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Sample records for elongata vahl urb

  1. A new β-lapachone derivative from Distictella elongata (Vahl) Urb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedir, Erdal; Pereira, Ana M.S.; Khan, Shabana I.; Moraes, Rita M.; Chittiboyina, Amar; Khanc, Ikhlas A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the structure elucidation of the new β-lapachone type naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of Distictella elongata. Its structure, according to the molecular formula C 16 H 16 O 6 , was identified as 4,7-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h] chromene-5,6-dione. The structure was assigned by spectrometric methods [HRESIMS, 1D NMR ( 1 H and 13 C), and 2D NMR (g-DQF-COSY, g-HMQC and g-HMBC]. Root chloroform extract of D. elongata showed significant inhibition of the growth of SK-MEL (melanoma) and SK-OV-3 (ovary adenocarcinoma) cells with IC 50 values of 40 μg mL -1 and 56 μg mL-1 - respectively. However, the naphthoquinone was not responsible for the cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract. (author)

  2. A new {beta}-lapachone derivative from Distictella elongata (Vahl) Urb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedir, Erdal [Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Bioengineering; Pereira, Ana M.S. [Universidade de Ribeirao Preto (UNAERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biotecnologia]. E-mail: apereira@unaerp.br; Khan, Shabana I.; Moraes, Rita M. [University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). National Center for Natural Products Research. Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Chittiboyina, Amar [University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). School of Pharmacy. Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry; Khanc, Ikhlas A. [University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). School of Pharmacy. Dept. of Pharmacognosy

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes the structure elucidation of the new {beta}-lapachone type naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of Distictella elongata. Its structure, according to the molecular formula C{sub 16}H{sub 16}O{sub 6}, was identified as 4,7-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h] chromene-5,6-dione. The structure was assigned by spectrometric methods [HRESIMS, 1D NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C), and 2D NMR (g-DQF-COSY, g-HMQC and g-HMBC]. Root chloroform extract of D. elongata showed significant inhibition of the growth of SK-MEL (melanoma) and SK-OV-3 (ovary adenocarcinoma) cells with IC{sub 50} values of 40 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 56 {mu}g mL-1{sup -} respectively. However, the naphthoquinone was not responsible for the cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract. (author)

  3. Pseudione elongata africana (Bopyridae, Isopoda) population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work was to examine the population structure and reproductive fitness of Pseudione elongata africana while parasitizing the shrimp Palaemon concinnus. About 100 hosts were sampled every 15 days for 12 months in two wetland ecosystems of similar ecological traits in Mozambique: a peri-urban ...

  4. RDA implementation in the URBE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bargioni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available URBE -Unione Romana Biblioteche Ecclesiastiche- is composed of 18 academic libraries and adopted RDA starting from March 2017. The process of the decision, the formation and training of cataloguers, and the modifications made to 4 different ILSs, as well as the goals URBE hopes to achieve thanks to RDA adoption, are presented. Also, the adoption of the RDA Toolkit, and the problems related to local variants, currently examined in collaboration with the Vatican Library, are discussed.

  5. El modelo de urbe global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Chaves Carrillo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende aportar una perspectiva holista necesaria al debate teórico que desde las ciencias sociales, y desde la sociología en particular, se viene fraguando en el ámbito académico en torno a la emergente Sociedad de la Información. Para ello, y como referencia fundamental, es indispensable el libro 'Hacia la Urbe Global' de Baigorri. Su visión global y la utilización del paradigma del materialismo ecológico, nos ayudan a acometer el análisis de la Sociedad Telemática, el papel de las ciudades y el territorio, las relaciones sociales, los cambios culturales, los focos de conflicto y las desigualdades, desde una perspectiva global necesaria para la comprensión del todo y de las partes. Comprobar, cómo las tesis economicistas centradas en la supremacía de ciertas Ciudades-Estados, según el modelo de Castells, Sassen o Mazza, no pueden ser sostenidas sin tener en cuenta el territorio de anclaje en el que se encuentran, así como su situación de dependencia hacia otros territorios. Asimismo, esta perspectiva holista nos ofrece la alternativa del análisis de los aspectos negativos y positivos de la sociedad basada en las Nuevas Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, superando las visiones unidireccionales, como las de Bauman o Giddens.

  6. Tom Olaf Urb / intervjueerinud Siim Õ. Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urb, Tom Olaf, 1985-

    2016-01-01

    Muusik, produtsent, kirjanik ja näitleja Tom-Olaf Urb, lavanimega Reket, arutleb disaini teemal ja nimetab kümme disainieset, mis teda elus köitnud on. Eesti Hip-Hop auhindade jagamisel valiti Reketi "Tuule tee" 2015.a. parimaks kodumaiseks hip-hop albumiks

  7. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

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    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  8. Nota sobre el Ejemplar Tipo de "Bromus catharticus" Vahl

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    Pinto Escobar Polidoro

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available EI agrostólogo inglés C. E. Hubbard y simultáneamente el agrostólogo argentino Lorenzo Parodi en sendas notas (1956 concluyeron en declarar dudosa la especie Bromus catharticus Vahl y restablecer para la planta conocida como "rescue grass" en USA y "cebadilla criolla" en la Argentina el nombre Bromus unioloides H. B. K. Este trabajo presenta nuevas evidencias que permiten restablecer la validez de Bromus catharticus Vahl.

  9. O Dorpat, urbs addictissima musis ... / Marju Lepajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepajõe, Marju, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Toimetaja sõnavõtt luulekogu esitlusel 26.9.2007 Tartus: O Dorpat, urbs addictissima musis ... : valik 17. sajandi Tartu juhuluulet / toimetanud Marju Lepajõe. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, c2007

  10. Functional expression of the ectoine hydroxylase gene (thpD) from Streptomyces chrysomallus in Halomonas elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Julia; Schauwecker, Florian; Grammel, Nicolas; Keller, Ullrich; Bernhard, Michael

    2004-05-01

    The formation of hydroxyectoine in the industrial ectoine producer Halomonas elongata was improved by the heterologous expression of the ectoine hydroxylase gene, thpD, from Streptomyces chrysomallus. The efficient conversion of ectoine to hydroxyectoine was achieved by the concerted regulation of thpD by the H. elongata ectA promoter.

  11. Functional Expression of the Ectoine Hydroxylase Gene (thpD) from Streptomyces chrysomallus in Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Julia; Schauwecker, Florian; Grammel, Nicolas; Keller, Ullrich; Bernhard, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The formation of hydroxyectoine in the industrial ectoine producer Halomonas elongata was improved by the heterologous expression of the ectoine hydroxylase gene, thpD, from Streptomyces chrysomallus. The efficient conversion of ectoine to hydroxyectoine was achieved by the concerted regulation of thpD by the H. elongata ectA promoter.

  12. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Ficus exasperata Vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effects of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) (family: Moraceae) leaf aqueous extract (FEE) were investigated in experimental rat models. In this study, spontaneously-hypertensive rats (SHR) (type 1 diabetes), obese Zucker (type 2 diabetes) and Wistar rats were used. Three (A, B and C) groups of ...

  13. First occurrence of the goldspotted oak borer parasitoid, Calosota elongata (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Micheal I. Jones; Robert C. Venette; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Calosota elongata Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a gregarious, ectoparasitic larval parasitoid that was described recently (Gibson 2010) in association with the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse [now considered to be Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in its native...

  14. Infective endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata on a native tricuspid valve and confirmed by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Pyo; Kang, Ki-Woon; Yoon, Hyeon Soo; Yoo, Seungmin; Lee, Myung-Shin

    2014-04-01

    Neisseria elongata, a common oral bacterium, has been recognized as a cause of infections such as infective endocarditis, septicemia, and osteomyelitis. Neisseria-induced infective endocarditis, although infrequently reported, typically arises after dental procedures. Without antibiotic therapy, its complications can be severe. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with fever, severe dyspnea, and a leg abscess from cellulitis. An echocardiogram showed a vegetation-like echogenic structure on the septal leaflet of the patient's native tricuspid valve, and an insignificant Gerbode defect. Three blood cultures grew gram-negative, antibiotic-susceptible coccobacilli that were confirmed to be N. elongata. Subsequent DNA sequencing conclusively isolated N. elongata subsp nitroreducens as the organism responsible for the infective endocarditis. The patient recovered after 21 days of antibiotic therapy. In addition to the patient's unusual case, we discuss the nature and isolation of N. elongata and its subspecies.

  15. Legionum Urbs and the British Martyrs Aaron and Julius

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    Andrew Breeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the localization of the martyrdom of the British saints Aaron and Julius, known of solely from Gildas, writing in the early 530s. His remarks were taken up by Bede (d. 737, so that the two saints have never been forgotten, their cult surviving to this day. The author provides a detailed survey of discussion of Aaron and Julius over the centuries, and argues that their martyrdom was neither at Caerleon (in south-east Wales nor Chester (in north-west England, as suggested by numerous scholars, but at Leicester, another major city of Roman Britain. Working from epigraphic sources and taking into account ancient models of naming, the author attempts a reinterpretation of Legionum urbs in the original texts by emending it to Legorum urbs “city of the Legores,” the Celtic people of the Leicester region. The latter, by the time of Gildas, was occupied by the Angles, while the city itself was abandoned, which may explain Gildas’s remarks, otherwise unclear if one identifies Legionum urbs with Caerleon or Chester. The author adduces both historical and linguistic arguments for his proposal and shows that it sheds new light on the history of early British Christianity.

  16. Urbānisms Aleksandra Čaka un Vladimira Majakovska poēzijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Tihanova, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Urbānisms Aleksandra Čaka un Vladimira Majakovska poēzijā: bakalaura darbs. – Rīga, 2013. – 59 lpp. Šis pētnieciskais darbs ir veltīts Aleksandra Čaka un Vladimira Majakovska urbānistiskai dzejai. Darbā tiek apskatīts materiāls par urbānismu modernisma literatūrā, analizēts pilsētas tēls dzejnieku-urbānistu Majakovska un Čaka daiļradē, noskaidrots, kādā veidā Majakovska dzejiskā tradīcija ir ietekmējusi Čaka pilsētas dzeju. Analīzei tika izvēlēta Vladimira Majakovska urbānistiskā dzeja,...

  17. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Ruben P; Neto, Ana I; Rodrigues, Armindo S

    2010-04-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Ruben P.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification.

  19. Alcaloides en la especie cubana Croton micradenus Urb

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    Armando Payo Hill

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se emprendió el estudio del contenido de alcaloides en las hojas y tallos de la especie endémica cubana, potencialmente medicinal, Crotón micradenus Urb. Para la extracción y purificación de dichos metabolitos se utilizaron solventes orgánicos y métodos cromatográficos de separación por columna y placa. Mediante métodos espectroscópicos de UV, IR, Masa y RMN ¹H y 13C, así como por la medición de sus constantes físicas, se caracterizaron 4 de los 6 alcaloides aislados, de ellos 3 morfinandienonas: ocobotrina, sinoacutina y 8,14 dihidrosalutaridina y una aporfina: isoboldina.The study of the content of alkaloids in the leaves and stems of the Croton micradenus Urb Cuban endemic species, which is potentially medicinal, was conducted. Organic solvents and chromatographic methods of separation by column and plate were used for the extraction and purification of these metabolites. 4 of the 6 isolated alkaloids, 3 of them morphinandienones: ocobotrine, sinoacutine and 8,14-dihydrosalutaridine and an aporphine (Isobol-dine were characterized by spectroscopic methods of UV, IR, Mass and NMR ¹H and 13C, as well as by the measurement of their physical constants.

  20. [FTIR spectra of endangered plants Ulmus elongata and its correlation to soil nitrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-xiang; Liu, Peng; Kang, Hua-jing; Liao, Cheng-chuan; Pan, Cheng-chun; Li, Cheng-hui

    2008-06-01

    Ulmus elongata, an endemic species in China, is one of the grade II national key conservation rare and endangered plants. The spectra of root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata sampled from eight different sites were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry with OMNI-sampler directly, fast and accurately. A positioning technology of OMNIC E.S.P. 5.1 intelligent software and ATR correction was used. The background was scanned before the determination of every example. The peak value and absorbance were ascertained using a method of baseline correction in infrared spectra, and then the relativity between absorption peaks of the spectra and the soil nitrogen was analyzed. Results from the comparison of the spectra showed some differences in their FTIR spectra among root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata from the same plant. The coefficients of correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil nitrogen were positive in different degrees. There was the significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of stem and total nitrogen (p Ulmus elongata and soil available nitrogen, but the coefficients of correlation was smaller, and the level of the statistic significance was not significant (p > 0.05). It was showed that the change in soil total nitrogen has some influence on chemical composition of different organs of Ulmus elongata, but the degree of available nitrogen was very smaller. The linear correlation between soil total nitrogen and organs chemical composition of Ulmus elongate, not only provided the theoretic basis for plant nutriology and nutrient ecology of Ulmus elongate, but also proved that the plants and soil were inseparable. The results also showed that FTIR can be used widely for analysis of the correlation between chemical composition of endangered plants and soil physical and chemical properties in the future, and indicated that the new method has practicability

  1. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

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    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  2. Green biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Galaxaura elongata and characterization of their antibacterial activity

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    Neveen Abdel-Raouf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au using Galaxaura elongata (powder or extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Au nanoparticles has been found using G. elongata extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis revealed that the particles are spherical in shape along with a few rod, triangular, truncated triangular and hexagonal shaped nanoparticles. Zeta potential measurements indicated that the Au nanoparticles were in the size range of 3.85–77.13 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed that nanoparticles were capped with alga compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. Andrographolide, Alloaromadendrene oxide, glutamic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, stearic acid, gallic acid, Epigallocatechin Catechin and Epicatechin gallate of the algal extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The nanoparticles were also evaluated for their antibacterial activities which showed better antibacterial effects with maximum inhibition zones of 17–16 mm by AuNPs synthesized by ethanolic extract against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and MRSA, respectively, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13 mm. Furthermore, the nanoparticles synthesized by the powder of G. elongata were found to be highly effective against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (13.5 and 13 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the free ethanolic extract of G. elongata exhibits high activity only against MRSA (14 mm.

  3. Lilleküla jalgpallistaadion / Haldo Oravas, Aare Uusalu, Peep Urb...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    V korruse/I korruse plaan, tribüüni lõige, asendiplaan; 5 fotot, värv.; arhitekt, projekti ja detailplaneeringu (As Eesti Projekt) autor H. Oravas; projekreerijad: ETP Grupp, projektijuht A. Uusalu, arhitekt P. Urb

  4. The FAAH inhibitor URB-597 interferes with cisplatin- and nicotine-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L A; Limebeer, C L; Rock, E M; Litt, D L; Kwiatkowska, M; Piomelli, D

    2009-04-20

    Considerable evidence implicates the endocannabinoid system as a neuromodulator of nausea and vomiting. The action of anandamide (AEA) can be prolonged by inhibiting its degradation, through the use of URB597 (URB), a Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme inhibitor. Here we present evidence that the FAAH inhibitor, URB, interferes with cisplatin- and nicotine-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus. In Experiment 1, shrews were injected with URB (0.9 mg/kg) or vehicle 120 min prior to the behavioral testing. They received a second injection of AEA (5 mg/kg) or vehicle 15 min prior to being injected with cisplatin (20 mg/kg) or saline and the number of vomiting episodes were counted for 60 min. In Experiment 2, shrews were injected with vehicle or URB (0.9 mg/kg) 120 min prior to receiving an injection of nicotine (5 mg/kg) or saline and the number of vomiting episodes were counted for 15 min. Experiment 3 evaluated the potential of the CB(1) antagonist, SR141716, to reverse the effect of URB on nicotine-induced vomiting. URB attenuated vomiting produced by cisplatin and nicotine and the combination of URB+AEA suppressed vomiting produced by cisplatin. The effect of URB on nicotine-induced vomiting was reversed by SR141716. These data suggest that the EC system plays a tonic role in the regulation of toxin-induced vomiting.

  5. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl: From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence

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    Pearl Majorie Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl belongs to the family of Verbenaceae and is commonly known as Gervao, Brazilian tea, verbena cimarrona, rooter comb, or blue porter weed. It is one of the important plants with high medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. S. jamaicensis contains various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems, with cures for several diseases. Objective. The objective of this review paper is to collect information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, biological activities, and safety data of S. jamaicensis. Materials and Methods. The information was obtained from literature search through electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar on S. jamaicensis. Results and Conclusion. The high medicinal properties of this plant, for instance, antimicrobial and antifungal effect as the main activities, but verbascoside as the main active chemical component, make it a valuable source of the medicinal compound. This review paper summarizes all information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, pharmacological activities, and toxicological studies of S. jamaicensis.

  6. Effects of nano-TiO₂ on photosynthetic characteristics of Ulmus elongata seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Xu, Gendi; Qian, Huanhuan; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Yong

    2013-05-01

    The physiological and ecological responses of Ulmus elongata to different concentrations of nano-anatase TiO2 solutions were investigated in this study and we found that with foliar application of 0.1% (T1), 0.2% (T2) and 0.4% (T3) nano-anatase TiO2 solution the net photosynthetic rate of U. elongata seedlings were lower, comparing with the control (CK) (no spraying). TiO2 solution had no effect on the carbon isotope values (δ(13)C), indicating the lower photosynthetic capacity was not caused by stomatal limitation. The nitrogen isotope values (δ(15)N) decreased, but the foliar metal elements, such as Mg, K and Mn contents were not affected by nano-anatase TiO2 which promoted the Cu uptake. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the nano-anatase TiO2 enhanced the absorbance of U. elongata leaves, especially for 1064, 1638, 2926 and 3386 cm(-1) bands, indicating the synthesis of carbohydrate and lipid compounds was a kind of mechanism under the toxic effects of nanonanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillic acid by Halomonas elongata isolated from table-olive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Sayadi, Sami; Ben Ali Gam, Zouhaier; Casalot, Laurence; Labat, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Halomonas elongata strain Mar (=CCUG 52759) isolated from table-olive fermentation is the first halophilic bacterium to be shown to transform ferulic acid to vanillic acid under hypersaline conditions. During growth on ferulic acid, this strain was capable of promoting the formation of a significant amount of vanillic acid and trace quantities of vanillin. The products were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Based on the different metabolites identified, an oxidative side chain degradation pathway of ferulic acid bioconversion to vanillic acid was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed that this isolated strain Mar was identified as H. elongata. To increase the formation of vanillic acid, a resting cell method using H. elongata strain Mar was performed. The optimal yield of vanillic acid (86%) was obtained after a 6 h reaction using 5 mM of ferulic acid and 4 g of dry weight of cells L(-1) pregrown on ferulic acid and harvested at the end of the exponential phase.

  8. Study of volatile oil and lipid content of Jasonia montana (vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oils, prepared by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of three patches of Jasonia montana (vahl.) collected in May, August and November were subjected separately to GC/Ms analysis. Camphor, endoborneol, endobornyl acetate, intermedeol, 1, 8-cineole, 1-α-terpineol, and α-pinene, represented the major ...

  9. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mary A; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2009-02-01

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO4(-)), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brullé. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system.

  10. Comparing copper resistance in two bryophytes: Mielichhoferia elongata Hornsch. versus Physcomitrella patens Hedw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassmann, Stefan; Wernitznig, Stefan; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2010-10-01

    The bryophyte Mielichhoferia elongata is known to occur on copper-rich substrate, but the exact resistance level remained to be determined by in vitro experiments. Here, we tested its copper tolerance in graded copper solutions and compared the results to the moss Physcomitrella patens that is not known to inhabit heavy metal sites. Our results confirm the survival of M. elongata in classical resistance experiments of up to 10 mM Cu-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution. Interestingly, P. patens is equally resistant. Cultured on copper-enriched agar plates for over 5 weeks, P. patens survived even higher copper levels of up to 100 mM Cu-EDTA and an increment of growth was detected on all concentrations tested. Obviously, P. patens is able to withstand harmfully high levels of copper in both solution and substrate. In this short communication, we give a detailed description of the growth rates and discuss the results in comparison to other moss species and heavy metals.

  11. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers for authentification of Cissus repanda vahl.

    OpenAIRE

    Harisha, C. R.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Chauhan, Maltiben G.

    2012-01-01

    Cissus repanda Vahl. belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known in Hindi as ?Panivel,? is a large climber distributed all over India. The crushed or powder of root is prescribed by tribal people and traditional medical practitioners of Orissa for its healing properties in cases of bone fracture, cuts and wounds, swellings, and so on. In spite of its reputation, its leaves have not been investigated scientifically. The present study deals with pharmacognostical and molecular characterizati...

  12. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Mary A.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO 4 - ), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata

  13. Lack of establishment of the Mediterranean tamarisk beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on athel (Tamarix aphylla) (Tamaricaceae) in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Mediterranean tamarisk beetles, Diorhabda elongata (Brullé), a defoliator of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), were released into four field cages containing small saltcedar trees or closely-related exotic athel trees (Tamarix aphylla (L.). Karsten) and onto uncaged beneficial mature athel tree...

  14. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: mary.sorensen@ucr.edu; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2016-11-04

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress.

  16. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JAVANEESE PEPPER LEAVES (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliasri Jamal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Daun cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl. telah terbukti berkhasiat sebagai bahan antimikroba, akan tetapi belum ada informasi lebih lanjut tentang mekanisme aksi antibakteri dari minyak atsiri daun cabe jawa. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh minyak atsiri daun cabe jawa terhadap bakteri uji sensitif serta difokuskan untuk melihat kerusakan membran sel bakteri melalui analisis protein, asam nukleat dan ion-ion logam kalsium dan kalium. Distilasi uap minyak atsiri dari daun segar cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl. menghasilkan 0.03% cairan kental kekuningan. Analisis dengan GC-MS mengidentifikasi 4 senyawa sebagai komponen utama, yaitu germakren D (24.20%, tetrametilsiklo[5.3.1.0(4.11]-undek-8-ena (17.73%, ar-turmeron (11.55% dan benzil benzoat (6.28%. Minyak atsiri cabe jawa terbukti aktif melawan beberapa bakteri patogen antara lain Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus dengan diameter daya hambat berturut-turut 8.0; 9.7; 8.5 mm. Pengamatan lebih lanjut memperlihatkan nilai MIC dari minyak atsiri cabe jawa  terhadap B. subtilis adalah 2% (v/v, dan juga merubah morfologi sel dari bakteri yang diobservasi menggunakan SEM. Kata kunci: Piper retrofractum Vah., cabe jawa, minyak atsiri, aktivitas antibakteri Abstract The leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl. has been proven efficacious as antimicrobial agent, however, there was no further information about action mechanism of antibacterial of Javaneese pepper leaves essential oil. This study was to determine the effect of essential oils of javaneese pepper leaves against bacterial sensitive test and is focused on investigating the damage of cell membranes of bacteria through the analysis of proteins, nucleic acids and metal ions, calcium and potassium. Steam distillation of essential oil from fresh leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl. gave 0.03 % yellowish viscous liquid. Germacrene D (24.20 %, tetramethylcyclo[5

  17. Estrés en docentes universitarios. Caso LUZ, URBE y UNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhilde Sánchez de Gallardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación de campo, tipo descriptiva, tuvo como propósito determinar el estrés en docentes universitarios activos, mediante las subvariables: situaciones estresantes, síntomas manifestados, formas de afrontamiento, personalidad típica y motivos sociales (logro, afiliación y poder. Se tomaron muestras utilizando muestreo probabilístico estratificado, de tres Universidades: Universidad del Zulia (n=187, Universidad “Dr. Rafael Belloso Chacín” (n=149, Universidad Católica “Cecilio Acosta” (n=93, participando en el estudio 429 docentes, quienes contestaron las escalas SITESTRÉS, SINTOESTRÉS, AFRONTAESTRÉS, escala de personalidad típica (de Howard L. Glazer e inventario MOSE (Salom, 1992. Subescalas logro afiliación y poder. Los coeficientes de confiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach, División por mitades, corrección Guttman fueron en promedio 0,80. Los datos recabados fueron analizados en función de la media, categorizada según baremo preestablecido, encontrándose puntajes medio bajos en la subescala SITESTRÉS para los grupos de LUZ y URBE a diferencia del grupo de la UNICA, en la categoría media alta, SINTOESTRÉS en la categoría media baja para las tres universidades, AFRONTAESTRÉS medio bajo en LUZ y URBE y medio alto en la UNICA, personalidad típica ADÉBIL en LUZ y URBE y B DÉBIL en UNICA, motivación al logro alta, afiliación media alta y poder medio bajo en LUZ y UNICA y medio alto en URBE.

  18. PENGARUH NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP EKSPLAN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L. Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. representing one of theplant which good of as drug. Plantof pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. good of  to launch the urine, degrading blood pressure and quicken to heal the hurt. Ready of the seed for the crop of drug which require to be paid attention by quality from itself seed. One of the alternative to get the uniform seed and a flash in the pan is with the technique of tissue culture. Tissue culturelaboratory research was conducted Researchand Development Center for Medicinal Plantsand Traditional MedicineTawangmangu. Research Method use the Random Device of Complete Group at MS (Murashige Skoog media with the treatment ofplant growth regulator the NAA concentration 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg / l and BAP concentration 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg / l. Result of research show the combination of  giving of NAA 1 until 3 mg / l and BAP 1 until 5 mg / l of is condition of explan experience of the change become the callus. Treatment of combination NAA 3 mg / l and BAP 4 mg / l give the best result to callus forming with the quicker callus forming time that is 25 day. Keywords : Pegagan, Centella asiática (L. Urb., tissue culture, NAA, BAP

  19. Extracting and purifying R-phycoerythrin from Mediterranean red algae Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, R; Ungaro, N; D'Ambrosio, A; Liuzzi, G M; Riccio, P

    2003-03-20

    R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) is a protein acting as a photosynthetic accessory pigment in red algae (Rodophyta). This protein has gained importance in many biotechnological applications in food science, immunodiagnostic, therapy, cosmetics, protein and cell labelling, and analytical processes. In this paper we report on a new, one step procedure for the extraction and purification of R-PE from a new source: the Mediterranean red algae Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander. This red algae contains mainly R-PE and is suitable for the production in culture. No other contaminating phycobiliproteins could be detected in the extracts. The method we propose for the purification is based on the use of hydroxyapatite, a chromatographic resin that can be produced in the laboratory at very low cost and can be used batch-wise with large amounts of extracts, alternative to chromatography, and therefore can be scaled up. Both the yield and the purity of R-PE are very good.

  20. Covalent Inhibition of Recombinant Human Carboxylesterase 1 and 2 and Monoacylglycerol Lipase by the Carbamates JZL184 and URB597

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, J. Allen; Bittles, Victoria; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylesterase type 1 (CES1) and CES2 are serine hydrolases located in the liver and small intestine. CES1 and CES2 actively participate in the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals. Recently, carbamate compounds were developed to inhibit members of the serine hydrolase family via covalent modification of the active site serine. URB597 and JZL184 inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively; however, carboxylesterases in liver have been identified as a major off-target. We report the kinetic rate constants for inhibition of human recombinant CES1 and CES2 by URB597 and JZL184. Bimolecular rate constants (kinact/Ki) for inhibition of CES1 by JZL184 and URB597 were similar [3.9 (±0.2) × 103 M-1 s-1 and 4.5 (±1.3) × 103 M-1 s-1, respectively]. However, kinact/Ki for inhibition of CES2 by JZL184 and URB597 were significantly different [2.3 (±1.3) × 102 M-1 s-1 and 3.9 (±1.0) × 103 M-1 s-1, respectively]. Rates of inhibition of CES1 and CES2 by URB597 were similar; however, CES1 and MAGL were more potently inhibited by JZL184 than CES2. We also determined kinetic constants for spontaneous reactivation of CES1 carbamoylated by either JZL184 or URB597 and CES1 diethylphosphorylated by paraoxon. The reactivation rate was significantly slower (4.5x) for CES1 inhibited by JZL184 than CES1 inhibited by URB597. Half life of reactivation for CES1 carbamoylated by JZL184 was 49 ± 15 h, which is faster than carboxylesterase turnover in HepG2 cells. Together, the results define the kinetics of inhibition for a class of drugs that target hydrolytic enzymes involved in drug and lipid metabolism. PMID:22943979

  1. Obtención de pilocarpina a partir de Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Payo Hill

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Se inicia el trabajo fitoquímico en Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. (Rutaceae con la finalidad de conocer el contenido de pilocarpina en esta especie. Se extrajeron 1,4 kg de tallos y 1 kg de hojas por los métodos convencionales, y se cromatografiaron los crudos alcaloidales en columnas, de las cuales se obtuvo 2,3036 y 0,6871 g de pilocarpina pura respectivamente. La identificación del alcaloide se realizó por espectroscopia infrarroja contra patrón y cromatografía de capa fina.

  2. Urban Typologies: Towards an ORNL Urban Information System (UrbIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, B.; King, A. W.; Sorokine, A.; Crow, M. C.; Devarakonda, R.; Hilbert, N. L.; Karthik, R.; Patlolla, D.; Surendran Nair, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban environments differ in a large number of key attributes; these include infrastructure, morphology, demography, and economic and social variables, among others. These attributes determine many urban properties such as energy and water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, public health, sustainability, and vulnerability and resilience to climate change. Characterization of urban environments by a single property such as population size does not sufficiently capture this complexity. In addressing this multivariate complexity one typically faces such problems as disparate and scattered data, challenges of big data management, spatial searching, insufficient computational capacity for data-driven analysis and modelling, and the lack of tools to quickly visualize the data and compare the analytical results across different cities and regions. We have begun the development of an Urban Information System (UrbIS) to address these issues, one that embraces the multivariate "big data" of urban areas and their environments across the United States utilizing the Big Data as a Service (BDaaS) concept. With technological roots in High-performance Computing (HPC), BDaaS is based on the idea of outsourcing computations to different computing paradigms, scalable to super-computers. UrbIS aims to incorporate federated metadata search, integrated modeling and analysis, and geovisualization into a single seamless workflow. The system includes web-based 2D/3D visualization with an iGlobe interface, fast cloud-based and server-side data processing and analysis, and a metadata search engine based on the Mercury data search system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Results of analyses will be made available through web services. We are implementing UrbIS in ORNL's Compute and Data Environment for Science (CADES) and are leveraging ORNL experience in complex data and geospatial projects. The development of UrbIS is being guided by an investigation of

  3. Revealing the role of the endocannabinoid system modulators, SR141716A, URB597 and VDM-11, in sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Machado, Sergio; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Budde, Henning; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2016-12-17

    The endocannabinoid system comprises receptors (CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors), enzymes (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase [FAAH], which synthesizes the endocannabinoid anandamide), as well as the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT). Importantly, previous experiments have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system modulates multiple neurobiological functions, including sleep. For instance, SR141716A (the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist) as well as URB597 (the FAAH inhibitor) increase waking in rats whereas VDM-11 (the blocker of the AMT) enhances sleep in rodents. However, no further evidence is available regarding the neurobiological role of the endocannabinoid system in the homeostatic control of sleep. Therefore, the aim of the current experiment was to test if SR141716A, URB597 or VDM-11 would modulate the sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. Thus, these compounds were systemically injected (5, 10, 20mg/kg; ip; separately each one) into rats after prolonged waking. We found that SR141716A and URB597 blocked in dose-dependent fashion the sleep rebound whereas animals treated with VDM-11 displayed sleep rebound during the recovery period. Complementary, injection after sleep deprivation of either SR141716A or URB597 enhanced dose-dependently the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), serotonin (5-HT), as well as adenosine (AD) while VDM-11 caused a decline in contents of these molecules. These findings suggest that SR141716A or URB597 behave as a potent stimulants since they suppressed the sleep recovery period after prolonged waking. It can be concluded that elements of the endocannabinoid system, such as the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor, FAAH and AMT, modulate the sleep homeostasis after prolonged waking. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive isolation in the acoustically divergent groups of tettigoniid, Mecopoda elongata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochishnu Dutta

    Full Text Available Sympatric divergent populations of the same species provide an opportunity to study the evolution and maintenance of reproductive isolation. Male mating calls are important in sexual selection in acoustically communicating species, and they also have the potential to maintain isolation among species or incipient species. We studied divergent south Indian populations of the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata which are extremely difficult to distinguish morphologically, but which exhibit striking divergence in male acoustic signals. We performed phonotactic experiments investigating the relative preference of females of the "Chirper" song type for calls of all 5 of the song types found in the region (in varying degrees of sympatry. We found that Chirper females preferred their own song type and were completely unresponsive to three trilling song types. Chirper females were occasionally attracted to the call type "Double Chirper" (the call most similar to their own type, suggesting call preference alone cannot provide a complete isolating mechanism. To investigate the basis of call preference we investigated the response of chirper females to variation in chirp rate. Chirper females responded most frequently to a mean chirp rate characteristic of their own song type rather than a higher chirp rate which would be more characteristic of the Double-Chirper song type. This suggests females drive stabilising selection on male chirp rate, which may contribute to the maintenance of isolation. Finally, a no-choice mating experiment using Chirper females and Chirper and Double Chirper males revealed a significant preference of Chirper females to mate with their own song type, even without a requirement for phonotaxis. Overall, the strong specificity of Chirper females for their 'own' song type provides evidence for behavioural isolation among divergent sympatric Mecopoda song types being maintained by female preference for both male song type and subsequent

  5. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata and different species of bacterial film on larval attachment of Balanus amphitrite (cirripedia, crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswambaran Ganapiriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antifouling activity of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy and five species of bacterial biofilm were studied. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cyprids and nauplii were used to monitor the settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The crude extract and partially purified fractions of A.elongata showed significant inhibition over the settlement individually, and with the interaction of bacterial species. No bacterial film stimulated the barnacle settlement. The high but variable levels of antifouling activity in combination with less amount of toxicity showed the potential of these metabolites in environmentally-friendly antifouling preparations.

  6. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers for authentification of Cissus repanda vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisha, C R; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Chauhan, Maltiben G

    2012-04-01

    Cissus repanda Vahl. belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known in Hindi as "Panivel," is a large climber distributed all over India. The crushed or powder of root is prescribed by tribal people and traditional medical practitioners of Orissa for its healing properties in cases of bone fracture, cuts and wounds, swellings, and so on. In spite of its reputation, its leaves have not been investigated scientifically. The present study deals with pharmacognostical and molecular characterization by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and their role in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters. Genomic isolation of DNA from fresh leaves was amplified by RAPD markers. The diagnostic characters are mucilage, calcium oxalate rosette crystals, spiral vessels, and fibers. The unique bands obtained in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification clearly discriminated having, many bright and light bands indicating the genuinity of the plant. RAPD may serve as a complementary tool in quality control of many herbal sources.

  7. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Bioactive Fucoxanthin from Himanthalia elongata Brown Seaweed: A TLC-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are important sources of carotenoids, and numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of these pigments on human health. In the present study, Himanthalia elongata brown seaweed was extracted with a mixture of low polarity solvents, and the crude extract was separated using analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The separated compounds were tested for their potential antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes bacteria using TLC bioautography approach. For bio-autography, the coloured band on TLC chromatogram was visualized after spraying with DPPH and triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride reagents which screen antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds, respectively, and only one active compound was screened on the TLC plate. Preliminary identification of this active compound was done by comparing its colour and R f (retention factor) value with the authentic fucoxanthin standard. Further, the active compound was purified using preparative TLC. This purified compound showed a strong antioxidant (EC50: 14.8 ± 1.27 µg/mL) and antimicrobial (inhibition zone: 10.27 mm, 25 µg compound/disc) activities, which were examined by DPPH scavenging and agar disc-diffusion bioassay, respectively. The bioactivity shown by the purified compound was almost similar to the fucoxanthin standard. The characteristic UV-visible and FT-IR spectra of the purified active compound completely matched with the standard. Hence, the main active compound in H. elongata was identified as fucoxanthin.

  8. Use of serially coupled capillary columns with different polarity of stationary phases for the separation of the natural complex volatile mixture of the marine red alga Corallina elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, V M; Srebnik, M

    2002-09-01

    Separation of a complex of natural volatile compounds using serially coupled capillary columns with different polarity of stationary phases by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from the medicinal marine red alga Corallina elongata is reported. Nearly 200 hydrocarbons, halogen compounds, fatty acids, and other metabolites were found. Using this gas chromatography procedure we demonstrate the successful separation of different volatile organic compounds.

  9. Evaluation of in vivo anti-inflmmatory and analgesic activity of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq. Miq. and Shorea robusta stem bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Amol Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of stem bark extract of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq. Miq. (D. indica f. elongata and its comparison with Shorea robusta Gaertn. (S. robusta and respective standard drugs in experimental animals. Methods: Analgesic models (hot plate, tail flick and formalin induced paw licking along with acute (carrageenan-induced and chronic (formalin-induced models of inflammation were evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the plant extracts. Results: The results of the study showed that the ethyl acetate extracts of D. indica f. elongata (100 and 300 mg/kg and S. robusta (100 and 300 mg/kg possessed good central as well as peripheral analgesic activity as compared with pentazocine and indomethacin (10 mg/kg respectively. The extracts showed significant (P < 0.01 activity in carrageenan- and formalininduced chronic inflammation models by using indomethacin (8 mg/kg and diclofenac (13.5 mg/kg as standard drugs respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the presence of major constituents like flavonoids, tannins and phenols in the ethyl acetate extracts of stem bark of D. indica f. elongata (100 and 300 mg/kg and S. robusta (100 and 300 mg/kg may be responsible for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity.

  10. Synlophe Structure in Pseudomarshallagia elongata (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea), Abomasal Parasites Among Ethiopian Ungulates, with Consideration of Other Morphological Attributes and Differentiation within the Osteragiinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The independence of the genus Pseudomarshallagia and its placement among the medium stomach worms of ungulates, Ostertagiinae, is confirmed based on comparative morphological studies of the synlophe and genital attributes among male and female specimens. An emended description of P. elongata is pres...

  11. Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: To what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; LoIacono, C.; Mamouridis, V.; López-Pérez, C.; Rodríguez, P.

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed what are the best ecological conditions for megafauna associated with the bamboo coral Isidella elongata based on the geomorphological, physical and trophic information taken in 3 stations (St1, St2, St3) off the southern Catalonian coasts at 620 m depth in June 2011. Results were compared with assemblage compositions recorded in past cruises (May 1992, 1994) at the same 3 stations. St1 was in a fishing ground exploited since the 1940s over a relatively wide slope at ca. 22 km from the nearest canyon head; St2 and St3 were on a narrower slope closer to canyon heads and to the Ebro river mouth than St1. I. elongata had formed (to May 1994, at least) a dense coral forest at St2-St3 (to ca. 255 colonies/ha at St3), and some isolated colonies (to ca. 0.9 colonies/ha) were still collected in 2011. Fish and invertebrate communities significantly differed between St1 and St2/St3, with two macrourid fishes (Trachrhynchus trachyrhynchus and Nezumia aequalis) and two decapods (Plesionika martia and Plesionika acanthonotus) more abundant at St2/St3. The following ecological indicators imply better food conditions for megafauna at St2-St3 and for I. elongata itself: (i) greater density of zooplankton (copepods, euphausiids, and others) as potential prey for planktivores (including I. elongata); (ii) greater biomass and mean weight of epifaunal and infaunal deposit feeders; (iii) higher feeding intensity, F, at St3 for benthos feeders (Phycis blennoides, N. aequalis and Aristeus antennatus). Also, at St2-St3 we found higher near-bottom turbidity (indicating particle resuspension: food for suspension feeders) and finer and more reduced (Eh) sediments. The results let us suggest that corals and accompanying fauna preferently found optimal ecological conditions in the same habitat, while habitat-forming capacity by I. elongata seemed weak to generate these conditions. Coral forests may enhance detritus accumulations around them, improving habitat conditions for benthos

  12. The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 modulates serotonin-dependent emotional behaviour, and serotonin1A and serotonin2A/C activity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambico, Francis R; Duranti, Andrea; Nobrega, José N; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 increases anandamide, resulting in antidepressant/anxiolytic-like activity, likely via CB1 receptor-mediated modulation of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) neurotransmission. However, the relative importance of the 5-HT and NE systems in these effects and on effects of URB597 on postsynaptic 5-HT receptors remain to be determined. Using behavioural and electrophysiological approaches, we assessed the effects of acute-single and repeated URB597 treatment on responses predicting antidepressant/anxiolytic activity, and on hippocampal 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor sensitivity. Acute-single or serial URB597 treatment, compared to vehicle, reduced immobility in the forced swim test (FST), increased open arm visits in the elevated plus maze and shortened feeding latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). Repeated URB597 treatment yielded more profound behavioural effects, which were associated with an increase in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HT synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), but not the NE neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) prevented URB597-mediated antidepressant/anxiolytic-like response in the FST and NSFT, while DSP4 did not further affect URB597-mediated increase in raphe 5-HT neuron firing. Repeated URB597 administration decreased hippocampal pyramidal firing in response to 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT1A stimulation with 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) and 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), respectively, suggesting plastic adaptation of these receptors. The effects of acute-single and repeated URB597 administration on hippocampal cell firing in response to DOI or 8-OH-DPAT were similar in magnitude and intensity to the positive control citalopram. These data indicate that URB597 acts, either directly or indirectly, on the 5-HT system, increases hippocampal BDNF expression, and modifies 5-HT1A

  13. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temunović, Martina; Franjić, Jozo; Satovic, Zlatko; Grgurev, Marin; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM). We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.

