons are drawn.

  9. Principal Component and Clustering Analysis of Functional Traits in Swiss Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Karacaören, Burak; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research was to investigate the relationship among functional traits (body condition score (BCS), milk yield (MY), milking speed (MS), dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW)). Data were from multiparous dairy cows (n = 55) of Chamau research farm of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland. Principal component analysis with correlation matrix was used to find the relationship among BCS, MY, MS, DMI, BW, and other fixed effects including breed, year at ...

  10. UW MCNP source patch for the EPFL Haefely source. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, G; Woodruff, G L

    1986-06-01

    The development of a source patch which describes the Haefely neutron source for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code has been described in progress reports of the EPFL (Swiss) Fusion Blanket Project at the University of Washington. The most recent of these reports dealing with the source patch was Progress Report No. 14. This report reviews some of the physical description included in the report, and also includes additional details of the patch as well as a listing of the patch itself.

  11. Obesity management and continuing medical education in primary care: results of a Swiss survey

    OpenAIRE

    Huber Carola A; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Zellweger Ueli; Zoller Marco; Rosemann Thomas; Senn Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The worldwide increase in obesity is becoming a major health concern. General practitioners (GPs) play a central role in managing obesity. We aimed to examine Swiss GPs self-reported practice in diagnosis and treatment of obesity with a special focus on the performance of waist measurement. Methods A structured self-reported questionnaire was mailed to 323 GPs recruited from four urban physician networks in Switzerland. Measures included professional experience, type of pr...

  12. Analysis of geohazards events along Swiss roads from autumn 2011 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, roads and railways are threatened throughout the year by several natural hazards. Some of these events reach transport infrastructure many time per year leading to the closing of transportation corridors, loss of access, deviation travels and sometimes infrastructures damages and loss of human lives (3 fatalities during the period considered). The aim of this inventory of events is to investigate the number of natural events affecting roads and railways in Switzerland since autumn 2011 until now. Natural hazards affecting roads and railway can be classified in five categories: rockfalls, landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches and floods. They potentially cause several important direct damages on transportation infrastructure (roads, railway), vehicles (slightly or very damaged) or human life (slightly or seriously injured person, death). These direct damages can be easily evaluated from press articles or from Swiss police press releases. Indirect damages such as deviation cost are not taken into account in this work. During the two a half last years, about 50 events affecting the Swiss roads and Swiss railways infrastructures were inventoried. The proportion of events due to rockfalls is 45%, to landslides 25%, to debris flows 15%, to snow avalanches 10% and to floods 5%. During this period, three fatalities and two persons were injured while 23 vehicles (car, trains and coach) and 24 roads and railways were damaged. We can see that floods occur mainly on the Swiss Plateau whereas rockfalls, debris flow, snow avalanches and landslides are mostly located in the Alpine area. Most of events occur on secondary mountain roads and railways. The events are well distributed on the whole Alpine area except for the Gotthard hotspot, where an important European North-South motorway (hit in 2003 with two fatalities) and railway (hit three times in 2012 with one fatalities) are more frequently affected. According to the observed events in border regions of

  13. Normalising orthographic and dialectal variants for the automatic processing of Swiss German

    OpenAIRE

    Samardzic, Tanja; Scherrer, Yves; Glaser, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Swiss dialects of German are, unlike most dialects of well standardised languages, widely used in everyday communication. Despite this fact, they lack tools and resources for natural language processing. The main reason for this is the fact that the dialects are mostly spoken and that written resources are small and highly inconsistent. This paper addresses the great variability in writing that poses a problem for automatic processing. We propose an automatic approach to normalising the varia...

  14. Attitudes towards personal genomics among older Swiss adults: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mählmann

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates a relatively positive overall attitude towards personal genomic testing among older Swiss adults, a group not typically represented in surveys about personal genomics. Genomic data of older adults can be highly relevant to late life health and maintenance of quality of life. In addition they can be an invaluable source for better understanding of longevity, health and disease. Understanding the attitudes of this population towards genomic analyses, although important, remains under-examined.

  15. Human impact on the vegetation of limestone cliffs in the northern Swiss Jura mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Cliffs provide unique habitats for many specialised organisms, including chamaephytes and slowly growing trees. Drought, high temperature amplitude, scarcity of nutrients and high insolation are general characteristics of exposed limestone cliff faces. The vegetation of limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains consists of plants of arctic-alpine, continental and Mediterranean origin. Several populations exhibit relicts from post- or interglacial warm or cold climatic per...