  14. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

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    Martina Temunović

    Full Text Available Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM. We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of flavonoid glycosides from Ficus exasperata Vahl-Holl (moraceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Bamigboye J; Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A

    2014-01-01

    Ficus exasperata Vahl-Holl (Moraceae) leaves are used for infectious and inflammatory conditions in many West African Countries. However, there is need for more phytochemical studies to justify the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant. The crude 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of the leaves was partitioned successively between water and; n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The fractions were subjected to antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion test. n-Butanol fraction, which showed both antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities was subjected to repeated chromatographic fractionation on both silica and Sephadex LH-20 columns. Each stage of the purification was monitored by thin layer chromatographic diphenylpicryl hydrazyl autographic assay. Three compounds were isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods, shift reagent studies, acid hydrolysis, and by comparison with literature data. The compounds were identified as apigenin C-8 glucoside (1), isoquercitrin-6-O-4-hydroxybenzoate (2) and quercetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside (3). The solvent fractions and isolated compounds were found to inhibit the growth of Gram +ve organisms only. These flavonoid glycosides are being reported in this plant species for the first time. Their weak in vitro antimicrobial activity suggest the flavonoids may be acting as pro-drug. The radical scavenging activity of the compounds may justify some of the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant as free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of many inflammatory diseases.

  16. Mosquito larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts of long pepper (Piper retrofractum vahl) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansang, Uruyakorn; Zahiri, Nayer S; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Boonruad, Thidarat; Thongsrirak, Pratom; Mingmuang, Jiranuch; Benjapong, Nipa; Mulla, Mir S

    2005-12-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine medicinal plants were bioassayed against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypt (L.). Among these plants, the long pepper, Piper retrofractum Vahl (Piperaceae), showed the highest level of activity against mosquito larvae. To gain more information on larvicidal activity of P. retrofractum, fresh fruits of this plant were extracted in water and the extracts made into powder and bioassayed against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. Extracts of unripe (001/3) and ripe (002/3 and 001/4) fruits showed different levels of activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Extracts 001/3 and 002/3 were equi-toxic to a Bacillus sphaericus resistant and susceptible strains, both from Thailand. The ripe fruit extract 002/3 was somewhat more active against Ae. aegypti than Cx. quinquefasciatus. Another ripe fruit extract (001/4) was much more toxic to both mosquito species. Diluted solutions of the solid extract (002/3) in distilled water lost their larvicidal activity upon aging. Loss of activity at 25 degrees C was greater than that stored at 4 degrees C, and greater in water than in acetone solution.

  17. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

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    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic properties of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L.C. Rich) Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, C; Costa, K A; Futuro, D O; Paiva, S R; Kaplan, M A C; Figueiredo, M R; Henriques, M G M O

    2006-03-08

    In the present work, the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties of ethanolic extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennesis (L.C. Rich) Vahl (Verbenaceae) were assessed. Chromatographic analysis of the crude ethanolic extract, SC01, revealed high concentrations of the iridoid ipolamiide, whereas the SC02, the second ethanolic extract, presented the arylpropanoid verbacoside as a major constituent. The oral administration of SC01 (100 mg/kg) into Swiss mice failed to inhibit paw oedema and pleural exudation induced by carrageenan and zymosan, whereas SC02 (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited oedema and protein extravasation in all instances. Both extracts inhibited total leukocyte accumulation into the pleural cavity 4 and 24h after the intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of carrageenan, due to the inhibition of neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx, whereas only SC02 was able to inhibit leukocyte mobilization induced by zymosan (100 microg/cavity, i.t.). SC02 inhibited LPS (250 ng/cavity)-induced total leukocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation in the pleural cavity, whereas SC01 selectively inhibited neutrophil influx. In addition, our data indicates that the extract SC02 presents an important anti-ulcerogenic activity, since it inhibited diclofenac-induced (100 mg/kg, p.o.) gastric ulcera. Overall, these data provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties of Stachytarpheta cayennensis, supporting its use in folk medicine for such purposes.

  20. Chemical diversity among the essential oils of wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia VAHL (Lamiaceae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Yaqub; Hossein Mirjalili, Mohammad; Nazeri, Vahideh

    2013-02-01

    The variation of the essential-oil composition among ten wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia VAHL (Lamiaceae), collected from different geographical regions of Iran, was assessed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, and their intraspecific chemical variability was determined. Altogether, 49 compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. The major compounds of the essential oils were myrcene (0.0-26.2%), limonene (0.0-24.5%), germacrene D (4.2-19.3%), bicyclogermacrene (1.6-18.0%), δ-cadinene (6.5-16.0%), pulegone (0.0-15.1%), (Z)-hex-3-enyl tiglate (0.0-15.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (0.0-12.9), α-zingiberene (0.2-12.2%), and spathulenol (1.6-11.1%). For the determination of the chemotypes and the chemical variability, the essential-oil components were subjected to cluster analysis (CA). The five different chemotypes characterized were Chemotype I (germacrene D/bicyclogermacrene), Chemotype II (germacrene D/spathulenol), Chemotype III (limonene/δ-cadinene), Chemotype IV (pulegone), and Chemotype V (α-zingiberene). The high chemical variation among the populations according to their geographical and bioclimatic distribution imposes that conservation strategies of populations should be made appropriately, taking into account these factors. The in situ and ex situ conservation strategies should concern all populations representing the different chemotypes. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Diapause in the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Wang, Tammy; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W

    2007-06-01

    The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé deserticola Chen, was collected in northwestern China and has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a biocontrol agent. Under long days, 16:8 (L:D) h, males began to emit aggregation pheromone within 2-3 d of adult emergence, mating occurred, and females oviposited within 7 d of adult emergence. Under short days, 12:12 (L:D) h, males did not emit pheromone, mating did not occur, and both males and females entered reproductive diapause marked by inconspicuous gonads and hypertrophied fat body. Ovaries of diapausing females lacked vitellogenic oocytes, and the ovarioles were clear and narrow, whereas reproductive females had enlarged ovaries with two to three yellow oocytes per ovariole. Diapausing males had thin, transparent accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts, whereas reproductive males had thick white accessory glands and white opaque ejaculatory ducts. Sensitivity to diapause-inducing photoperiods extended into the adult stage. Reproductive females ceased oviposition, resorbed oocytes, and entered diapause when switched from long to short days. Diapause-destined insects ceased feeding and entered the leaf litter 10-20 d after adult emergence, whereas reproductive insects remained on the plants and fed for at least 30 d. Reproductive insects exhibited dispersal behaviors, such as attempted flights, whereas diapause-destined insects did not show dispersal behaviors. Information gained from these studies will be used to better manage populations in the field and to improve rearing and storage in the laboratory.

  2. Sacrificio y ciudad: notas sobre la formación humana en las urbes

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    Ana Ma. Valle Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El escrito tiene como principal propósito reflexionar en torno a las relaciones que pudiese haber entre sacrificio y ciudad. Para ello nos centramos en lo más elemental de lo que uno y otra pueden significar. La principal pregunta que guía esta reflexión es ¿qué elementos del sacrificio pueden encontrarse en lo que llamamos ciudad? No se pretende hacer un análisis exhaustivo de estas nociones tan profundas y complejas, sino que partiremos de los significados más primarios, desde Durkheim, Mauss y Simmel, para centrar nuestra atención en sus vínculos. Al final nos preguntamos ¿es posible el espíritu del Don en el espacio urbano donde impera la economía monetaria? Asumimos que la profanación del vínculo y del espíritu del Don de nada es inevitable en las urbes, sin embargo, en el dar, recibir y devolver habita la nada como el espíritu del Don, y esta es la sangre que no se está dispuesto a pagar aunque simulemos que se otorga en las cosas que intercambiamos.

  3. Formulation of Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill. Urb. Extract into a Gel Toothpaste

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    Husnul Warnida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease of tooth decay that starts from the surface and evolve in the direction of the tooth, beginning with the process of tooth demineralization. Tooth decay is usually caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill. Urb. has antibacterial activity due to its compound i.e. flavonoid, fenol, triterpenoid, dan antrakuinon. This study aims to formulate the bawang dayak ethanol extract into a stable gel toothpaste. Bawang dayak ethanol extract 2,5% was formulated in 5 formulas with varying degree of sorbitol (5 - 50% and carboxymethyl cellulose (3 - 7%. Physical stability of bawang dayak ethanol extract gel toothpastes were evaluated including organoleptic and homogeneity test, pH measurement, viscosity measurement, spreading test, and freeze-thaw cycling test. The result showed bawang dayak ethanol extract gel toothpastes have pH range of 5.50 - 5.80, spreading area 4.61 - 5.82, viscosity value 17066 - 99877 mPas. Organoleptic and homogeneity in 7 days showed two layers color of gel toothpaste. Consistency test and Freeze-thaw cycling test results showed no change in organoleptic, homogeneity, pH, and viscosity of gel toothpastes.

  4. Effect of infection with Metacercariae of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on cardiac activity and growth rate in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet, Igor; Nikolaev, Kirill; Levakin, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Trematode parasites can affect their molluscan hosts, which serve as the first intermediate hosts in their life cycles, in manifold ways, but little is known about trematode-induced effects on their second intermediate hosts. Experimental infection of blue mussels Mytilus edulis serving as second intermediate hosts for larval stages (metacercariae) of the trematodes Himasthla elongata was studied in field experiments during one year. The heart rates and growth rates of noninfected mussels were significantly higher than those of infected mussels. During the summer, the heart rates of noninfected mussels showed rhythmic oscillations, whereas the parasitized animals displayed no any rhythmicity. There was a significant difference between the infected and uninfected mussels in relation to heart rates and temperature. The results indicate that mussels infected with H. elongata metacercariae may be at an energetic disadvantage relative to noninfected mussels. Furthermore, trematode infection may disrupt neuronal control of cardiac function.

  5. Estimation of photosynthesis and calcification rates of Corallina elongata Ellis and Solander, 1786, by measurements of dissolved oxygen, pH and total alkalinity

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    Bouazza El Haïkali

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the calcareous red alga, Corallina elongata, a species representative of shallow water vegetal cover in Mediterranean areas with biomass ranging from 820 to 2544 gDW.m-2, in order to estimate its productivity and calcification rates. Carbonate and oxygen budgets were estimated on samples incubated in situ under natural light cycles, by measuring initial and final dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity levels. In light conditions, oxygen concentrations and pH values increased as a consequence of oxygen production and carbon dioxide consumption due to the productivity process, and were a direct function of sample biomass. Strictly-reverse dynamics were recorded in dark conditions. A comparison of photosynthetic performances was conducted on a non-calcareous green alga, Ulva rigida, which showed higher rates of oxygen production and pH modification than C. elongata, but no significant change in total alkalinity. For C. elongata, a significant decrease in total alkalinity with incubation time was observed under light conditions, which was directly related to the algal sample biomass (R2 = 0.95; n=16. Light to dark calcification ratio (L/D was about 3.6. In these experiments, the photosynthetic quotient of C. elongata was 0.89, its net carbon productivity was 2.5 g C.m-2.d-1, gross production to daily respiration (Pg/R was about 4.9 and its calcification rate was estimated at 13.8 g CaCO3.m-2.d-1.

  6. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and future research of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyi; Xia, Qing; Liu, Xin; Liu, Wenxue; Huang, Wanzhen; Mei, Xue; Luo, Jun; Shan, Mingxu; Lin, Ruichao; Zou, Dixin; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2018-01-10

    Forsythiae Fructus (called Lianqiao in Chinese), the fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, is utilized as a common traditional medicine in China, Japan and Korea. It is traditionally used to treat pyrexia, inflammation, gonorrhea, carbuncle and erysipelas. Depending on the different harvest time, Forsythiae Fructus can be classified into two forms, namely Qingqiao and Laoqiao. The greenish fruits that start to ripen are collected as Qingqiao, while the yellow fruits that are fully ripe are collected as Laoqiao. Both are applied to medical use. This review aims to provide a systematic summary of F. suspensa (Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl) and to reveal the correlation between the traditional uses and pharmacological activities so as to offer inspiration for future research. All corresponding information about F. suspensa was searched by Scifinder and obtained from scientific databases including Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Pubmed and China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). Local dissertations and books were searched as well. According to classical Chinese herbal texts and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Forsythiae Fructus dominantly displays heat-clearing and detoxifying effects in TCM prescriptions. In modern research, more than 230 compounds were separated and identified from F. suspensa. 211 Of them were isolated from fruits. Lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides are considered as the characteristic and active constituents of this herb, such as forsythiaside, phillyrin, rutin and phillygenin. They exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-virus, anti-cancer and anti-allergy effects, etc. Currently, there is no report on the toxicity of Forsythiae Fructus, despite slight toxicity of forsythiaside reported in local publications. Compared to Laoqiao, Qingqiao contains higher levels of forsythiaside, forsythoside C, cornoside, rutin, phillyrin, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid and lower levels of rengyol, β-glucose and S

  7. La dimensión espacial en "Vaca sagrada" de Diamela Eltit. La Urbe narrativa

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    Luz Ángela Martínez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en cuenta la reiterada aparición de la ciudad en la narrativa latinoamericana actual, este estudio presupone que la urbe y sus espacios se han constituido en una instancia narrativa que expresa una realidad histórica y política aparentemente silenciada en las obras. A partir del postulado anterior, se realiza un análisis de "Vaca Sagrada" de Diamela Eltit, en el que el desentrañamiento del 'nudo semántico urbano' va haciendo evidentes los mecanismos con que actúa una superestructura de poder que en toda la obra aparece como una 'ausencia'. Por otro lado, la reconstitución del mapa de la ciudad muestra la ruta que sigue una subjetividad llevada al límite de la autodestrucción por la realidad en que habita; muestra las estrategias implementadas por el individuo para la sobrevivencia, como también las estrategias que despliega el signo al borde de la mudez para efectuar un testimonio y una denuncia.   Considering the repetitive presence of the city within the actual Latin American literature, this study presumes that the city and its spaces have became a narrative instance which expresses a historical and political reality apparently silenced in the writings. Following this statement, and analysis is carried out on Diamela Eltit's "sacred cow" in which the disetangling of the "semantic urban knot" makes evident the mechanism with which the power super structure appeards as an "absence ". On the other hand, the reconstitution on the urban map shows the subjectivity taken to the limit by the reality's self destruction in which habitates. It shows the implemented surviving individual's strategies as well as the displaying sign of almost mutism in order to denounce and testify an action.

  8. Determinación de biflavonoides en diferentes partes de la especie Garcinia bakeriana (Urb Borhidi

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    Ahmed Al-Shaghdari

    Full Text Available Introducción: el género Garcinia produce una gran variedad de metabolitos secundarios representados por xantonas, acilfloroglucinoles y biflavonoides fundamentalmente. Sin embargo, existe muy poca información sobre la composición química de las especies cubanas pertenecientes a este género. Objetivo: determinar la presencia de 11 biflavonoides en las hojas, la corteza del tallo y el látex de Garcinia bakeriana (Urb Borhidi. Métodos : los extractos de las hojas, látex y la corteza del tallo de G. bakeriana fueron comparados empleando un método de cromatografía líquida de ultra alta eficacia (CLUAE y 11 biflavonoides como sustancias de referencia. Resultados: los biflavonoides GB-1A, GB-2A, glicósido de GB-2A, glicósido de morelloflavona, 4´´´metoxi- I3,II8-biapigenina, I3,II8-biapigenina, amentoflavona y 4´´´-metoxiamentoflavona fueron detectados como constituyentes de las hojas y la corteza del tallo de G. bakeriana. Conclusiones: la especie G. bakeriana presenta biflavonoides como constituyentes de las hojas y la corteza del tallo. Además, la metodología de trabajo desarrollada contribuye al conocimiento de la composición química de la flora cubana y podría constituir una alternativa, rápida y de bajo consumo de disolventes, para el estudio comparativo de especies endémicas cubanas de escasa distribución y abundancia.

  9. Multiple pharmacological targets, cytotoxicity, and phytochemical profile of Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Marie Carene Nancy; Bender, Onur; Atalay, Arzu; Zengin, Gokhan; Loffredo, Loïc; Hadji-Minaglou, Francis; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2017-05-01

    Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn. (AT) is traditionally used in Sub-Saharan African countries including Mauritius as a biomedicine for the management of several diseases. However, there is a dearth of experimental studies to validate these claims. We endeavoured to evaluate the inhibitory effects of crude aqueous extract as traditionally used together with the crude methanol extracts of AT leaves on urease, angiotensin (I) converting enzyme (ACE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cholesterol esterase (CEase), glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa), and glycation in vitro. The crude extract showing potent activity against the studied enzymes was further partitioned using different solvents of increasing polarity. The enzyme inhibitory and antiglycation activities of each fraction was assessed. Kinetic of inhibition of the active crude extract/fractions on the aforementioned enzymes was consequently determined using Lineweaver-Burk plots. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-UV/MS) system was used to establish the phytochemical profile of AT. The real time cell analysis system (iCELLigence™) was used to monitor any cellular cytotoxicity of AT. Crude methanolextract (CME) was a potent inhibitor of the studied enzymes, with IC 50 ranging from 696.22 to 19.73μg/mL. CME (82.5%) significantly (p20μg/mL) according to the U.S National Cancer Institute plant screening program. This study has established baseline data that tend to justify the traditional use of AT and open new avenues for future biomedicine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Kamga, Justin; Sandjo, Louis P; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Poumale, Herve M P; Ambassa, Pantaleon; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2011-01-26

    Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8). The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections.

  11. Model developments in TERRA_URB, the upcoming standard urban parametrization of the atmospheric numerical model COSMO(-CLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Blahak, Ulrich; Helmert, Jürgen; Raschendorfer, Matthias; Demuzere, Matthias; Fay, Barbara; Trusilova, Kristina; Mironov, Dmitrii; Reinert, Daniel; Lüthi, Daniel; Machulskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    In order to address urban climate at the regional scales, a new efficient urban land-surface parametrization TERRA_URB has been developed and coupled to the atmospheric numerical model COSMO-CLM. Hereby, several new advancements for urban land-surface models are introduced which are crucial for capturing the urban surface-energy balance and its seasonal dependency in the mid-latitudes. This includes a new PDF-based water-storage parametrization for impervious land, the representation of radiative absorption and emission by greenhouse gases in the infra-red spectrum in the urban canopy layer, and the inclusion of heat emission from human activity. TERRA_URB has been applied in offline urban-climate studies during European observation campaigns at Basel (BUBBLE), Toulouse (CAPITOUL), and Singapore, and currently applied in online studies for urban areas in Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Helsinki, Singapore, and Melbourne. Because of its computational efficiency, high accuracy and its to-the-point conceptual easiness, TERRA_URB has been selected to become the standard urban parametrization of the atmospheric numerical model COSMO(-CLM). This allows for better weather forecasts for temperature and precipitation in cities with COSMO, and an improved assessment of urban outdoor hazards in the context of global climate change and urban expansion with COSMO-CLM. We propose additional extensions to TERRA_URB towards a more robust representation of cities over the world including their structural design. In a first step, COSMO's standard EXTernal PARarameter (EXTPAR) tool is updated for representing the cities into the land cover over the entire globe. Hereby, global datasets in the standard EXTPAR tool are used to retrieve the 'Paved' or 'sealed' surface Fraction (PF) referring to the presence of buildings and streets. Furthermore, new global data sets are incorporated in EXTPAR for describing the Anthropogenic Heat Flux (AHF) due to human activity, and optionally the

  12. Lack of effect of chronic pre-treatment with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 on inflammatory pain behaviour: evidence for plastic changes in the endocannabinoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, Bright N; Norris, Leonie M; Woodhams, Stephen; Burston, James; Patel, Annie; Alexander, Stephen PH; Barrett, David A; Kendall, David A; Bennett, Andrew J; Chapman, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Elevating levels of endocannabinoids with inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a major focus of pain research, purported to be a safer approach devoid of cannabinoid receptor-mediated side effects. Here, we have determined the effects of sustained pharmacological inhibition of FAAH on inflammatory pain behaviour and if pharmacological inhibition of FAAH was as effective as genetic deletion of FAAH on pain behaviour. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of pre-treatment with a single dose, versus 4 day repeated dosing with the selective FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (i.p. 0.3 mg·kg−1), on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain behaviour and spinal pro-inflammatory gene induction were determined in rats. Effects of pain induction and of the drug treatments on levels of arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA) and oleolyl ethanolamide (OEA) in the spinal cord were determined. KEY RESULTS Single, but not repeated, URB597 treatment significantly attenuated the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia (P < 0.001, vs. vehicle-treated animals). Neither mode of URB597 treatment altered levels of AEA, PEA and OEA in the hind paw, or carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Single URB597 treatment produced larger increases in AEA, PEA and OEA in the spinal cord, compared with those after repeated administration. Single and repeated URB597 treatment decreased levels of immunoreactive N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in the spinal cord and attenuated carrageenan-induced spinal pro-inflammatory gene induction. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Changes in the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the loss of analgesic effects following repeated administration of low dose URB597 in this model of inflammatory pain. PMID:22595021

  13. L'Espai Públic com a catalitzador de l'Arquitectura, l'Art i el Disseny urbà

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio García-Doménech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tota ciutat cerca permanentment la seva identitat. Aqueixa identitat rau en la percepció dels qui l'habiten i l'hàbitat més significatiu de la ciutat és el seu espai públic, on més i millor es reflecteixen les interaccions humanes. El paisatge urbà percebut a l'espai públic conforma una imatge mental que contribueix a generar part d'aquesta identitat. En aquest sentit, l'art públic permet catalitzar la relació entre l'arquitectura i el disseny del propi espai públic, lloc en el qual tots els components participen en el joc estètic urbà. El component social intervé a partir de la consideració del propi espai públic com a lloc d'integració social. Com a conclusió, l'espai públic, i el seu potencial social, constitueix un magnífic lloc per a la producció, difusió i participació artístico-estètica. A l'espai públic, la confluència entre arquitectura, art, disseny i societat contribueix decididament a definir la condició ciutadana.

  14. Pharmacological profile of the selective FAAH inhibitor KDS-4103 (URB597).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, Daniele; Tarzia, Giorgio; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Compton, Timothy R; Dasse, Olivier; Monaghan, Edward P; Parrott, Jeff A; Putman, David

    2006-01-01

    In the present article, we review the pharmacological properties of KDS-4103 (URB597), a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which catalyzes the intracellular hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In vitro, KDS-4103 inhibits FAAH activity with median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 5 nM in rat brain membranes and 3 nM in human liver microsomes. In vivo, KDS-4103 inhibits rat brain FAAH activity after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration with a median inhibitory dose (ID(50)) of 0.15 mg/kg. The compound does not significantly interact with other cannabinoid-related targets, including cannabinoid receptors and anandamide transport, or with a broad panel of receptors, ion channels, transporters and enzymes. By i.p. administration to rats and mice KDS-4103 elicits significant, anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and analgesic effects, which are prevented by treatment with CB1 receptor antagonists. By contrast, at doses that significantly inhibit FAAH activity and substantially raise brain anandamide levels, KDS-4103 does not evoke classical cannabinoid-like effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypothermia, hyperphagia), does not cause place preference, and does not produce generalization to the discriminative effects of the active ingredient of cannabis, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). These findings suggest that KDS-4103 acts by enhancing the tonic actions of anandamide on a subset of CB(1) receptors, which may normally be engaged in controlling emotions and pain. KDS-4103 is orally available in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. Sub-chronic repeated dose studies (1,500 mg/kg, per os) in these two species have not demonstrated systemic toxicity. Likewise, no toxicity was noted in bacterial cytotoxicity tests in vitro and in the Ames test. Furthermore, no deficits were observed in rats on the rotarod test after acute i.p. treatment with KDS-4103 at doses up to 5 mg/kg or in a functional observation battery

  15. In vivo disposition and metabolism of madecassoside, a major bioactive constituent in Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Dan-dan; Han, Wen-jing; Rui, Yao; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2013-11-25

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. herb is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for many indications, such as traumatic injuries, keloid and scar. Madecassoside is the main active ingredient of this herb drug with higher content than other triterpenoid constituents. Understandings of pharmacokinetic profiles of madecassoside should be beneficial for its development as a therapeutic agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously and orally administered madecassoside (100 mg/kg), respectively. Plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, bile, urine and feces were collected at the designed time points. Madecassoside concentrations in biological samples were determined by a sensitive and well-validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method. A liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) method was established to identify its major metabolites in feces. To further pursue the disposition characteristics of madecassoside in rats, the involvement of the hepatobiliary efflux transporters in biliary elimination were studied by combination with digoxin (P-glycoprotein inhibitor) or probenecid (multidrug resistance-associated protein inhibitor). A linked-rat model was also used to assess the role of enterohepatic circulation in the pharmacokinetics of madecassoside. After a single oral dosing, madecassoside was widely distributed in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of rats, and the levels of madecassoside in liver and kidney were relatively higher than other organs. The excretions of madecassoside in bile, urine and feces were 7.16% (0-12 h), 0.25% (0-72 h) and 24.68% (0-72 h), respectively. The findings suggested that madecassoside might excrete mainly by metabolites. The combination with either digoxin or probenecid significantly attenuated the excretion of madecassoside as parent from bile, indicating that P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein might contribute

  16. Effects of Undaria pinnatifida, Himanthalia elongata and Porphyra umbilicalis extracts on in vitro α-glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Garcimartín, Alba; Bastida, Sara; Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Rupérez, Pilar; Green, Brian D; Rafferty, Eamon; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Benedí, Juana

    2014-06-01

    Seaweeds are good sources of dietary fibre, which can influence glucose uptake and glycemic control. To investigate and compare the in vitro inhibitory activity of different extracts from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Himanthalia elongata (Sea spaghetti) and Porphyra umbilicalis (Nori) on α-glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion. The in vitro effects Chloroform-, ethanol- and water-soluble extracts of the three algae were assayed on α- glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion through membrane. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify patterns in the data and to discriminate which extract will show the most proper effect. Only water extracts of Sea spaghetti possessed significant in vitro inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity (26.2% less mmol/L glucose production than control, p < 0.05) at 75 min. PCA distinguished Sea spaghetti effects, supporting that soluble fibre and polyphenols were involved. After 6 h, Ethanol-Sea spaghetti and water-Wakame extracts exerted the highest inhibitory effects on glucose diffusion (65.0% and 60.2% vs control, respectively). This extracts displayed the lowest slopes for glucose diffusion-time lineal adjustments (68.2% and 62.8% vs control, respectively). The seaweed hypoglycemic effects appear multi-faceted and not necessarily concatenated. According to present results, ethanol and water extracts of Sea spaghetti, and water extracts of Wakame could be useful for the development of functional foods with specific hypoglycemic properties. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Ficus exasperata vahl. (Moraceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Adenowo, Tk; Naicker, Thajasvarie; Ojewole, John A O

    2011-01-01

    The hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effects of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) (family: Moraceae) leaf aqueous extract (FEE) were investigated in experimental rat models. In this study, spontaneously-hypertensive rats (SHR) (type 1 diabetes), obese Zucker (type 2 diabetes) and Wistar rats were used. Three (A, B and C) groups of rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used. Group A Wistar rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of streptozotocin (STZ) and FEE administered intraperitoneally to treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the SHR group B rats by multiple low-dose (MLD) intraperitoneal injections of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight) to induce type 1 diabetes. The animals in group C were the obese Zucker rats with non-insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (NDDM) (type 2 diabetes) on genetic basis. F. exasperata leaf aqueous extract (FEE, 100 mg/kg/day p.o.) was administered orally by orogastric intubation to fasted Groups B and C rats. In groups B and C rats, administration of FEE commenced 4 weeks post STZ injection, and continued for the next 4 consecutive weeks. Group A rats gave normal biochemical and morphological findings. Group B rats exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypoinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These findings were also observed in group C rats, except that there was hyperinsilinaemia. Histopathological study of the aortic blood vessels showed extensive collagen fiber formation as well as perivascular fibrosis in both groups B and C rats. Four weeks of oral administration of F. exasperata leaf aqueous extract to diabetic groups of rats decreased blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid profiles. Administration of FEE (100 mg/kg p.o.) also restored the microanatomy of the blood vessels to almost normal levels. The findings of this study suggest that F. exasperata leaf aqueous extract possesses hypoglycaemic, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. These findings lend biomedical and pharmacological

  18. Effect of footshock stress on place conditioning produced by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB597, in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVuono, Marieka V; Wills, Kiri L; MacPherson, Danielle V; Hrelja, Kelly M; Parker, Linda A

    2017-11-01

    Unlike other drugs of abuse, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocanabinol (THC) is generally aversive in rodent conditioned place preference models, but little is known about how stress may modify THC affective properties. We evaluate the potential of footshock stress to enhance the rewarding effects of THC and the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, as it has been shown to enhance their anxiolytic effects. The effect of footshock stress 24 h prior to each conditioning trial on the rewarding/aversive effects of THC (1, 0.1, 0.5 mg/kg, ip) and URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, ip) was evaluated in an unbiased place conditioning procedure in rats. Subsequently, the same stressor was given immediately prior to conditioning with THC (1 and 0.1 mg/kg). Locomotor activity was also measured during conditioning. A dose of 1 mg/kg THC, but not 0.1-0.5 mg/kg, produced a conditioned place aversion (CPA) that was not modified by footshock delivered 24 h prior to conditioning trials; however, footshock delivered immediately prior to conditioning trials prevented that CPA. Lower doses of THC and URB597 produced no place conditioning regardless of footshock conditions. A dose of 1 mg/kg THC produced locomotor suppression during conditioning trials that was prevented by footshock delivered 24 h before and reversed to locomotor activation by footshock delivered immediately before conditioning. Unlike the effect of footshock on THC- and URB597-induced anxiolytic effects, footshock does not promote THC or URB597-induced reward in a conditioned place preference paradigm. However, footshock stress reverses the sedative effects of 1 mg/kg THC.

  19. Chemical, pharmacological, and biological characterization of the culinary-medicinal honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (Agaricomycetideae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Wołkowska, Małgorzata; Ekiert, Halina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, studies have been conducted on the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of the culinary-medicinal Honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) P. Kumm. (higher Basidiomycetes). It is considered in Europe and Asia as edible and medicinal, when appropriately prepared, and has demonstrated the presence of different groups of organic compounds, including carbohydrates, sterols, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, non-hallucinogenic indole compounds, peptides, enzymes, adenosine derivatives, and many other components. Most of these metabolite groups possess potential therapeutic and dietary values. The results of quantitative analyses of indole compounds and heavy metals signal potential health hazards for humans. Some of the studies reviewed herein describe in detail the mechanism of symbiosis between A. mellea and the orchid species Gastrodia elata. This orchid is native to Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, and is used in therapeutics in official Chinese medicine.

  20. Towards the sustainable management of thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests in Tunisia: models for main tree attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Garchi, S.; Ammari, Y.; Canellas, I.; Tahar, S.

    2012-11-01

    The thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests are one of the most important ecosystems in semiarid environments in north-western Africa, providing important economic profit and social services to local populations. However, lack of tools aiding sustainable management of these forests is detected. In the present work models for the main tree attributes as total height, crown diameter, height to crown base and stem form are developed for the species, using data from a net of plots installed in JbelLattrech region, in the NE Tunisia. Presented models allow characterizing the actual state and timber production of forests by using variables measured in typical forest inventories and conform a preliminary step for the future development of dynamic growth models. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Evaluation of the chemical composition (Phyllanthosides and Lignans) of the crude extract of the Chilillo tree (Phyllanthus Acuminatus Vahl) from different sites of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel Alvarado, Daniel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Gerardo; Madrigal Carballo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research work was in the first instance, to conduct a study of the content of phyllantosides and lignans in samples from different parts of the tree known as “Chilillo” (Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl), collected at different sites of the country. The first objective of the study was focused on the characterization of the samples using high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained by this technique showed variation not only in the number of peaks in each ...

  2. Effects of thermal stress on the growth of an intertidal population of Ellisolandia elongata (Rhodophyta) from N-W Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Matteo; De Marchi, Lucia; Lombardi, Chiara; Ragazzola, Federica

    2015-12-01

    Coralline algae are calcareous algae able to build biogenic structures, thus playing a key-role as marine biodiversity promoters and calcium carbonate producers. The aim was to estimate the growth of Ellisolandia elongata under thermal stress. E. elongata were cultured for 2, 4 and 6 months under "natural" temperature (Tc) and increased temperature (Ti = Tc + 3 °C). In order to determine a possible culturing effect, growth in the field was also measured. For the first time, Alizarin Red S dye was used in high energy shallow water environments. Thallus linear extension was higher in the cultured specimens (Tc and Ti) compared to the field specimens. The carbonate mass in the field was higher than in Ti and Tc after 2, 4 months but decreased after 6 months. Partly unknown in situ environmental factors could have affected growth and calcification rates in the field while thermal adaptation could explain growth rates in the culturing experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hemipristicola gunterae gen. n., sp. n. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae), from Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Theiss, Susan M; Bennett, Michael B; Cribb, Thomas H

    2011-09-01

    Helminthological examination of the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Klunzinger) (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, yielded a phyllobothriid genus and species previously unknown to science. Hemipristicola gunterae gen. n., sp. n. is described here, and is placed in the subfamily Phyllobothriinae Braun, 1900. Of the other phyllobothriid genera, the new genus most closely resembles Paraorygmatobothrium in that both genera possess bothridia with a single loculus and apical sucker, post-vaginal testes and lateral vitellarium. Hemipristicola, however, differs from Paraorygmatobothrium in the morphology of the proximal bothridial surface microthrix, possessing serrate gladiate spinitriches with marginal serrations restricted to the distal half of the blade, and in the possession of a more extensive uterus, extending anteriorly from the anterior margin of the ovary to well past the level of the cirrus-sac. The new genus also differs from Paraorygmatobothrium by possessing testes that are more than one layer deep. Hemipristicola gunterae further differs from Paraorygmatobothrium species found in hemigaleid sharks in possessing vitelline follicles arranged in two lateral bands that are restricted to the lateral margins of the proglottid and not possessing a cephalic peduncle. Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA data shows that H. gunterae forms a sister taxon to species of Paraorygmatobothrium. These two genera were resolved with high posterior probability support in the analysis. Hemipristicola gunterae is only the second phyllobothriid species to be described from Hemipristis elongata from Australian waters, and the fourth from the Australian hemigaleids.

  4. PET imaging of fatty acid amide hydrolase in the brain: synthesis and biological evaluation of an {sup 11}C-labelled URB597 analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyffels, Leonie [Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Muccioli, Giulio G. [Bioanalysis and Pharmacology of Bioactive Lipids Laboratory, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, CHAM7230, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Kapanda, Coco N.; Labar, Geoffray [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, UCL-CMFA 73-40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); De Bruyne, Sylvie; De Vos, Filip [Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Didier M., E-mail: didier.lambert@uclouvain.b [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, UCL-CMFA 73-40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is part of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and has been linked to the aetiology of several neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. So far no useful PET or SPECT tracer for in vivo visualisation of FAAH has been reported. We synthesized and evaluated a carbon-11-labeled URB597 analogue, biphenyl-3-yl [{sup 11}C]-4-methoxyphenylcarbamate or [{sup 11}C]-1, as potential FAAH imaging agent. Methods: The inhibitory activity of 1 was determined in vitro using recombinant FAAH. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]-1 was performed by methylation using [{sup 11}C]-CH{sub 3}I, followed by HPLC purification. Biological evaluation was done by biodistribution studies in wild-type and FAAH knock-out mice, and by ex vivo and in vivo metabolite analysis. The influence of URB597 pretreatment on the metabolisation profile was assessed. Results: [{sup 11}C]-1 was obtained in good yields and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies revealed high brain uptake in wild-type and FAAH knock-out mice, but no retention of radioactivity could be demonstrated. Metabolite analysis and URB597 pretreatment confirmed the non-FAAH-mediated metabolisation of [{sup 11}C]-1. The inhibition mechanism was determined to be reversible. In addition, the inhibition of URB597 appeared slowly reversible. Conclusions: Although [{sup 11}C]-1 inhibits FAAH in vitro and displays high brain uptake, the inhibition mechanism seems to deviate from the proposed carbamylation mechanism. Consequently, it does not covalently bind to FAAH and will not be useful for mapping the enzyme in vivo. However, it represents a potential starting point for the development of in vivo FAAH imaging tools.

  5. Opportunities for increasing resilience and sustainability of urban social-ecological systems: insights from the URBES and the cities and biodiversity outlook projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewenius, Maria; McPhearson, Timon; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Urban futures that are more resilient and sustainable require an integrated social-ecological system approach to urban policymaking, planning, management, and governance. In this article, we introduce the Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) and the Cities and Biodiversity Outlook (CBO) Projects as new social-ecological contributions to research and practice on emerging urban resilience and ecosystem services. We provide an overview of the projects and present global urbanization trends and their effects on ecosystems and biodiversity, as a context for new knowledge generated in the URBES case-study cities, including Berlin, New York, Rotterdam, Barcelona, and Stockholm. The cities represent contrasting urbanization trends and examples of emerging science-policy linkages for improving urban landscapes for human health and well-being. In addition, we highlight 10 key messages of the global CBO assessment as a knowledge platform for urban leaders to incorporate state-of-the-art science on URBES into decision-making for sustainable and resilient urban development.

  6. Potent antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Tamarix articulata Vahl. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebi, Morad; Farid, Omra; Ajebli, Mohammed; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose and daily oral administration for seven days of the aerial part aqueous extract (A.P.A.E) of Tamarix articulata Vahl. (T. articulata) (5mg/kg) on blood glucose levels in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). Single oral administration of T. articulata A.P.A.E reduced blood glucose levels 6h after administration in normal rats (pTamarix articulata was evaluated by the method of trapping of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Tamarix articulata revealed inhibitory concentrations of 50% of free radicals (IC50) of 203.15μg/ml. In contrast, the synthetic antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) has showed an IC50 equal to 13.71μg/ml. In conclusion, this study demonstrates antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of T. articulata in severe diabetic state thus warrants further investigation on its major compounds as well as mechanistic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Essential Oil Variability and Biological Activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Wood According to the Extraction Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil (EO) extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses showed significant differences between the extracted EOs, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α-acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select EOs to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of EO in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, plant extract, is a Brazilian medicinal plant externally used in folk medicine for purulent ulcers, skin lesions and internally for inflammations, fever, renal disorders and atherosclerosis. S. cayennesis was studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use against skin lesions and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and phototoxicity capacities of the crude ethanolic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from roots of S. cayennesis were evaluated through in vivo and in vitro tests. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an eukaryotic cell model, were used to assess both the phototoxicity and the capacity to protect against the lethal oxidative stress caused by menadione and hydrogen peroxide. The extract, fractions and the two major isolated compounds, verbascoside and betulinic acid, of S. cayennensis were able to increase the tolerance and decrease the lipid peroxidation of S. cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•. Verbascoside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither the ethanolic extract nor fractions showed phototoxicity, indicating that the S. cayennensis extract is safe for use in the treatment of skin lesions and as an active cosmetic ingredient.

  9. Composition and Antioxidant, Antienzymatic and Antimicrobial Activities of Volatile Molecules from Spanish Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2017-08-21

    The current study describes the composition of Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) essential oils (SlEOs) obtained from plants cultivated in Murcia (Spain), as determined by gas chromatography. Relative and absolute concentrations, the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds and the in vitro antioxidant, antienzymatic and antimicrobial activities are described. The main components of the SlEOs were camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene and α-pinene, and the main enantiomers were (+)-camphor and (-)-camphene. The activities against free radicals and the capacity to reduce and chelate metallic ions were measured. SlEO-3 showed the highest activity in ORAC, DPPH, ABTS and reducing power methods, while SlEO-1 exhibited the highest chelating power. The activity of lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase could be inhibited by all the SlEOs, being bornyl acetate and limonene the most active individual compounds against lipoxygenase and 1,8-cineole against acetylcholinesterase. SlEOs and some individual compounds inhibited Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . These results increase our knowledge of SlEOs and, particularly, provide for the first time a complete characterization of SlEOs from Murcia, Spain, while proposing possible biotechnological uses for them.

  10. Effects of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. on cognitive function and mood related outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttarak, Panupong; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Saokaew, Surasak; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Kongkaew, Chuenjid; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Chuthaputti, Anchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-09-06

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. has been used as an herbal brain tonic for mental disorders and enhancing memory, but no review of the overall evidence of C. asiatica and cognitive function has been conducted. This study aims to determine the effects of C. asiatica on cognitive function and its related properties. The current systematic review includes five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica alone and six RCTs conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica-containing products. Meta-analysis indicated that there are no significant differences in all cognitive function domains of C. asiatica when compared to placebo. However, it could improve mood by increasing alert scores [SMD: 0.71 (95% CI; 0.01 to 1.41); I 2  = 30.5%] and decreasing anger scores at 1 hour after treatment [SMD: -0.81 (95%CI; -1.51 to -0.09); I 2  = 36.6%]. None of the studies reported adverse effects of C. asiatica. In conclusion, there is not strong evidence to support the use of C. asiatica for cognitive function improvement in each cognitive domain. C. asiatica could improve alertness and relieve anger. However, some limitations should be aware including dose regimen, plant preparation, standardization, and product variation. Future well-designed clinical trials using suitable doses of standardized C. asiatica are still needed.

  11. UJI AKTIVITAS TRAKEOSPASMOLITIK EKSTRAK ETANOL Centella asiatica (L. URB. PADA ORGAN TERPISAH TRAKEA MARMUT UNTUK MELIHAT EFEK ANTIASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Bachtiar Moerad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Asma merupakan penyakit inflamasi kronik saluran nafas yang ditandai dengan terjadinya hiperesponsif saluran nafas dan penyempitan saluran nafas secara reversibel. Asma hingga kini masih merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di dunia. Pemberian obat-obatan anti asma merupakan penatalaksanaan penyakit tersebut. Namun demikian terdapat masalah efek samping obat dan masalah biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk pembelian obat tersebut, apalagi asma merupakan penyakit kronis yang memerlukan pengobatan jangka panjang. Dengan demikian maka perlu pengembangan obat antiasma berbasis tumbuhan obat dengan biaya yang lebih terjangkau dan efek samping yang lebih sedikit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji potensi ekstrak etanol Centella asiatica (L. Urb. yang secara tradisional digunakan etnis Dayak sebagai obat batuk. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat aktivitas trakeospasmolitik ekstrak etanol C. asiatica pada organ terpisah trakea marmut untuk melihat efek antiasma. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak C. asiatica memiliki aktivitas trakeospasmolitik yang signifikan jika dibandingkan dengan kontrol negatif. Meskipun nilai E maks C. asiatica lebih rendah daripada aminofilin, namun nilai EC50 tidak jauh berbeda dengan aminofilin sebagai kontrol positif. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah ekstrak etanol C. asiatica memiliki efek antiasma berdasarkan aktivitas trakeospasmolitiknya.   Kata kunci: Centella asiatica, spasmolitik, organ terpisah trakea

  12. Native Mitral Valve Endocarditis Caused by Neisseria elongata subsp. nitroreducens in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome: First Case in Italy and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrinello Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria elongata (NE is an aerobic Gram-negative organism that constitutes part of the commensal human normal oropharyngeal flora. Although previously considered not to be pathogenic, it has been recognized as an occasional cause of significant infections in humans. We report here the first case in Italy of infective endocarditis of a native prolapsing mitral valve in a patient with Marfan syndrome, caused by NE subspecies nitroreducens which has been rarely isolated from clinical specimens. The culprit organism has been confirmed by mass spectrometry directly from the positive blood culture, as previously reported. The amplified gene has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KT591873. In spite of the reported aggressive nature of NE, clinical remission was promptly obtained, there being no requirement for surgery.

  13. Host plant quality of Tamarix ramosissima and T. parviflora for three sibling species of the biocontrol insect Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; O'Neal, Melissa J; Dudley, Tom; Bean, Daniel W

    2009-10-01

    Several sibling species of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) have been introduced into North America for the biocontrol of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but only one, D. carinulata (Desbrochers), has been extensively used in the field. The first open releases took place in 2001, and widespread defoliation occurred at sites infested by Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrid forms. The beetles failed, however, to establish at sites where other Tamarix species are targeted for control. In this study, we compared the preference and performance of three Diorhabda sibling species using adult choice and larval performance experiments on the two formally targeted Tamarix species: T. ramosissima and T. parviflora. In the adult choice experiment, a greater proportion of D. carinulata was found on T. ramosissima than on T. parviflora. For the other two sibling species, D. elongata (Brullé) and D. carinata (Faldermann), adults were found in similar proportions on the two host plants. In the larval performance experiment, larval growth and survival did not differ between Tamarix species for any Diorhabda type; however, D. carinata larval biomass was 35-50% greater than the other beetles regardless of host species. Based on the few adults of D. carinulata found on T. parviflora in the adult choice experiment, we do not recommend introducing this beetle at sites where T. parviflora is targeted for biological control. The species D. carinata seems especially promising for future release because its larvae gained substantially more biomass than the other beetles during the same time period on both Tamarix species.

  14. Seasonal timing of diapause induction limits the effective range of Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Keller, Julie C

    2007-02-01

    The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé subspecies deserticola Chen, collected in northwestern China, has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). While beetle establishment and saltcedar defoliation have been noted at northern study sites, this species has not established at latitudes south of the 38th parallel. Critical daylength for diapause induction was measured in the laboratory and ranged between 14 h 50 min to 15 h 08 min, depending on temperature, and adults were shown to cease reproduction and enter diapause at daylengths of 14 h 30 min or less. Critical daylength in the field was measured at approximately 14 h 39 min and occurred 13 d before 50% of the population reached diapause. South of 36 degrees 20' N, the longest days of the year are shorter than 14 h 39 min, making the beetles univoltine in the southern United States. North of 36 degrees 20' N, a window of reproductive activity opens 13 d after the critical daylength is reached in the spring and closes 13 d after it is passed in the summer, allowing at least a partial second summer generation. It is predicted that south of the 38th parallel, premature diapause will increase mortality and disrupt synchrony between the life cycle of the beetle and host plant availability. This could hinder establishment and help explain the failure of this population south of the 38th parallel, providing a rationale for testing other populations of D. elongata in the southern range of Tamarix in North America.

  15. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  16. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  17. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As mudas propagadas por técnicas de micropropagação geralmente apresentam alterações significativas induzidas pelas condições in vitro, que diminuem a capacidade de sobrevivência após a transferência para o ambiente ex vitro, sendo fundamental a avaliação da mudança estrutural durante o processo de adaptação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, identificar as diferenças anatômicas foliares entre plantas de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (ipê amarelo, cultivadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Foram utilizadas plântulas mantidas por 43 dias em sala de crescimento, com 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias de aclimatização e mudas de 90 dias cultivadas em viveiro. As plântulas foram obtidas via cultura de embriões em meio MS e transplantadas para tubetes contendo plantmax®, para aclimatização em viveiro, sob 50% de sombreamento. Nas mesmas condições da aclimatização, foram produzidas as mudas in vivo. Cortes transversais e paradérmicos foram preparados de acordo com técnicas usuais em microtecnia vegetal. As plântulas in vitro apresentam os tecidos foliares pouco diferenciados e estômatos maiores e mais abertos, exigindo maiores cuidados na etapa inicial de aclimatização. Aos 60 dias de aclimatização as novas folhas produzidas possuem alguns aspectos anatômicos que podem conferir maior eficiência fotossintética e maior capacidade de regulação hídrica das plantas.The seedlings spread by micropropagation techniques, usually show significant alterations induced by the conditions in vitro, which decrease the survival capacity after the transfer to conditions ex vitro. The evaluation of the structural change during the acclimatization is necessary for the understanding of this adaptation process. The objective of this research was to identify the anatomical differences among the seedlings cultivated in vitro, in vivo and acclimatized plants of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (yellow ipe, species with great

  18. Growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. cultivated in different rhizosphere soils collected from Tetraclinis stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five representative plant species (Withania frutescens Pauquy, Lavandula multifida L., Pistacia atlantica Desf., Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster (Hoffmanns. & Link Negodi and Tetraclinis articulata [Vahl] Mast. were selected from Moroccan Tetraclinis woodland in order to evaluate their mycorrhizal potential and to compare the impact of their rhizosphere soil on growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata seedlings. We observed that roots of selected plants were highly colonized by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi. Lavandula multifida roots showed the highest colonization percentage (100%. We recovered AM fungal spores from the rhizosphere soils of the five plant species and we found that the spores number from L. multifida and T. articulata rhizosphere was significantly different from that of other plants. We assessed the mycorrhizal potential of the indigenous soils by using the Most Probable Number (MPN approach. We found that MPN in soils collected near the five plant species was significantly higher than the one in the bare soil. The average of MPN per 100 g of dry soil was 11.8 (from 5.6 to 25.0 in the bare soil and 228.5 (from 108.0 to 476.0 in L. multifida rhizosphere. This result indicates that the soil surrounding the target plants can be used as inoculum for mycorrhization. We conducted a nursery experiment in which L. multifida soil yielded a high mycorrhizal percentage in T. articulata plants, thus contributing to improve the plant growth. However, the highest formation of arbuscules in T. articulata grown in Lavandula soil did not significantly affect the growth or the nutrition of plants compared to Tetraclinis soil, except for potassium concentration. Our investigation clearly showed that L. multifida soil can be used as biofertilizer to inoculate nurseries for T. articulata production. This will greatly contribute to sustain Tetraclinis woodland.

  19. A ‘new vantage point’ for observing, analyzing and reflecting on today's cities: URBS. Journal of Urban Studies and Social Sciences Un ‘nuevo mirador’ para observar, analizar y reflexionar sobre las ciudades actuales: URBS. Revista de Estudios Urbanos y Ciencias Sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Fernández-Ramírez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available URBS. Journal of Urban Studies and Social Sciences is born with the intention of becoming a 'new viewpoint' of cities worldwide. Our perspective implies a clear commitment regarding the exchange of complex and multiple knowledge around urban studies in social sciences, but also in other technician and creative fields of inquiry originally and worthy interested in contemporary cities. In sum, we propose an interdisciplinary and multilingual space which intends to promote a conscious reflection about thematic topics committed scientifically, ethically and politically with theoretical innovation and epistemological renovation in Social Sciences.

    URBS. Revista de Estudios Urbanos y Ciencias Sociales nace con la voluntad de convertirse en un ‘nuevo mirador’ de las urbes a nivel mundial. Nuestra perspectiva es una clara apuesta para construir un enclave de intercambio de conocimiento complejo y múltiple de los estudios urbanos desde las ciencias sociales, pero también desde otros ámbitos técnicos y creativos que analizan y observan las ciudades contemporáneas de maneras originales y meritorias. En definitiva, un espacio interdisciplinar y multilingüe que promueva una reflexión consciente, haciéndolo además desde ámbitos temáticos comprometidos científica, ética y políticamente con la innovación teórica y la renovación epistemológica de las Ciencias Sociales.

  20. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Villalba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  1. Annulotrema (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of African tetras (Characiformes: Alestidae) in Lake Turkana, Kenya, with descriptions of four new species and a redescription of A. elongata Paperna and Thurston, 1969

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kičinjaová, M. L.; Blažek, Radim; Gelnar, M.; Řehulková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 11 (2015), s. 4107-4120 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dactylogyridae * Annulotrema alestesnursi * Annulotrema ansatum * Annulotrema besalis * Annulotrema bipatens * Annulotrema cucullatum * Annulotrema elongata * Annulotrema nili * Annulotrema pontile * Kenya * Alestidae * Alestes baremoze * Alestes dentex * Brycinus nurse * Hydrocynus forskahlii * genus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  2. Urbānās vides pārvaldība: vides veselības dimensija (Rīgas piemērs)

    OpenAIRE

    Segale, Sabīna

    2012-01-01

    Maģistra darbs „Urbānās vides pārvaldība: vides veselības dimensija (Rīgas piemērs)” izstrādāts, lai veicinātu ilgtspējīgu vides veselības pārvaldību pilsētvidē un nodrošinātu iespēju iedzīvotājiem dzīvot veselībai labvēlīgā pilsētvidē, kas būtu pielāgota arī pasaules vidē notiekošajām pārmaiņām. Pētījumā paradīta urbānas vides pārvaldība to ietekmes iespējas uz pilsētvidi, izklāsts urbanizācijas process, to negatīva un pozitīva ietekme uz pilsētvides attīstību un vides veselību. Paradīts ...

  3. Crystal Structure of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Bound to the Carbamate Inhibitor URB597: Discovery of a Deacylating Water Molecule and Insight into Enzyme Inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C.; Benson, Timothy E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C. (Scripps); (Pfizer)

    2010-08-12

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH's catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 {angstrom}) than previously reported. The higher-resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggests a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases.

  4. Whole-body radiation dosimetry of 11C-carbonyl-URB694: a PET tracer for fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Peter M; Rusjan, Pablo; Mizrahi, Romina; Mufti, Asfandyar; Vitcu, Irina; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Tong, Junchao

    2014-12-01

    (11)C-carbonyl-URB694 ((11)C-CURB) is a novel (11)C-labeled suicide irreversible radiotracer for PET developed as a surrogate measure of activity of the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. The aim of the study was to investigate the whole-body biodistribution and estimate the radiation dosimetry from (11)C-CURB scans in humans. Six healthy volunteers (3 men and 3 women) completed a single whole-body scan (∼120 min, 9 time frames) on a PET/CT scanner after administration of (11)C-CURB (∼350 MBq and ∼2 μg). Time-radioactivity curves were extracted in 11 manually delineated organs and corrected for injected activity, specific organ density, and volume to obtain normalized cumulated activities. OLINDA/EXM 1.1 was used to estimate standard internal dose exposure in each organ. The mean effective dose was calculated using the male and female models for the full sample and female-only sample, respectively. (11)C-CURB was well tolerated in all subjects, with no radiotracer-related adverse event reported. The mean effective dose (±SD) was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq for all subjects and 5.2 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq for the female sample. Organs with the highest normalized cumulated activities (in h) were the liver (0.117), gallbladder wall (0.046), and small intestine (0.033), and organs with the highest dose exposure (in μGy/MBq) were the gallbladder wall (111 ± 60) > liver (21 ± 7), kidney (14 ± 3), and small intestine (12 ± 2). Organ radiation exposure for the irreversible fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme probe (11)C-CURB is within the same range as other radiotracers labeled with (11)C, thus allowing for safe, serial PET scans in the same individuals. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. Comparison between the Community Land Model and the Terra Urb model in COSMO 5.0 over tropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousse, Oscar; Wouters, Hendrik; Thiery, Wim; Demuzere, Matthias; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    's influence on the meteorological circulations, while the COSMO-CLM coupled with the TerraUrb Urban Canopy Model (Wouters et al., 2015; 2016) is evaluated to have a robust representation of the urban areas' interactions with the atmosphere. Both couplings will be subject to the same boundary conditions and period of study before being compared with a reference run, only vegetated, performed with the COSMO-CLM2, and with a suite of observational products.

  6. Distribution patterns of the peracarid crustaceans associated with the alga Corallina elongata along the intertidal rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, D.; Guerra-García, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    Spatial patterns of intertidal peracarids, associated with the alga Corallina elongata, were studied along the whole Iberian Peninsula. A total of 28,215 specimens were collected, comprising 78 different species (57 amphipods, 16 isopods, 4 tanaids and 1 cumacean), most of them with Atlantic-Mediterranean distribution (60%) and only 9% of Mediterranean endemics. Gammarids were dominant in abundance and number of species, representing more than 70% of the total peracarids. The most common species collected during the present study were the caprellid Caprella penantis, the gammarids Hyale schmidti, Hyale stebbingi, Jassa cf. falcata and Stenothoe monoculoides, the isopod Ischyromene lacazei and the tanaid Tanais dulongii. Caprellids and tanaidaceans presented their highest populations in the stations of the Strait of Gibraltar, whereas isopods were more abundant in Atlantic stations. Univariate analyses did not reflected differences in number of species, abundance and Shannon-Weaver diversity between Mediterranean and Atlantic. However, cluster analyses and Whittaker index, as measure of ß-diversity, showed a different species composition between Mediterranean and Atlantic and a replacement of species along the coast, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar. The turnover mainly affected species of the same genera, probably related with sympatric speciation. CCA and BIO-ENV analyses showed high correlations between environmental measures (especially conductivity) and peracarid distribution. Mediterranean species tolerated higher values of conductivity and temperature, while Atlantic species were associated with stations characterized by higher oxygen concentrations.

  7. Separation and Characterization of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Saurida elongata Proteins Hydrolysate by IMAC-Ni2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lizard fish protein hydrolysates (LFPH were prepared from Lizard fish (Saurida elongata proteins possessing powerful angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity and the fraction (LFPH-I with high ACE inhibitory activity was obtained through ultrafiltration. The active Fraction (F2 was isolated from LFPH-I using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC-Ni2+. Analysis of amino acid levels revealed that F2 eluted from IMAC was enriched in Met, His, Tyr, Pro, Ile, and Leu compared to the crude peptide LFPH-I. F2 with the high ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 of 0.116 mg·mL−1 was further separated by a reverse-phase column to yield a novel ACE inhibitory peptide with IC50 value of 52 μM. The ACE inhibitory peptide was identified as Arg-Tyr-Arg-Pro, RYRP. The present study demonstrated that IMAC may be a useful tool for the separation of ACE inhibitory peptides from protein hydrolysate.

  8. Structure and function of the universal stress protein TeaD and its role in regulating the ectoine transporter TeaABC of Halomonas elongata DSM 2581(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Eva S; Kuhlmann, Sonja I; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Grammann, Katrin; Ziegler, Christine M

    2010-03-16

    The halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata takes up the compatible solute ectoine via the osmoregulated TRAP transporter TeaABC. A fourth orf (teaD) is located adjacent to the teaABC locus that encodes a putative universal stress protein (USP). By RT-PCR experiments we proved a cotranscription of teaD along with teaABC. Deletion of teaD resulted in an enhanced uptake for ectoine by the transporter TeaABC and hence a negative activity regulation of TeaABC by TeaD. A transcriptional regulation via DNA binding could be excluded. ATP binding to native TeaD was shown by HPLC, and the crystal structure of TeaD was solved in complex with ATP to a resolution of 1.9 A by molecular replacement. TeaD forms a dimer-dimer complex with one ATP molecule bound to each monomer, which has a Rossmann-like alpha/beta overall fold. Our results reveal an ATP-dependent oligomerization of TeaD, which might have a functional role in the regulatory mechanism of TeaD. USP-encoding orfs, which are located adjacent to genes encoding for TeaABC homologues, could be identified in several other organisms, and their physiological role in balancing the internal cellular ectoine pool is discussed.

  9. Projektile Urb.Energy pandi lõpp-punkt väärika konverentsiga = Точку в проекте "Urb.Energy" поставили проведением достойной конференции / Marit Otsing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Otsing, Marit

    2011-01-01

    9. detsembril toimunud konverentsil tutvustati kõigile huvilistele kolme aasta jooksul Urb.Energy projekti raames tehtud tööd - Rakveres Seminari tänava piirkonnas arendati omavalitsuse ning piirkonna elanike koostöös välja ühtne visioon sellest, kuidas piirkonna avalikud alad ning korterelamud välja nägema hakkavad

  10. SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José d’Encarnação

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…. Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183; a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184, a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…. Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183, the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184, the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

  11. The association of N-palmitoylethanolamine with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 impairs melanoma growth through a supra-additive action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma is considerably increasing worldwide. Frequent failing of classical treatments led to development of novel therapeutic strategies aiming at managing advanced forms of this skin cancer. Additionally, the implication of the endocannabinoid system in malignancy is actively investigated. Methods We investigated the cytotoxicity of endocannabinoids and their hydrolysis inhibitors on the murine B16 melanoma cell line using a MTT test. Enzyme and receptor expression was measured by RT-PCR and enzymatic degradation of endocannabinoids using radiolabeled substrates. Cell death was assessed by Annexin-V/Propidium iodine staining. Tumors were induced in C57BL/6 mice by s.c. flank injection of B16 melanoma cells. Mice were injected i.p. for six days with vehicle or treatment, and tumor size was measured each day and weighted at the end of the treatment. Haematoxylin-Eosin staining and TUNEL assay were performed to quantify necrosis and apoptosis in the tumor and endocannabinoid levels were quantified by HPLC-MS. Tube formation assay and CD31 immunostaining were used to evaluate the antiangiogenic effects of the treatments. Results The N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol and N- palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) reduced viability of B16 cells. The association of PEA with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 considerably reduced cell viability consequently to an inhibition of PEA hydrolysis and an increase of PEA levels. The increase of cell death observed with this combination of molecules was confirmed in vivo where only co-treatment with both PEA and URB597 led to decreased melanoma progression. The antiproliferative action of the treatment was associated with an elevation of PEA levels and larger necrotic regions in the tumor. Conclusions This study suggests the interest of targeting the endocannabinoid system in the management of skin cancer and underlines the advantage of associating

  12. Utilizing remote sensing to supplement ground monitoring of Diorhabda elongata as a control agent for Tamarix ramosissima in Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, V.; Auch, J.; Landy, J.; Rudy, G.; Seifert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The plant Tamarix ramosissima has invaded significant riparian habitat along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument. Commonly known as salt cedar or tamarisk, it was introduced from Eurasia to the Southwestern United States to prevent soil erosion along riverbanks and as an ornamental plant. It has since come to affect water resources, recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem services. Various methods used to control tamarisk's spread have had moderate success but have drained National Park Service of human and monetary resources. In June 2006, the salt cedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a biological control agent within the park to defoliate and ultimately eradicate the invasive species. This study examines the efficacy of using Landsat TM imagery to supplement ground monitoring of the beetle's spread and its effects on tamarisk in Dinosaur National Monument, and discusses the development of a GIS model to predict annual change in tamarisk cover and beetle populations. Through fieldwork, we determined four areas of interest with favorable attributes for satellite detection. A change detection model was created by layering 2005-2008 data and quantifying mean NDVI. Results show that intra-year NDVI trends may be more effective for accurate detection than single-image year-to-year comparisons largely because intra-year environmental variability is significantly smaller. Additionally, our GIS model predicted significant growth of beetle population, implying that defoliation will become more apparent in future years. However, challenges to detecting this defoliation include the year-to-year variability of environmental factors, low spatial resolution of Landsat TM data, low visibility into parts of the Green River canyon, and the spectral mixing of tamarisk and native vegetation.

  13. Piper retrofractum Vahl. Extract, as a PPARδ and AMPK Activator, Suppresses UVB-Induced Photoaging through Mitochondrial Biogenesis and MMPs Inhibition in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice

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    Jungon Yun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoaging occurs by UVB-irradiation and involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, leading to extracellular matrix damage. Piper retrofractum Vahl. is used as a traditional medicine for antiflatulence, expectorant, sedative, and anti-irritant; however, its antiphotoaging effect has not yet been studied. The current study investigated the antiphotoaging effect of standardized Piper retrofractum extract (PRE on UVB-damaged human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin. PRE treatment activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ and the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, consequently upregulating mitochondrial synthesis and reducing ROS production. Additionally, PRE inhibited MMPs expression via suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and activator protein-1 (AP-1. PRE downregulated UVB-induced inflammatory reactions by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activity. PRE also enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β and the Smad signaling pathway, thereby promoting procollagen gene transcription. Furthermore, oral administration of PRE (300 mg/kg/day similarly regulated the signaling pathways and increased antioxidant enzyme expression, thus attenuating physiological deformations, such as wrinkle formation and erythema response. Collectively, these results suggest that PRE acts as a potent antiphotoaging agent via PPARδ and AMPK activation.

  14. Co-processed extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, for production of high load tablets

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    Verônica M. L. Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a co-processing technique for improving the manufacturing properties of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, and Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, extracts in order to obtain tablets containing a high dose of such extracts. An experimental mixture design was used to optimise the formulation composition. Flowability parameters, such as compressibility index, time flow and angle of repose, were determined. Additional important industrial parameters, such as granulometry, bulk density and moisture stability, were also studied. The results demonstrated that co-processing technique was able to improve the flowability of vegetal extracts, making these materials suitable for a direct compression process. The contour plots revealed that formulations with a higher amount of lactose produced the best flow results as well as a larger particle size and a greater bulk density. Tablets from co-processed extracts containing lactose as majority diluent showed appropriate physical-chemical characteristics and presented a more stable moisture sorption behaviour compared to commercial gelatine capsules.

  15. Co-processed extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, for production of high load tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica M. L. Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a co-processing technique for improving the manufacturing properties of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, and Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, extracts in order to obtain tablets containing a high dose of such extracts. An experimental mixture design was used to optimise the formulation composition. Flowability parameters, such as compressibility index, time flow and angle of repose, were determined. Additional important industrial parameters, such as granulometry, bulk density and moisture stability, were also studied. The results demonstrated that co-processing technique was able to improve the flowability of vegetal extracts, making these materials suitable for a direct compression process. The contour plots revealed that formulations with a higher amount of lactose produced the best flow results as well as a larger particle size and a greater bulk density. Tablets from co-processed extracts containing lactose as majority diluent showed appropriate physical-chemical characteristics and presented a more stable moisture sorption behaviour compared to commercial gelatine capsules.

  16. Evaluación de la composición química (Filantósidos y Lignanos) de los extractos crudos del árbol de Chilillo (Phyllantus Acuminatus Vahl) procedente de diferentes sitios de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Esquivel Alvarado; Gerardo Rodríguez Rodríguez; Sergio Madrigal Carballo

    2013-01-01

    El propósito del presente trabajo fue en primera instancia el realizar un estudio del contenido de filantósidos y lignanos presentes en muestras de diferentes partes del árbol de chilillo (Phyllantus acuminatus Vahl), colectadas en diferentes sitios del país. Para la primera parte del estudio se utilizó cromatografía de alta eficiencia (HPLC). Los resultados de estas pruebas mostraron no solo variación en el número de picos del cromatograma, sino también variaciones en la intensidad, en funci...

  17. Effective population size estimation in seed orchards: A case study of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./ F. angustifolia VAHL.

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    Machanská Eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size as a parameter closely correlating with the genetic and genotypic diversity of the seed orchard output is an important indicator of seed orchard functioning. It is determined by the variation of male and female gametic contributions of parental genotypes (including those outside the seed orchard, influenced by the variation in male and female gamete production, reproductive phenology, pollen dispersal within seed orchard and other factors. We assessed male and female fecundity, as well as temporal course of male and female flowering in two seed orchards of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./F. angustifolia VAHL. in Slovakia. In both cases, male and female gametic contributions of plus-tree clones were modeled on the basis of fecundity and flowering phenology, and were used to calculate status number as an estimator of effective population size. In the seed orchard of Pinus nigra, marker-aided verification of clonal fidelity revealed unexpectedly high proportion of misplaced ramets (29.9% and alien genotypes (44.4%. Monitoring of reproductive processes in 2002 and 2003 showed high variation in both male and female fecundity, and pollen shedding preceding female receptivity in Pinus nigra. All these factors contributed to a very low relative status effective number, representing 8.6% to 38.6% of the population census (depending from the management option in relation to misplaced and alien genotypes. In the mixed seed orchard of Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia, the proportion of misplaced and alien genotypes was much lower (22.4% and 12.3%, respectively. However, a high fecundity variation and protogyny resulted in a low relative status number (18.8% to 29.5% of the census number of clones also in this seed orchard. Practical implications of these findings are shortly discussed and practical management options are proposed.

  18. Estrogenic effects of Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) extracts and their ability to alleviate some menopausal symptoms induced by ovariectomy in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingue, Stéphane; Michel, Thomas; Tchatchou, Jules; Chantal Beatrice Magne, Nde; Winter, Evelyn; Monchot, André; Awounfack, Charline Florence; Djiogue, Sefirin; Clyne, Colin; Fernandez, Xavier; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2016-02-17

    Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) is a medicinal plant used in Cameroon to treat amenorrhea as well as other physiological disorders related to menopause. In order to justify scientifically its traditional use, the estrogen-like properties of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of F. umbellata were investigated. In vitro, the ability of different extracts of F. umbellata to activate estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in cell-based reporter gene assays using human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells transfected with ERs was tested. In vivo, a 3-day uterotrophic assay and the capacity of the extracts to alleviate hot flushes in ovariectomized adult rats were tested. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation the major compound of F. umbellata was isolated and tested in vitro on HEK293T-ERα and ERβ cells. AE and MeOH extracts significantly altered ERα as well as ERβ activities. In vivo, both extracts significantly increase the uterine and vaginal epithelium thickness, and uterine total protein levels in a dose dependent manner. Interestingly, both extracts of F. umbellata at the dose of 100 mg/kg BW significantly decreased the total number, average duration as well as frequency of hot flushes in experimental rats compared to age-matched OVX controls. Finally, 7-methylumbelliferone, a coumarin was characterized as the major compound of F. umbellata; however this compound did not transactivate ERα as well ERβ in vitro. These aforementioned results suggest that F. umbellata extracts as used by the traditional practitioner have estrogen-like effects and may alleviate some menopausal problems such as vaginal dryness and hot flushes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential Oil Variability of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Parts During Its Phenological Cycle and Incidence on the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Lamari, Lynda; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2017-02-01

    The impact of phenological stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) on chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. parts essential oils were investigated for the first time. GC and GC/MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (16.38 ± 0.19 - 31.78 ± 0.35%) and limonene (3.41 ± 0.07 - 9.49 ± 0.14%) as major components, predominate at the vegetative stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by camphor (16.11 ± 0.23 - 26.17 ± 0.29%) and bornyl acetate (15.21 ± 0.21 - 27.33 ± 0.33%) as major components, predominate at the fruiting stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that the plant parts collected at the fruiting stage possess the highest antioxidant activity and the best antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms, than plant parts collected at the vegetative and flowering stages. This highlighted variability reflects the high impact of phenological cycle on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on phenological stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

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    Nikhil Baban Ghate

    Full Text Available Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38 cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a

  1. AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. DAN DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica L.Urb TERHADAP KELARUTAN KALSIUM BATU GINJAL SECARA IN VITRO

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    Ni Wayan Swintari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soursop (Annona muricata L. and gotu kola (Centella asiatica L.Urb is a plant that can be used as a laxative medicine kidney stones. This is because of the content of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, especially the leaf section. The use of a combination of soursop leaf extract and gotu kola can improve their effectiveness in order to remove calcium kidney stones. Therefore, this study aims to determine the activity and to determine dose combination soursop leaf ethanol extract (SS and gotu kola leaf (GK which is effective for dissolving potassium kidney stones. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96% then subsequently tested phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography profiles on each extract. Results chromatogram showed the extract containing flavonoids. Testing the activity of the combination of soursop and gotu kola extract performed using seven treatments, combination 1 (SS 1% + GK 7.5% , a combination of 2 (SS  0.5% + GK 3.75%, the combination of 3 (SS 0, 25% + GK 1.875%, single soursop leaf extract (1%, single gotu kola extract (7.5%, negative control (aquadest and positive control (Batugin elixir. Kidney stones are then put as much as 100 mg in each treatment and incubated for 6 hours (37 ℃. Results filtrate then didestruksi and dissolved calcium levels measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed the combination soursop leaf ethanol extract and gotu kola leaf extract with a combination of 2 (SS 0.5% + GK 3.75% is an effective combination of the ability to dissolve calcium kidney stones in vitro.

  2. Detailed climate-change projections for urban land-use change and green-house gas increases for Belgium with COSMO-CLM coupled to TERRA_URB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole; Demuzere, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Recent research clearly show that climate modelling at high resolution - which resolve the deep convection, the detailed orography and land-use including urbanization - leads to better modelling performance with respect to temperatures, the boundary-layer, clouds and precipitation. The increasing computational power enables the climate research community to address climate-change projections with higher accuracy and much more detail. In the framework of the CORDEX.be project aiming for coherent high-resolution micro-ensemble projections for Belgium employing different GCMs and RCMs, the KU Leuven contributes by means of the downscaling of EC-EARTH global climate model projections (provided by the Royal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands) to the Belgian domain. The downscaling is obtained with regional climate simulations at 12.5km resolution over Europe (CORDEX-EU domain) and at 2.8km resolution over Belgium (CORDEX.be domain) using COSMO-CLM coupled to urban land-surface parametrization TERRA_URB. This is done for the present-day (1975-2005) and future (2040 → 2070 and 2070 → 2100). In these high-resolution runs, both GHG changes (in accordance to RCP8.5) and urban land-use changes (in accordance to a business-as-usual urban expansion scenario) are taken into account. Based on these simulations, it is shown how climate-change statistics are modified when going from coarse resolution modelling to high-resolution modelling. The climate-change statistics of particular interest are the changes in number of extreme precipitation events and extreme heat waves in cities. Hereby, it is futher investigated for the robustness of the signal change between the course and high-resolution and whether a (statistical) translation is possible. The different simulations also allow to address the relative impact and synergy between the urban expansion and increased GHG on the climate-change statistics. Hereby, it is investigated for which climate-change statistics the

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae Avalição da atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e fototóxica dos extratos e compostos isolados de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, plant extract, is a Brazilian medicinal plant externally used in folk medicine for purulent ulcers, skin lesions and internally for inflammations, fever, renal disorders and atherosclerosis. S. cayennesis was studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use against skin lesions and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and phototoxicity capacities of the crude ethanolic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from roots of S. cayennesis were evaluated through in vivo and in vitro tests. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an eukaryotic cell model, were used to assess both the phototoxicity and the capacity to protect against the lethal oxidative stress caused by menadione and hydrogen peroxide. The extract, fractions and the two major isolated compounds, verbascoside and betulinic acid, of S. cayennensis were able to increase the tolerance and decrease the lipid peroxidation of S. cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•. Verbascoside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither the ethanolic extract nor fractions showed phototoxicity, indicating that the S. cayennensis extract is safe for use in the treatment of skin lesions and as an active cosmetic ingredient.Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular brasileira contra úlceras e lesões de pele. Internamente é usada contra inflamações, febre, doenças renais e aterosclerose. Essa planta foi estudada com o objetivo de identificar os compostos bioativos majoritários que possam justificar seu uso terapêutico contra lesões de pele e arteriosclerose. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto etanólico, partições e os compostos majoritários isolados

  4. Las ciudades en el sistema de cooperación internacional. La cooperación descentralizada y el Programa URB-AL de la Comisión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maru00EDa del Huerto Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A mediados de los años 80, la cooperación internacional tradicional comenzó a mostrar síntomas de agotamiento, generalizándose la percepción acerca de las debilidades de sus mecanismos para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los pueblos. Paralelamente, el mayor involucramiento de los gobiernos subnacionales en las relaciones internacionales y la revalorización de las comunidades locales en las estrategias de desarrollo alimentaban la necesidad de un replanteo de las perspectivas clásicas de la cooperación internacional. En este contexto, surge el enfoque de la cooperación descentralizada como una lectura que rescata el rol activo de las ciudades y sus comunidades en el sistema de cooperación internacional, no ya como simples beneficiarios sino como actores protagónicos de las iniciativas. La Comisión Europea fue pionera en el diseño y puesta en marcha de líneas presupuestarias específicas y programas de cooperación descentralizada. Entre éstos, el Programa URB-AL abre un espacio para el desarrollo de iniciativas conjuntas entre ciudades y regiones de América Latina y Europa en temas claves de las políticas urbanas. El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar URB-AL a partir de una metodología que combina un análisis descriptivo del Programa con un abordaje que incorpora elementos contextuales que intervinieron en su diseño y formulación.

  5. Influência de uma árvore isolada de freixo (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl no microclima num lameiro em Trás-os-Montes Modification of microclimate by an isolated ash-tree (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in natural pastures of Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pereira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações microclimáticas decorrentes da presença de árvores isoladas de freixo (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl num lameiro próximo de Alfaião (41º 46’ 55’’ N; 6º 24’ 51’’ W; 510m de altitude, no distrito de Bragança (Nordeste de Portugal, em que o clima é do tipo Csb de Köppen. O lameiro localiza-se no fundo de um pequeno vale, cujos solos correspondem a Fluvissolos êutricos. Durante três anos mediu-se a radiação solar global incidente em campo aberto e a transmitida através da copa da árvore, a temperatura do ar e do solo sob e fora do coberto e a precipitação incidente sob a copa e em campo aberto. Em todas as estações do ano a presença da árvore alterou significativamente o microclima sob a mesma devido à intercepção de radiação solar (cerca de 25 a 35% no Inverno e de 55 a 65% no Verão e de cerca de 40% do total anual da precipitação bruta (52-56% no período de Maio-Setembro e 35% no período de ausência de folhagem. As temperaturas médias do ar sob a influência da copa (SIC da árvore foram superiores às observadas fora da influência da copa (FIC, com as diferenças máximas ocorrendo durante o período nocturno e sendo da ordem de 3ºC no Verão e de 5ºC no Inverno. Os valores médios da temperatura do solo foram superiores na área SIC durante o Inverno (1,1ºC à profundidade de 20 cm e no Verão na área FIC (1ºC à profundidade de 2 cm. As amplitudes térmicas no ar e no solo da área SIC foram inferiores às observadas na FIC. As condições microclimáticas observadas sob coberto poderão favorecer o desenvolvimento da vegetação herbácea no fim do Inverno, o que pode afectar a produção de biomassa das herbáceas.Changes in microclimate caused by an isolated ash tree (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl were assessed in a pasture land close to Bragança (41º 46’ 55’’ N; 6º 24’ 51’’ W; 510m de altitude, in Northeastern Portugal, where climate is Csb according

  6. Incremento del fitopatógeno Armillaria mellea (Vahl.:Fr. Karsten en bosque de pino-encino, en relación al grado de disturbio por tratamiento silvícola

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    M. Valdés

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un estudio con el objeto de conocer el efecto de los gradientes de disturbio originados por diferentes métodos de aclareo y tratamientos al piso para regeneración del pino en los bosques de pino-encino de Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, México, sobre los macromicetos fitopatógenos. Tres condiciones fueron evaluadas: árboles padre, áboles padre más fuego y una parcela testigo sin tratamiento. Una gran población del hongo parásito Armillaria mellea (Vahl.:Fr. Karsten fue detectada en las parcelas con tratamiento y ninguna colecta se hizo en la parcela Testigo. El número de colectas de A. mellea fue más del doble en la parcela quemada que en la parcela tratada sin fuego. Este hecho es importante para alertarnos de los problemas que se pueden originar en la supervivencia de las plántulas de pino al incrementar el disturbio en los bosques.

  7. Avaliação de parâmetros de extração da Cinchona Vahl por métodos farmacopéicos e não farmacopéicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iarah Daniela Dantas Silva

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a otimização de parâmetros cinéticos de extração da Cinchona pubescens Vahl por ultra-som, usando métodos farmacopéicos e não farmacopéicos. Na extração por ultrasom variaram-se o tempo, a massa, a faixa granulométrica, o volume de solvente e o tipo de solvente. Na decocção, as extrações foram feitas no tempo e temperatura descrita na Farmacopéia Brasileira IV, variando-se o sistema solvente. Na extração por maceração variaram-se o tempo e o sistema solvente. O teor de alcalóides quinolínicos foi monitorado por espectrofotometria no UV a 325 nm. O método decocção foi o que apresentou o maior rendimento na extração dos alcalóides, dados equivalentes foram conseguidos com o método ultra-som, no tempo de 5 min e solvente acidificado pH 4, com um rendimento maior ao da maceração. Pela aplicação do planejamento fatorial para o método do ultra-som foi visto que há uma interação entre as variáveis, necessitando de um melhor ajuste entre elas a fim de melhorar a eficiência extrativa do método do ultra-som.

  8. Population Structure and Reproduction of Pseudione elongata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production (bacteria and microalgae) may thus provide the shrimp with more abundant and diverse food, increasing several population fitness parameters. However .... was based on the number of stage II embryos and epicaridium larvae in each brood (adapted from the definitions proposed by Penha-Lopes et al., 2009).

  9. Evaluación de la composición química (Filantósidos y Lignanos de los extractos crudos del árbol de Chilillo (Phyllantus Acuminatus Vahl procedente de diferentes sitios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esquivel Alvarado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo fue en primera instancia el realizar un estudio del contenido de filantósidos y lignanos presentes en muestras de diferentes partes del árbol de chilillo (Phyllantus acuminatus Vahl, colectadas en diferentes sitios del país. Para la primera parte del estudio se utilizó cromatografía de alta eficiencia (HPLC. Los resultados de estas pruebas mostraron no solo variación en el número de picos del cromatograma, sino también variaciones en la intensidad, en función del sitio de colecta de las muestras. Por otra parte, se desarrollo un método espectrofotométrico simple, rápido y barato para cuantificar el contenido de filantósidos y lignanos que fuera comparable con el método por HPLC. Los resultados obtenidos con el nuevo método se correlacionaron con los datos obtenidos empleando la técnica de HPLC. El coeficiente de determinación obtenido en esta correlación fue excelente y estadísticamente significativo (R2 = 0,99; p < 0,05. Finalmente se evaluó la actividad antioxidante con el ensayo del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH y se determinó el contenido de polifenoles totales, mediante el método Folin-Ciocalteu. Tradicionalmente existe una excelente correlación entre el contenido de polifenoles totales y la actividad antioxidante; sin embargo, en este estudio no fue posible obtenerla, ya que la correlación entre ambos métodos resultó ser relativamente baja (R2 = 0,4334. Estos resultados revelan claramente que el árbol de chilillo no es una fuente potencial de polifenoles y no posee una buena capacidad antioxidante, especialmente si se compara con otras muestras vegetales ricas en compuestos fenólicos como el caso de la mora (Rubus sp y el rambután (Nephelium lappaceum.  