  16. The inequity of the Swiss health care system financing from a federal state perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Swiss health-care financing is particularly regressive. However, as it has been emphasized in the 2011 OECD Review of the Swiss Health System, the inter cantonal variations of income-related inequities are still broadly unexplored. The present paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the differences in the level of equity of health-care system financing across cantons and its evolution over time using household data. Methods Following the methodology proposed by Wagstaff et al. (JHE 11:361–387, 1992) we use the Kakwani index as a summary measure of regressivity and we compute it for each canton and for each of the sources that have a role in financing the health care system. We graphed concentration curves and performed relative dominance tests, which utilize the full distribution of expenditures. The microdata come from the Swiss Household Income and Expenditure Survey (SHIES) based on a sample of the Swiss population (about 3500 households per year), for the years 1998 - 2005. Results The empirical evidence confirms that the health-care financing in Switzerland has remained regressive since the major reform of 1996 and shows that the variations in equity across cantons are quite significant: the difference between the most and the least regressive canton is about the same as between two extremely different financing systems like the US and Sweden. There is no evidence, instead, of a clear evolution over time of regressivity. Conclusions The significant variation in equity across cantons can be explained by fiscal federalism and the related autonomy in the design of tax and social policies. In particular, the results highlight that earmarked subsidies, the policy adopted to smooth the regressivity of the premiums, appear to be not enough; in the practice of federal states the combination of allowances with mandatory community-rated health insurance premiums might lead to a modest outcome in terms of equity. PMID

  17. Swiss Experiment: Design, implemention and use of a cross-disciplinary infrastructure for data intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, N.; Salehi, A.; Clifton, A.; Bavay, M.; Aberer, K.; Parlange, M. B.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    It has long been known that environmental processes are cross-disciplinary, but data has continued to be acquired and held for a single purpose. Swiss Experiment is a rapidly evolving cross-disciplinary, distributed sensor data infrastructure, where tools for the environmental science community stem directly from computer science research. The platform uses the bleeding edge of computer science to acquire, store and distribute data and metadata from all environmental science disciplines at a variety of temporal and spatial resolutions. SwissEx is simultaneously developing new technologies to allow low cost, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements such that small areas can be intensely monitored. This data is then combined with existing widespread, low density measurements in the cross-disciplinary platform to provide well documented datasets, which are of use to multiple research disciplines. We present a flexible, generic infrastructure at an advanced stage of development. The infrastructure makes the most of Web 2.0 technologies for a collaborative working environment and as a user interface for a metadata database. This environment is already closely integrated with GSN, an open-source database middleware developed under Swiss Experiment for acquisition and storage of generic time-series data (2D and 3D). GSN can be queried directly by common data processing packages and makes data available in real-time to models and 3rd party software interfaces via its web service interface. It also provides real-time push or pull data exchange between instances, a user management system which leaves data owners in charge of their data, advanced real-time processing and much more. The SwissEx interface is increasingly gaining users and supporting environmental science in Switzerland. It is also an integral part of environmental education projects ClimAtscope and O3E, where the technologies can provide rapid feedback of results for children of all ages and where the

  18. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Neuhaus, Sibylle [eds.

    1999-09-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. A series of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, is described in this annual report for 1998 figs., tabs., refs.

  19. Studies on Antitumor Activity of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Devbhuti D1,*; Gupta JK; Devbhuti P*,1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antitumor effect of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. (Family: Crassulaceae) against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice. The effect of methanol and aqueous extracts of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. on tumor growth was studied by the following parameters: percentage inhibition of ascetic cells and percentage inhibition of tumor weight. Methanol and aqueous extracts were administered at doses of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg body weight...

  20. NTN Swiss Biotech - A Look at Support Measures for Dynamic Start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss biotech landscape seems to be on a healthy footing: There are many imaginative start-ups, we have first-class hospitals, highly advanced clinical research and the availability of a great deal of capital. But we have no reason to rest on our laurels as countries like the USA lead the field. We must lay down the tracks today to remain an attractive country and maintain our ranking among the 10 best locations.

  1. Screening and Analysis of the Potential Bioactive Components in Rabbit Plasma after Oral Administration of Hot-Water Extracts from Leaves of <em>B>ambusa em>>textilis em>McClure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bambusa textilisem> McClure is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant belonging to the Bambusoideae subfamily and used to treat chronic fever and infectious diseases. To investigate the bioactive compounds absorbed in the rabbit blood after oral administration of hot-<em>water extractem>>s from em>>the leaves of em>>B. textilisem> McClure, a validated chromatographic fingerprint method was established using LC-Q-TOF-MS. Twenty compounds in bamboo leaves and three potential bioactive compounds in rabbit plasma were detected. Of the twenty detected compounds <em>in vitroem>, fifteen of which were tentatively identified either by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with that of reference compounds or by reviewing the literature. Three potential bioactive compounds, including (<em>E-p>-coumaric acid, (<em>Z-p>-coumaric acid, and apigenin-8-<em>C>-β-D-(2"-<em>O>-α-L-rhamnosyl-gluco-pyranoside, were detected in both <em>the leaves of em>>B. textilis em>McClure and rabbit plasma. Of the three compounds, apigenin-8-<em>C>-β-D-(2"-<em>O>-α-L-rhamnosylglucopyranoside was identified based on its UV, MS, and NMR spectra. This study provides helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on <em>B. textilisem> McClure.