  10. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  11. Chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum ekmanii (URB.) Alain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facundo, Valdir Alves; Silveira, Augusto Sergio Pinto da; Braz Filho, Raimundo; Pinto, Angelo C.; Rezende, Claudia M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Z. ekmanii resulted in the isolation of skimmianine, dictamnine, tembamide, sesamin, lupeol and β-sitosterol. The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. This is the first report on the phytochemical study of the roots and leaves of Z. ekmanii. (author)

  12. Chemical constituents of Carissa edulis Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the biologically active ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the aerial parts of Carissa edulis afforded 3-O-acetyl chlorogenic acid (I, along with four known flavonol glucosides including, kaempferol 3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (II, quercetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (III, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (IV and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (V from ethyl acetate fraction. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2″→1″′-rhamnopyranoside (VI, Caredulis, 1-{1-[2-(2 hydroxypropoxy propoxy] propan-2-yloxy} propan-2-ol (VII and (+ butyl-O-α-l-rhamnoside (VIII were isolated from butanol fraction. Characterization of these compounds was achieved by various spectroscopic methods (UV, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC and through comparison with published data. Compounds I–VIII were isolated from C. edulis for the first time, while compounds VII and VIII were isolated for the first time from nature.

  13. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  14. Cryopreservation of Tetraclinis articulata (vahl.) Masters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Martinez, Francisco; Casas, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tetraclinis articulata shoot tips excised from in vitro grown shoots were cryopreserved using a modified PVS2-based vitrification protocol. Preliminary experiments with non-cryostored shoot tips showed that the high concentrations of sucrose in loading (LS), vitrification (PVS2) and unloading (US) solutions employed in the protocol were very toxic for the explants. Replacement of sucrose by sorbitol in equal molar concentration in all these solutions enhanced survival of shoot tips after all treatments. However, cold-hardening of donor shoots before shoot tip excision was strictly required to obtain post-rewarming survival. Therefore, the protocol was outlined as follows: pre-conditioning of explants at 4 degree C for 3 weeks in the dark; excision of 1 mm long shoot tips; loading for 20 min in modified LS at room temperature; dehydration in modified PVS2 at 0 degree C for 60 min; immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN); rewarming at 40 degree C for 2 min and subsequent transfer of shoot tips in modified US for 20 min.

  15. Il senso della fine. Arsure, Urbs Incensa The sense of the end. Arsura, Urbs Incensa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Migliore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidea della fine e quella del senso sono legate da un rapporto complesso e problematico. Lo si evince dal termine latino finis, che ha una polisemia assente in altre lingue indoeuropee. Infatti finis vuol dire confine, limite, compimento, ma anche intento, mira, meta. Tale polisemia si conserva in italiano e anzi si divarica nelle due diverse accezioni di punto ultimo, cessazione, rovina e risultato, riuscita, scopo. La lingua italiana dispone anche dellaggettivo finis, che ha diversi usi e applicazioni nelletica e nellestetica. Questo saggio esplora il campo semantico-concettuale del(la fine da una prospettiva semiotica, indagando limmaginario occidentale della citt in fiamme nella storia dellarte e nella letteratura artistica. Attraverso il caso studio dellincendio, ci si interroga sulla visibilit dellazione del fuoco (ardore e sui suoi effetti (arsura, dal divampare delle fiamme ai residui in forma di cenere.There is a complex and controversial relationship between the ideas of the end and of sense. This is evident in the Latin word finis, which presents numerous semantic meanings lacking in other Indo-European languages. In fact, finis means border, limit, end, achievement, goal, finality, purpose, just to mention a few. This polysemanticity is kept in Italian and is shaped around two crucial meanings. On one hand, it means end and ruin, whereas, on the other, implies result, achievement, aim. Furthermore the Italian word has been enriched by the adjective fine, which has acquired several meanings even in Ethics and Aesthetics. This contribution explores this conceptual field from a semiotics perspective, analyzing the Western imagery of the burning city in art history and in the artistic literature. The essay points out the visibility of fire action and its effects, from the flaring up of flames to the residual ash.

  16. Chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum ekmanii (URB.) Alain; Constituintes quimicos de Zanthoxylum ekmanii (URB.) Alain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facundo, Valdir Alves; Silveira, Augusto Sergio Pinto da [Rondonia Univ., Porto Velho, RO (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: vfacundo@unir.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Pinto, Angelo C.; Rezende, Claudia M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Chemical investigation of Z. ekmanii resulted in the isolation of skimmianine, dictamnine, tembamide, sesamin, lupeol and {beta}-sitosterol. The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. This is the first report on the phytochemical study of the roots and leaves of Z. ekmanii. (author)

  17. Urban Brownfields in Estonia: Scope, Consequences and Redevelopment Barriers as Perceived by Local Governments/ Urbánní brownfieldy v Estonsku: rozsah, dopady a revitalizační bariéry z pohledu městských samospráv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintěra Jiří

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Povědomí o problematice brownfields je v Estonsku slabé, dodnes pro ně neexistuje žádný konkrétní oficiální termín. Cílem této práce je prozkoumat zájem městských samospráv o regeneraci brownfields a analyzovat rozsah, dopady a bariéry rozvoje urbánních brownfields v Estonsku ve vnímání a hodnocení místních samospráv. Vnímaná důležitost negativních dopadů brownfields je spíše než množstvím a rozlohou brownfields ve městech ovlivněna přítomností dalších negativních socioekonomických jevů jako lokální nezaměstnanost či úbytek populace. Podle samospráv obcí představují kromě ekonomických faktorů hlavní překážky regenerace městských brownfields v Estonsku jednak nedostatek znalostí možných nástrojů k podpoře regenerace brownfields ze strany statní správy a samosprávy a také široce rozšířený názor, že regenerace brownfields má být záležitostí soukromého sektoru.

  18. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Centella asiatica (L) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittella, Frederico; Dutra, Rafael C.; Junior, Dalton D.; Lopes, Miriam T. P.; Barbosa, Nádia R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the phenolic (Folin-Dennis) and flavonoid (colorimetric assay) constituents, antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay] and cytotoxic activities of an aqueous extract (AE) of Centella asiatica leaves were investigated. The aqueous extract (50 g/L) was obtained by infusion followed by cold maceration for 24 h. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 2.86 g/100 g and 0.361 g/100 g, respectively. The AE showed elevated DPPH scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL. The AE had a promising activity against mouse melanoma (B16F1), human breast cancer (MDA MB-231) and rat glioma (C6) cell lines, with IC50 values of 698.0, 648.0 and 1000.0 μg/mL, respectively. A positive correlation was established between the level of flavonoids, antioxidant and antitumor activities. PMID:19865514

  19. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Centella asiatica (L Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Pittella

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phenolic (Folin-Dennis and flavonoid (colorimetric assay constituents, antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay] and cytotoxic activities of an aqueous extract (AE of Centella asiatica leaves were investigated. The aqueous extract (50 g/L was obtained by infusion followed by cold maceration for 24 h. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 2.86 g/100 g and 0.361 g/100 g, respectively. The AE showed elevated DPPH scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL. The AE had a promising activity against mouse melanoma (B16F1, human breast cancer (MDA MB-231 and rat glioma (C6 cell lines, with IC50 values of 698.0, 648.0 and 1000.0 μg/mL, respectively. A positive correlation was established between the level of flavonoids, antioxidant and antitumor activities.

  20. A Historical-Morphological Approach Of Japanese Urbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Ernesto Flores Quiroz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to describe the shape of Japanese cities through the analysis of the urban models used historically, making emphasis on the model of Castle-Town and its implications today. To do this, a theoretical body containing the following topics will be used: the Chinese model and its influence on the early cities of Japan, the historical stages of the country and the consequent change in the model along with its components and modifications through the modernization of the nation. Finally, the city of Tokyo will be used to exemplify the traces of the model in the contemporary city, while keeping a bibliographic-ethnographic western perspective to denote their differences with Latin American cities in relation to the architecture, the streets and the city centre.

  1. Urbs et orbis: (Recharting the center, (repositioning the limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the concept of finiteness and its implications on urban space focusing on the relation between urban(ized environment, social context and spatiotemporal perception. Furthermore, it analyzes and evaluates various roles which the notion of the center and the limit has had through history - representing an inseparable part of traditional city planning or being completely transformed in order to transmit and express contemporary identity. Considered as a residue of a particular mythical narrative and a distinctive feature of the first philosophical speculations, this concept was rooted in primordial technical matrices of archaic and classical cities, but its latest manifestation has distorted previous models. Consequently, the original significance has been manipulated - shaping a new urban geography as a post-modern, multi-scale setting for our future life.

  2. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Centella Asiatica (L) Urb | Mutayabarwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water extract of whole plant of Centella asiatica is used by traditional healers in the Haya tribe in Bukoba Region in Tanzania, in the management of both insulin and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Centella asiatica administered orally at a dose of 2 g/kg and 4 g/kg body weight produced a significant ...

  3. Constituintes químicos de Zanthoxylum ekmanii (URB. Alain Chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum ekmanii (URB. Alain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Alves Facundo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Z. ekmanii resulted in the isolation of skimmianine, dictamnine, tembamide, sesamin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. This is the first report on the phytochemical study of the roots and leaves of Z. ekmanii.

  4. Pontederiaceae do litoral piauiense, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Hilda Cristina Evaristo; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Silva, Maria Francilene Souza; Matias, Ligia Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo apresenta o tratamento taxonômico da família Pontederiaceae no litoral piauiense, contribuindo para o conhecimento da diversidade biológica do estado do Piauí. Foram identificadas cinco espécies distribuídas em três gêneros, Eichhornia Kunth, Heteranthera Ruiz & Pav. e Pontederia L. Eichhornia foi o mais representativo com três espécies, E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth, E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms e E. diversifolia (Vahl) Urb., enquanto Pontederia e Heteranthera estão representadas por...

  5. Pontederiaceae do litoral piauiense, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Hilda Cristina Evaristo; Andrade,Ivanilza Moreira de; Silva,Maria Francilene Souza; Matias,Ligia Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo apresenta o tratamento taxonômico da família Pontederiaceae no litoral piauiense, contribuindo para o conhecimento da diversidade biológica do estado do Piauí. Foram identificadas cinco espécies distribuídas em três gêneros, Eichhornia Kunth, Heteranthera Ruiz & Pav. e Pontederia L. Eichhornia foi o mais representativo com três espécies, E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth, E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms e E. diversifolia (Vahl) Urb., enquanto Pontederia e Heteranthera estão representadas...

  6. Atividade antiulcerogênica de Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb (Convolvulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyahara, Maria Regina Mortatti

    2008-01-01

    Ipomoea imperati (Convolvulaceae) é usada na medicina tradicional para o tratamento da inflamação, inchaço e feridas, bem como para tratar dor pós- parto e para problemas do estômago. I. imperati, apresenta compostos químicos como alcalóides indólicos e resinas glicosídicas, que são os componentes biológicos comumente ativos na família Convolvulaceae. Em estudos anteriores, I. imperati inibiu a inflamação tópica e sistêmica de maneira concentração-dependente, bloqueando significativamente a a...

  7. Morphophysiological development of Tabeluia serratifolia Vahl Nich. seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Nery, M.C.; Oliveira, L.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Guimaraes, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tabebuia serratifolia is used for the reforestation of degraded areas. Despite protection by law for permanent preservation, the species is in danger of extinction due to improper exploitation. With the objective to aid preservation and long term storage of the species we evaluated

  8. Evaluation of Wound Healing Actions of Hoslundia opposita Vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of these plants in skin diseases, in vivo wound healing activity was studied, besides antioxidant activity to understand the mechanism of wound healing. Methanol extract of Hoslundia opposita showed significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria tested including some resistant ...

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa edulis (Vahl) (Apocynaceae) root bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'u, J; Yaro, A H; Abubakar, M S; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2008-11-20

    To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of root bark extract of Carissa edulis. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis extract was determined using Lork's method (1983). The anticonvulsant activity of the extract was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion in mice and maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks, with benzodiazepine and phenytoin as standard drugs, respectively. While mechanistic studies were conducted using both flumazenil, a GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist and naloxone a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis was 282.8mg/kg and over 5000mg/kg following intraperitoneal and oral administration, respectively. Carissa edulis produced 40% and 20% protection against convulsion at 5 and 20mg/kg, respectively, compared with 100% protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in Carissa edulis extract-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil and naloxone. Carissa edulis exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the convulsion induced by MEST with 20mg/kg providing 90% protection while phenytoin (20mg/kg) produced 100% protection. These results suggest that Carissa edulis possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  10. Antileishmanial Activity of Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl S. Grose (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Vanessa Souza Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of ethanol extract, fractions, and isolated substance from Handroanthus serratifolius against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, this activity was related to cytotoxicity, and the selectivity index was determined. The ethanol extract was obtained by maceration of the stem powder, and the extract was subjected to fractionation on chromatographic column. The lapachol was obtained by acid base extraction followed by purification in chromatographic column. The antipromastigote activity and cytotoxicity tests were carried out by the cell viability method (MTT. Modified THP-1 cells were infected with L. amazonensis promastigotes and treated for 24 h with different concentrations of the extract, fractions, and lapachol. The ethanol extract, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were not active against promastigotes (IC50 > 200 μg/mL or cytotoxic (CC50 > 500 μg/mL, and the selectivity index (SI was greater than 2.5. The ethyl acetate fraction was active only in promastigotes; it is not cytotoxic (CC50 > 500 μg/mL, SI > 5. The lapachol was selectively active only against amastigote (IS > 2.5, CC50 > 500 μg/mL. In summary, lapachol and ethyl acetate fraction are promising against amastigote and promastigote forms, respectively.

  11. Preliminary Studies on Microbial Biomass and the Microarthropod Community as Soil Health and Quality Indicators in Urban Grasslands, Rīga as an Example / Sākotnējie Pētījumi Par Augsnes Mikrobiālo Biomasu Un Augsnes Sīkposmkāju Sabiedrībām Kā Augsnes Veselības Un Kvalitātes Indikatoriem Rīgas Pilsētas Urbānajos Zālājos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minova Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antropogēnais piesārņojums tiek uzskatīts par vienu no galvenajiem faktoriem, kas ietekmē augsni pilsētās. 2014. gadā uzsākts pētījums par augsnes kvalitāti urbānajos zālājos Rīgā. Pētījuma mērķis bija noteikt augsnes mikrobiālo biomasu un augsnes sīkposmkāju kopienu dažādu zālāju augsnēs Rīgā un izvērtēt iespējas tos izmantot kā pilsētvides augsnes veselības un kvalitātes rādītājus. Rīgā atšķirīgos pilsētas rajonos tika izvēlēti seši dažāda lieluma parauglaukumi ar atšķirīgām vietas apbūves īpatnībām, ielu un dzelzceļu tīkla blīvumu un transporta noslogojumu, vidi piesārņojošo objektu iespējamo ietekmi, kā arī citām, urbānu vidi raksturojošām īpatnībām. Substrāta izraisītas elpošanas metode izmantota, lai noteiktu augsnes mikrobiālo biomasu. Atsevišķos parauglaukumos tika ievākti un uzskaitīti augsnes sīkposmkāji - Mesostigmata ērces, Oribatida un Collembola. Kopā parauglaukumos ievākti vairāk kā 9300 augsnes sīkposmkāji, no tiem 4500 Collembola, 3400 Oribatida un 1400 Mesostigmata ērces. Konstatētas statistiski nozīmīgas augsnes mikrobiālas biomasas atšķirības starp parauglaukumiem. Vairumā parauglaukumu (izņemot stipri ietekmētu parauglaukumu Z. Meirovica bulvārī laikā no jūlija līdz oktobrim augsnes mikrobiālā oglekļa saturs būtiski palielinās. Lai iegūtu precīzākus rezultātus, nākotnē nepieciešama augsnes mikrobiālās biomasas noteikšanas metodes optimizācija.

  12. Comparative genomics of Mortierella elongata and its bacterial endosymbiont Mycoavidus cysteinexigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uehling, J.; Gryganskyi, A.; Hameed, K.; Tschaplinski, T.; Misztal, P. K.; Wu, S.; Desirò, A.; Vande Pol, N.; Du, Z.; Zienkiewicz, A.; Zienkiewicz, K.; Morin, E.; Tisserant, Emilie; Splivallo, R.; Hainaut, M.; Henrissat, B.; Ohm, R.; Kuo, A.; Yan, Jia; Lipzen, Anna; Nolan, M.; Labutti, K.M.; Barry, K.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Labbé, J.; Schadt, C.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I.; Martin, F.; Vilgalys, R.; Bonito, G.

    Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well-known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of extruded poly(lactic acid)-based Paulownia elongata biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was tested as bio-filler with polylactic acid (PLA). Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled and separated into particle fractions and then blended with PLA with a single screw extruder. Mechanical and thermal properties were tested. Dif...

  14. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao da atividade antibacteriana de Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P., E-mail: gil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Biologica

    2013-11-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6{beta}-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  15. Morphophysiological development of Tabeluia serratifolia Vahl Nich. seeds Desenvolvimento morfofisiológico de sementes de ipê-amarelo (Tabeluia serratifolia Vahl Nich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia serratifolia is used for the reforestation of degraded areas. Despite protection by law for permanent preservation, the species is in danger of extinction due to improper exploitation. With the objective to aid preservation and long term storage of the species we evaluated morphophysiological alterations of T. serratifolia seeds during the maturation process in order to identify markers that can be used for harvesting and storage. Fruits were collected at anthesis and seven developmental stages from trees growing in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. At each harvest, fruits and seeds were evaluated for color and size, moisture content, dry matter, internal morphology (by X-ray analysis, germination parameters (in vitro and ex vitro, as well as sugar and polyphenol content and heat resistant proteins. During the maturation process the initially green fruits changed to a brownish color and grew from a length of 7 to 18 cm; cracks appeared at the beginning of seed dispersal. The seed color varied from leaf-green to brownish and the length from 1 to 3 cm. The first indicatior of physiological maturity should be observed at 39 days post-anthesis, when variations the color and size of both fruits and seeds were observed. Increase in the moisture content, dry matter and germination, percentage of seeds and embryos in vitro, as well as a reduction in sugar content and LEA proteins were also observed. The physiological maturity of T. serratifolia seeds was reached 53 days after anthesis, coinciding with a maximum of dry matter accumulation and germination (and index of germination speed ex vitro, decrease in phenol levels, higher intensity of heat-resistant protein bands and the beginning of fruit opening.Tabebuia serratifolia é utilizada no reflorestamento de áreas degradadas. Devido à sua exploração indevida, encontra-se em perigo de extinção, apesar de protegida por lei para preservação permanente. Foram investigadas as alterações morfofisiológicas de sementes de ipê-amarelo ao longo do desenvolvimento, para fins de auxiliar a conservação dessa espécie. Os frutos foram coletados a partir da antese, em sete estádios de desenvolvimento, em árvores localizadas na região de Lavras, MG, Brasil. Em cada coleta, as sementes foram submetidas às análises radiográficas e microscópicas, avaliando-se as colorações e tamanho, o grau de umidade e matéria seca tanto dos frutos como das sementes, a germinação in vitro e ex vitro, bem como os teores de açúcares, polifenóis e proteínas resistentes ao calor. Durante o desenvolvimento os frutos que inicialmente eram verdes passaram para amarronzados e o comprimento de 7 para 18 cm, apresentando fendas que iniciam a dispersão de suas sementes. As sementes tiveram sua cor variando de verde-folha a amarronzado e comprimento de 1 a 3 cm. As alterações iniciais indicativas da maturidade fisiológica de sementes de ipê-amarelo ocorreram a partir dos 39 dias após a antese, quando ocorreram variações na coloração, no tamanho de frutos e sementes e na visualização das estruturas internas, além de aumentos nos teores de água, matéria seca e porcentagem de germinação de sementes e embriões e ainda, redução dos açúcares redutores e das proteínas resistentes ao calor. A maturidade fisiológica das sementes de Tabebuia serratifolia é alcançada aos 53 dias após a antese, coincidindo com o acúmulo máximo de matéria seca, germinação (e índice de velocidade de germinação, além de decréscimo no teor de polifenóis e maior intensidade de bandas inidicadoras de proteínas resistentes ao calor e o início da abertura dos frutos.

  16. Seasonal Variation of Triterpenes and Phenolic Compounds in Australian Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ali; Tongkao-on, Wannit; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Li, George Q

    2015-01-01

    Specific triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Centella asiatica have been found to be bioactive. Harvesting the plant when these putative bioactive compounds are at their highest concentrations would provide consistency in their chemical profile, thus ensuring the quality and efficacy of derived medicinal products. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of harvesting time on the contents of major triterpenoid and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica. Australian C. asiatica was collected from a designated area in different months. The principal triterpenes (asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid), flavonoid compounds (rutin, quercetin and kaempferol) and chlorogenic acid were quantitatively determined by HPLC-DAD analysis. Triterpenoid, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid content showed significant variation (p asiatica in summer returns the highest yield of the target triterpenoids, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determinantes del desempleo en las urbes mexicanas. Continuidades y rupturas en el periodo de crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Clara MÁRQUEZ-SCOTTI

    2015-01-01

    El desempleo no ha sido un tema prioritario en los estudios de corte demográfico y sociológico en México, en parte porque no ha sido el fenómeno más urgente ni generalizado en la región, dada la extensión de otras formas de ajuste del mercado de trabajo. No obstante, la crisis económica actual ha provocado un aumento de la tasa de desempleo y, consecuentemente, ha llamado la atención de analistas. Este artículo está guiado por tres objetivos principales: analizar los determinantes individuale...

  18. Els COVs al Montseny : entre l'smog urbà i la biogeneració

    OpenAIRE

    Seco Guix, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Els COVs (Compostos Orgànics Volàtils) són compostos que contenen carboni i que es converteixen fàcilment en gasos. L'activitat industrial humana en genera però també les plantes en produeixen per comunicar-se entre elles o amb els animals, o per protegir-se de diversos estressos. Investigadors de la UAB, del CREAF i del CSIC han estudiat els canvis estacionals i diaris de COVs en l'aire d'una zona del Montseny on han pogut constatar que la seva concentració depèn dels règims de vent (la bris...

  19. Tallinna poeedid tuunivad linna / Tom-Olaf Urb, Paul Oja, Rainer Olbri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Tom-Olaf Urbi (pseud. Reket), DJ Paul Oja, Rainer Olbri (pseud. Metsakutsu), Henry Kõrvitsa (pseud. G-Enka), Uku Aropi (pseud. Suur Pada) mõtteid Tallinna linnaruumist. Tallinna teema nende loomingus

  20. infr structur l development dimension of urb n prosperity in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-09-08

    Sep 8, 2015 ... infrastructure heightens cost of doing business in such urban areas and reduces business productivity by as much as 40 per cent; the impact can be as .... in Ota and the ongoing road project by the state. Table 1: Respondents' Response on Infrastructure Development. Variables. Frequency. Total. SD. D.

  1. Emoción, gesto y actio: la risa en el Ab Urbe Condita (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Ferrero, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper (Talia dixit 5, 2010, 1-24, we analysed the general features of those passages in which Livy used laughter as a main or underlying theme, on the basis of a series of terms (risus /ridere; inridere/risus // arridere whose application could allow us to infer the general concept of this particular emotion and gesture in AVC. Once this aspect has been examined, the main goal of this paper is not only the revision of those characteristics concerning this primary “emotion” within the context of the author’s work itself, but also the comprehensive study of such texts in order to highlight the way in which Livy set both the situation and the characters, creating a certain dramatic actio from which his historiographical and literary project benefitted. Only such an analysis helps us observe the rich spectrum of nuances used by the Paduan historian. Thus, we have intended to show in this paper how Livy obtained new effects by modifying and applying rhetorical theory; how he managed to make some of his characters singularly remembered by hearers or readers thanks to a selection of topics which fitted each of his particular purposes; and finally, how he was able to relate passages in different books and contexts through specific formulas that evoked in the recipient of his work the echo and image sought. Therefore, this paper will show a number of nuances higher than previously expected, since against presumptions, the encomium (praise in Rome still generated lights and shadows.

  2. role of gricultur l enterprises in food security st tus of urb nf rmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-03

    May 3, 2017 ... hunger. Relationship between food security and agricultural enterprises reveal the tendency of fruits, vegetables and fisheries as moving urban farmers towards food secure group. It was recommended that urban farmers ... World Forum on Food Sovereignty. (WFFS) by Nyeleni (2007), food security is the ...

  3. infr structur l development dimension of urb n prosperity in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-09-08

    . Sango to a distance of about 11.5km terminating at river Iju with Canaan land being the most prominent land use. Ota home one of most viable industrial estate in Ogun state, which reflected in the socio-economic and directly ...

  4. SSESSMENT OF CO2 EMISSION LEVEL IN URB N TR NSPORT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-06

    Nov 6, 2016 ... Abstract. Transport plays a crucial role in accelerating development and improving quality of life by allowing ease transfer of people, goods and services. It is also one of the important preconditions for achieving developmental goals. This study therefore intends to assess the level of CO2 emissions in urban ...

  5. Going URB@N: Exploring the Impact of Undergraduate Students as Pedagogic Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, John; Maunder, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact for students of an institutional scheme designed to involve undergraduate students in pedagogic research. Through Undergraduate Research Bursaries at Northampton, students are funded to work as researchers on pedagogic projects in partnership with academic staff. Drawing on data from a larger longitudinal mixed…

  6. N EX MIN TION OF TENURE SECURITY FOR URB N CROP F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... food and non-food products, reusing mainly human and material resources, products and services found in and around that urban area, and in turn ... more permanent structures such as concrete fence walls and deep wells or to engage in perennial crop production. As a result, they resort to the use of ...

  7. Roma epigramática: a urbs como personagem dos epigramas no Livro I de Marcial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Paifer Cairolli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa as menções a elementos geográficos da cidade de Roma no primeiro livro de Epigramas do poeta latino Marcos Valério Marcial. Para tanto, baseando-se nas categorias aristotélicas que prescrevem homens virtuosos ou viciosos como divisão de assunto da poesia, será observada a maneira como a descrição do espaço físico da cidade empresta virtudes ou vícios para as personagens retratadas em cada poema.

  8. Roma epigramática: a urbs como personagem dos epigramas no Livro I de Marcial

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Paifer Cairolli

    2016-01-01

    O presente artigo analisa as menções a elementos geográficos da cidade de Roma no primeiro livro de Epigramas do poeta latino Marcos Valério Marcial. Para tanto, baseando-se nas categorias aristotélicas que prescrevem homens virtuosos ou viciosos como divisão de assunto da poesia, será observada a maneira como a descrição do espaço físico da cidade empresta virtudes ou vícios para as personagens retratadas em cada poema.

  9. Ab urbe condita. Desde a fundaçao da cidade de Bracara Augusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Morais

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo aborda-se a problemática da fundaçao da antiga cidade de Bracara Augusta, levando em consideraçao o registro arqueológico e sua problemática e significado. A parte da fundaçao ex novo da cidade ou da preexistência de populaçoes autóctones no local, apresentam-se fortes vestígios indicadores da importância do culto imperial e dinástico que pensamos fortemente associados ao acto simbólico da sua fundaçao ou "refundaçao" segundo uma cerimónia à da "Roma Quadrada" augústea.

  10. Urbes industrializada: o modernismo e a paulicéia como ícone da brasilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Maria Inez Machado Borges

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a participação da intelligentsia paulistana na configuração do regionalismo em São Paulo. O caráter contraditório da relação entre nacionalismo/regionalismo. O artigo tenta acompanhar essas questões ao longo da década de 1920, através do exame da obra de Mário de Andrade, em que as contradições apontadas afloram, bem como as vozes dissonantes de Antônio de Alcântara Machado, Manuel Bandeira, ou de cronistas obscuros, que se colocaram à margem da tensão cosmopolitismo - nacionalismo/regionalismo.

  11. "Mulle meeldib mängida sitapäid!" / Johann Urb ; interv. Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urb, Johann

    2008-01-01

    Internet Movie Database'i kasutajate arvates on mängufilm "The Hottie and the Nottie" (2008) Paris Hiltoniga peaosas ja USAs töötava eestlasest näitleja Johann Urbi kaastegevusel läbi aegade halvim film. Näitleja ja modell endast, oma elust Los Angelesi lähedal Marina Del Rays

  12. Antroponymická soustava v urbářích z 15. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefková, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, 1-2 (2011), s. 174-181 ISSN 1803-7410 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : onomastic * proper name * anthroponym * personal name * urbar * 15th century Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  13. Subjetividades urbanas: mirar/contar la urbe desde la crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anadeli Bencomo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abordar el fenómeno urbano, su dinámica y modos culturales, implica en gran medida la consideración de las narrativas que representan la experiencia de situarse y moverse dentro de estas cartografías de lo colectivo. Diversas, cambiantes y, a veces, inabarcables resultan las ciudades latinoamericanas que han proliferado extensamente junto a las políticas modernizadoras popularizadas desde la segunda mitad del siglo XIX en la región. Frente al fenómeno urbano en Latinoamérica, el discurso de la crónica periodístico-literaria figura como una instancia que no sólo toma a las ciudades como uno de sus temas privilegiados, sino que se ocupa al mismo tiempo de la representación de subjetividades emergentes dentro de este contexto cultural. En esta oportunidad, me interesa precisamente revisar los modos en que la mirada de los cronistas se despliega en su deambular por la ciudad, inflexiones que delatan posicionalidades y articulaciones de una sensibilidad intelectual y de una conciencia correspondiente de representación.

  14. Feeding contents of Urticularia foliosa L. and U. hydrocarpa Vahl. (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eskinazi Sant'Anna, Eneida Maria; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; Maia-Barbosa, Paulina Maria; UFMG; Braz, Simone Aparecida; UFMG; Faria, Viviane Rodrigues de; UFMG; Barbosa, Francisco Antônio Rodrigues; UFMG

    2008-01-01

    Neste estudo, foram considerados os aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos do conteúdo alimentar de Utricularia foliosa e U. hydrocarpa (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae), para uma avaliação do impacto dessas plantas no controle de populações de organismos aquáticos. As plantas foram coletadas em dois lagos situados no entorno do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais (lagoa Amarela e lagoa da Barra). O conteúdo alimentar dos utrículos foi comparado com o perifíton (microalgas) e com ...

  15. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 - 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  16. Synthetic seed production and physio-biochemical studies in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. - a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, N A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Alwahibi, M S

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 μM) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 μM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

  17. The leaves of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae) generates uterine active chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafor, Enitome E; Lim, Chiew V; Rowan, Edward G; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie

    2013-02-13

    In the search for new, safe and efficacious uterine active agents, the plant Ficus exasperata was subjected to phytochemical screening and pharmacological analysis. Ethyl acetate and methanolic leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata were fractionated and purified by a series of chromatographic techniques. The isolation process was guided by in vitro functional uterine assays involving the use of C57Bl/6 female mice. Identification of the active chemical constituents was performed by several spectroscopic techniques which included 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The uterine effects of these compounds were investigated on spontaneous, oxytocin-induced and high KCl-induced contractions using isolated uterine segments of non-pregnant female mice. The activity of different compounds on the amplitude (maximum tension above basal force) and frequency of uterine contractions were simultaneously measured and then statistically analysed. The structure-activity relationships were also examined where possible. These studies led to the identification of some new phytochemical derivatives. Pharmacological assay revealed the presence of both uterine stimulatory and inhibitory constituents. The new pheophytin/pheophorbide derivatives, flavonoids, fatty acids and glycerol derivatives significantly reduced the frequency and amplitude of uterine contraction, while KCl salt, pyrimidine and pheophorbide-b derivatives significantly augmented both spontaneous and agonist-induced contractions. This study has demonstrated that Ficus exasperata generates secondary metabolites which have proven effective in the significant inhibition of uterine contractions and thus a potential source of new tocolytic agents. Additionally, uterine stimulatory constituents were also generated some of which may be potential drugs for contraception and/or labour facilitation. Lead compounds generated from this study are the pheophytin/pheophorbide derivatives, pyrimidine derivatives and flavonoid derivatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silihe, Kevine Kamga; Zingue, Stéphane; Winter, Evelyn; Awounfack, Charline Florence; Bishayee, Anupam; Desai, Nishil N; João Mello, Leônidas; Michel, Thomas; Tankeu, Francine Nzufo; Ndinteh, Derek Tantoh; Honorine Riwom, Sara; Njamen, Dieudonné; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2017-05-23

    A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC 50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg) and methanol (50 mg/kg) extracts significantly ( p < 0.001) reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%), total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively), average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively) as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  19. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevine Kamga Silihe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg and methanol (50 mg/kg extracts significantly (p < 0.001 reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%, total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively, average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  20. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management due to their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shading on the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resulted in higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison to the other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to maintain high herbage production. 

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activity of Ipomoea imperati (Vahl Griseb (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.B. Paula

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea imperati (Convolvulaceae lives on the sandy shores of the Brazilian coast and in other areas of the world. The anti-inflammatory activity of a methanol-water extract of the leaves of I. imperati was investigated in experimental models of acute and subchronic inflammation. Topical application of the extract (10 mg/ear inhibited mouse ear edema induced by croton oil (89.0 ± 1.3% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.97 mg/ear and 57.0 ± 1.3% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.5 mg/ear and arachidonic acid (42.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.98 mg/ear and 31.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.72 mg/ear. Phospholipase A2, purified from Apis mellifera bee venom, was also inhibited by the extract (5.0 mg/ml lipid and aqueous fraction in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (85% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.22 mg/ml and 25% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml. The methanol-water extract of I. imperati (1000 mg/kg administered by the oral route also inhibited the formation of cotton pellet-induced granulomas (73.2 ± 1.2% by the lipid fraction and 56.14 ± 2.7% by the aqueous fraction and did not cause gastric mucosal lesions. I. imperati extracts (10 mg/ml also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the muscle contractions of guinea pig ileum induced by acetylcholine and histamine (IC50 of 1.60 mg/ml for the lipid fraction and 4.12 mg/ml for the aqueous fraction. These results suggest the use of I. imperati as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agent in traditional medicine.

  2. Kaurene diterpenes and other chemical constituents from Mikania stipulacea (M. Vahl willd

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    Nascimento Andréa M. do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of Mikania stipulacea yielded lupeol, alpha-amyrin, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, beta-sitosteryl glucopyranoside, stigmasteryl glucopyranoside, the coumarin isoscopoletin, and vanillic, cinnamoylgrandifloric and ent-kaurenoic acids, besides two new diterpene acids: ent-9alpha-hydroxy-15beta-E-cinnamoyloxy-16-kauren-19-oic and ent-9alpha-hydroxy-15beta-Z-cinnamoyloxy-16-kauren-19-oic. IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses were used for the identification of these compounds.

  3. Antileishmanial Activity ofHandroanthus serratifolius(Vahl) S. Grose (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Erica Vanessa Souza; Brígido, Heliton Patrick Cordovil; Silva, João Victor da Silva E; Coelho-Ferreira, Marlia Regina; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of ethanol extract, fractions, and isolated substance from Handroanthus serratifolius against Leishmania amazonensis . Furthermore, this activity was related to cytotoxicity, and the selectivity index was determined. The ethanol extract was obtained by maceration of the stem powder, and the extract was subjected to fractionation on chromatographic column. The lapachol was obtained by acid base extraction followed by purification in chromatographic column. The antipromastigote activity and cytotoxicity tests were carried out by the cell viability method (MTT). Modified THP-1 cells were infected with L. amazonensis promastigotes and treated for 24 h with different concentrations of the extract, fractions, and lapachol. The ethanol extract, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were not active against promastigotes (IC 50 > 200  μ g/mL) or cytotoxic (CC 50 > 500  μ g/mL), and the selectivity index (SI) was greater than 2.5. The ethyl acetate fraction was active only in promastigotes; it is not cytotoxic (CC 50 > 500  μ g/mL, SI > 5). The lapachol was selectively active only against amastigote (IS > 2.5, CC 50 > 500  μ g/mL). In summary, lapachol and ethyl acetate fraction are promising against amastigote and promastigote forms, respectively.

  4. GERMINATION IN VITRO AND E EX VITRO OF EMBRYOS/SEEDS OF Tabebuia serratifolia (VAHL NICH

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    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of germination of seeds allows understanding the behavior of seeds during development and theconservation mechanism. For evaluating the germination of the seeds of ipê amarelo collected during seven development stages, 10,18, 25 32, 39, 47 and 53 days after the anthesis, the medium of culture in vitro were tested, MS and WPM, and methods ofdisinfestations of the seeds in the germination ex vitro. Seeds of yellow ipê disinfestations with carbendazim (2% for 2 minutes, sodiumhypochlorite (2% of the active chlorine for 3 minutes and seeds without surface sterilisation, were submitted to the germination teston sand to 30 ºC, under constant white light. In the cultivation in vitro, seeds acquired germinative capacity 39 days after the anthesisand superior germination 53 days after the anthesis, independent of the medium of culture. In the germination ex vitro, the seedsdisinfestations with carbendazim and without surface sterilization presented superior germination, the use of sodium hypochloritecaused fitotoxin effect to the seeds.

  5. Impact of gamma radiations on phytochemistry of senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Sunita; Vyas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia (senna) is native to India, and is cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the leaves Senna is also known by the names Alexandrian Senna and and the pods. The leaves have a purging quality, but afterwards may have a binding effect. Both the leaves and pods are used in many over-the-counter pharmaceutical laxative preparations. People in northern Africa and southwestern Asia have used Senna as a natural laxative for centuries. Senna is a powerful cathartic used primarily in the treatment of constipation, working through a stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. The primary chemical Constituents of Senna include anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides, aloe-emodin, rhein), beta-sitosterol, flavones, tartaric acid, mucin, essential oil, mucilage, tannin and resin. The sennosides are irritating to the large intestine lining, causing peristaltic action and bowel evacuation. Senna is often combined with aromatic, carminative herbs such as cardamom, ginger root, peppermint and fennel to increase its palatability. Other historical applications of this herb have included support for inflammatory skin conditions, hypertension and weight control. Although the biological effects of large doses of ionizing radiation are predominantly harmful, low-to-intermediate doses have been observed to enhance growth and survival, augment the immune response, and increase resistance to the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of further irradiation in plants, bacteria, insects, and mammals. The existence of these stimulatory, or adaptive responses implies that the dose-response relationships for genetic and carcinogenic effects of radiation may be similarly biphasic or hermetic in nature. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material, is an excellent source of sennosides. To investigate the effect of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the dry seeds of senna were treated with different doses of gamma radiations, ethyl methane sulfonate and sodium azide for 22 hours duration at 25 ± 2 deg C. The treated population in M 1 generation exhibited different degree of stimulation in growth. Other parameters were also affected by all the three mutagenic treatments. Seeds collected from M 1 generation were sown and M 2 plant progenies were raised. Morphological mutations with desirable characters were further investigated. Biochemical estimation of sennoside from the leaflets in vegetative and blooming phases was carried out. Of the three mutagens, 0.007% sodium azide yielded maximum sennoside in the vegetative phase. In the flowering phase, it was highest with 25 kR of gamma radiations. Seeds of these plant types hold promise for enhancing the sennoside yields per gram of tissue. (author)

  6. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae

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    Kiessoun Konaté

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica. Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  7. Antidiabetic potentials of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolade, Jubril Olayinka; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Okereke, Omoaruemike Ebele; Muhammad, Nasir Olarewaju

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of essential oil from the leaf of Hoslundia opposita in the treatment of diabetes. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomized into two groups; nondiabetic and diabetic groups, each with four subgroups. Animals in the diabetic group were induced with diabetes using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate, 160 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.). The rats were treated with 110 and 220 mg/kg b. wt. of the essential oil. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for 4 days. In the nondiabetic condition, there was no effect of the oil on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in rats. In diabetic rats, the oil caused a significant reduction in FBG levels. Treatment with 110 mg/kg b. wt. of the oil reduced FBG almost to the normoglycemic level by day 4 and the overall glucose excursion during a 3-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test approached the baseline level at 120 min. Also, hepatic glycogen was significantly higher, while the glucose concentrations were lower in the diabetic-treated group when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Histological examinations revealed a mildly distorted architecture of the pancreatic islets β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the oil, while those of the untreated rats were severely degenerated. Overall, the in vivo antihyperglycemic activity of the essential oil may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Evaluation of wound healing, antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. leaves

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    Arun Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To validate the ethno-therapeutic claim of the traditionally used plant Jasminum auriculatum (J. auriculatum in skin diseases, by evaluating its wound healing potential along with its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties; so as to understand their role in wound healing. Materials and Methods: Excision and incision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity on albino rats. The wound healing potential was assessed by measuring rate of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, skin breaking strength and histopathological  parameters. Reference standard drug was Nitrofurazone ointment. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The antimicrobial activity was determined by agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration by serial dilution method. Results: Higher rate of wound contraction (83.66±0.50% on 15th day, decrease in the period of epithelialization (17.83±1.6days, higher skin breaking strength (170.71±1.52g, higher collagen content and favourable histopathological changes revealed that topical application of ointment containing successive ethanolic extract (S.E.E of J. auriculatum leaves has the most potent wound healing ability compared to control group in both  the models studied.  The DPPH radical scavenging activity of successive ethanolic extract was found to be 33.39µg/ml. Successive ethanolic extract was found to be most effective against Pseudomonas auregenosa having a zone of inhibition 16.65±0.6mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.78mg/ml. Conclusion: The data of this study indicate that successive ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibit potent wound healing, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This justifies the ethno-medicinal use of plant for the treatment of wound and microbial infections.

  9. Stem Biomass Production of Paulownia elongata × P. fortunei under Low Irrigation in a Semi-Arid Environment

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    Francisco Antonio García-Morote

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In semi-arid regions, afforestation with fast-growing species cultured with low irrigation can be an effective approach for environmental protection. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the stem biomass production of Paulownia in a semi-arid climate and clay soils under contrasting low-irrigation and fertilization treatments. The stem biomass at the stand level was estimated by applying allometric equations fitted in sample resprouts and inventory data. The results show that biomass production improved when either irrigation or fertilizer was added, but the combination of a higher dose of irrigation and fertilization did not lead to the highest biomass production; thus water availability was the main factor controlling biomass production. Under the higher dose of irrigation, the absence of a fertilizer effect would be due in part to the fertile soil, which could supply sufficient nutrients for Paulownia growth at the higher level of soil moisture. The stem biomass estimated ranged from 2.14 to 4.50 t×ha−1 (lower irrigation dose without fertilization, and higher irrigation with fertilization. The greater production was similar to other studies in the Mediterranean area receiving more irrigation. Thus, this study permitted us to understand the potential of Paulownia to provide biomass in semi-arid environments with low irrigation due to water use restrictions.

  10. Penentuan Aktivitas Amilase Dari Umbi Bengkuang (Pachyrrizus Arosus L.urb) Hasil Ekstraksi Etanol Dan Ammonium Sulfat

    OpenAIRE

    iswendi, Iswendi

    2009-01-01

    Amylase is an hydrolase enzyme that plays a role in the hydrolysis reaction of starch and glycogen into isomaltose, maltotriose, maltose and glucose. Amylase can be obtained by extraction from several sources of plants, animals and microorganisms. Extraction of the enzyme can be done in two ways, with an organic solvent and inorganic salt. We have conducted research on amylase activity of yam tubers extracted with ethanol and ammonium sulfate. This research aimed to determine the optimum amyl...

  11. A new shrubby species of Nasa Weigend ser. Carunculatae (Urb. & Gilg Weigend (Loasaceae from the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone

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    Tilo Henning

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasa is the largest genera in the Loasaceae family and it is particularly speciose in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of northern Peru. Nasa ser. Carunculatae is a group of four species, three of them endemic to the Amotape- Huancabamba Zone. Species in this group are characterized by their shrubby habit, deciduous leaves, and typical tilt-revolving flowers with white to greenish petals. In this work, we describe a new species of Nasa ser. Carunculatae from the southern limit of Amotape-Huancabamba area, La Libertad, Peru. The species differs from others in having much smaller and notably narrower leaves. Unlike all the other species of ser. Carunculatae, the entire distal portion of the stem is densely glandular. It is apparently most closely related to Nasa carunculata, a species known from inter-Andean valleys of Ancash and Ayacucho.

  12. Nueva especie arbustiva de Nasa Weigend ser. Carunculatae (Urb. & Gilg) Weigend (Loasaceae) de la Zona Amotape-Huancabamba

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Tilo; Institut für Biologie – Systematische Botanik und Pflanzengeographie, Freie Universität Berlin, Altensteinstr. 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany.; Cano, Asunción; 1 Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Avenida Arenales 1256, Jesús María, Apdo. 14-0434, Lima 14, Perú. 2 Instituto de Investigación de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Weigend, Maximilian; Institut für Biologie – Systematische Botanik und Pflanzengeographie, Freie Universität Berlin, Altensteinstr. 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

    2011-01-01

    Nasa is the largest genera in the Loasaceae family and it is particularly speciose in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of northern Peru. Nasa ser. Carunculatae is a group of four species, three of them endemic to the Amotape- Huancabamba Zone. Species in this group are characterized by their shrubby habit, deciduous leaves, and typical tilt-revolving flowers with white to greenish petals. In this work, we describe a new species of Nasa ser. Carunculatae from the southern limit of Amotape-Huancaba...

  13. Strain- and context-dependent effects of the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 on social behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manduca, A.; Servadio, M.; Campolongo, P.; Palmery, M.; Trabace, L.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Cuomo, V; Trezza, V.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the cannabinoid modulation of motivation and emotion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether anandamide modulation of social behavior is strain- and context-dependent. We tested the effects of the anandamide hydrolysis

  14. Paraquat Toxicity on Root Nodule Formation on Macroptiliuma Tropurpureum Urb. and Its Corelation with Population of Rhizobium SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Martani, Erni; Margino, Sebastian; Magdalena, Medhina

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the paraquat toxicity toward root nodulation by Rhizobium on Macroptilium atropurpureum as an indicator plant. The legume was grown in Thornton medium treated with several concentrations of paraquat and inoculated with R.japonicum 143 (Rj-143) or Rhizobium sp. C-1.1. These bacteria represent cross-inoculation of soybean and cover-crops legumes, respectively. Nodule formation and Rhizobium population were measured periodically. At the end of planting time...

  15. Paraquat Toxicity on Root Nodule Formation on Macroptiliuma tropurpureum Urb. and Its Corelation with Population of Rhizobium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Martani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the paraquat toxicity toward root nodulation by Rhizobium on Macroptilium atropurpureum as an indicator plant. The legume was grown in Thornton medium treated with several concentrations of paraquat and inoculated with R.japonicum 143 (Rj-143 or Rhizobium sp. C-1.1. These bacteria represent cross-inoculation of soybean and cover-crops legumes, respectively. Nodule formation and Rhizobium population were measured periodically. At the end of planting time, nitrogenase activity of the nodules was analysis based on ARA (Acethylene Reduction Analysis method. The results showed that nodules in plants inoculated with Rhizobium without addition paraquat, were formed within four weeks. There was no nodulation when paraquat was added. Paraquat was toxic to the plant, causing chlorosis, stunting, drying of the plant tissues, and death. The symptoms were detected at the second week after planting time. Paraquat also decreased Rhizobium population from 10^6 to 10^2 or 10^1 CFU/mL at 40 and 100 pp, respectively. These results depicted that paraquat disturbed the plant before nodulation, and at the same time Rhizobium populatin decreased until below minimal population required for nodulation. Therefore, the process of nodulation was disturbed, and in some treatments there was nodulation. It was concluded that paraquat was toxic to both plant and the Rhizobium, which cause nodulation failure.

  16. Conteúdo alimentar em macrófitas aquáticas carnívoras: Utricularia foliosa L. e U. hydrocarpa Vahl. (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae Feeding contents of Urticularia foliosa L. and U. hydrocarpa Vahl. (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae

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    Francisco Antônio Rodrigues Barbosa

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram considerados os aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos do conteúdo alimentar de Utricularia foliosa e U. hydrocarpa (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae, para uma avaliação do impacto dessas plantas no controle de populações de organismos aquáticos. As plantas foram coletadas em dois lagos situados no entorno do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais (lagoa Amarela e lagoa da Barra. O conteúdo alimentar dos utrículos foi comparado com o perifíton (microalgas e com o zooplâncton associados aos talos das macrófitas e ao fitoplâncton da coluna de água. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as duas espécies de Utricularia utilizaram exclusivamente o recurso alimentar disponível no perifíton associado, não fazendo uso das partículas alimentares disponíveis na coluna de água. As elevadas densidades do perifíton no interior dos utrículos (U. foliosa = 362 a 1062org/mm2 e U. hydrocarpa = 79 a 968 org/mm2 sugerem que essas plantas podem exercer um controle potencial sobre as populações de organismos sésseis, com pouca influência sobre as populações planctônicas limnéticas.Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the feeding contents of Utricularia foliosa and U. hydrocarpa (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae were studied in order to assess the impact of these macrophytes in the control of the aquatic organisms populations. The macrophytes were collected in Lagoa Amarela and Lagoa da Barra around Parque Estadual do Rio Doce in the state of Minas Gerais. The feeding contents of the utricle were compared to the perifiton (microalgae and zooplankton associated to the macrophytes stems and the phytoplankton free in the water column. The obtained results indicated that the two species of Utricularia used exclusively the periphyton and did not use the food particles available in the water column. The high densities of the periphyton inside the utricle (U. foliosa = 362 to 1062 org/mm2 and U. hydrocarpa = 79 to 968 org/mm2 suggest that the plants can play a potential control on the population of sessile organisms but probably have little influence on the plankton limnetics populations.

  17. Lepidópteros visitantes florais de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Minas Gerais, Brasil Lepidopterans visiting the flowers of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae in Atlantic Forest remnants, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson G. Fonseca

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a composição e sazonalidade da comunidade de lepidópteros visitantes florais de S. cayennensis na Estação Ambiental de Peti. Registrou-se a visita de 445 lepidópteros pertencentes a 98 espécies, distribuídos em 6 famílias: Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3% e Sesiidae (0,3%. Os hesperídeos também apresentaram a maior riqueza, com 70 espécies amostradas. Das espécies amostradas, apenas quatro tiveram abundância relativa acima de 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, [1824], Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 e Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. De acordo com a classificação de Palma, duas espécies foram comuns, 12 intermediárias e 84 foram consideradas raras. Os valores de diversidade e uniformidade foram altos (H'= 3,98 e E = 0,87. Existe nítida diferença na composição e abundância das espécies ao longo do ano, onde foi observado que a maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos estiveram concentrados na estação chuvosa. A similaridade entre as duas estações foi relativamente baixa, 25 ocorreram na estação seca, 93 na chuvosa e apenas 18 ocorreram nas duas estações. Os lepidópteros apresentaram maior atividade de forrageamento em temperaturas entre 23 e 32 ºC, sendo a maior abundância registradas por volta das 10:00 horas.The composition and seasonality of the lepidopteran community visiting inflorescences of S. cayennensis at Estação Ambiental de Peti, were analyzed. The visits of 445 lepidopterans belonging to 98 species, distributed in 6 families, were registered. Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3%, and Sesiidae (0,3%. Skippers presented the highest species richness, with 70 species. Only four of these had a relative abundance above 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, [1824], Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 and Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. According to Palma classification, two species were common, 12 intermediary and 84 were considered rare. Diversity and evenness value were high (H'= 3.98 and E = 0.87. There was a sharp difference in the composition and abundance of the species throughout the year, attributed mainly to a higher richness and abundance during the rainy season. Accordingly, the similarity between rainy and dry season was relatively low, with 18 common species, 25 present only in the dry season and 93 during the wet season. The period of highest foraging activity corresponded to temperatures between 23 and 32ºC and the highest abundance were registered about 10:00h.

  18. Effects of Ficus exasperata vahl. (moraceae) leaf aqueous extract on the renal function of streptozotocin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, S O; Ojo, S K; Adenowo, T K; Salako, A A; Naicker, T; Ojewole, J A O

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible reno-protective effect of Ficus exasperata leaf aqueous extract (FEE) in a rat experimental paradigm of diabetes mellitus. Forty Wistar rats (weighing 200-230 g) were divided into four (A, B, C, and D) groups, each group consisting of 10 rats. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received citrate buffer (pH 6.3) solution in quantities equivalent to intraperitoneally-administered volumes of streptozotocin (STZ) and FEE. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of STZ (75 mg/kg). Group C rats were additionally treated with FEE (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) 4 weeks post STZ injections, for 4 consecutive weeks. Group D rats received FEE (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) only for 4 weeks. Post-euthanisation, kidney tissues were excised for histopathological evaluation and processed for light microscopy. Plasma malondialdehyde and tissue nitric oxide were determined. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, nitrite, and albumin concentrations were measured for the evaluation of renal function. The diabetic rats significantly lost more weight and their blood glucose levels were significantly elevated as compared to the 'control' group of animals. Renal dysfunction was evidenced by kidney hypertrophy, decreased renal blood flow, and increased serum creatinine and nitrite concentrations. Furthermore, vascular dysfunction, as evidenced by decreased carotid blood flow, was observed in the diabetic rats. FEE treatment positively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical variables in the STZ + FEE-treated rats. In conclusion, our findings suggest that FEE treatment ameliorates STZ-induced nephrotoxicity.

  19. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the extracts from Piper grande Vahl (Piperaceae) using the biological model Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados N, Hillmer; Saez V, Jairo; Robles, Carolina; Vasquez, Luis F; Moreno, Maria E; Acevedo, Jose M; Pelaez, Carlos A; Callejas, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    In this study, using the life cycle interruption test with the Drosophila melanogaster model, under (in-vitro conditions), the n-Hexane (roots and stems) and the EtOAc (roots and leaves) extracts were evaluated as insecticides and the results were promising. The larvae instars showed a significant activity reflected in the reduction of pupae population with respect to the control. The step from Pupae to adult did no show inhibition because in all cases the average of the relation pupae adult is found in values very near 1. The n-Hexane and the EtOAc extracts from roots were the most active with LC50 of 698.2 ppm and 1210.7 ppm. The n-Hexane (stems) and EtOAc (leaves) extracts showed a moderate activity with LC50 of 1654.1 ppm and 2376.0 ppm

  20. Chemical, nutritive composition and a wide range of bioactive properties of honey mushroom Armillaria mellea (Vahl: Fr.) Kummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Marina; Smiljković, Marija; Petrović, Jovana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2017-09-20

    A. mellea fruiting bodies collected from nature were chemically characterized and shown to be rich in carbohydrates (81.25 g per 100 g dw), ash, fat and proteins (8.84 g per 100 g dw, 1.97 g per 100 g dw and 1.81 g per 100 g dw, respectively). Mannitol was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. δ-Tocopherol was the dominant form of tocopherols with 42.41 μg per 100 g dw. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, followed by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. A methanolic extract prepared from these samples was tested for antioxidant, quorum sensing and antimicrobial assays, as well as for its cytotoxicity effects. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, including Candida albicans. Furthermore, when tested at sub-MIC concentration, it showed reduction of virulence factors and biofilm formation against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and did not show toxicity against tumor and non-tumor cells. Due to the observed bioactive properties and compounds of the honey mushroom and its well-balanced nutrients, this mushroom emerges as an interesting functional food and a source of nutraceuticals with applications in different diseases based on antioxidant and antimicrobial effects.

  1. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  2. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  3. Studies on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and extract of Tunisian Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemia, Mariem Ben; Chaabane, Sana; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and the 80% aqueous acetone extract of Tetraclinis articulata leaves. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified 66 components that comprise 93.5% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil are: bornyl acetate (31.4%), α-pinène (24.5%) and camphor (20.3%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using four different test systems, namely DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid, reducing power and metal chelating activity assay. Test results from the DPPH system showed the strongest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the 80% aqueous acetone extract (IC₅₀ = 5.5 µg mL⁻¹), which was two times higher than the positive control (BHT). The amount of the total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins was very high in the 80% aqueous acetone extracts. The correlation between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic level of the extract was noted.

  4. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by Warscewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Kl. (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A; Fabbro, R; Maillo, M; Barrios, M; Milano, M B; Fernández, A; Williams, B; Michelangeli, F; Rangel, H R; Pujol, F H

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to search for natural products capable of inhibiting hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The research design, methods and procedures included testing hydro-alcoholic extracts (n = 66) of 31 species from the Venezuelan Amazonian rain forest on the cell line HepG2 2.2.15, which constitutively produces HBV. The main outcomes and results were as follows: the species Euterpe precatoria, Jacaranda copaia, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Senna silvestris, Warscewiczia coccinea and Vochysia glaberrima exerted some degree of inhibition on HBV replication. The leaves of W. coccinea showed a significant antiviral activity: 80% inhibition with 100 µg mL⁻¹ of extract. This extract also exerted inhibition on covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid (cccDNA) production and on HIV-1 replication in MT4 cells (more than 90% inhibition with 50 µg mL⁻¹ of extract). Initial fractionation using organic solvents of increasing polarity and water showed that the ethanol fraction was responsible for most of the antiviral inhibitory activities of both the viruses. It was concluded that Warscewiczia coccinea extract showed inhibition of HBV and HIV-1 replication. Bioassay-guided purification of this fraction may allow the isolation of an antiviral compound with inhibitory activity against both viruses.

  5. Antioxidant activity of natural compounds of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, by scavenger of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of a range of diseases is associated with an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Exacerbated ROS production leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular damage and apoptosis. Nowadays, many strategies are being developed for the targeted delivery of antioxidants compounds to mitochondria, trying to minimize the damages. Production of ROS was investigated by the molecular probes CM-H2DCFDA and Amplex Red. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of verbascoside, martinoside, betulinic acid from the Stachytarpheta cayennensis and quercetin by an in vitro assay with isolated mitochondria from mice's brain The results showed that all compounds tested exhibited a scavenger effect on the ROS generated by the isolated mitochondria, which displayed a dependent dose increase.

  6. Antioxidant activity of natural compounds of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, by scavenger of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of a range of diseases is associated with an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Exacerbated ROS production leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular damage and apoptosis. Nowadays, many strategies are being developed for the targeted delivery of antioxidants compounds to mitochondria, trying to minimize the damages. Production of ROS was investigated by the molecular probes CM-H2DCFDA and Amplex Red. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of verbascoside, martinoside, betulinic acid from the Stachytarpheta cayennensis and quercetin by an in vitro assay with isolated mitochondria from mice's brain The results showed that all compounds tested exhibited a scavenger effect on the ROS generated by the isolated mitochondria, which displayed a dependent dose increase.

  7. Vascular riffle flora of Appalachian streams: the ecology and effects of acid mine drainage on Justificia americana (L. ) Vahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koryak, M.; Reilly, R.J.

    1984-06-01

    Justicia americana is a stout-based colonial plant, abundant in most of the larger, low to moderate gradient streams of the upper Ohio River basin. The distribution of J. americana is related to acid drainage from bituminous coal mining operations in the upper Ohio River drainage basin. Possible fluvial and biological consequences of the colonization or absence of Justicia are considered. Luxuriant growths were noted on gravel bars and riffles of larger, unpolluted streams in the basin. Acid mine drainage severely depresses the growth of the plant, leaving gravel shoals and riffles in the acid streams either barren or dominated by other emergent species. Particular among these new species is Elecocharis acicularis. The elimination of J. americana from suitable habitat adversely affects channel morphology, substrate composition, general aesthetic quality and aquatic stream life in the region. 16 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  8. On two Antarctic species of Oswaldella Stechow, 1919: O. shetlandica Stepan'yants, 1979 and O. elongata spec. nov. (Cnidaria Hydrozoa) (Notes on Antarctic hydroids, II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Cantero, A.L.; García Carrascosa, A.M.; Vervoort, W.

    1995-01-01

    Two species of the antarctic hydroid genus Oswaldella Stechow, 1919, are considered. The first, described by Stepan'yants (1979) as a subspecies, O. billardi shetlandica, has been raised to specific level and will henceforth be indicated as Oswaldella shetlandica Stepan'yants, 1979. A second species

  9. The influence of certain taxonomic and environmental parameters on biomass production and triterpenoid content in the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Raoseta, Soaharin'ny Ony Rakotondralambo; Roger, Edmond; Razafindrazaka, Harena; Pirotais, Sarah; Boucher, Marie; Danthu, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    Centella asiatica (Apiaceae family; Talapetraka in Malagasy) is a tropical and subtropical plant with leaves containing glycotriterpenoids (asiaticosides) used in traditional and modern medicine. C. asiatica is collected exclusively in natural stands. It is Madagascar's second most important indigenous plant export. The objective in this study is to provide data which will make it possible to optimize the harvest and thus effectively develop this resource. Two foliar morphotypes were identified: morphotype A with small reniform leaves (leaf area ca. 4.5 cm(2) ), found in the east of Madagascar, and morphotype B with large round leaves (up to 7.5 cm(2) ) found in the west, with sympatric zones in the central part of the island. Morphotype A produces a higher biomass, and is twice as rich in asiaticosides as morphotype B. Significant variations in biomass yield and asiaticoside content are observed depending on the date of collection: higher during the rainy season (December to April) and lower during the dry season (June to August). Inter-annual variations are also observed. Populations located at around 800-1400 m altitude on the eastern side of Madagascar, in a sub-humid climate, appeared to be more productive. These results provide more precise information to the economic sector, which confirms the empirical choices made by collectors. They represent the first elements towards sustainable management of the resource, and maybe even domestication. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Segregación socio-espacial en una urbe turística de elite: El caso de Pucón, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo da a conocer los resultados de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue caracterizar las distinciones del modelo de desarrollo territorial de la ciudad chilena de Pucón respecto de su asentamiento urbano. Utilizando una metodología cualitativa basada en entrevistas y revisión documental, se interpretó este fenómeno desde la teoría de sistemas sociales de Niklas Luhmann. Se concluyó que el asentamiento urbano segregado es comunicado como una permanente tensión entre la semántica del desarrollo territorial y la función del turismo local.

  11. Tão perto de casa, tão longe de nós: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, “Richard Perry University professor” no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edição do “Ethnografeast”. Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  12. El bioclima humano en urbes del sur de México para condiciones de duplicación de CO2 atmosférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Tejeda Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available . A partir del concepto de temperatura efectiva (TE, se presenta un escenario de las condiciones de bioclima humano de ocho ciudades importantes del sur de México, obtenido de predicciones regionales de modelos de circulación general para el caso de una duplicación en la concentración atmosférica global de CO2. Los resultados se ilustran con gráficas de las condiciones de confort actuales y futuras para el sur del país. Se encontró que, pese a los procesos de aclimatación, se intensificarán las sensaciones cálidas debido al efecto invernadero. Combinando lo anterior con proyecciones conservadoras del incremento de la población para la segunda mitad del siglo XXI, se estima que las ciudades de clima cálido quintuplicarán las necesidades de enfriamiento para obtener el confort de sus habitantes.

  13. Bela de Morrer, Chic de Doer, do Corpo Fabricado pela Moda: O corpo como comunicação, cultura e consumo na moderna urbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANDINI, Valéria Brandini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with aesthetic/symbolic “manufacture” of the body by the culture in the post-modernity era focusing fashion as an empirical example of the manifestation of the observed phenomenon. The statutes acquired by the body by means of aesthetic representations that are “marked” in the corporal portion as signals of a specific culture, are focused according to the meanings that comprehend its cultural universe. The aesthetic dictatorship of the fashion is analyzed as a cultural mark of our time. The fashion appears in this context as an universe of significations shared in the modernoccidental urban culture that takes the body portion as way of subjectivity expression, of group identification, of communication between individuals and collectives by the messages codified in the body as meant.

  14. Trabalhos de margem no centro da urbe: o arrumador de automóveis Margin works in the city centre: the informal parking attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernandes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo centra-se na figura do arrumador de automóveis. Situa a sua emergência em relação com as manifestações e os atores que têm vindo, ao nível da rua, a protagonizar o fenómeno droga, e em torno dos quais os dispositivos de controlo social foram elaborando alguns dos principais elementos definidores do “problema da droga”. A partir dos dados duma etnografia conduzida no centro de Guimarães, caracteriza então as rotinas da sua atividade, salientando o seu poder estruturador no quotidiano dos indivíduos, a dimensão relacional do estar na rua, destacando a interação com o automobilista, a organização territorial nos “parques” onde arrumam e a relação com as instâncias de controlo. O arrumador de automóveis é, a partir do que revelam os dados de terreno, conceptualizado como uma figura do trabalho informal e como um novo utilizados da cidade (city user, que vem da periferia social para participar, espacial e relacionalmente, no centro - e, nessa medida, ser também seu construtor.This paper focuses on informal parking attendants. It locates the rise of such business in relation with street-drugs actors and their behaviours. It also considers the ways in which social control agencies have elaborated crucial dimensions of “the drugs problem” around informal parking attendants. Based on ethnographic work carried out in downtown Guimarães, the paper describes the routines of informal parking attendants, stressing the structuring effects of such business in the lives of the individuals who perform it. The relational realm of life in the streets, interactions with drivers, the territorial organization of parking places, and the attendants’ relationship with control agencies are also emphasized. According to the empirical data, informal parking attendants are seen as underground economy workers and as a new type of city user: one that comes from the margins of society to take part, both in spatial and relational terms, in its centre. Thus, they can also be seen as builders of that centre.

  15. Urbánno-rurálně rozdiely voličského správania v Česku a na Slovensku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, Tomáš; Krivý, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2015), s. 390-413 ISSN 0049-1225 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1442 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : voting behaviour * aggregated data * Czech and Slovak society Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2015 https://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/08190954Krivy%20-%20Kostelecky%20OK.pdf

  16. L' Eventrement de París i la configuració del paradigma Aphand-Davioud-Hittorff en el disseny urbà

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie el Haddad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En la primera mitad del siglo XIX y en la Revolución Industrial, ciudades como París se enfrentaron a problemas de salud que les causó el rápido crecimiento de las industrias y las olas de inmigración de las zonas rurales. Como consecuencia, las ciudades, especialmente su centro histórico, sufrieron de congestión, superpoblación e higiene que llevaron a diversas epidemias. Para mejorar las condiciones higiénicas, se tomaron medidas a través de importantes desarrollos urbanos como la transformación de París bajo las órdenes del Barón Haussmann, el Prefecto del Departamento del Sena, entre 1853 y 1870. Según Napoleón III, Haussmann trazó el nuevo plan de París y empezó con el ‘Eventrement’ de los barrios insalubres de la ciudad abriendo grandes calles rectilíneas y longitudinales. De hecho, continuaba el trabajo ya propuesto por Napoleón I e iniciado más tarde por el conde de Rambuteau en 1839 bajo las mismas preocupaciones de higiene. Los objetivos de Haussmann eran embellecer y modernizar la ciudad y, sobre todo, mejorar las condiciones de vida y la salud pública y proporcionar a todos los ciudadanos luz, aire, agua, parques públicos y jardines. Por un lado, fue capaz de reunir un equipo distinguido como Alphand, Barillet-Deschamps, Davioud y Hittorff que crearon y construyeron los paseos y plazas de París. Sus diseños y elementos urbanos fueron estandarizados y sistematizados convirtiéndose en un modelo urbano e influenciando el diseño urbano de las ciudades. El hecho que llevó a Remesar a desarrollar el “paradigma Alphand-Davioud-Hittorff”, donde las réplicas de su estilo todavía predomina en la configuración del paisaje, los espacios y elementos de nuestro centro histórico. Por otra parte, Haussmann recibió duras críticas de los opositores políticos que resultaron en su despido. Debido al ‘eventrement’, fue criticado por destruir las partes antiguas de la ciudad causando una pérdida en edificios históricos y monumentales y barrios. Las nuevas calles y espacios abiertos hicieron los medios de comunicación difíciles especialmente para los peatones. Además, se le atribuyó la desorganización social, la desigualdad y el desplazamiento causados por las cantidades de demoliciones y expropiaciones. Además, se le acusa de gastar dinero en este largo y costoso procedimiento y en pasar el presupuesto. Sin embargo, no se puede negar el hecho de que muchos lo defendieron por todos los paseos, parques, plazas, jardines y sistema de alcantarillado creado sin olvidar que este tipo de planes y procedimientos ya habían comenzado antes de Haussmann que se remonta a la época de Napoleón I.

  17. El bioclima humano en urbes del sur de México para condiciones de duplicación de CO2 atmosférico

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto Tejeda Martínez; David A. Rivas Camargo

    2003-01-01

    . A partir del concepto de temperatura efectiva (TE), se presenta un escenario de las condiciones de bioclima humano de ocho ciudades importantes del sur de México, obtenido de predicciones regionales de modelos de circulación general para el caso de una duplicación en la concentración atmosférica global de CO2. Los resultados se ilustran con gráficas de las condiciones de confort actuales y futuras para el sur del país. Se encontró que, pese a los procesos de aclimatación, se intensificarán ...

  18. Metodika hodnocení dostupnosti veřejné zeleně v urbánním prostředí

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíček, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I focus on assessing the accessibility of public green spaces in urban environment. The paper summarizes some of the problems of measuring the accessibility by analysing selected methods used in previous researches on this topic. The main goal of this work is to propose a methodology, which would deal with these problems and which could be used to measure the accessibility of public green areas in cities as accurately as possible. In the empirical part of the paper I use the pr...

  19. Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae = Extração e atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh = Extração e atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed byfractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl,respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.O baixo padrão de qualidade outrora declarado da heparina (HEP para o uso em cirurgias cardíacas tem levado preocupação nos mercados nacional e internacional. Os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PSs de algasmarinhas têm sido considerados como promissores substitutos para HEP. Objetivou-se a extrair sequencialmente PSs totais (PSTs da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, fracionar por cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante das frações de PS por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, utilizando plasma humano normal e comparando-se à HEP padrão (193 IU mg-1. As frações obtidas foram caracterizadas quimicamente em composição química e por eletroforese em gel de agarose. O rendimento de PSTs foi 4,61% e os perfis cromatográficos, em DEAE-celulose, indicaram a separação de três frações de PS (F I; F II e F III eluídas nas concentrações 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, diferenças em termos de densidade de cargas e graude resolução. Os PSs foram capazes de modificar o TTPA somente nas frações eluídas com 0,75 M de NaCl, cujas atividades foram 23,37 e 25,76 IU mg-1, respectivamente, quando a densidade de cargas foi pré-requisito para atividade. Portanto, C. cupressoides é uma fonte de PSs com baixos potenciais anticoagulantes comparados à HEP.

  20. Evaluation of pollen production in Bromus catharticus Vahl and Guadua trinii (Nees Nees ex Rupr. (Poaceae for interpretation of fossil data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Nunes Radaeski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated pollen production per anther, per flower, and per spikelet of the grassland species Bromus catharticus and the forest taxon Guadua trinii (Poaceae, which have divergent pollination syndrome. We collected ten anthers of each taxon to determine differences in pollen production based on pollination system. Anthers were macerated and pollen grains were counted in a Neubauer chamber. Pollen morphology was observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy to establish relationships between pollen grain production and morphology. The anemophilous species Bromus catharticus (2,556,000 pollen grains/spikelet has twice the pollen production per anther and per spikelet compared to Guadua trinii (1,716,000 pollen grains/spikelet, a species that requires biotic assistance for pollination. Pollen grain size is inversely proportional to production. Microechinate ornamentation, which is not expected to occur in anemophilous species, was observed on pollen of both taxa. Our results indicate that the frequency of forest Poaceae in the quaternary records may be underestimated while frequency of grassland taxa may be overestimated, leading to misrepresentation of the respective flora in this period.

  1. Roles of monoaminergic, antioxidant defense and neuroendocrine systems in antidepressant-like effect of Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Akinleye, Moshood O; Oduola, Mariam D; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2016-10-01

    We have earlier reported antidepressant-like effect of Cnestis ferruginea and its bioflavonoid constituent, amentoflavone in behavioural paradigms but its effects on neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems are yet to be elucidated. This study sought to investigate the effect of subchronic treatment of C. ferruginea (CF) on monoamines system, hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis and nitrosative/oxidative stresses. Male albino rats (150-200g) randomly divided into seven groups; Group I: vehicle treated (0.2% v / v Tween 80 in normal saline (10ml/kg; p.o.; unstressed), Group II: vehicle treated+restraint stress, Group III: imipramine (20mg/kg; p.o.), Group IV-VI: CF (12.5, 50, or 100mg/kg; p.o., respectively), Group VII: CF 6.25+imipramine 5mg/kg. One hour post-treatment, animals were subjected to 20min restraint stress and 6min, forced swim test (FST) for a period of 14 days. CF (12.5, 50 and 100mg/kg) produced significant reduction in immobility time and an increase in climbing behaviour. CF attenuated repeated restraint stress×FST-induced serum corticosterone [F(6,28)=5.45,Pneuroendocrine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of water level fluctuation on the mortality and aboveground biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis interstincta (VAHL roemer et schults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Anderson Medeiros dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to study the biometric alterations of Eleocharis interstincta in response to water level fluctuations in Cabiúnas Lagoon, located on the northern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, in the municipality of Macaé. Three quadrats of 0.0625 m² were harvested every two weeks from June/1997 to June/1998; samples were separated into stems, dead stems (detritus and rhizome; lenghted, dried and weighted. The water level fluctuated seasonally in the macrophyte stand with two periods of drawdown. The first period occurred naturally at the end of winter and beginning of spring, when rainfall in the area was normally lowest. The second period of drawdown was the result of an artificial breaching of the sandbar that isolate the lagoon from the sea. The breach was made in the summer, at the time of highest rainfall, when the water level in the lagoon reached the maximum value recorded during the study (1.35 m. There was a strongly positive correlation of the water level with stems mean height and aboveground biomass, indicating that water level played an important role in the determination of these parameters. There was a significant difference between stem height (ANOVA; p < 0.001 and biomass (ANOVA; p < 0.001 in each sampling period, ranging from 143.9 cm and 338.8 g dry wt.m-2, before the sandbar opening, to 16.3 cm and 20.2 g dry wt.m-2 respectively after the sandbar breaching. The drastic variation of the water level, leading mass mortality of the stems, together with the lowest mean biomass/stem (0.057 g dry wt.individual-1, recorded after the sandbar breaching, did not represent a strong disturbance for E. interstincta, since the resilience time estimated for this population was about 30 days.

  3. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Nigeria Grown Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Dried Leaves and Its Bioactivity against Cowpea Seed Bruchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2017-06-01

    Due to several ecological and human hazards of synthetic pesticides in postharvest crop protection, there is the need to search for eco-friendly alternatives. In this study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oil (EO) obtained from Hoslundia opposita dried leaves were evaluated against cowpea seed bruchid. Eight constituents, predominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.86%), were identified using Gas Chromatography (GC)/MS. The constituents were 1,8-cineole (1; 61.15%), followed by α-terpineol (2; 16.81%), β-phellandrene (3; 13.24%), β-farnesene (4; 3.55%), α-pinene (5; 1.89%), Germacrene D (6; 1.83%), cis-sabinene hydrate (7; 0.90%) and caryophyllene (8; 0.63%). In fumigation bioassay, at 6 h after exposure (HAE), 0.78 ml EO/l air caused 35.33% mortality which was significantly lower than 60.90% and 63.6% observed at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air, respectively. Mortality reached 90.0% at 24 HAE regardless of the applied concentration. Lethal time for 50% of the bruchids (LT 50 ) at concentration of 0.78 ml/l air (6.89 h) was higher than the LT 50 at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air (4.72 and 4.44 h, respectively). H. opposita EO reduced Callosobruchus maculatus oviposition, while progeny emergence observed in EO-treated seeds (2.42 - 25.73) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 51.56 observed in control. The results confirm H. opposita EO's potentials for control of cowpea bruchids. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Floral biology and a pollinator effectiveness test of the diurnal floral visitors of Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae in the understory of Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Biologia floral e teste da efetividade de polinização dos visitantes florais diurnos de Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae no sub-bosque da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaysa Nogueira de Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the floral biology, per-visit effectiveness, frequency of visits and relative abundance of the diurnal floral visitor taxa of T. undulata (Apocynaceae at two populations located in the primary forest and in a disturbed area connected to the continuous forest. Its hermaphrodite flowers show a long and narrow floral tube and introrse anthers form a cone around the apex of the style head where the pollen is deposited. The stigmatic head has three functional regions, in a complex pollination mechanism favoring cross-pollination. In the pollinator censuses conducted in the primary forest population we registered Eulaema bombiformis. In the disturbed area Euglossa sp. was responsible for visits on T. undulata fl owers. Eulaema bombiformis was not absent in the disturbed area, but preferred to forage on pollen and nectar-rich flowers of two neighboring flowering species. In the primary forest, T. undulata was the only fl owering treelet at the end of the dry season. Signifi cant differences were not observed regarding the frequency of visits and relative abundance among the diurnal flower visitors at both sites. In the per-visit effectiveness experiment among flower visitors, we observed one fruit produced aft er E. bombiformis' visits. Due to the complex breeding system of T. undulata in that it is characterized by very low fruit production even under natural conditions, an indirect measure of pollinator effectiveness is needed in at a future stage of this study in order to clarify the role of these bee species as pollinators of T. undulata.Neste estudo foi examinada a biologia floral, a efetividade da polinização, freqüência de visitas e abundância relativa dos visitantes florais diurnos de T. undulata (Apocynaceae em duas populações localizadas em floresta primária e em uma área perturbada conectada à mata contínua. Suas flores hermafroditas apresentam um longo e estreito tubo floral. Anteras introrsas formam um cone logo acima da cabeça estigmática, onde o pólen é depositado. A cabeça estigmática apresenta três regiões funcionais, em um mecanismo que favorece a polinização cruzada. Nos censos de polinizadores conduzidos na floresta primária registraram-se apenas visitas de Eulaema bombiformis. Na área perturbada apenas Euglossa sp. realizou visitas às flores de T. undulata. Na área perturbada E. bombiformis preferiu forragear em flores ricas em pólen e néctar de duas espécies vizinhas em floração. Na floresta primária T. undulata foi a única arvoreta em flor no fim da estação seca. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas com rela��ão à freqüência de visitas e abundância relativa entre os visitantes florais diurnos em ambas as áreas. No experimento de efetividade da polinização dos visitantes florais, foi observada a produção de um único fruto após visita de E. bombiformis a uma flor. Devido ao complexo sistema reprodutivo de T. undulata, onde há baixa produção de frutos mesmo em condições naturais, uma medida indireta da efetividade do polinizador se faz necessária em um estágio posterior deste estudo a fim de esclarecer o papel desempenhado por essas espécies de abelhas na polinização de T. undulata.

  5. Masožravci na prahu města: pozoruhodná flexibilita šelem v urbánním prostředí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 04 (2016), s. 23-26 ISSN 2336-5056 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.casopis. forum ochranyprirody.cz/magazin/analyzy-komentare/masozravci-na-prahu-mesta-pozoruhodna-flexibilita-selem-v-urbannim-prostredi

  6. La dimensión visual de la urbe. Consideraciones generales de la Ciudad de México, como espacio mediático de las distintas manisfestaciones visuales y sus generadores sociales.

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA LUNA MARTÍNEZ, GERARDO

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Abstract This research arises under the the PhD in Arts: Production, Management and Restoration (Mexico), taught by the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain. The principal hypothesis is: The visual dimension of a city is the result of an ideological process and its enunciation in speeches and works emerged within the ruling classes. Modern societies and their space par excellence, the cities, are constructed and deconstructed in terms of assimilation or resistance of this symboli...

  7. Pro Scientia Urbe et Patria : l’architecture de la faculté de médecine et de pharmacie de Bordeaux, 1876-1888 et 1902-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Laroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Édifice public majeur du Bordeaux des débuts de la Troisième République, la faculté de médecine et de pharmacie est construite de 1880 à 1888, après concours (1876, par l’architecte Jean-Louis Pascal (1837-1920. Une extension est réalisée à partir de 1902 par le même architecte. Emblématique de la politique volontariste de la République en matière d’enseignement supérieur et objet de cristallisation des rapports complexes entre la Ville et l’État, le bâtiment de Pascal résulte d’une conception extrêmement savante qui a su intégrer les acquis des différents courants ayant traversé le xixe siècle architectural.The building of the faculty of medicine and pharmacy was constructed from 1880 to 1888, following the plans of the architect Jean-Louis Pascal (1837-1920, after an architectural competition organised in 1876. It is one of the principal public buildings in Bordeaux dating from these early years of the Third French Republic. In 1902 the building was enlarged, according to the plans of the same architect. The ensemble can be seen as emblematic of the Republic’s determined policies where higher education was concerned. It also crystallized the complicated relations between the city of Bordeaux and the State. Pascal’s building is the result of an extremely intelligent process of conception, integrating the lessons which emerged from the nineteenth century’s various architectural currents.

  8. "Balsa" Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb. (Bombacaceae) : Etnobotánica, anatomía, ensayos fitoquímicos y actividades biológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Corrales, Pablo Cesar

    2016-01-01

    O. pyramidale (Bombacaceae) conocida como "balsa", es una especie maderable que crece silvestre en la selva amazónica y constituye uno de los principales recursos económicos de Ecuador, donde se la cultiva a gran escala. La madera (leño) se utiliza para la construcción de viviendas y embarcaciones, fabricación de numerosos utensilios de uso domestico y artesanías, entre otros. En algunas regiones de Latinoamérica se le asignan también usos medicinales, especialmente a la c...