  2. Uso de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para estimar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Dias Novaes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8 e infectados (GI, n = 8. Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g. Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c] e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]. Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO e dissector físico (DFi. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05. Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.

  3. Aspectos fundamentais da experimentação animal - aplicações em cirurgia experimental Fundamental aspects on animal research as applied to experimental surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Blanes Damy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir à pesquisa em cirurgia experimental, este artigo apresenta uma análise dos principais parâmetros exigidos a serem observados pelos comitês internacionais e nacionais de ética e bem-estar animal, cujo cumprimento é pré-requisito para publicação em periódicos arbitrados de circulação internacional. A padronização da genética, do estado sanitário e do ambiente das espécies de animais Mus musculus (camundongos, Rattus norvegicus (ratos, Oryctolagus cuniculus (coelhos e Sus scropha domesticus (suínos, a observação de condições adequadas no transporte, aclimatação, enriquecimento do ambiente, treinamento de técnicos em experimentação animal, gestão de informação, biossegurança, dieta, anestesia, cuidados pós-operatórios, analgesia e eutanásia, aliados a projetos de pesquisa bem planejados são apresentados como etapas fundamentais para a obtenção de resultados com alto grau de acuidade, alto nível de reprodutibilidade e precisão.This study aimed to present the general principles for experiments performed on laboratory animals as required by international and national ethical committees on animal welfare. Compliance to these principles is a prerequisite for publication in international journals. Details of genetic, sanitary and environmental standards, transportation, acclimation, environmental enrichment, appropriate education and training of all those involved in handling of live animals, information management strategy, biossecurity, diet, anesthesia, analgesia, postoperative care and euthanasia for Mus musculus (mice, Rattus norvegicus (rat, Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit and Sus scropha domesticus (pig combined with well planned biomedical research are fundamental to increase the accuracy, reproducibility and precision of the experimental results.

  4. Estudo toxicológico pré-clínico (agudo do extrato do Syzygium aromaticum (L em roedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo O. H. Valente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar a toxicidade aguda do extrato do cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum Linné em roedores. O extrato hidro-alcoólico a 80% foi concentrado em evaporador rotativo obtendo-se uma mistura final de extrato pilular. Camundongos albinos (Mus musculus fêmeas, divididos em 13 lotes de seis animais foram observados por 24 horas a partir da administração do extrato diluído em solução fisiológica a 0,9% nas dosagens de 137,5; 180; 187,5; 250; 375; 437,5; 500 e 1.000 mg/kg para via intraperitoneal e 1.000; 2.400; 2.880; 4.000 e 5.000 mg/kg para via oral. O cálculo proporcional foi realizado a fim de se obter a mesma dose para todos os animais de cada grupo. As punções foram por via intraperitoneal sendo respeitados intervalos de cinco minutos entre as administrações individuais. Nos ensaios de toxicidade por via oral a solução foi introduzida no trato digestório dos animais através de cânula metálica acoplada a seringa (gavagem. Os animais apresentaram alguns sinais de toxicidade, porém não letais até a dose de 5.000 mg/kg. A DL50 para via intraperitoneal foi calculada pelo método de Karber e Behrens (1964, sendo estabelecida em 255 mg/kg (muito tóxico, grau 4. Conclui-se que sob condições agudas de exposição, o extrato do cravo-da-índia é um agente tóxico, devendo ser considerado como tal, dependendo da dose administrada ou absorvida, tempo e freqüência de exposição e vias de administração.

  5. Prevalence of and associated factors for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young Swiss men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Estévez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF. ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.

  6. Relationship between the objectively-assessed neighborhood area and activity behavior in Swiss youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kriemler, Susi; Mäder, Urs; Dössegger, Alain; Hofmann, Heidi; Puder, Jardena J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Neighborhood attributes are modifiable determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). We tested whether the objectively-assessed built and social environment was associated with PA and SB in Swiss youth and whether sex, age and the socioeconomic position (Swiss-SEP) modified such associations. Methods We combined data of 1742 youth (ages 4 to 17) from seven studies conducted within Switzerland between 2005–2010. All youth provided accelerometer data and a home address, which was linked to objective environmental data and the Swiss-SEP-index. Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were analyzed by multivariable multilevel regression analyses. Results The extent of green areas and building density was positively associated with PA in the total sample (p < 0.05). Factors representing centrally located areas, and more schoolchildren living nearby tended to increase PA in secondary schoolchildren, boys and those from lower-ranked socioeconomic areas. In primary schoolchildren, the extent of green areas was positively associated with PA (p = 0.05). Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were more pronounced in youth from low socioeconomic areas. Conclusions The results indicate that some associations between neighborhood attributes and PA differ by age, sex and socioeconomic area. This should be taken into account when planning interventions to increase childhood PA. PMID:26844034

  7. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy.

  8. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts.

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  10. A proposal for refining the forced swim test in Swiss