  9. Ciudad y seguridad ciudadana en Chile: revisión del rol de la segregación sobre la exposición al delito en grandes urbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arriagada Luco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los análisis sobre la ciudad insegura han postulado teorías explicativas centradas en cierto tipo de determinantes (desempleo y pobreza; marginalidad juvenil; desarticulación comunitaria; diseño espacial; y déficit de espacio público, y han destacado que las políticas públicas preventivas más importantes se refieren al crecimiento económico y empleo, al desarrollo comunitario, y las intervenciones locales y recuperación de espacios degradados. Este artículo destaca la importancia del problema de la segregación residencial de los sectores de menores recursos como un mecanismo importante de la exposición al delito en las ciudades y que debe formar parte central de una agenda de recuperación físico-social de los barrios excluidos. Para esto se analiza, por una parte, la asociación entre un índice de segregación residencial socio-económica de nuestras ciudades principales, a partir de datos del censo 2002 de escala de distritos, con los niveles de denuncia de delitos de mayor connotación social a escala de ciudades. En segundo término, en base a datos del observatorio de satisfacción residencial del ministerio de vivienda y urbanismo, estudiamos la percepción de inseguridad al peligro en el espacio público de grupos contrastantes en cuanto a edad, específicamente, jóvenes y adultos mayoresThe literature on the causes of urban insecurity propose several explanations (unemployment and poverty, marginalization of youth, community disintegration, urban design, and lack of public space and suggest that the most important preventative policies are economic growth and employment, community development, and local interventions in degraded spaces. This article discusses the problem of residential segregation in poor urban areas as an important mechanism in the causes of crime and forms a central part of the socio-physical recuperation of excluded urban sectors. First, we analyze the association between indices of socio-economic segregation for major Chilean cities using 2002 census data at the census tract level and reports of socially relevant crimes at the city level. Second, we analyze residential satisfaction data from the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development to study the perception of insecurity near public housing projects by different age groups, especially between youth and older adults

  10. Avaliação da produção polínica de Bromus catharticus Vahl e Guadua trinii (Nees Nees ex Rupr. (Poaceae para a interpretação de dados fósseis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Nunes Radaeski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n4p9 Neste trabalho é apresentada a produção polínica por antera, por flor e por espigueta das espécies Bromus catharicus (campestre e Guadua trinii (florestal, ambas da família Poaceae, que apresentam a síndrome da polinização divergente. Com o objetivo de averiguar diferenças de produção polínica dependente do sistema de polinização, foram coletadas dez anteras de cada táxon que após maceradas foram contabilizados os grãos de pólen em câmara de Neubauer. As morfologias polínicas também foram observadas sob microscopia óptica para estabelecer relação entre produção-morfologia dos grãos de pólen. A espécie anemófila Bromus catharticus (2.556.000 grãos de pólen por espigueta apresenta o dobro de produção polínica por antera e por espigueta em relação à espécie com assistência biótica para polinização Guadua trinii (1.716.000 grãos de pólen por espigueta. O tamanho do grão de pólen é inversamente proporcional à produção polínica. A ornamentação microequinada não esperada para espécies anemófilas foi observada nos dois táxons. Os resultados indicam que a frequência de espécies florestais de Poaceae em registros quaternários pode ser subestimada, enquanto táxons campestres de gramíneas são superestimados, interferindo na representação de suas respectivas floras no passado.

  11. Kulka lemmikud 2007 / Kalev Kesküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kesküla, Kalev, 1959-2010

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurikapitali aastapreemia said 17. saj. Tartu juhuluule kogumiku "O Dorpat, urbs addictissima musis" koostajad Kristi Viiding, Jana Orion, Janika Päll (Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007)

  12. 760-IJBCS-Article-Tatien Masharabu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir. Psorospermum febrifugum Spach. Combretaceae. Combretum binderianum Kotschy. Combretum collinum Fresen. Combretum molle (Klotzsch) Engl. & Diels ... Geniosporum rotundifolium Briq. Haumaniastrum caeruleum (Oliv.) P.A.Duvign. & Plancke. Hoslundia opposita Vahl.

  13. 1917-IJBCS-Article-Bathélemy Yelemou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    +. +. -. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. ex A. Rich. Poaceae. +. +. +. Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. Poaceae. -. -. +. Stachytarpheta angustilolia (Mill.) Vahl. Verbenaceae. -. +. +. Striga hermontheca (Del.) Benth. Scrophulariaceae. +. +. +. Striga macrantha Benth. Scrophulariaceae. -. -. +. Stylochiton hypogaeus Lepr. Araceae.

  14. Shuttle vector system for Methanococcus maripaludis with improved transformation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Alison D; Smith, Sarah E; Chong, James P J

    2011-04-01

    We have identified an open reading frame and DNA element that are sufficient to maintain shuttle vectors in Methanococcus maripaludis. Strain S0001, containing ORF1 from pURB500 integrated into the M. maripaludis genome, supports a significantly smaller shuttle vector, pAW42, and a 7,000-fold increase in transformation efficiency for pURB500-based vectors.

  15. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  16. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions.

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions.

  18. De qué está hecha una ciudad creativa Una propuesta para abordar la cultura, el ocio y la creatividad en la urbe contemporánea What is a Creative City made up from. An approach to culture, leisure and creativity in the contemporary city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizaiá Cassián Yde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El estudio de la Ciudad Creativa ha tendido a plantearse en el marco de dos dicotomías, abordando lo urbanístico y material por un lado; y añadiendo a ellos la importancia de lo simbólico, social y discursivo como elementos claramente diferenciables; y por otro lado tendiendo a posicionar el análisis ya sea desde su elogio o de su crítica. Más que una crítica, consideramos necesaria una estrategia que de un paso atrás, hacia una interrogación por la formas de composición en las que la ciudad creativa es constantemente performada, de qué está hecha, qué produce a la ciudad creativa y simultáneamente qué es eso que la ciudad creativa produce. Con el fin de resaltar la red de relaciones entre a las prácticas de ocio y descanso, b la producción de recorridos, objetos y tecnologías en torno a la cultura y c la promoción de un ciudadano-sujeto creativo; sugerimos la incorporación de algunas herramientas teóricas planteadas por Michel Foucault que nos permitan analizar cómo se conforma el dispositivo de lo cultural y creativo en el marco de una regulación liberal de la ciudad, qué ensamblajes de saberes, disposiciones arquitectónicas, operaciones de enunciación y visibilización, redes de prácticas y técnicas de diversa índole configuran la producción de una Ciudad Creativa.

    The study of the Creative City has commonly been arisen in the context of two dichotomies, addressing its urban and material dimension; and adding to it the importance of the symbolic, social and discursive but considering both as clearly preexistent and distinguishable elements; and on the other hand situating the debate on either the praise or criticism of the model. More than a critique, we consider that is strategic to take a step back, towards an interrogation on the forms and compositions in which the Creative City is constantly being performed, what is it made up from, what produces the creative city and simultaneously what is that which the creative city produces. In order to highlight the relation between a practices of leisure and recreation, b the production of spaces, objects and technologies around culture and c the promotion of a creative citizen/subject; we suggest some theoretical tools raised by Michel Foucault that may allow us to analyze the emergence of a dispositif of ‘the cultural’ and ‘the creative’ in the context of a liberal regulation of the city; which are the assemblages of knowledge, architectural arrangements, operations of enunciation and visibility, networks of practices and techniques of diverse nature that shape the production of a Creative City.

  19. Nákupní spád, nákupní chování a nákupní centra: příklad brněnské aglomerace (příspěvek ke studiu denních urbánních systémů)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, J.; Tonev, P.; Frantál, Bohumil; Szczyrba, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2012), s. 879-910 ISSN 0038-0288 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA301670901 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : commuting to retail shops * retail gravity models * shopping habits Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.652, year: 2012 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/5eac4986661f78ad51c9975214107f47f1744408_12-5-06Kunc19.indd.pdf

  20. A case-control study of microenvironmental risk factors for urban visceral leishmaniasis in a large city in Brazil, 1999-2000 Estudio de casos y controles sobre factores microambientales de riesgo de leishmaniasis visceral urbana en una gran urbe de Brasil, 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential microenvironmental risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis in urban and suburban areas, and developed risk scores to characterize the household and the neighborhood. These scores may be useful to identify microenvironments within cities that place residents at greater risk of visceral leishmaniasis. METHODS: In this case-control study, cases were all persons with visceral leishmaniasis reported from July 1999 through December 2000 in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, Brazil. Two kinds of controls-neighborhood and hospital-were used. Cases and controls were matched by age (±2 years. We developed four scores to characterize the microenvironment (indoor, outdoor, animal indoor, and animal outdoor, and also considered the level of urbanization of the area. RESULTS: A total of 106 neighborhood controls and 60 hospital controls were identified for 109 cases. Among the cases, 69 (63.3% were men and 40 (36.7% were women. Most cases were under 15 years old (64.2%, and 39 (35.8% were 15 years old or more. The outdoor score [odds ratio (OR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.03-2.14] and animal outdoor scores (OR = 1.79[95% CI 1.21-2.65] were significantly associated with the odds of visceral leishmaniasis in our sample. We also found a significant interaction between sex and age. Compared to females 15 years old or more, males 15 years old or more were more likely to have visceral leishmaniasis (OR = 7.02[95% CI 2.20-22.20]. CONCLUSIONS: Animals in the neighborhood were associated with a greater odds of visceral leishmaniasis. Cases were more likely than controls to live in transitional or rural areas, although this difference was not statistically significant, possibly because of the small sample size.OBJETIVOS: Se investigaron los posibles factores microambientales de riesgo de leishmaniasis visceral en áreas urbanas y suburbanas y se elaboraron sistemas de puntuación del riesgo para caracterizar los hogares y los vecindarios. Estas puntuaciones pueden ayudar a identificar dentro de las ciudades microambientes que implican un mayor riesgo de leishmaniasis visceral para sus habitantes. MÉTODOS: En este estudio de casos y controles, los casos fueron todas las personas con leishmaniasis visceral informadas entre julio de 1999 y diciembre de 2000 en el área metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Se utilizaron dos tipos de controles: de vecindario y de hospital. Los casos y controles se parearon por la edad (± 2 años. Se establecieron cuatro puntuaciones para caracterizar el microambiente: interior de los hogares, exterior de los hogares, animales en los hogares y animales en el vecindario. También se consideró el nivel de urbanización del área. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 106 controles de vecindario y 60 de hospital para los 109 casos. De estos, 69 (63,3% eran hombres y 40 (36,7% eran mujeres. La mayoría de los casos (64,2% tenían menos de 15 años de edad y 39 (35,8% tenían 15 años o más. La puntuación del exterior de los hogares (OR = 1,49; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%] = 1,03-2,14 y de animales en el vecindario (OR = 1,79; [1,21-2,65] mostraron una asociación significativa con la posibilidad de padecer leishmaniasis visceral en la muestra. También se encontró una interacción significativa entre el sexo y la edad. Los hombres de 15 años de edad o más tuvieron mayor probabilidad de padecer leishmaniasis visceral que las mujeres de 15 años o más (OR = 7,02; [2,20-22,20]. CONCLUSIONES: La presencia de animales en el vecindario estuvo asociada con una mayor posibilidad de leishmaniasis visceral. Los casos presentaron mayor probabilidad de vivir en áreas rurales o de transición que los controles, aunque esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa, posiblemente debido al pequeño tamaño de la muestra.

  1. Hudební album Fr. A. Urbánka. K nereflektovaným vydáním děl Antonína Dvořáka, jeho současníků a některým aspektům dobové nakladatelské praxe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějčková, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, 3-4 (2013), s. 311-346 ISSN 0018-7003 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music publishing * music collections * Prague * Antonín Dvořák Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. ...El vivir, mitad pueblerino, mitad ciudadano, en la urbe luminosa y sonriente... La vida cotidiana en Guadalajara en la década de 1930 ...Living midway between a village and city in the luminous, smiling city... Everyday life in Guadalajara in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia del Palacio Montiel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es hacer un esbozo de la vida cotidiana de la ciudad de Guadalajara -epicentro de diversos acontecimientos de importancia nacional- al iniciar la tercera década del siglo XX, momento de transición cuando se puso en marcha el proceso de modernización acelerada que no se detuvo ya en el transcurso del siglo XX. La vida cotidiana se vio afectada por diversos acontecimientos de la década anterior en el ámbito local -repercusiones de la guerra cristera en la región-, así como nacionales -asesinato de Obregón y gobierno de Calles-, e internacionales -crisis económica de 1929- Sin embargo, la vida cotidiana se vio enriquecida por las nuevas diversiones públicas y la presencia en Guadalajara de un grupo de intelectuales que en los años posteriores ganaría fama tanto a escala nacional como internacional. Para dibujar el cuadro de la cotidianidad tapatía, se utilizaron como fuente varios de los periódicos que ahí se publicaban, así como algunas de las fuentes literarias disponibles.The purpose of the article is to provide a sketch of everyday life in the city of Guadalajata -the epicenter of various events of national importance- in the early 1930s, a moment of transition marking rhe start of the rapid modernization that continued uninterruptedly during the 20th century. Everyday life was affected by various events from the previous decade at all levels, local -repercussions of the Cristero war in the region-, national -the murder of Obregón, and Calles's government- and international -the economic crisis of 1929- Everyday life, however, was enhanced by the new forms of public entertainment and the presence in Guadalajara of a group of intellectuals that would subsequently become famous both nationally and internationally. This picture of everyday life in Guadalajara was drawn from several of the newspapers published there at the time as well as some of the available literary sources.

  3. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  4. De Papyro Oxyrhynchita 1380

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groningen, Bernhardus Abrahamus van

    1921-01-01

    2. Optimo iure [griekse letters] urbem Memphim esse putant editores, cum Aegyptiace vocetur Ht-K'-Pth, i. e. domus animae dei Ptah, etiam in textibus qui non in ipsa illa urbe conscripta sunt. Zie: Pars Prior

  5. A framework for developing and integrating effective routing strategies within the emergency management decision-support system : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The terrorist attacks on September 11th, as well as other coordinated attacks on transit centers in Madrid and London, have underscored the importance of evacuation planning to : transportation professionals. With computer technology advancement, urb...

  6. Proti moru krvavých románů nic tak dobře nepomáhá jak oheň...

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holanová, Markéta

    95/146/, 7/8 (2016), s. 450-451 ISSN 0042-4544 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Urbánek, František Augustin * censorship * genre fiction Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  7. Narrativas, rituais urbanos e o contexto social do olhar na virada do século XIX para o século XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza Gurgel Pires

    2017-08-01

    condensam o pensamento do filósofo em torno do surgimento da grande urbe, da reprodutibilidade técnica da imagem e da centralidade do cinema na modernidade. Palavras-chave> Modernidade. Cinema. W. Benjamin. Narrativas urbanas. Cotidiano.

  8. Lipid nanoparticles for administration of poorly water soluble neuroactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Servadio, Michela; Melancia, Francesca; Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia; Trezza, Viviana; Cortesi, Rita; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as nano-formulations to administer to the central nervous system poorly water soluble drugs. Different neuroactive drugs, i.e. dimethylfumarate, retinyl palmitate, progesterone and the endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 have been studied. Lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with gliceryl monoolein were produced. The nanoencapsulation strategy allowed to obtain biocompatible and non-toxic vehicles, able to increase the solubility of the considered neuroactive drugs. To improve URB597 targeting to the brain, stealth nanoparticles were produced modifying the SLN surface with polysorbate 80. A behavioural study was conducted in rats to test the ability of SLN containing URB597 given by intranasal administration to alter behaviours relevant to psychiatric disorders. URB597 maintained its activity after nanoencapsulation, suggesting the possibility to propose this kind of vehicle as alternative to unphysiological mixtures usually employed for animal and clinical studies.

  9. Tühjast tihedusest : Liivaoja elamukvartal Kadriorus = Empty Density : Liivaoja Residential Area in Kadriorg, Tallinn / Tuuli Köller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Köller, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Planeering: K-Projekt. Arhitektid: Emil Urbeli Arhitektibüroo, M. Pressi Arhitektuuribüroo. Pikemalt majadevahelisse ruumi sisse programmeeritud tegevusetusest. Projekt: 2005, valmis: 2006-2007. 6 värv. vaadet

  10. Arms Production in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    566. 70. Requena, J. "La Investigacion Cientifica, El Desarrollo y La Seguridad Nacional," Paper Presented at the Instituto de Altos Estudios de La...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5100 5. Director de Educacion de La Armada 1 Comandancia General de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San...Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela 6. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval 1 Direccion de Educacion de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela

  11. Some of Alpheus Hyatt's unfigured types from the Jurassic of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crickmay, C.H.

    1933-01-01

    Alpheus Hyatt named a considerable number of Jurassic fossils from California. Only a few of these were described, arid none were illustrated. In this paper 16 of these species are evaluated in terms of present-day nomenclature, figures of the type specimens are shown, and their probable age significance is given. Included are Monotis semiplicata (=Entolium semiplicata),Monotis symmetrica (=Entolium symmetrica), Daonella?subjecta ( = '' Daonella" subjecta), Daonella bOchiformts (=" Daonella" bOchiformis), Daonella cardinoides (="Duonella"cardinoides), A ucella erringtoni var. arcuata ( = Buchia arcuata), Aucella elongata ( = Buchia elongata), AuceUa var.elongata orbicularis ( = Buchia sinzovi), Aucella aviculaeformis ( = Buchia erringtoni var. aviculaeformis), Aucella aviculaeformis var. acuta ( = Buchia erringtoni var. orbicularis), Aucella orb·.icularis( = Buchia erringtoni var. orbicularis), Cardioceras dub\\~um ( = Amoeboceras dubium), Perisphinctes virgulatiformis ( = Viigatosphinctes virgulatiformis), Perisphinctes miihlbachi ( = Dichotomoceras miihlbachi), iJlcostephanus lindgreni ( =" Galilaeiceras"

  12. Cannabinoid type-1 receptor reduces pain and neurotoxicity produced by chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasabova, Iryna A; Khasabov, Sergey; Paz, Justin; Harding-Rose, Catherine; Simone, Donald A; Seybold, Virginia S

    2012-05-16

    Painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting complication of chemotherapy. Cisplatin produces a cumulative toxic effect on peripheral nerves, and 30-40% of cancer patients receiving this agent experience pain. By modeling cisplatin-induced hyperalgesia in mice with daily injections of cisplatin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 d, we investigated the anti-hyperalgesic effects of anandamide (AEA) and cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis. Cisplatin-induced mechanical and heat hyperalgesia were accompanied by a decrease in the level of AEA in plantar paw skin. No changes in motor activity were observed after seven injections of cisplatin. Intraplantar injection of AEA (10 μg/10 μl) or URB597 (9 μg/10 μl) transiently attenuated hyperalgesia through activation of peripheral CB₁ receptors. Co-injections of URB597 (0.3 mg/kg daily, i.p.) with cisplatin decreased and delayed the development of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia. The effect of URB597 was mediated by CB₁ receptors since AM281 (0.33 mg/kg daily, i.p.) blocked the effect of URB597. Co-injection of URB597 also normalized the cisplatin-induced decrease in conduction velocity of Aα/Aβ-fibers and reduced the increase of ATF-3 and TRPV1 immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Since DRGs are a primary site of toxicity by cisplatin, effects of cisplatin were studied on cultured DRG neurons. Incubation of DRG neurons with cisplatin (4 μg/ml) for 24 h decreased the total length of neurites. URB597 (100 nM) attenuated these changes through activation of CB₁ receptors. Collectively, these results suggest that pharmacological facilitation of AEA signaling is a promising strategy for attenuating cisplatin-associated sensory neuropathy.

  13. emodin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Emodin was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cassia nigricans Vahl. The structure of the emodin was established by chemical spectroscopy. The LC50 (lower – upper limits) of the emodin was 42.77 (11.80 – 72.94) µg/ml. Emodin was found to be highly cytotoxic. It showed significant.

  14. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants among the Somali ethnic group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    condicted to explore the potential of traditional medicine in the region to preserve this indigenous knowledge. [Ethiop. ..... Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C, Jeffrey ... application (19.5%), oral and topical (3.6%), and as eye drops (2.2%). Lack of precision with doses has been noted where 70% reported to approximate while.

  15. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol.18 (January, 2015); 61- 67. Full Length Research Paper. Changes in Biochemical Markers of Kidney Function and. Antioxidant Status of Diabetic Rats treated with Aqueous Leaf. Extracts of Ficus exasperata (Vahl). Enogieru A.B*, Momodu O.I, Omoruyi S.I, Om'iniabohs F.A.E. ¹Department of Anatomy ...

  16. Cannabis use and abuse correlates in a homogeneous South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... Vahl proposed that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) protects against movement disorders by stimulating release of dopamine from dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra ending in the striatum.29 It is known that deficiencies of this pathway may cause movement disorders. Possible limitations of this ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet anti-ulcereux de l'extrait hydroalcoolique D'ecorce de tronc et de racine de Ficus polita vahl. (Moraceae) Abstract · Vol 14, No 2 (2012): Series A - Articles Enquete ethnobotanique sur les plantes antipaludiques utilisees dans la lutte anti-vectorielle au Togo Abstract. ISSN: 2413-354X. AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bleyere, M.N. Vol 4, No 3 (2010) - Articles Criblage phytochimique et effets d'un extrait aqueux de feuilles de Ficus exasperata Vahl. 1805 (Moraceae) sur la pression artérielle et l'activité contractile du coeur chez les mammifères. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yakubu, MT. Vol 3, No 1-2 (2011) - Articles Laxative activity of aqueous root extract of Cnestis ferruginea (VAHL EX DC) in loperamide-induced constipated rats. Abstract · Vol 4, No 1 (2012) - Articles Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Property and Safety of Ethanolic Extract of Ficus Benjamina 'Variegata' Fruits in Wistar Rats

  20. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  1. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elytraria marginata (Vahl) isused in Nigeria folk medicine as febrifuges, pulmonary problems and cancer related ailments. This study evaluated scientifically the phytochemical screening, antioxidant, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the whole plant extract with a view to validate its folkloric usage. The phytochemical ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihyperglycemic activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn) in rats. Abstract · Vol 16, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet anti-ulcereux de l'extrait hydroalcoolique D'ecorce de tronc et de racine de Ficus polita vahl. (Moraceae) Abstract · Vol 17, No 2 (2015) - Articles Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome ...

  3. Vegetation characteristics and water purification by artificial floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... were to identify major types of AFI based on plants, and to evaluate chemical and vegetative ... were excellent aquatic plants in Beijing wetland restoration. ... C4. D4. E4. A5. B5. C5. D5. E5. A = AFI; B = AFI with softstem bulrush (Scirpus validus Vahl); C = AFI with spiked loosestrlfe (Lythrum salicaria Linn.) ...

  4. Haematological profile of paroxetine-induced sexually impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of Cnestis ferruginea (Vahl ex De Cantolle) root on haematological parameters of paroxetine-induced sexually impaired male rats were evaluated. Thirty, healthy Wistar male rats (156.24±3.22 g) were assigned into six groups (A-F), with each group comprising 5 animals. Rats in group A ...

  5. Eco-buffers: A high density agroforestry design using native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Schroeder

    2012-01-01

    This study showed that Eco-Buffers are characterized by rapid establishment and superior survival when compared to single species buffers. Height of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. var. subintegerrima (Vahl.) Fern.) after eight growing seasons averaged 415 cm when growing in an Eco-Buffer compared to 333cm in the single species buffer. Site capture in the Eco-...

  6. A new combination in Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Fimbristylis ovata (Burm .ƒ.) Kern, comb. nov. — Carex ovata Burm. ƒ. Fl. Ind. (1768) 194; Kük., Pfl. Reich, Heft 38 (1909) 103. — Cyperus monostachyos L., Mant. 2 (1771) 180. — Abildgaardia monostachya (L.) Vahl, En. Plant. 2 (1806) 296. — Fimbristylis monostachya (L.) Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1848;

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenowo, TK. Vol 6, No 1 (2009) - Articles Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn) Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2011) - Articles Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Ficus exasperata Vahl. (Moraceae) leaf aqueous extracts in rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  8. Description Des Champignons Ectomycorhiziens Du Genre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au cours de prospections dans les formations forestières du Sud et de l'Est du Burkina Faso, des champignons ectomycorhiziens du genre Scleroderma ont été récoltés sous quatre Caesalpinioideae, Afzelia africana Sm., Isoberlinia doka Craib. & Stapf., I. dalziellii Craib. & Stapf, et Berlinia grandiflora (Vahl) Hutch.; ...

  9. Predicting risks of invasion of macroalgae in the genus Caulerpa in Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glardon, Christian G.; Walters, Linda J.; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; McCauley, Lisa A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2008-01-01

    There is worldwide concern about the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh that was introduced to the Mediterranean Sea in 1984. Since that time, it has flourished and now covers thousands of hectares of near-shore waters. More recently, aquarium strains of C.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huile essentielle extraite des feuilles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du Maroc, Abstract PDF. M Bourkhiss, M Hnach, B Bourkhiss, M Ouhssine, A Chaouch. Vol 11, No 1 (2015), Composition chimique et qualité bactériologique des laits crus et ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bourkhiss, M. Vol 3, No 2 (2007) - Articles Composition chimique et propriétés antimicrobiennes de l'huile essentielle extraite des feuilles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du Maroc Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1813-548X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  12. Comparison of various pulping characteristic of Fraxinus angustifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the suitability of ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), a native tree (species) in Turkey, for pulp and paper making. Four pulping methods, which included NSSC, cold soda, kraft and kraft + anthraquinone pulping processes, were used for this study. The test materials were ...

  13. Studies on cytotoxic, phytotoxic and volatile profile of the bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rams

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Kurz. by GC-MS analysis and also to investigate the cytotoxic and phytotoxic activity of. Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz. bark .... database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST) having more than 62 000 patterns. ..... The essential oils of S. hierosolymitana Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. var.

  14. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the root extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root extracts of Carissa edulis (Forsk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae) are used for the treatment several pathological states including inflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of C. edulis (CEE) on carrageenan-induced foot oedema in chicks. Also since free radicals and ...

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the saponins extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The saponins extract of Carissa edulis Vahl family Apocynaceae was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was studied using hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in ...

  17. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial studies of 1,6,8- trihydroxy-3-methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emodin was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cassia nigricans Vahl. The structure of the emodin was established by chemical spectroscopy. The LC50 (lower – upper limits) of the emodin was 42.77 (11.80 – 72.94) ìg/ml. Emodin was found to be highly cytotoxic. It showed significant antimicrobial activity ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Momodu, OI. Vol 18, No 1 (2015) - Articles Changes in Biochemical Markers of Kidney Function and Antioxidant Status of Diabetic Rats treated with Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-5096. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezeja, Maxwell I. Vol 53, No 3 (2017) - Articles Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2090-2948. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  20. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background of study: Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Aim: The study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Methods: The acute ...

  1. Alexandria Journal of Medicine - Vol 53, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Samuel O. Onoja, Maxwell I. Ezeja, Yusuf N. Omeh, Beatrice C. Onwukwe, 207-213.

  2. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jefferson Rocha A. Silva, Claudia M. Rezende, Angelo C. Pinto, Ana Claudia F. Amaral. Vol 6, No 11 (2007), Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial studies of 1,6,8- trihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone (emodin) isolated from the leaves of Cassia nigricans Vahl, Abstract PDF. RG Ayo, JO Amupitan, Y Zhao. Vol 9, No 5 (2010) ...

  3. Publications | Page 49 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 481 - 490 of 6373 ... Participatory supply chain analysis of a high value spice, Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retro Fractum VahL.) in Takeo province, Southeastern ... Tilapia immune responses and the rates of pathogen replication are usually correlated with water temperature. A number of endemic diseases of tilapia ...

  4. Population genetic structure and gene flow of Forsythia suspensa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, is a climbing plant belonging to Oleaceae, which is widely distributed in China, North and South Korea and Japan. In this study, the genetic diversity of F. suspensa was analyzed using two noncoding chloroplast DNA regions (trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and nuclear ribosomal internal ...

  5. Effect of formulation variables on the hypoglycaemic activity of dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerprint was developed to study the effect of excipients on the hypoglycaemic activity of the tablets of aqueous extract of Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill) Vahl (Verbanaceae). The excipients studied were lactose, magnesium carbonate as diluents, maize starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and gelatin as binders.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baxter-Grillo, D. Vol 13, No 1 (2014) - Articles Assessment of the effect of Ficus exasperata [VAHL] aqueous leaf extracts on body weight and serum liver enzymes in hyperglycaemic wistar rats. Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles The effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on liver functions of ...

  7. Biochemistry and genetics of autotrophy in Methanococcus. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitman, W.B.

    1998-09-01

    In the last two years of this research, the most exciting results have come from the work on the genetics of methanococci. First, the author demonstrated that the cryptic plasmid from Methanococcus maripaludis C5, pURB500, could be transformed into Methanococcus maripaludis JJ. Strain JJ is the type strain of M. maripaludis and has only about 65% DNA:DNA hybridization to strain C5. Because of the low relatedness of these strains, it was not obvious that pURB500 could be transferred between them. This goal was achieved by first transforming strain C5 with a series of suicide plasmids containing the pac cassette, which possessed the selectable puromycin resistance marker, and different cloned fragments of pURB500. From the puromycin-resistant transformants, a plasmid was isolated that transformed strain JJ. However, when this plasmid was electroporated into E. coli, only rearrangement products were obtained that contained small portions of the original pURB500. These plasmids no longer transformed Methanococcus. While these experiments did not yield a shuttle vector, they demonstrated that pURB500 could replicate in strain JJ.

  8. Deux espèces nouvelles de Dytiscides du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régimbart, M.

    1893-01-01

    Long. 2 mill. — Oblongo-ovalis, elongatus, subparallelus; capite et pronoto rufis, hoc ad basin late transversim nigricante, sat tenuiter in disco et fortius apud basin punctato; elytris nigris, margine laterali ad apicem dilatato, macula elongata minuta post medium ad latera, fasciaque post basali

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and leaves of plant species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... 2Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Dositeja Obradovica 21, Novi Sad. Accepted 28 August, 2009. This paper sums up the results of the research on heavy metals contents (Pb, Ni, Fe, Zn and Mn) in soil and leaves of the plant species, Paulownia elongata S.Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei ...

  10. Marine algae of Papua New Guinea (Madang Prov.) 2. A revised and completed list of Caulerpa (Chlorophyta—Caulerpales)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppejans, E.

    1992-01-01

    The study of marine macroalgae collected in N Papua New Guinea in 1980, 1986, 1988 and 1990 resulted in 14 species (29 entities) of Caulerpa: C. biserrulata, C. cupressoides (5 ecads), c. elongata (2 ecads), C. filicoides var. andamanensis, C. lentillifera, C. manorensis, C. microphysa, C. opposita,

  11. Descriptions of two new Paussidae from the Malay-Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.

    1890-01-01

    Subopacus, rufo-testaceus, maxime parte antennarum clavae nigricante, elytris rufo-pilosis, in medio fascia perlata angulari nigra notatis, sutura a fascia usque ad apicem nigrolimbata. Caput breve, latum, antice planum, margine postica sat elevata; antennarum clava elongata, quasi 5-articulata,

  12. INTERDISCIPLINA: L'ENSENYAMENT / APRENENTATGE EN PROJECTES DE DISSENY URBÀ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Brandão

    2014-02-01

    Partim de la revisió i sistematització dels resultats de la recerca “Interdisciplina- ACÇÃO” (Remesar & Brandão, 2009, a la qual vam sumar una nova recopilació de dades, obtinguda d'entrevistes realitzades a un nou grup professionals en formació en l'àmbit del disseny urbà, on es pretén d'una banda, generar conclusions sobre el llenguatge argumental utilitzat en l'elaboració del projecte urbà com a exercici interdisciplinari, i per l'altre, ampliar la discussió sobre els processos d'ensenyament/aprenentatge del projecte de disseny urbà amb orientació interdisciplinària.

  13. Studies in Mexican Grasshoppers: Three new species of Dactylotini (Acrididae: Melanoplinae) from Mexico and a review of existing conspecifics with comments on their geographical distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Paolo; Mariño-Pérez, Ricardo; Sanabria-Urbán, Salomón; Woller, Derek A

    2017-10-19

    Three new species of the tribe Dactylotini (Acrididae: Melanoplinae) are described from Central and Southern Mexico. 1) Dasyscirtus monicae sp. nov. Fontana, Mariño-Pérez, Sanabria-Urbán, & Woller is described from the eastern portion of the Balsas River Basin and the outer slope of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; 2) Perixerus obscurus sp. nov. Fontana, Mariño-Pérez, Sanabria-Urbán, & Woller is described from the Sierra Norte de Oaxaca mountain range; and 3), Perixerus triqui sp. nov. Fontana, Mariño-Pérez, Sanabria-Urbán, & Woller is described from the Sierra Madre del Sur mountain range and towards the Pacific Coast of Oaxaca. Taxonomic placement of these species is justified based on distinct morphology and comparisons with congeneric species are provided. Finally, we provide a biogeographical explanation for the distribution of the species in both genera.

  14. Capture and transformation of urban soundscape data for artistic creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gomes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available URB is a research project designed to collect and store raw data from soundscapes analysis. This paper presents a survey about using URB based on the analysis of work developed by several artists, focusing on the description of their creative process and outcome. By comparing the processes and statements of each artists, the authors identified diverse systematic approaches to reinterpreting raw data provided by urban soundscapes, raising questions about the artistic outcomes vs original sound sources. Furthermore, some considerations are inferred about the artistic relevance of using this process in the creation process.

  15. O gênero Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta em ambientes lacustres na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Genus Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta in lacustrine environments of the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do gênero Hantzschia em amostragens realizadas em lagoas, banhados, canal e açudes na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul (30°40´-30°10´ S e 50°30´-51°30´ W, no outono e primavera de 2003, revelou a presença de um táxon específico e seis infra-específicos, a saber: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, suas variedades (var. amphioxys e var. vivax Grunow e forma (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow com duas variedades (var. elongata e var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grun. e Hantzschia sp. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, chave de identificação e comentários sobre as variações morfológicas e a distribuição dos táxons. Cabe ressaltar a presença de H. elongata var. linearis e Hantzschia sp. como novos registros para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The study of the genus Hantzschia in samples from lakes, wetlands, canals and ponds in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain (30°40'-30°10' S; 50°30'-50°30' W, during fall and spring of 2003, revealed the presence of one specific and six infra-specific taxa, as follows: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, its varieties (var. amphioxys and var. vivax Grunow and form (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow with two varieties (var. elongata and var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grunow and Hantzschia sp. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys and comments on morphological variation and the distribution of the taxa are presented. It is worth mentioning the presence of H. elongata var. linearis and Hantzschia sp. recorded for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  16. Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G; Bambico, F R; Mangieri, R; Bortolato, M; Campolongo, P; Solinas, M; Cassano, T; Morgese, M G; Debonnel, G; Duranti, A; Tontini, A; Tarzia, G; Mor, M; Trezza, V; Goldberg, S R; Cuomo, V; Piomelli, D

    2005-12-20

    Although anecdotal reports suggest that cannabis may be used to alleviate symptoms of depression, the psychotropic effects and abuse liability of this drug prevent its therapeutic application. The active constituent of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, acts by binding to brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, but an alternative approach might be to develop agents that amplify the actions of endogenous cannabinoids by blocking their deactivation. Here, we show that URB597, a selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty-acid amide hydrolase, which catalyzes the intracellular hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts potent antidepressant-like effects in the mouse tail-suspension test and the rat forced-swim test. Moreover, URB597 increases firing activity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus locus ceruleus. These actions are prevented by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant, are accompanied by increased brain anandamide levels, and are maintained upon repeated URB597 administration. Unlike direct CB1 agonists, URB597 does not exert rewarding effects in the conditioned place preference test or produce generalization to the discriminative effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats. The findings support a role for anandamide in mood regulation and point to fatty-acid amide hydrolase as a previously uncharacterized target for antidepressant drugs.

  17. [Eesti Kultuurikapitali aastapreemia 2007 - kirjandus] / Mari Peegel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peegel, Mari, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurikapitali aastapreemia said 17. saj. Tartu juhuluule kogumiku "O Dorpat, urbs addictissima musis" koostajad Kristi Viiding, Jana Orion, Janika Päll (Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007). Sisaldab nimekirja. Vt. ka Postimees, 16. jaan., lk. 4-5 ; Sirp, 18. jaan., lk. 2-3

  18. Sport on popp / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Pärnu kesklinna koolide võimla Kuninga t. Arhitektid: - AB Kavakava: Katrin Koov, Kaire Nõmm, Heidi Urb, Siiri Vallner. Projekteerija: AB Kavakava. Peatöövõtja: AS YIT Ehitus. Ehituse kestus: detsember 2004 - juuli 2005. Riigi muinsuskaitsamet autasustas võimla projekteerijaid Pärnumaa 2005. a. parima ehituse eest. 11 värv. ill

  19. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P. (Peleg); Hamstead, Z. (Zoé); D. Haase (Dagmar); T. McPhearson (Timon); N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); E. Andersson (Erik); N. Kabisch (Nadja); N. Larondelle (Neele); E. Rall (Emily); Voigt, A. (Annette); F. Baró (Francesc); Bertram, C. (Christine); E. Gómez-Baggethun (E.); R. Hansen (Rieke); A. Kaczorowska (Anna); J.-H. Kain (Jaan-Henrik); Kronenberg, J. (Jakub); Langemeyer, J. (Johannes); S. Pauleit (Stephan); Rehdanz, K. (Katrin); M. Schewenius (Maria); Van Ham, C. (Chantal); Wurster, D. (Daniel); T. Elmqvist (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) research project, we conducted case study and

  20. An Efficient Method for Predicting the Vibratory Response of Linear Structures with Friction Interfaces. Volume 2. Steady-State Vibrations of a Two-Body System with a Frictional Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-04

    8217 VOLUME II - Steady-State Vibrations of a Two-Body System with a Frictional Interface Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Jacobo Bielak, and Jerry H. Griffin...nitessw and identify by block ,,unbero FI"ELD GROUP SUB. GR . 19. ’,7TRACT ICongInu. an reve.?. If neceaW’ and identify by blockl urb n recent years it

  1. Tüür, Erkki-Sven: Requiem in memoriam Peeter Lilje / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tüür, Erkki-Sven: Requiem in memoriam Peeter Lilje. Passion. Illusion. Architectonics VI. Crystallisatio. Kaia Urb (sopran), Tiit Kogermann (tenor), Estnische Philharmonischer Kammerchor, Kammerorchester Tallinn, Tõnu Kaljuste. ECM/Polygram CD 449 459-2 (WD:64'19'')DDD

  2. Energy efficiency and urbanism: Guide for urbanism planning energetically efficiency; Eficiencia energetica y urbanismo: Guia del planeamiento urbanistico energeticamente eficiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The present book summarizes the urbanism in the context of energy efficiency. the book has 4 chapters and 3 annexes: The energy in the context of substantiality, the soil planning, recommendations for the urbanism planning with substantiality criteria and small description URBE project.

  3. Johann Urbi vanatädi / Simo Meinert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meinert, Simo

    2005-01-01

    Kanal 2 asub näitama Hollywoodi draamasarja "Mägi" ("The Mountain"), kus astub üles laulja Tarmo Urbi poeg Johann. Urbide perekondlikest suhetest räägib laulja Silvia Urb. Lisatud seriaali lühitutvustus ning loetelu J. Urbi varasematest rollidest. Sama artikkel ilma lisadeta: Teleleht nr. 22, 2005/Jun/6, lk. 7 : ill

  4. Tüür, Erkki-Sven: Crystallisatio. Requiem / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tüür, Erkki-Sven: Crystallisatio. Requiem. Architectonics VI. Passion. Illusion. E.-S. Tüür (electronique en direct), Kaia Urb (soprano), Tiit Kogermann (tenor), Choeur de chambre Philharmonique d'Estonie, Orchestre de chambre de Tallinn, Tõnu Kaljuste. ECM New Series ECM 1590, distribution Polygram 449 459-2 (CD:158 F)

  5. Příkop středověkého opevnění města Plzně. Archeologický a environmentální výzkum v prostoru zaniklé Pražské brány

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, R.; Kočár, P.; Hlaváč, Jaroslav; Kaštovská, K.; Kostrouch, F.; Kyncl, J.; Militký, J.; Pokorný, Petr; Postránecká, K.; Schneiderwinklová, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2008), s. 272-311 ISSN 1803-1749. [Forum urbes medii aevi /5./. Hainburg, 08.05.2006-11.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : archaeobotany * bioarchaeology * urban deposits Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Rostlinné zbytky jedním z pramenů pro interpretaci čáslavského středověkého objektu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulíková, Věra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2011), s. 276-303 ISSN 1803-1749. [Forum urbes medii aevi /7./. Křtiny, 13.05.2008-16.05.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : historical core of Čáslav * sunken rectangular building * 13th century * carpological and xylotomical analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Uue aja moodne kodu ja ajaloo ringkäik / Karin Hallas-Murula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas-Murula, Karin, 1957-

    2001-01-01

    1927. a. Stuttgarti ehitatud Weissenhofi väikemajade elamurajoonist (Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, W. Gropius, M. Taut jt.) näituse "Weissenhof" põhjal Rotermanni soolalaos. Võrreldakse Emil Urbeli ja Indrek Ermi Aaviku küla projektiga Tiskres

  8. Una cartografía narrativa de Ibagué

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Sierra, Sergio Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación presenta una cartografía narrativa, en medio digital (http://unaibaguenarrada.blogspot.com/), de la ciudad de Ibagué a través de la elaboración de puntos a partir de distintos espacios de la urbe.

  9. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liput, Daniel J; Pauly, James R; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Nixon, Kimberly

    2017-11-29

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [³H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up "target engagement" study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  10. Dřevěné konstrukce a využití dřeva v raně středověké opevněné centrální lokalitě. Příklady z Pražského hradu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2011), s. 355-400 ISSN 0031-0506. [Forum urbes medii aevi /7./. Křtiny, 13.05.2008-16.05.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * fortifications * house s * stronghold * Prague * interdisciplinary research * wood construction Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. PREVALENCE OF BIRD LOUSE, MENACANTHUS CORNUTUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Bird Louse, Kano Sub-urb areas, Menacanthus cornutus, Poultry, Prevalence ... including retarded growth, low egg production and ..... Bush, S. E. and Clayton, D. H.. (2005). Correlated evolution of host and parasite body size: Tests of Harrison's rule using birds and lice. Evolution, 59: 1744-.

  12. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems on salient stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eLaricchiuta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rewarding effects have been related to enhanced dopamine (DA release in corticolimbic and basal ganglia structures. The DAergic and endocannabinoid interaction in the responses to reward is described. This study investigated the link between endocannabinoid and DAergic transmission in the processes that are related to response to two types of reward, palatable food and novelty. Mice treated with drugs acting on endocannabinoid system (ECS (URB597, AM251 or DAergic system (haloperidol were submitted to approach-avoidance conflict tasks with palatable food or novelty. In the same mice, the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1-mediated GABAergic transmission in medium spiny neurons of the dorsomedial striatum was analyzed. The endocannabinoid potentiation by URB597 magnified approach behavior for reward (food and novelty and in parallel inhibited dorsostriatal GABAergic neurotransmission. The decreased activity of CB1 receptor by AM251 (alone or with URB597 or of DAergic D2 receptor by haloperidol had inhibitory effects toward the reward and did not permit the inhibition of dorsostriatal GABAergic transmission. When haloperidol was coadministered with URB597, a restoration effect on reward and reward-dependent motor activity was observed, only if the reward was the palatable food. In parallel, the coadministration led to restoring inhibition of CB1-mediated GABAergic transmission. Thus, in the presence of simultaneous ECS activation and inhibition of DAergic system the response to reward appears to be a stimulus-dependent manner.

  13. Tõnu Talve "Ka" tuuritab Kadrinas ja Rakveres / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tõnu Talve maalidest. Kadrinas esitatud trio Fragile performance'st ja näitusest tsüklist "Ka" Rakveres. Rakvere näitusel Teele Tuuna ja kolmeaastase tütre Anneliise tööd. Trio Fragile koosseisus on kitarrist Robert Jürjendal, trummar Arvo Urb ja maalija Tõnu Talve

  14. The April 2009 Gulf of Alaska Line-Transect Survey (Goals) in the Navy Training Exercise Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    K. B., Gabriele, C. M., LeDuc, R., Mattila, D., Rojas -Bracho, L., Straley, J. M., Taylor, B. L., Urbán, J., Weller, D., Witteveen, B. H.,Yamaguchi...cetaceans of the Prince William Sound, Alaska. Ph.D. dissert., University of California Santa Cruz , 101 p. Kasuya, T., and Miyashita, T. 1988

  15. Huertos urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    López de Fuentes, Pilar; Sanz Cobeña, Alberto; García Fernández, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    En la actualidad la presencia de huertos y otras expresiones de agricultura urbana salpican el mapa de las grandes urbes, ocupando lo que antes eran solares o espacios degradados en donde se acumulaban restos de actividades industriales pretéritas o antiguas construcciones.

  16. Ad Iuvenci Evangeliorum : librum primum commentarius exegeticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievits, Herman Hendrik

    1940-01-01

    De Gaio Vettio Aquilino Iuvenco pauca admodum scimus. Natus fuit in Hispania, sed nescimus in qua regionis parte. Secundum adnotationes nullo fundamento innitentes 1) patria eius fuit Vettoniae urbs Caesarobriga (= Talavera de la Reina), in dextra Tagi ripa sita, sed ea fama ex similitudine nominum

  17. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  18. Challenges Facing Immigrant Students beyond the Linguistic Domain in a New Gateway State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a great deal of theoretical and practical scholarship related to immigrant students, the extant literature most often conflates the needs of English language learners with the needs of immigrant students (Goodwin in "Educ Urb Soc" 34(2):156-172, 2002; Sox in "Theory Pract" 48:312-318, 2009; Yoon in "Am…

  19. Aasta parimad interjöörid / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad 2004. Võidutööd: Tartu Mänguasjamuuseum (Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland, Malle Jürgenson, OÜ Laika, Belka & Strelka); Emil Urbeli projekteeritud kastvilla Miidurannas (Argo Vaikla, Katrin Vaikla, Tiina Teng); Georg Ots Spa hotell Kuressaares (Liisi Murula, Raili Paling). Esemepreemia pälvis Toivo Raidmetsa tool "John", tegevuspreemia sai Maile Grünberg

  20. Assembling puzzles / Emil Urbel ; intervjueerinud Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urbel, Emil, 1959-

    2010-01-01

    Arhitekt Emil Urbeli projekteeritud minimalistlikest eramutest Nõmmel ja Miidurannas, Aaviku elamurajoonist, Esku tänava ridaelamutest Tallinnas, SEB pangahoonest Tartus. Elukeskkonnale esitatavate nõudmiste muutumisest viimastel aastakümnetel. Arhitekti tööprotsessist, koostööst arendajate ja ehitajatega

  1. Parcela ve vývoji raného a komunálního města

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2007), s. 6-41. ISBN 80-903588-2-9. [Forum Urbes Medii Aevi /4./. Brno, 20.04.2005-22.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Early and Late Middle Age * Middle and North Europe * Town * Plot Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Viimaste aastate parimad eramud said hinnatud / Kalle Vellevoog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vellevoog, Kalle, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu konkursist "Parim eramu 2004/2005". Parima eramu preemia sai arhitektide Peeter Pere ja Urmas Muru vaskplekist eramu Tabasalus. Eramu eripreemia said arhitekt Laila Põdra Hiiumaal valminud palkmajade grupp ja arhitekt Toomas Tammise eramu Saha külas. Žürii aukirja pälvisid Emil Urbeli villa Miidurannas ja Raivo Puusepa eramu Raadil, Tartus

  3. Lilleküla jalgpallistaadion = Lilleküla Football Stadium / Haldo Oravas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oravas, Haldo, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Arhitekt, projekti ja detailplaneeringu (AS Eesti Projekt, 1999) autor Haldo Oravas. Projekteerijad: ETP Grupp, projektijuht Aare Uusalu, arhitekt Peep Urb. Sisekujundaja Sirje Pohl. Projekt 2000-2001. 8 ill.: V korruse ja asendiplaan, tribüüni lõige, vaated

  4. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  6. cas de la forêt de Fénouane (monts de Saida, Algérie occid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geek Store

    types les plus anciens à 0,2% a cause de la fermeture du milieu et l'absence de lumière due à la strate arboré qui est essentiellement occupé par les espèces suivantes : Pinus halepensis Mill, Quercus rotundifolia Lam, Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) .) [41] note que dans un peuplement très serré, la compétition s'établit entre ...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ShiraH started with the differential equation. (1 - x )y" = 2y' + y which he remarked "does not seem to sol vahle in closed form". We start with any arithmetic progression a, a + d, a +. 2d, . where a is any real number and d is any non-zero real number, and show how it can he evaluated. Let us consider the differential equation.

  8. Investigating South African plants as a source of new antimalarial drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available and their biological activity. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 36, 288-291. Jakupovic, J., Aad, M.A., Eid, F., Bohlmann, F., El-Dahmy, S., Sarg,T., 1988. Further glaucolides and other sesquiterpene lactones from Brocchia Cinerea. Phytochemistry 27, 2219...; Kraft et al., 2003). Similarly, our results (Clarkson et al., 2004) for species like Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae) and Artemisia afra jacq. ex Willd. (Asteraceae) agreed with previous reports on their antiplasmodial activity (El Tahir et al...

  9. 1731-IJBCS-Article-Ngbolua K. N

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Prélèvement et conservation des échantillons du sang. Le prélèvement d'un échantillon sanguin de 5 ml de sang total sur ..... anthocyanin extract from Justicia secunda Vahl on the solubility of haemoglobin S and membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes. Blood Transfus., 8: 248-254. Mpiana PT, Mudogo V, Kabangu YF,.

  10. Résumé Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    Résumé. Le rendement, la composition chimique et les propriétés antibactérienne et antifongique de l'huile essentielle extraite de la biomasse foliaire de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du. Khémisset (Maroc) ont été étudiés. La teneur moyenne en huile essentielle des feuilles de cette espèce est 0,22 % par rapport à la ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 2, No 1 (2006) - Articles Caractérisation, transformation et valorisation de déchets d'éviscération de volaille de Kénitra, Maroc Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 2 (2007) - Articles Composition chimique et propriétés antimicrobiennes de l'huile essentielle extraite des feuilles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du Maroc

  12. THE EFFECT OF THE INFUSION OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE ISOLATED RABBIT JEJUNUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh infus daun Artemisia vulgaris LINN.; Artemisia cina BERG; Euphatorium triplinerve VAHL; Hemigraphis colorata HALL; Ruta gravcolens AUCT dan buah Litsea cubeba PERS telah diteliti terhadap kontraksi usus kelinci terisolasi. Hanya Ruta gravcolens A UCT dengan dosis 1 ml/kg infus 10 persen dalam 50 ml Tyrode mengurangi tonus dan amplitude kontraksi usus kelinci Dianjurkan untuk meneliti farmakodinami komponen-komponen daun Ruta gravcolens AUCT ter­utama terhadap usus kelinci terisolasi

  13. Current status and multidecadal biogeographical changes in rocky intertidal algal assemblages: The northern Spanish coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, C.

    2016-03-01

    The biogeographic border between the Eastern and the Atlantic subregions of the Lusitanian Province situated on the west coast of Asturias (N. of Spain) has moved westwards in recent years. A comparative study, consisting in a resurvey of 20 shores sampled in 1977, covering 200 km showed a large-scale change affecting the mid and low eulittoral. Cold-temperate canopy species such as kelps (Laminaria hyperborea, Laminaria. ochroleuca and Saccorhiza polyschides), fucoids (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus and Himanthalia elongata) and Chondrus crispus have almost disappeared and replaced by warm-temperate species such as Cystoseira baccata, Cystoseira tamariscifolia, Bifurcaria bifurcata and coralline algae (Ellisolandia elongata, Lithophyllum incrustans and Mesophyllum lichenoides). The loss of canopy-species can have consequences for the assemblage, especially in the case of fucoid-dominated assemblages.

  14. Volatile compounds and odour characteristics of seven species of dehydrated edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, O; Picon, A; Nuñez, M

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fraction of dehydrated edible seaweeds belonging to seven species (Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Palmaria palmata, Porphyra umbilicalis, Saccharina latissima, Ulva lactuca and Undaria pinnatifida) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after solid-phase microextraction of samples. Thirty-six hydrocarbons, 34 ketones, 28 aldehydes, 23 alcohols, 8 carboxylic acids, 6 halogenated compounds, 4 furans, 3 esters, 2 sulphur compounds, 2 pyrazines, 1 pyridine and 1 amine were detected among the 151 volatile compounds found in seaweeds. There were significant differences between seaweed species for all the volatile compounds. Hydrocarbons reached their highest levels in U. pinnatifida, ketones in P. umbilicalis, aldehydes in P. palmata and P. umbilicalis, alcohols in P. umbilicalis, carboxylic acids in S. latissima, and halogenated compounds in L. ochroleuca and S. latissima. Sensory analysis revealed that P. palmata, U. lactuca and H. elongata were the seaweeds showing the most potent seafood odour and seaweed odour characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocannabinoids in amygdala and nucleus accumbens mediate social play reward in adolescent rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Manduca, Antonia; Petrosino, Stefania; Van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Zhou, Yeping; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The brain endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in emotional processes. We have previously identified an important role for endocannabinoids in social play behavior, a highly rewarding form of social interaction in adolescent rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endocannabinoid modulation of social play behavior occurs in brain regions implicated in emotion and motivation. Social play increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAc), but not in prefrontal cortex or hippocampus of 4–5 week old male Wistar rats. Furthermore, social play increased phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala. Systemic administration of the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 increased social play behavior, and augmented the associated elevation in anandamide levels in the amygdala, but not the NAc. Infusion of URB597 into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) increased social play behavior, and blockade of BLA CB1 cannabinoid receptors with the antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A prevented the play-enhancing effects of systemic administration of URB597. Infusion of URB597 into the NAc also increased social play, but blockade of NAc CB1 cannabinoid receptors did not antagonize the play-enhancing effects of systemic URB597 treatment. Last, SR141716A did not affect social play after infusion into the core and shell subregions of the NAc, while it reduced social play when infused into the BLA. These data show that increased anandamide signalling in the amygdala and NAc augments social play, and identify the BLA as a prominent site of action for endocannabinoids to modulate the rewarding properties of social interactions in adolescent rats. PMID:23100412

  16. Poblaciones de lombrices de tierra en sitios de acumulación de desechos orgánicos en el Valle Central de Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra León

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was made on the density of earthworms in eight different sites of the Valle Central in Costa Rica, abundant with animal manure, city and coffee bean pulp wastes. Edaphological condition were determined in each site. Four species were found: Pontoscolex corethrurus, Metaphire californica, Amynthas corticis y Polypheretima elongata. P. corethrurus was the most abundant species found. Soils having abundant cattle manure were the most favorable for this species.

  17. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Pedel, Laura; Beuck, L.; Galgani, Francois; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in...

  18. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan)'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    OpenAIRE

    DURUCAN, Furkan; TURNA, İsmail İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    This study has been carried out with seasonal samples in five stations in order to determine commercial seaweed in west coast of Antalya Province (Lara, Phaselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan). At the end of study, Rhodophyta (Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus), Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin) Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret), Heterokontophyta (Cyst...

  19. Possibility for using of two Paulownia lines as a tool for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkova, Nikolina; Miladinova, Kamelya; Ivanova, Katya; Georgieva, Teodora; Geneva, Marya; Markovska, Yuliana

    2015-01-01

    One-year-old two Paulownia lines (Ptomentosa x fortunei--TF 01 and R elongata x fortunei--EF 02) were grown, as pot experiment, in soil collected from the field of waste depository of Kremikovtzi ferrous metallurgical industry near Sofia. The soil was heavily polluted with Cd. Metals content (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe) in soil and its distribution in roots, stems and leaves of both lines was studied. The results showed that Ca and K accumulated more in stem, Mg, Na, Fe and Cd in root, while Pb, Cu and Zn in the leaves of both lines. The bloaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) were evaluated in order to determine the potential of plants in removing metals from contaminated soil. The BF for Fe, Pb, Cu and Zn in TF 01 line exceeded that of EF 02 line--5.6; 1.03; 1.20; 1.14 times, respectively. TF was higher in TF 01 line for Fe, Pb and Cd (6.0; 1.92 and 1.03, respectively), but not for Cu and Zn. The success of phytoremediation depends on plant growth and restricted distribution of heavy metals in shoots. Our results showed that stem length and total leaf area of Paulownia elongata x fortunei were higher than Paulownia tomentosa x fortuneibut BF for Cu and Zn and TF for Pb was less. BF for Cd was 1.7 times higher and TF for Zn was 1.03 times higher in Paulownia elongata x fortunei. Selected two lines (P. tomentosa x fortunei--TF 01 and P elongataxfortunei--EF02) were accumulators of Cu, Zn and Cd. Paulownia tomentosax fortunei accumulated more Pb and Zn in aboveground parts, while Paulownia elongata x fortunei--accumulated Zn only. These lines proved to be a promising species for phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils due to high biomass productivity.

  20. Vulnerability and acclimation of Mediterranean Sea macroalgae, to environmental stress related to climate change: use of indicators physiological state = Vulnerabilidad y aclimatación de macroalgas del Mar Mediterráneo, frente al estrés ambiental derivado del Cambio Climático: uso de indicadores del estado fisiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Plá, Paula Soledad María

    2015-01-01

    [eng] In this thesis, the vulnerability and capacity of acclimation to environmental stress related to Climate change mainly in Cystoseira tamariscifolia and other species as Ellisolandia elongata, Cystoseira compressa and Padina pavonica are evaluated. The effects of physical stressors as elevated irradiance of PAR (lambda=400-700 nm) and UVR (lambda=280-400 nm) and temperature and chemical stressors as nutrient, heavy metals and CO2, separately and in interaction with different levels were...

  1. Recent and historical range shifts of two canopy-forming seaweeds in North Spain and the link with trends in sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Linney; Viejo, Rosa M.; Martínez, Brezo; deCastro, Maite; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Gallardo, Tomás

    2013-08-01

    Geographical range shifts of two canopy-forming seaweeds, Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F. Gray and Fucus serratus L. were investigated at their southern range boundary in Northern Spain from the end of nineteenth century to 2009. Given the good dispersal abilities of H. elongata and its short life-span, we hypothesize that this species will track environmental changes at a faster rate than the perennial and short-distance disperser F. serratus. Our results show a continuous and drastic westward retraction of H. elongata, which has nowadays virtually vanished in Northern Spain, whereas F. serratus is still found in the westernmost area. Despite this, the first species is still relatively abundant in the Iberian Peninsula, whereas the presence of the latter is scattered and reduced. Overall, range shifts fit with the warming trend in sea surface temperature (SST), whereas it is unlikely that increases in grazing pressure or coastal pollution have driven the observed changes, particularly the rapid trend in recent years. Differences in species traits are linked to range dynamics. The higher persistence of F. serratus at eastern shores may thus be related to its longer life span and its greater thermal tolerance. The presence of sporadic populations of H. elongata outside the zone of continuous distribution can be attributed to long-distance dispersal events during cold pulses. Relict populations in isolated and estuarine locations were left behind in the contracting range margins, particularly for F. serratus. In Northern Spain, the westward retreat of large canopy-forming algae seems to be a general phenomenon, involving other species such as kelps. Therefore, an evident reorganization of coastal assemblages is expected, though the temporal extent of changes and the consequences for ecosystem services need to be evaluated.

  2. Geographic isolation and elevational gradients promote diversification in an endemic shrew on Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Ryan A; Achmadi, Anang S; Giarla, Thomas C; Rowe, Kevin C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2018-01-01

    Phylogeographic research on endemic primates and amphibians inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi revealed the existence of seven areas of endemism (AoEs). Here, we use phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of one mitochondrial gene and 15 nuclear loci to assess geographic patterns of genetic partitioning in a shrew (Crocidura elongata) that is endemic to Sulawesi, but occurs across the island. We uncover substantial genetic diversity in this species both between and within AoEs, but we also identify close relationships between populations residing in different AoEs. One of the earliest divergences within C. elongata distinguishes a high-elevation clade from low-elevation clades. In addition, on one mountain, we observe three distinct genetic groups from low, middle, and high elevations, suggesting divergence along a single elevational gradient. In general, our results show that C. elongata, like several other Sulawesi endemic taxa, harbors extensive genetic diversity. This diversity is structured in part by known AoE boundaries, but also by elevational gradients and geographic isolation within AoEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical earthworm species - a laboratory-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gautam; Chaudhuri, P S

    2002-06-01

    Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata are considered to be continuous breeders with high fecundity. Native Lampito mauritii and Drawida nepalensis are semi-continuous and Eutyphoeus gammiei discrete breeders. There is a dramatic increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and monsoon with a corresponding peak during April and July. Cocoon production decreased or ceased during winter. Temperature affected the incubation period of cocoons. With increase in temperature, incubation period increased in the endogeic worms, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28-32 degrees C under laboratory conditions. There was a significant (P Pontoscolex corethrurus, Drawida nepalensis and Lampito mauritii, indicate their possible usefulness in vermiculture. The giant anecic worm, Eutyphoeus gammiei, which has a very long cocoon development time, discrete breeding strategy and very low rate of cocoon production, is not a suitable species for vermiculture.

  4. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  5. Advantages of using a fast urban boundary layer model as compared to a full mesoscale model to simulate the urban heat island of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Markel; Lauwaet, Dirk; Hooyberghs, Hans; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become a key problem in the framework of the climate change impact assessment. However, the high computational power required by high-resolution (sub-kilometre) fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations using urban canopy parameterisations is a severe limitation. Here we present a study on the performance of UrbClim, an urban boundary layer model designed to be several orders of magnitude faster than a full-fledged mesoscale model. The simulations are evaluated with station data and land surface temperature observations from satellites, focusing on the urban heat island (UHI). To explore the advantages of using a simple model like UrbClim, the results are compared with a simulation carried out with a state-of-the-art mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, which includes an urban canopy model. This comparison is performed with driving data from ERA-Interim reanalysis (70 km). In addition, the effect of using driving data from a higher-resolution forecast model (15 km) is explored in the case of UrbClim. The results show that the performance of reproducing the average UHI in the simple model is generally comparable to the one in the mesoscale model when driven with reanalysis data (70 km). However, the simple model needs higher-resolution data from the forecast model (15 km) to correctly reproduce the variability of the UHI at a daily scale, which is related to the wind speed. This lack of accuracy in reproducing the wind speed, especially the sea-breeze daily cycle, which is strong in Barcelona, also causes a warm bias in the reanalysis driven UrbClim run. We conclude that medium-complexity models as UrbClim are a suitable tool to simulate the urban climate, but that they are sensitive to the ability of the input data to represent the local wind regime. UrbClim is a well suited model for impact and adaptation studies at city scale without high

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids lactose esters: cytotoxicity, permeability enhancement and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Simone; Fagioli, Laura; Campana, Raffaella; Cole, Hannah; Duranti, Andrea; Baffone, Wally; Vllasaliu, Driton; Casettari, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies. The synthesized compounds, namely lactose palmitoleate (URB1076) and lactose nervonate (URB1077), were shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity versus eight pathogenic species belonging to Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Le Corbusier 24NC Un fragmento habitado de la Ville Radieuse = Le Corbusier 24NC An inhabited fragment of the Ville Radieuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Alonso Pereira

    2014-11-01

    the word used to define the ideal city: a modern urbs imagined within a large park. This paper tries to analyse this maison radieuse: the place and the space where Le Corbusier lived in and his ways of living in along the time, from 1934 to his death in 1965. To study the double aspect of habitat and living. To analyse the place and the space where Le Corbusier lived, at his projects and his metaphors: the maison radieuse, the urbs in ortu, the crystal house, the labour archipielago, with its different islands of paints and books, of papers and memories...  Because 24NC suppose the transit from project to life: from planning Ville Radieuse, to living in.

  8. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 impairs reconsolidation of pavlovian fear memory in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratano, Patrizia; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the requirement for signaling at CB1 receptors in the reconsolidation of a previously consolidated auditory fear memory, by infusing the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, or the FAAH inhibitor URB597, directly into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in conjunction with memory reactivation. AM251 disrupted memory restabilization, but only when administered after reactivation. URB597 produced a small, transient enhancement of memory restabilization when administered after reactivation. The amnestic effect of AM251 was rescued by coadministration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at reactivation, indicating that the disruption of reconsolidation was mediated by altered GABAergic transmission in the BLA. These data show that the endocannabinoid system in the BLA is an important modulator of fear memory reconsolidation and that its effects on memory are mediated by an interaction with the GABAergic system. Thus, targeting the endocannabinoid system may have therapeutic potential to reduce the impact of maladaptive memories in neuropsychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  9. The Rise of Syria’s Urban Poor: Why the War for Syria’s Future Will Be Fought Over the Country’s New Urban Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mud houses. It was not poverty , but tradition, that had put a whole family in one room.”7 For thousands of years, rural migrants were assim- ilated...predominantly poor, working class city sub- urbs. I n Ta d a m o n , a n e i g h b o r h o o d o f Damascus, people were considered criminals and homeless

  10. Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, G.; Bambico, F. R.; Mangieri, R.; Bortolato, M.; Campolongo, P.; Solinas, M.; Cassano, T.; Morgese, M. G.; Debonnel, G.; Duranti, A.; Tontini, A.; Tarzia, G.; Mor, M.; Trezza, V.; Goldberg, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Although anecdotal reports suggest that cannabis may be used to alleviate symptoms of depression, the psychotropic effects and abuse liability of this drug prevent its therapeutic application. The active constituent of cannabis, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, acts by binding to brain CB 1 cannabinoid receptors, but an alternative approach might be to develop agents that amplify the actions of endogenous cannabinoids by blocking their deactivation. Here, we show that URB597, a selective inhibito...

  11. Detailed Urban Heat Island Projections for Cities Worldwide: Dynamical Downscaling CMIP5 Global Climate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lauwaet, Dirk; Hooyberghs, Hans; Maiheu, Bino; Lefebvre, Wouter; Driesen, Guy; Looy, Stijn Van; Ridder, Koen De

    2015-01-01

    A new dynamical downscaling methodology to analyze the impact of global climate change on the local climate of cities worldwide is presented. The urban boundary layer climate model UrbClim is coupled to 11 global climate models contained in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 archive, conducting 20-year simulations for present (1986–2005) and future (2081–2100) climate conditions, considering the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate scenario. The evolution of the urban hea...

  12. Puit linnas - väikevormid / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Rüütli t. uus kujundus (Rene Valner, Margus Maiste, Ott Kadarik), Vallimäe trepp Rakveres (Siiri Vallner, Heidi Urb, AB Kavakava), Helsingi Tehnikakõrgkooli üliõpilaste Antti Lehto ja Teemu Seppäneni töö Helsindi disaininädala infopaviljoni konkursil, park ja aiamööbel (Nathalie Dubois, Mustapha Sanaoui) kortermajade hoovis Prantsusmaal. 8 värv. ill

  13. Audiovisual experiences in urban archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz Cordeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O vídeo, na perspectiva desse trabalho experimental em arqueologia, é tanto um processo de estudo e registro documental, quanto um recurso para o ensino de história antiga no Brasil. Porém, a partir do estudo da paisagem urbana, de sua biografia, a revelar cidades anteriores - e suas sociedades - que existiram no próprio lugar da grande cidade, a urbe atual

  14. European urban spawl: sustainability, cultures of (antiurbanism and “hibrid cityscapes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has its origins in a comparative research project examining aspects of urban sprawlin Europe undertaken within the 5.FP EU. The project Urban Sprawl: European Patterns,Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development (URBS PANDENS EVK4-CT-2001-00052 sought to understand recent trends in urban sprawl in a number of case studyurban regions and to advise the European Commission on policy development with regard tothe control, management and amelioration of the effects of urban sprawl.

  15. Intensifying or transforming sustainable cities?:Fragmented logics of urban environmentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Michael; Marvin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses recent shifts in urban sustainability discourse andpractice through a critical review of the historical development of theconcept from the 1970s through to the global economic crisis inthe 2007 and its fragmentation into the 2010s. Using this periodisation,the paper shows how the content of urban sustainability discourse haschanged. First, it illustrates that the dominant assumption of sustainablecities’ discourse was to utilise economic growth to ecologicallymodernise urb...

  16. 2012. aasta preemiate žürii kommentaar = Comments from 2012 annual prize panel of judges / Kalle Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Kalle, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Eesti kultuurkapitali aastapreemia 2012 - KOKO Arhitektid (Lennusadama vesilennukite angaarid, Tallinna Teletorn). Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali arhitektuuripreemia - Salto Arhitektid (Tallinna Ülikooli BFMi hoone), restaureerimispreemia - Emil Urbeli arhitektuuribüroo (Vilsandi päästejaama paadikuur), sisearhitektuuripreemia - KAOS Arhitektid (Tartu Ülikooli Ajaloomuuseumi varakamber), maastikuarhitektuuripreemia - Eesti Maastikuarhitektide Liit (maastikuarhitektuuri kongressi "Märka tühimikku. Uue ajastu maastikud" korraldamine), arhitektuurialase tegevuse preemia - prof. dr. Jüri Soolep ja elutööpreemia - prof. dr. Karl Õiger

  17. Pärnu on Eesti funktsionalismi lipulaev / Anu Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu uusehitistest - Seedri tänava elamud (arhitekt Kalle Vellevoog), kortermaja Tammsaare ja Lehe tänava nurgal (arhitekt Tanel Tuhal arhitektuuribüroost Luhse ja Tuhal) ja kesklinna koolide võimla (arhitektid Katrin Koov, Siiri Vallner, Kaire Nõmm ja Heidi Urb arhitektuuribüroost KAVA KAVA). Pärnu arhitektuurist võtavad sõna Pärnu Linnavalitsuse arhitekt Karri Tiigisoon, Helle-Ann Urgard, Tanel Tuhal, Hardi Lehemaa ja Toomas Unt

  18. Aktivita biotransformačních enzymů u muflonů s dikroceliózou a u zdravých muflonů

    OpenAIRE

    Urbánková, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Biochemical Sciences Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Field: Patobiochemistry and xenobiochemistry Candidate: Mgr. Marie Urbánková Consultant: Ing. Barbora Szotáková, Ph.D. Title: The activity of biotransformation enzymes in mouflons with dicrocoeliosis and in healthy mouflons Abstract In vitro activities of cytochromes P450 (7-alkyl/aryloxyresorufin dealkyl(aryl)ases, testosterone hydroxylase/oxidase, 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin dem...

  19. Ad catacombas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Paz otero

    1965-08-01

    Full Text Available Si el mundo cristiano quiere salir victorioso en la lucha contra el mundo comunista, debe tornar la mente hacea la Urbs aeterna y sus simbólicas catatumbas; es en la Roma subterránea y eterna, tumba del paganismo oriental y cuna del cristianismo, donde la civilización europea y americana debe buscar la necesaria fortaleza espiritual.

  20. Urban Influences on Fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    SMMARY AN!) CO’i.L’S I ONS It’ Cff,vt Ot IumnI Mctivi ties on he forma.tion of fog in - large metro -- Nf , tl iroa is not ,’leaIr cot. The urbAn 1heLt...fog. J. Atmos. Sct ., 38, 454-458. I 411lett, H., 1954: Remarkable temperature variations and fog formation over snow at Stornoway, February 8, 1994

  1. Memòria Històrica i Art Públic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noélia Paz Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Adoptem la ciutat de Barcelona com una il·lustració local de la problemàtica teòrica global, considerant la seva evolució urbana en els àmbits pròxims a la memòria i el treball realitzat per a l’articulació de l’art públic i el disseny urbà.

  2. Detsibill : Meie Mees kui ANTI. White Label : Don Erikson. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Don Erikson "Israel Mix", Congotronics 2 "Buzz'n'rumble from the urb'n'jungle", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine maitse", Nirvana "Silver, The best of the Box", Singer Vinger "Eesti Kullafond", Bullet Train To Vegas "We Put Scissors Where Our Mouths Are", Ludachris "Disturbing tha peace", "Soul Satisfaction 5", The Kurt Webber's Pink Band "Café Regatt", Patrizio Buanne "The Italian", Eminem "Curtain Call"

  3. Churches claiming a right to the city? Lived urbanisms in the City of Tshwane

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ribbens; Stephan F. de Beer

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to describe how churches have responded and continue to respond to fast-changing urban environments in Pretoria Central and Mamelodi East, animating Henri Lefebvre’s sociological perspective of citadins or urban inhabitants. We make tentative interpretations and offer critical appreciation. Churches, which were historically separated from the city centre, now directly participate in claiming a right to the city. With necessary fluidity, churches express lived African urb...

  4. Propuesta de metodología para la calificación bio-ambiental de espacios verdes mediante coeficientes ecofisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Carrieri, Sergio A.; Codina, Ramón A.; Manzano, Enrique R.; Videla, Eugenia; Vespa, María Juliana; Kocsis, Cecilia Adriana; Ferro Malecki, Marianela; Fioretti, Sonia B.

    2009-01-01

    Uno de los mayores problemas que enfrentan las urbes modernas es su crecimiento horizontal en base a cemento y asfalto, cubriendo grandes extensiones. Su resultado es un importante incremento de la temperatura llamado efecto "isla de calor", aspecto de particular importancia en años venideros por el creciente calentamiento global, a lo cual se añade la contaminación por gases y partículas. Las ...

  5. Countering Terrorism Through Control of Pakistan’s Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    consider the Shia infidels . On the other hand, Deobandi followers are more flexible in comparison, and generally do not support killing Shia unless they...data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS; Gross National Income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. World...and working strength, where required. The trust reportedly manages foreign funds of JeM and was one of Osama bin Laden’s sources of income . The trust

  6. Saatkonnahoonete buum / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2008-01-01

    Pekingi (võidutöö "Tetris" autorid: Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel, Liisa Põime) ja Riia (võidutöö "Teele" autorid: Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör, Heidi Urb) Eesti saatkonnahoonete arhitektuurivõistlustest, võidu- ja premeeritud töödest. Eesti virtuaalsest saatkonnahoonest Second Life'is (arhitekt Scope Cleaver, disainer Miko Omegamu, skulptor Seifert Surface)

  7. Bum stroitelstva zdanii posolstva / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2008-01-01

    Pekingi (võidutöö "Tetris" autorid: Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel, Liisa Põime) ja Riia (võidutöö "Teele" autorid: Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör, Heidi Urb) Eesti saatkonnahoonete arhitektuurivõistlustest, võidu- ja premeeritud töödest. Eesti virtuaalsest saatkonnahoonest Second Life'is (arhitekt Scope Cleaver, disainer Miko Omegamu, skulptor Seifert Surface)

  8. Archeologické doklady výroby z 12.-13./14. století v jihovýchodní části Brna ve vztahu k vývoji zástavby

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2012 (2011), 212-251 ISSN 1803-1749. [Forum urbes medii aevi /7./. Křtiny, 13.05.2008-16.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/09/1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Early and High Middle Ages * production * Brno Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Aproximación a los procedimientos de ilación narrativa en los historiadores latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luque Moreno

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available What is intended here is an approach of a statistical nature towards the different techniques by which the narrative thread is established and maintained in Roman historiographical prose. The different techniques are determined as well as the approximate frequency of each one of them in Caesar, De Bello Gallico I; Sallust, De Coniuratione Catilinae; Livy, Ab Urbe Condita I; Tacituas, Annales I and Agricola, and Suetonius, Diuus Iulius.

  10. CARRER DE LA AMARGURA: CAP A UNA RENOVACIÓ URBANA AMB ACTIVITAT HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Barrantes Chaves

    2013-12-01

    Un dels grans objectius d’aquest procés es generar l’apropiació de l’espai públic pels usuaris de Calle de la Amargura i servir de plataforma per a executar les diferents iniciatives, on poc a poc es depengui cada cop menys de l’equip facilitador i la comunitat s’apropiï de l’espai urbà que li pertany.

  11. Osobnjak na beregu morja - lutshsheje betonnoje strojenije 2003 goda / Enno Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Enno, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    2003. a. parim betoonehitis - arhitekt Emil Urbeli kavandatud eramu (projekteerija TA Konsult OÜ, betoonitööde teostaja Mapri Projekt OÜ). Eriauhinna arhitektuurse lahenduse eest sai Siiri Vallneri, Hanno Grossschmidti ja Tomomi Hayashi kavandatud Lasnamäe spordihoone (projekteerija TA Konsult OÜ, ehitasid Eesti Ehitus OÜ, AS E-Betoonelement - ka betoonisegu tarnija) ja betoonitehnoloogia eest AS E-Betoonelement Ekseko seafarmi sõnnikuhoidla eest Viljandimaal. IV betoonipäevast

  12. Aasta Betoonehitis 2003 - elamu mere kaldal / Enno Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Enno, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    2003. a. parim betoonehitis - arhitekt Emil Urbeli kavandatud eramu (projekteerija TA Konsult OÜ, betoonitööde teostaja Mapri Projekt OÜ). Eriauhinna arhitektuurse lahenduse eest sai Siiri Vallneri, Hanno Grossschmidti ja Tomomi Hayashi kavandatud Lasnamäe spordihoone (projekteerija TA Konsult OÜ, ehitasid Eesti Ehitus OÜ, AS E-Betoonelement - ka betoonisegu tarnija) ja betoonitehnoloogia eest AS E-Betoonelement Ekseko seafarmi sõnnikuhoidla eest Viljandimaal. IV betoonipäevast

  13. Eesti läheb Riia saatkonna ehitusega teisele katsele / Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Post, Eda, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Riia Eesti suursaatkonnahoone arhitektuurikonkursist. Esikoha pälvisid Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör ja Heidi Urb (võistlustöö "Teele"), teise koha saavutasid Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark, Ott Hirvesoo ja Peeter Veimer ("Horta"), kolmanda koha Juris Mitenbergs, Peteris Suprins, Zane Krumina, Uldis Tucs, Edgars Gribusts ja Edijs Kravalis ("White Cube.ee)

  14. Tellisepreemia 2004 / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2004-01-01

    27. V 2004 premeeriti Viinis Euroopa parimate tellishoonete loojaid ja esitleti raamatut "Brick'04". Eestist valiti raamatusse Emil Urbeli kavandatud villa Tallinnas Pirita teel. Võistluse initsiaator tellisetootja Wienerberger AG. I preemia - jalakäijate tunnel Praha kindluse juures (arhitekt Josef Pleskot), II - Humboldti Ülikooli tehniline ehitis (Benedict Tonon), III - korterelamu Veneetsias (Cino Zucchi), üks eripreemiatest - eramu Šveitsis Aargaus (Peter ja Christian Frei). 3 ill

  15. Do we need full mesoscale models to simulate the urban heat island? A study over the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Hooyberghs, Hans; Lauwaet, Dirk; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become an important part of the global climate change impact assessment. However, due to the high resolution required, these simulations demand a large amount of computational resources. Here we present a comparison between a simplified fast urban climate model (UrbClim) and a widely used full mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, over the city of Barcelona. In order to check the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, both simulations were compared with station data and with land surface temperature observations retrieved by satellites, focusing on the urban heat island. The effect of changing the UrbClim boundary conditions was studied too, by using low resolution global reanalysis data (70 km) and a higher resolution forecast model (15 km). Finally, a strict comparison of the computational resources consumed by both models was carried out. Results show that, generally, the performance of the simple model is comparable to or better than the mesoscale model. The exception are the winds and the day-to-day correlation in the reanalysis driven run, but these problems disappear when taking the boundary conditions from a higher resolution global model. UrbClim was found to run 133 times faster than WRF, using 4x times higher resolution and, thus, it is an efficient solution for running long climate change simulations over large city ensembles.

  16. Potencial inseticida de plantas medicinais encontradas na Amazônia Central contra o pulgão-da-couve Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Thamiris Sousa de Alencar Silva; Juliana Erica Cirino Nascimento; Mariana Vieira Porsani; Leandro Lacerda Giacomin; Alex Sandro Poltronieri; Maria Aparecida Cassilha Zawadneak; Ida Chapaval Pimentel; Leopoldo Clemente Baratto

    2017-01-01

    Resumo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial inseticida e a ação repelente sobre o pulgão-da-couve [Brevicoryne brassicae (L.)] de extratos de cinco espécies de plantas ocorrentes e cultivadas na Amazônia Central: Crescentia cujete L., Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson, Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Schnella sp. e Protium sp. Os extratos foram utilizados na concentração de 10% e o inseticida botânico a base de azadiractina (Azamax®) foi usado como controle. Pa...

  17. El mático de la Región de Cuyo (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Espinar, Luis; Bonzani, Norma

    1992-01-01

    Se estudiaron los caracteres morfoanatómicos de valor diagnóstico de dos especies conocidas en la Argentina con el nombre vulgar de "mático" o "matico": una piperácea andina (Piper elongatum Vahl) y una asterácea (Artemisia douglasiana Bess.) asilvestrada y cultivada en la región de Cuyo (Provincia de San Juan, La Rioja, San Luis y Mendoza). Esta última ha despertado el interés de los fitoquímicos y es utilizada como antiulcerosa en medicina popular.

  18. Polyporus arcularius BATSCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast., 1892, dans la forêt d'Aït Atab (Sud-Ouest du Moyen Atlas,. 1 000 m d'altitude). Le Chapeau est circulaire (2 à 2,5 cm de diamètre), plan-convexe, déprimé au centre. La surface est méchuleuse. Les méchules sont de couleur brun foncé au centre et brun clair vers la marge. La chair est ...

  19. Morfologia polínica da tribo Canarieae (Burseraceae) na América do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Sierra, Clara Isabel; Melhem, Therezinha Sant'Anna

    1998-01-01

    (Morfologia polínica da tribo Canarieae (Burseraceae) na América do Sul). A tribo Canarieae está representada na América do Sul por dois gêneros, Dacryodes Vahl e Trattinnickia Willd. Foram examinados os grãos de pólen de 27 exsicatas que representam 12 táxons. O material polínico foi acetolisado, medido, descrito e fotografado em microscopia óptica e, na maioria dos casos, também em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As medidas receberam tratamento estatístico adequado ao tamanho da amostr...

  20. Seasonal changes in zooplankton swimmer community collected by sediment trap moored in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.; Honda, M. C.; Matsuno, K.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    For high-latitude oceanic region, life cycle of zooplankton is difficult to evaluate by ordinary ship-board observation. To overcome this problem, zooplankton monitoring on swimmer samples collected by sediment trap may be a powerful tool. In this study, we studied seasonal changes in zooplankton community based on the swimmer samples (>1 mm) collected by a sediment trap moored at 200 m depth at St. K2 (47°N, 160°E) in the western subarctic Pacific with one- to two-week intervals during July 2013 to May 2014. Zooplankton abundance and biomass showed clear seasonal pattern, and were higher during July-August. Cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis methods) separated samples into three groups. Occurrence of each group had clear seasonal pattern: i.e. group A characterized with high abundance with dominance of copepods Eucalanus bungii and Neocalanus plumchrus occurred during July to September, followed by group B with few abundance dominated by chaetognaths during October to December, then group C dominated by Neocalanus cristatus and Paraeuchaeta elongata during January to March. For dominant copepods, seasonal changes in population structure, lipid content and gonad developmental stage were observed. Thus, most males of E. bungii were C4 and C5 until February, while the composition of adults (C6M) suddenly increased and reached 80% at end of March. These drastic changes in copepod population structure are considered as a reflection of their arousal from diapause at that depth. Carnivorous P. elongata showed high abundance during March to July, and both egg-sac-carrying and spermatophore-attached adult females (C6F) were occurred during that period. These facts suggest that active reproduction of P. elongata was at that season. Results of this study suggest that seasonal monitoring on zooplankton swimmer collected by sediment trap is a powerful tool to evaluate life cycle of the oceanic zooplankton species.

  1. [{sup 11}C]CURB: Evaluation of a novel radiotracer for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Alan A., E-mail: alan.wilson@camhpet.c [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Garcia, Armando; Parkes, Jun [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong, Junchao [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Vasdev, Neil [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the enzyme responsible for metabolising the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, and thus represents an important target for molecular imaging. To date, no radiotracer has been shown to be useful for imaging of FAAH using either positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We here determine the suitability of a novel carbon-11-labeled inhibitor of FAAH via ex vivo biodistribution studies in rat brain in conjunction with pharmacological challenges. Methods: A potent irreversible inhibitor of FAAH, URB694, radiolabeled with carbon-11 in the carbonyl position ([{sup 11}C]CURB), was administered to male rats via tail-vein injection. Rats were sacrificed at various time points postinjection, and tissue samples were dissected, counted and weighed. Specific binding to FAAH was investigated by pretreatment of animals with URB694 or URB597. For metabolism and mechanism of binding studies, whole brains were excised post-radiotracer injection, homogenised and extracted exhaustively with 80% aq. acetonitrile to determine the time course and fraction of radioactivity that was irreversibly bound to brain parenchyma. Results: Upon intravenous injection into rats, [{sup 11}C]CURB showed high brain uptake [standard uptake value (SUV) of 1.6-2.4 at 5 min] with little washout over time, which is characteristic of irreversible binding. Highest uptake of radioactivity was seen in the cortex, intermediate in the cerebellum and lowest in the hypothalamus, reflecting the reported distribution of FAAH. Brain uptake of radioactivity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with increasing amounts of URB694, demonstrating that binding was saturable. Pretreatment with the well-characterised FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced binding in all brain regions by 70-80%. Homogenised brain extraction experiments demonstrated unequivocally that [{sup 11}C]CURB was irreversibly bound to FAAH

  2. [11C]CURB: Evaluation of a novel radiotracer for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Alan A.; Garcia, Armando; Parkes, Jun; Houle, Sylvain; Tong, Junchao; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the enzyme responsible for metabolising the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, and thus represents an important target for molecular imaging. To date, no radiotracer has been shown to be useful for imaging of FAAH using either positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We here determine the suitability of a novel carbon-11-labeled inhibitor of FAAH via ex vivo biodistribution studies in rat brain in conjunction with pharmacological challenges. Methods: A potent irreversible inhibitor of FAAH, URB694, radiolabeled with carbon-11 in the carbonyl position ([ 11 C]CURB), was administered to male rats via tail-vein injection. Rats were sacrificed at various time points postinjection, and tissue samples were dissected, counted and weighed. Specific binding to FAAH was investigated by pretreatment of animals with URB694 or URB597. For metabolism and mechanism of binding studies, whole brains were excised post-radiotracer injection, homogenised and extracted exhaustively with 80% aq. acetonitrile to determine the time course and fraction of radioactivity that was irreversibly bound to brain parenchyma. Results: Upon intravenous injection into rats, [ 11 C]CURB showed high brain uptake [standard uptake value (SUV) of 1.6-2.4 at 5 min] with little washout over time, which is characteristic of irreversible binding. Highest uptake of radioactivity was seen in the cortex, intermediate in the cerebellum and lowest in the hypothalamus, reflecting the reported distribution of FAAH. Brain uptake of radioactivity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with increasing amounts of URB694, demonstrating that binding was saturable. Pretreatment with the well-characterised FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced binding in all brain regions by 70-80%. Homogenised brain extraction experiments demonstrated unequivocally that [ 11 C]CURB was irreversibly bound to FAAH. Conclusions

  3. Westward advancement of Pseudonereis anomala (Polychaeta: Nereididae in the Mediterranean Basin (Piraeus, Saronikos Bay, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KAMBOUROGLOU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the establishment of the Lessepsian Pseudonereis anomala (Gravier, 1901 in its new locality in the port of Piraeus (Saronikos Bay and provides additional information on its population. The mean densities of P. anomala ranged from 0 indiv./m2 to 382.5 indiv./m2 among the calcareous alga Corallina elongata. A variety of sizes (length of the head and fi rst ten chaetigerous segments was observed ranging fromPseudonereis anomala; Saronikos Gulf; Polychaete; Immigrant. 1.3mm to 8.1mm. There are indications that P. anomala may compete with other species of Nereididae. Accepted in December 2006

  4. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan)'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    OpenAIRE

    DURUCAN, Furkan; TURNA, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Özet: Bu araştırma Antalya batı kıyılarında dağılım gösteren ekonomik olabilecek deniz alglerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla 5 istasyonda (Lara, Faselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan) mevsimsel örneklemelerle yürütülmüştür. Çalışma sonunda Rhodopyhta'dan Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus), Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin) Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, Porphyr...

  5. Diversity in transcripts and translational pattern of stress proteins in marine extremophiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, I.V.A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    such as heat shock, salt stress, oxidative stress and nutrient starvation. Hyper-osmotic shock induced a general stress response. Notable transient responses were those of 21, 46 and 98kDa OSPs (Mojica et al., 1997). HSP of 98 and 18-22kDa have also been... response. In the studies described here, it can be seen that the hypo-osmotic shock mimicked a heat shock response. The 85 and 79kDa species in H. elongata could correspond to the similar-molecular-weight HSPs described for H. volcanii (Daniels et al...

  6. Consumo de algas marinas: su influencia en el valor nutritivo de la dieta y en diversos parámetros fisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Lence, Rosendo

    2016-01-01

    En general, las algas marinas son una buena fuente de fibra al mismo tiempo que proporcionan vitaminas, minerales y nutracéuticos de interés para la alimentación humana. Por ello, en este estudio se analiza cómo influye la ingesta de las algas marinas Porphyra purpurea, Undaria pinnatifida, Himanthalia elongata, Ulva rigida y Codium tomentosum en la calidad nutritiva del alimento y en diversos parámetros hemáticos. Debido a que las enzimas implicadas en los procesos digestivos se adaptan a la...

  7. Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from weasel sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae) of Australia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Timothy R; Healy, Claire J; Shapero, Scot

    2006-02-01

    Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994, P. janineae n. sp. and P. kirstenae n. sp., are described from the spiral intestine of 2 shark species of the Family Hemigaleidae: Hemigaleus microstoma and Hemipristis elongata. The 2 new cestode species differ from other members of Paraorygmatobothrium in vitelline follicle distribution and possession of a cephalic peduncle. The 2 new species differ from 1 another in total length, maximum width, scolex size, number of proglottids per strobila, and number of testes per proglottid. The generic diagnosis of Paraorygmatobothrium is emended to include the new species. The results of this study extend the distribution of Paraorygmatobothrium to include the carcharhinid shark family Hemigaleidae.

  8. Vegetable communities and degradation patterns and succession in the vegetation of the Western Hills of Chia, Cundinamarca - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Sandra P; Van der Hammen, Thomas; Rangel Ch, J Orlando

    1999-01-01

    Two physiognomic plant communities were characterized: open vegetation which include the associations Dichondro repentis - Cupheetum serpyllifoliae (meadows), Baccharido rupicolae - Dodonaeetum viscosae (low shrubby vegetation), Andropogono aequatoriensis - Epidendretum elongatae (casmophytic vegetation) and Chaetolepido microphyllae-Espeletiopsietum corymbosae (shrubby vegetation-type with rosette plants). The closed vegetation includes two kinds of forests, Miconio ligustrinae- Weinmannietum tomentosae and Daphnopsio caracasanae - Xylosmetum spiculiferae. According to the floristic composition, depth of the soil, slope climate, relief and the anthropic influence (including degradation and natural succession), two trends in plant succession were defined

  9. Microsatellite markers in Paulownia kawakamii (Scrophulariaceae) and cross-amplification in other Paulownia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H W; Duan, J M; Zhang, P; Cheng, Y Q; Wu, J W; Wang, G Z

    2013-09-19

    Paulownia kawakamii is a fast-growing timber tree. In this study, 21 primer sets were developed using an enriched genomic library. The genetic diversity was measured in one P. kawakamii population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.158 to 0.842 (mean = 0.421) and from 0.376 to 0.952 (mean = 0.771), respectively. All 21 loci were also polymorphic in closely related species (P. tomentosa, P. elongata, and P. fortunei). The described markers will be useful in future population genetic studies and molecular breeding of these Paulownia species.

  10. The role of biological activity (roots, earthworms) in medium-term C dynamics in vertisol under a Digitaria decumbens (Gramineae) pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, Tiphaine; Blanchart, Eric; Girardin, C.; Mariotti, A.; Albrecht, Alain; Feller, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The natural abundance of 13C was used to estimate the turnover of the soil organic matter in vertisol re-grassed with #Digitaria decumbens$ (C4 plant) following intensive market gardening (C3 plants). In addition, the experimental design allowed us to determine the respective roles of roots and earthworms (#Polypheretima elongata$) in soil C stock restoration in #D. decumbens$ pasture. The C stock increased from 31 to 37 Mg C/ha in 5 years and the delta13C increased from -18.1% in market gard...

  11. Corallina and Ellisolandia (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) photophysiology over daylight tidal emersion: interactions with irradiance, temperature and carbonate chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, C. J.; Brodie, J.; Goss, B.; Yallop, M.; Lee, S.; Perkins, R.

    2014-01-01

    The photophysiology of three geniculate coralline algal species (Corallina officinalis, C. caespitosa and Ellisolandia elongata) was determined in intertidal rock pools in the south-west UK at Combe Martin (51°12′31N 4°2′19W) and Heybrook Bay (50°31′66N 4°11′41W), at the start, middle and end of summer (September 1 and 2) and winter (February 9 and 10) daylight tidal emersion periods, in relation to prevailing irradiance, temperature and carbonate chemistry conditions. Algal photophysiology w...

  12. Earthworms of the 'acaecate' Pheretima group in Vietnam (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae), with description of a new species from the Mekong delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Tran, Binh T T; Nguyen, Anh D

    2014-09-22

    The 'acaecate' Pheretima group from Vietnam is revised, with description of a new species, Polypheretima mekongmontis sp. nov. A total of 18 species of three genera, Metapheretima Michaelsen, 1928, Planapheretima Michaelsen, 1934, and Polypheretima Michaelsen, 1934 has been recorded from Vietnam. Caecate species of Planapheretima are included here as well. Planapheretima arboricola (Rosa, 1890), Pl. lacertina (Chen, 1946), Pl. tenebrica (Chen, 1946), Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872), and Po. taprobanae (Beddard, 1892) are originally recorded from other countries; all remaining species are native to Vietnam. The species Polypheretima tani (Thai, 1996) and Po. tiencanhensis (Pham, 1995) are transferred to the genus Metapheretima. A key to species and distribution maps are also presented.

  13. STUDI JENIS DAN POTENSI OBAT PADA TUMBUHAN FICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummul Hasanah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the morphology and the medicinal potential of the Ficus plants in the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. The study was conducted in April—November 2016. The plant exploration was conducted with cruise method. The research procedure consists of sampling, morphological characterization, species identification, and medicinal potential review. The morphological characterization is used for identification purposes. Identification shows that there are several Ficus plants, those are Ficus botryocarpa Miq., Ficus exasperata Vahl, Ficus microcarpa Lf, Ficus racemosa L., and, Ficus variegate Blume which has potential as anti-cancer, anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhea, and antioxidants. Penelitian ini mengkaji morfologi dan potensi obat pada tumbuhan Ficus yang terdapat di Taman Nasional Bantimurung Bulusaraung. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April—November 2016. Eksplorasi tumbuhan dilakukan dengan metode jelajah bebas. Prosedur penelitian terdiri dari pengambilan sampel, karakterisasi morfologi, identifikasi jenis, dan kajian potensi obat. Karakterisasi morfologi digunakan untuk kepentingan identifikasi. Identifikasi menunjukkan terdapat beberapa tumbuhan Ficus, antara lain Ficus botryocarpa Miq., Ficus exasperata Vahl., Ficus microcarpa L.f., Ficus racemosa L., dan Ficus variegate Blume yang berpotensi sebagai anti kanker, anti mikroba, analgesik, anti inflamasi, anti diare, dan antioksidan.

  14. Oxytocin inhibiting effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae) on the isolated rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafor, Enitome E; Omogbai, Eric K I; Ozolua, Ray I

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Ficus exasperata Vahl Enum. Pl. vahl (Moraceae) are used by traditional healers in Southern Nigeria and some parts of Africa to avoid preterm births. However, previous reports showed that the plant also exhibited uterine contractions at specific concentrations. This study is therefore aimed at investigating the purported uterine inhibitory aspect of the plant on the isolated rat uterus. The aqueous extract (AET) was tested on rhythmic spontaneous uterine contractions. Concentration-response relationships were obtained for oxytocin (OT), acetylcholine (ACh) and ergometrine (EGM), in the presence or absence of fixed concentrations of AET. Salbutamol (SBL) and verapamil (VER) were used as positive controls. AET, at 1.0 x 10(-2) mg/mL, significantly increased (p < 0.05) the EC50 of oxytocin-induced contractions but had no significant effect on ACh, EGM and spontaneous uterine contractions. However, SBL and VER significantly increased (p < 0.01) the EC50, of OT, ACh and EGM and significantly inhibited (p < 0.01) the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous uterine contractions. The aqueous leaf extract of F. exasperata inhibits oxytocin-induced uterine contractions at the concentration shown in this study. This observation may explain its folkloric use in counteracting preterm contractions and alleviating dysmenorrhoea.

  15. [Results of testing the comparative method: the curvature of the shell valve frontal section is inappropriate as a systematic character for the freshwater pearl mussel of the genus Margaritifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, I N; Makhrov, A A; Bespalaia, Iu V; Vikhrev, I V; Aksenova, O V; Pal'tser, I S; Rudzite, M; Rudzitas, M; Voroshilova, I S; Sokolova, S E

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues a discussion on the number of pearl mussel species of the genus Margaritifera in northern Europe. A biometric study of 1711 pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera shells from 15 rivers in Russia and Latvia (basins of the White and Baltic seas) has been conducted. All the examined samples fall into two groups: the northern group (with the shells more flattened on average, f. margaritifera) and the southern one (with more convex shells, f. elongata); the boundary between these groups is at 63 degrees N. Analysis of intrapopulation variation has shown that the samples contain individuals that correspond to f. margaritifera, f. elongata, and f. borealis. However, any hiatus between these forms is absent in all the samples, and individuals belonging to two intermediate forms are rather frequent. The hypothesis on the species specificity of the shell valve frontal section has not been confirmed based on examination of large shell samples. The pearl mussels inhabiting rivers of Northern Europe belong to a single species, M. margaritifera.

  16. Vulnerability and acclimation to increased UVB radiation in three intertidal macroalgae of different morpho-functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Félix L; Domínguez-González, Belén; Korbee, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The vulnerability and acclimation to increased UVB radiation in three macroalgae of different morpho-functional groups collected in the Mediterranean coastal waters were evaluated. The algae were submitted for 7 days to increased (PAB+) and decreased (PAB-) UVB radiation. The thickness and morphology influenced the response to increased UVB radiation, being Cystoseira tamariscifolia the less vulnerable algae followed by Ellisolandia elongata. The highest resistance to increased UVB radiation in C. tamariscifolia was related to the accumulation of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity, whereas E. elongata was due to its high reflectance. Finally, Ulva rigida suffered the highest photoinhibition under PAB+ culture. The latest species presented 10 times lower polyphenol content and antioxidant activity than C. tamariscifolia. The three species showed different acclimation patterns to the changes of UVB radiation related to the morphology, photosynthetic activity, accumulation of photoprotectors and antioxidant activities. The ecological implications of the UVB variations on macroalgae are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional and bioactive compounds of commercialized algae powders used as food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Castillejo, Noelia; Carrión-Monteagudo, María Del M; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    The main nutritional/bioactive compounds (protein; aminoacids, AA; fucose; minerals; vitamins B12 and C; and total phenolic content, TPC) of nine commercial algae powders, used as food supplements, were studied. Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest protein/aminoacid contents (51.6/54.4 g 100 g -1 ). Among brown macroalgae, Himanthalia elongata showed the highest fucose content (26.3 g kg -1 ) followed by Laminaria ochroleuca (22.5 g kg -1 ). Mineral contents of 15-24% were observed in the algae, being particularly excellent sources of iodine (69.0-472.0 mg kg -1 ). Porphyra spp. and Palmaria palmata showed the highest vitamin B12 contents (667-674 µg kg -1 ). Vitamin C ranged among 490.4-711.8 mg kg -1 . H. elongata showed the highest total phenolic content (14.0 g kg -1 ). In conclusion, the studied algae are excellent sources of protein, AA, minerals, vitamin C and some of them presented particularly high vitamin B12 and fucose contents, which may have a potential use as food supplements.

  18. A numerical phenotypic taxonomic study of the genus Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S J; Sneath, P H

    1994-10-01

    A numerical phenotypic taxonomic study of 315 strains of Neisseria and some allied bacteria examined for 155 phenotypic tests showed 31 groups, most of which were reasonably distinct. These fell into four major areas. Areas A, B and C contained species of Neisseria, whereas area D contained the organisms known as 'false neisserias' together with Branhamella, Moraxella and Kingella species. Area A contained N. gonorrhoeae (which showed two subgroups), N. meningitidis (with two subgroups, and N. cinerea closely associated), N. polysaccharea, N. elongata subsp, glycolytica and N. lactamica. Area B contained mainly organisms from the human nasopharynx, and the nine groups were not very distinct: only three, N. mucosa, N. perflava and N. sicca could be recognized by the presence of type strains, and there was little relationship between taxonomic position and species epithets. Area C contained several groups from animals, N. animalis, N. canis and two phenons that may be justified as new species of Neisseria, one from lizards and the other from dental plaque of herbivores. Area C also contained N. elongata, N. subflava (with N. flavescens), type strain of Morococcus cerebrosis and the CDC groups M-5 (N. weaveri) and EF-4. Area D contained Branhamella catarrhalis, a combined group which consists of strains of the 'false neisserias' N. caviae and N. cuniculi, the 'false neisseria' N. ovis, and a group of Moraxella strains. A small group representing Kingella kingae is included in area D. Mean test error was 1.7%.

  19. Microplankton of the Barents Sea: current composition and structure on the eve of the winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarevich P. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of microplankton (Protista investigations in the Barents Sea (standard "Kola Meridian Transect", ~70–78° N, 33° 30′ E in November / December have been presented. Samples for the determination of the taxonomical composition and abundance have been fixed with buffered formalin and examined with light microscopy using Nageotte counting chambers. A list of species recorded in the Barents Sea on transect, abundance and vertical distribution of microplankton has been given: a the seasonal composition of species (Ceratium fusus, Dicroerisma psilonereiella, Dinophysis rotundata, Lessardia elongata aff., Oxytoxum caudatum, Pronoctiluca pelagica, Protoperidinium brevipes, Prorocentrum balticum (Dinophyta, Corethron criophilum (Bacillariophyta, Coccolithus pelagicus (Haptophyta, Halosphaera viridis (Prasinophyta; b mean values of the total biomass of microplankton and its distribution in the water column (1.14 mkg/l in the layer of 50–0 m, 0.97 mkg/l – 100–50 m, 0.75 mkg/l – 200–100 m, 0.53 mkg/l – 300–200 m. Such parameter as dominant species in the structure of the total number is less constant (the ordinary dominant O. caudatum, subdominants – L. elongata aff., P. balticum, C. pelagicus, C. criophilum; in some years, at selected sites of the Barents Sea most of the total number has been formed to unusual species (Emiliania huxleyi, Mesoporos perforatus. The less stable characteristics of microplancton are dominant species composition in the biomass structure, total number of cells and their distribution in the water column.

  20. Species distribution models of two critically endangered deep-sea octocorals reveal fishing impacts on vulnerable marine ecosystems in central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, V; Garofalo, G; Fiorentino, F; Massi, D; Milisenda, G; Piraino, S; Russo, T; Gristina, M

    2017-08-14

    Deep-sea coral assemblages are key components of marine ecosystems that generate habitats for fish and invertebrate communities and act as marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to human impacts such as fishing. They are an indicator of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), therefore their conservation is essential to preserve marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean Sea deep-sea coral habitats are associated with commercially important crustaceans, consequently their abundance has dramatically declined due to the effects of trawling. Marine spatial planning is required to ensure that the conservation of these habitats is achieved. Species distribution models were used to investigate the distribution of two critically endangered octocorals (Funiculina quadrangularis and Isidella elongata) in the central Mediterranean as a function of environmental and fisheries variables. Results show that both species exhibit species-specific habitat preferences and spatial patterns in response to environmental variables, but the impact of trawling on their distribution differed. In particular F. quadrangularis can overlap with fishing activities, whereas I. elongata occurs exclusively where fishing is low or absent. This study represents the first attempt to identify key areas for the protection of soft and compact mud VMEs in the central Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Using earthworms to test the efficiency of remediation of oil-polluted soil in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Gomez-Rivera, Petrona; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta; Mendoza, Ricardo Bello; Narcías, Antonio Trujillo; Marcías, Everardo Barba

    2008-11-01

    This study focuses on the medium-term effects of soil bioremediation on mortality and reproduction rates of Eisenia fetida (laboratory experiment) and of the tropical earthworm Polypheretima elongata (field experiment). We compared soils restored with the two bioremediation technologies landfarming (LF) and compost-bioremediation (BI) with control soils and with soils contaminated with 1% and 2% of petroleum. Control and restored soils both were fertile and showed low hydrocarbon contents. The mortality of E. fetida was not influenced by soil restoration and by contamination with 1% petroleum; it only increased in soils contaminated with 2% petroleum. However, the reproduction rate of E. fetida was significantly lower in the soils restored with LF and in those contaminated with 1% crude oil and significantly higher in the soils restored with BI. P. elongata showed the same reaction as E. fetida. We conclude that it is important to include reproduction or other sub-lethal tests for earthworms when estimating the efficiency of restoration techniques.

  2. Therapeutic potential of inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation for the treatment of stress-related hyperalgesia in an animal model of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Bindila, Laura; Remmers, Floor; Lerner, Raissa; Schwitter, Claudia; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of chronic stress, depression, and anxiety can increase nociception in humans and may facilitate the transition from localized to chronic widespread pain. The mechanisms underlying chronic widespread pain are still unknown, hindering the development of effective pharmacological therapies. Here, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to investigate how persistent stress affects nociception. Next, mice were treated with multiple intramuscular nerve growth factor (NGF) injections, which induced chronic widespread nociception. Thus, combination of CUS and NGF served as a model where psychophysiological impairment coexists with long-lasting hyperalgesia. We found that CUS increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior and enhanced basal nociception in mice. When co-applied with repeated NGF injections, CUS elicited a sustained long-lasting widespread hyperalgesia. In order to evaluate a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic pain associated with stress, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may represent a target signaling system. We found that URB597, an inhibitor of the anandamide-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and JZL184, an inhibitor of the 2-arachidonoyl glycerol-degrading enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), increased eCB levels in the brain and periphery and were both effective in reducing CUS-induced anxiety measured by the light-dark test and CUS-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Remarkably, the long-lasting widespread hyperalgesia induced by combining CUS and NGF was effectively reduced by URB597, but not by JZL184. Simultaneous inhibition of FAAH and MAGL did not improve the overall therapeutic response. Therefore, our findings indicate that enhancement of anandamide signaling with URB597 is a promising pharmacological approach for the alleviation of chronic widespread nociception in stress-exposed mice, and thus, it could represent a potential treatment strategy

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of MAGL attenuates experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Ester; Borrelli, Francesca; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Barbara; Monti, Martina; Morbidelli, Lucia; Aviello, Gabriella; Imperatore, Roberta; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Buono, Lorena; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Western countries. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) exerts antiproliferative actions in a number of tumoral cell lines, including CRC cells. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), a serine hydrolase that inactivates 2-AG, is highly expressed in aggressive human cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of MAGL in experimental colon carcinogenesis. The role of MAGL was assessed in vivo by using the xenograft and the azoxymethane models of colon carcinogenesis; MAGL expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry; 2-AG levels were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; angiogenesis was evaluated in tumor tissues [by microvessel counting and by investigating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) proteins] as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC); cyclin D1 was evaluated by RT-PCR. MAGL and 2-AG were strongly expressed in tumor tissues. The MAGL inhibitor URB602 reduced xenograft tumor volume, this effect being associated to down-regulation of VEGF and FGF-2, reduction in the number of vessels and down-regulation of cyclin D1. In HUVEC, URB602 exerted a direct antiangiogenic effect by inhibiting FGF-2 induced proliferation and migration, and by modulating pro/anti-angiogenic agents. In experiments aiming at investigating the role of MAGL in chemoprevention, URB602 attenuated azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions, polyps and tumors. MAGL, possibly through modulation of angiogenesis, plays a pivotal role in experimental colon carcinogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of MAGL could represent an innovative therapeutic approach to reduce colorectal tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling protects against cocaine-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Luciano R. [Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gobira, Pedro H.; Viana, Thercia G. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Medeiros, Daniel C.; Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H. [Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Doria, Juliana G. [Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flávia [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Aguiar, Daniele C. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, Grace S.; Massessini, André R. [Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ribeiro, Fabíola M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Antonio Carlos P. de [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Moraes, Marcio F.D., E-mail: mfdm@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Fabricio A., E-mail: fabriciomoreira@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-08-01

    Cocaine is an addictive substance with a potential to cause deleterious effects in the brain. The strategies for treating its neurotoxicity, however, are limited. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system exerts neuroprotective functions against various stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main enzyme responsible for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide, reduces seizures and cell death in the hippocampus in a model of cocaine intoxication. Male Swiss mice received injections of endocannabinoid-related compounds followed by the lowest dose of cocaine that induces seizures, electroencephalographic activity and cell death in the hippocampus. The molecular mechanisms were studied in primary cell culture of this structure. The FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced cocaine-induced seizures and epileptiform electroencephalographic activity. The cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor selective agonist, ACEA, mimicked these effects, whereas the antagonist, AM251, prevented them. URB597 also inhibited cocaine-induced activation and death of hippocampal neurons, both in animals and in primary cell culture. Finally, we investigated if the PI3K/Akt/ERK intracellular pathway, a cell surviving mechanism coupled to CB{sub 1} receptor, mediated these neuroprotective effects. Accordingly, URB597 injection increased ERK and Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Moreover, the neuroprotective effect of this compound was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the pharmacological facilitation of the anandamide/CB1/PI3K signaling protects the brain against cocaine intoxication in experimental models. This strategy may be further explored in the development of treatments for drug-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • Cocaine toxicity is characterized by seizures and hippocampal cell death. • The endocannabinoid anandamide acts as a brain protective mechanism. • Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis

  5. The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapper, Jason R; Mangieri, Regina A; Piomelli, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in brain regions relevant to the regulation of pain, emotion, motivation, and cognition. This signaling system is engaged by the active component of cannabis, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), which exerts its pharmacological effects by activation of G protein-coupled type-1 (CB1) and type-2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. During frequent cannabis use a series of poorly understood neuroplastic changes occur, which lead to the development of dependence. Abstinence in cannabinoid-dependent individuals elicits withdrawal symptoms that promote relapse into drug use, suggesting that pharmacological strategies aimed at alleviating cannabis withdrawal might prevent relapse and reduce dependence. Cannabinoid replacement therapy and CB1 receptor antagonism are two potential treatments for cannabis dependence that are currently under investigation. However, abuse liability and adverse side-effects may limit the scope of each of these approaches. A potential alternative stems from the recognition that (i) frequent cannabis use may cause an adaptive down-regulation of brain endocannabinoid signaling, and (ii) that genetic traits that favor hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system in humans may decrease susceptibility to cannabis dependence. These findings suggest in turn that pharmacological agents that elevate brain levels of the endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), might alleviate cannabis withdrawal and dependence. One such agent, the fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, selectively increases anandamide levels in the brain of rodents and primates. Preclinical studies show that URB597 produces analgesic, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects in rodents, which are not accompanied by overt signs of abuse liability. In this article, we review evidence suggesting that (i) cannabis influences brain

  6. Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling protects against cocaine-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, Luciano R.; Gobira, Pedro H.; Viana, Thercia G.; Medeiros, Daniel C.; Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H.; Doria, Juliana G.; Rodrigues, Flávia; Aguiar, Daniele C.; Pereira, Grace S.; Massessini, André R.; Ribeiro, Fabíola M.; Oliveira, Antonio Carlos P. de; Moraes, Marcio F.D.; Moreira, Fabricio A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is an addictive substance with a potential to cause deleterious effects in the brain. The strategies for treating its neurotoxicity, however, are limited. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system exerts neuroprotective functions against various stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main enzyme responsible for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide, reduces seizures and cell death in the hippocampus in a model of cocaine intoxication. Male Swiss mice received injections of endocannabinoid-related compounds followed by the lowest dose of cocaine that induces seizures, electroencephalographic activity and cell death in the hippocampus. The molecular mechanisms were studied in primary cell culture of this structure. The FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced cocaine-induced seizures and epileptiform electroencephalographic activity. The cannabinoid CB 1 receptor selective agonist, ACEA, mimicked these effects, whereas the antagonist, AM251, prevented them. URB597 also inhibited cocaine-induced activation and death of hippocampal neurons, both in animals and in primary cell culture. Finally, we investigated if the PI3K/Akt/ERK intracellular pathway, a cell surviving mechanism coupled to CB 1 receptor, mediated these neuroprotective effects. Accordingly, URB597 injection increased ERK and Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Moreover, the neuroprotective effect of this compound was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the pharmacological facilitation of the anandamide/CB1/PI3K signaling protects the brain against cocaine intoxication in experimental models. This strategy may be further explored in the development of treatments for drug-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • Cocaine toxicity is characterized by seizures and hippocampal cell death. • The endocannabinoid anandamide acts as a brain protective mechanism. • Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis attenuates

  7. Early blockade of joint inflammation with a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor decreases end-stage osteoarthritis pain and peripheral neuropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Jason J; Muley, Milind M; Philpott, Holly T; Reid, Allison; Krustev, Eugene

    2017-05-25

    The endocannabinoid system has been shown to reduce inflammatory flares and pain in rodent models of arthritis. A limitation of endocannabinoids is that they are rapidly denatured by hydrolysing enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which renders them physiologically inert. Osteoarthritis (OA) is primarily a degenerative joint disease; however, it can incorporate mild inflammation and peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to determine whether early blockade of FAAH bioactivity could reduce OA-associated inflammation and joint neuropathy. The ability of this treatment to prevent end-stage OA pain development was also tested. Physiological saline or sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 0.3 mg) was injected into the right knee of male C57Bl/6 mice (20-42 g) and joint inflammation (oedema, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking) was measured over 14 days. Joint inflammation was also measured in a separate cohort of animals treated on day 1 with either saline or the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg topical onto the knee joint). In other experiments, von Frey hair tactile sensitivity was determined on days 1 and 14 in MIA-injected mice treated prophylactically with URB597 (0.3 mg/kg s.c. over the knee joint on days 0-3). Saphenous nerve myelination was also assessed in these animals on day 14 by G-ratio analysis. Intra-articular injection of MIA caused an increase in joint oedema (P pain was also attenuated. These data indicate that local inhibition of FAAH in MIA-injected knees can reduce acute inflammatory changes associated with the model. Prophylactic treatment of OA mice with the endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 was also shown to be neuroprotective and prevented the development of joint pain at later time points.

  8. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  9. Un modelo para evaluar la calidad de los programas de postgrado

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly Velazco; Alicia Inciarte; Noraida Marcano

    2008-01-01

    En esta investigación se propone un Modelo de Evaluación de la Calidad de los Programas de Postgrado. El mismo es producto de un estudio de tipo descriptivo, documental que se sustentó teóricamente en Stufflebeam y Shinkfiel (1995), David (1988), Robert Stake, Stufflebeam y Shinkfiel, (1995). Se analizaron siete modelos de evaluación de programas de postgrado: MA-EC/LUZ (Nery,1996), Modelo de Evaluación (Espinoza y Parra, 1995), Universidad Rafael Belloso Chacín (URBE, 2003), Universidad Simó...

  10. Obituario: Humberto Espinosa Taboada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teobaldo Coronado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el primer semestre de 2013 falleció en Barranquilla el Académico Humberto Espinosa Taboada. Había nacido en Corozal (Sucre el 31 de diciembre de 1928; quizá por eso –haber llegado al mundo en esta amable ciudad de la costa, nada menos que cuando el jolgorio se tomaba la urbe por la celebración del fin de año– siempre mostró ese carácter alegre y descomplicado que lo caracterizaba, sin desmedro de su caballerosidad y seriedad profesional.

  11. Estado del arte sobre la producción institucional y de la teoría crítica en torno al derecho a la ciudad.

    OpenAIRE

    Aulestia Obregón, Juan Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Puede entenderse la ciudad como una manifestación de las disputas surgidas desde el plano de lo social. En ese mismo sentido surge el concepto del derecho a la ciudad, entendido en términos generales como aquel que se tiene para decidir el tipo de urbe y su organización. Así, este derecho ha estado limitado a la construcción de espacios propicios para la acumulación de capital, para una élite minoritaria capaz de configurar la ciudad, generando un caos urbano que se evidencia en la segregació...

  12. La ciudad postmoderna como escenario de la comunicación publicitaria: ¿integración o contaminación visual publicitaria? Hacia una publicidad outdoors sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    García Carrizo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    La publicidad exterior outdoors se erige en la ciudad postmoderna formando parte de ella. En la actualidad aparecen diferentes posiciones entorno a su función, su finalidad y sus consecuencias en la ciudad. Mientras algunas la rechazan argumentando que es una de las mayores fuentes de contaminación visual de la urbe, otras la entienden como un elemento indispensable de la misma a través del cual se pueden conseguir sinergias positivas para ambas. La presente investigación pretende hacer una a...

  13. European urban sprawl: sustainability, cultures of (antiurbanism and "hybrid cityscapes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has its origins in a comparative research project examining aspects of urban sprawl in Europe undertaken within the 5.FP EU. The project Urban Sprawl: European Patterns, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development (URBS PANDENS EVK4-CT- 2001-00052 sought to understand recent trends in urban sprawl in a number of case study urban regions and to advise the European Commission on policy development with regard to the control, management and amelioration of the effects of urban sprawl.

  14. Estrategias de competitividad para impulsar la innovación del sector artesanal en comunidades del estado de Hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Ramírez, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    La actividad artesanal hoy día, sigue teniendo vigencia, tanto en sectores rurales como en las grandes urbes; por ser parte de un sector empresarial que la identifica como Pymes, presenta problemáticas muy específicas y poco atendidas, y más cuando la actividad la desarrollan los grupos étnicos. En la presente investigación se identificó como problema de estudio, la falta de estrategias de competitividad que limitan la innovación en el sector artesanal en comunidades del estado de Hidalgo, in...

  15. História e civismo na Roma liviana History and good citizenship in Livian Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalva Vilar de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo focaliza a maneira como Tito Lívio (sécs. I a.C. - I d.C. articula política, civismo e cotidiano em sua Ab urbe condita libri, através da análise das representações sociais que constrói. Discute a noção de história enquanto mimesis de um passado presentificado por Lívio nos primórdios do Império. Apresenta um Lívio construtor de uma memória da sociedade romana que retroage às épocas da realeza e da república romanas. Da ênfase conferida por Lívio a algumas dessas práticas (cerimônias e crenças religiosas, ritos funerários, relações familiares, valores sociais, disputas de poder, etc., resultou nossa compreensão de que a política constitui o fio articulador de sua escritura. Conceito que em Lívio engloba as práticas cívicas/públicas realizadas pelos cives no espaço da urbs a partir do respeito aos valores da civitas.This article focuses on the way in which Titus Livius (1BC - 1AD presented politics, good citizenship and everyday life in his Ab urbe condita libri, through an analysis of the social representations that he constructed. It argues the conception of history as a mimesis of a past offered by Livid in the beginnings of the Empire. It presents Livid as a constructor of a memory of the Roman society that modified the times of royalty and of the Roman republic. The emphasis given by Livius to some of these practices (ceremonies and religious beliefs, funeral rites, family relations, social values, power disputes etc. resulted in our understanding that politics constituted the line of thinking in his writing. It can be assessed that Livius includes civic or public practices exercised by cives in the space of the urbs respecting the values of the civitas.

  16. Konserthuset Göteborg - 21. oktober 1995 kl. 15.00 Stora Salen. I avslutning till Estival 95 Estniska Kulturdagar i Göteborg : [kontserdi kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1995-01-01

    Erkki-Sven Tüür: Insula deserta für strakorkester W. A. Mozart: vesperae solennes de confessore K 339; Eduard Tubin: Piano concertino; L. v. Beethoven: Fantasi c-moll för piano, kör och orkester, op. 80. Göteborger Symphoniker, dirigent Neeme Järvi. Solister: Vardo Rumessen, piano; Kaia Urb, sopran; Riina Airenne, mezzosopran; Mati Kõrts, tenor; Uku Joller, bas. Estniska Gosskören, Venno Laul. Esinejate lühitutvustus

  17. Methodological development based on urban mosaics to evaluate the energy efficiency and the use of solar energy in the framework of urban sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Graciela Melisa

    2017-01-01

    En Argentina, la producción y reciclado de los edificios ha crecido significativamente en los últimos años, correspondiendo el mayor porcentaje a los residenciales. En este sentido es indispensable desarrollar herramientas analíticas que permitan comprender y monitorear los procesos involucrados en el fenómeno de la urbanización y cuantificar sus consecuencias energético-ambientales. El presente trabajo desarrolla una metodología que estudia, a partir de una unidad representativa (mosaico urb...

  18. Diseño y análisis estructural de una trituradora de vidrío para reciclar botellas

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca Carriel, Luis Andres

    2009-01-01

    En la ciudad de Guayaquil se ha comenzado con la cultura del reciclaje. En algunos sitios de la urbe se encuentran puntos en donde se pueden depositar envases de distintos materiales para que sean reciclados. En ese punto empieza la cadena del reciclaje,y finaliza con la entrega del producto terminado. Muchos materiales se reciclan pero uno de ellos es el más noble y ese es el vidrio ya que es un material reciclable ciento por ciento, con una ventaja adicional que su costo de prod...

  19. Sêneca e o ambiente hebraico de Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Silva de Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Enquanto ocupante de um cargo importante no Império Romano do I século, Sêneca certamente conheceu vários dos ensinamentos e práticas da comunidade hebraica de Roma, conforme observamos em alguns trechos de sua obra e de autores posteriores. Se por um lado seu pensamento parece se aproximar da doutrina e prática hebraicas, embora por razões diversas, por outro lado se afasta. Todavia ele soube, como nenhum outro escritor latino, manifestar o devido respeito e reserva ao ambiente hebraico da Urbs.

  20. QUI CONSTRUEIX EL NOSTRE IMAGINARI URBÀ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mejías Cubero

    2013-12-01

    Com a producte d’això es proposa la utilització d’un model d’anàlisi de la imatge urbana basat en variables extretes del context urbà local i des del punt de vista del vianant. Es planteja especialment una visió de la imatge a partir de com ens movem dins l’espai, de com estan construïdes visualment les seves relacions formals i les vivències que la caracteritzen.

  1. Procesos, discursos y prácticas estructurantes de la violencia contra las mujeres en Ciudad Juárez / Processes, discourses and practices of violence against women in Ciudad Juarez

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Martínez, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    En el presente artículo, trataremos de describir y analizar los procesos, discursos y prácticas estructurantes de la violencia contra las mujeres en Ciudad Juárez (México) a través de sus imaginarios sociales. Para ello, procederemos a establecer una periodización de estos relatos en cinco épocas históricas marcadas por las grandes reestructuraciones sociales, políticas, económicas y culturales que ha experimentado la urbe fronteriza y que han conducido a su ciudadanía a una situación de vuln...

  2. Developing CMOS Camera and USB Device Drivers in Linux 2.6.32

    OpenAIRE

    CH. P. N. S. Sujitha; DVSR Sesidhar

    2013-01-01

    —This paper proposes CMOS camera and USB device drivers implementation on S3C2440 using LINUX 2.6.32. The CMOS camera driver is used for video acquisition applications, which implements image-sensor technology and USB driver is used for data acquisition applications, establishes communication between host computer and a number of peripheral devices. OV9650 CMOS camera is implemented in linux 2.6.32, uses V4L2 protocol for complying. Similarly USB device in LINUX kernel uses struct urb structu...

  3. Obituario: Humberto Espinosa Taboada

    OpenAIRE

    Teobaldo Coronado

    2013-01-01

    En el primer semestre de 2013 falleció en Barranquilla el Académico Humberto Espinosa Taboada. Había nacido en Corozal (Sucre) el 31 de diciembre de 1928; quizá por eso –haber llegado al mundo en esta amable ciudad de la costa, nada menos que cuando el jolgorio se tomaba la urbe por la celebración del fin de año– siempre mostró ese carácter alegre y descomplicado que lo caracterizaba, sin desmedro de su caballerosidad y seriedad profesional.

  4. EL MIEDO DE LAS MUJERES A LA VIOLENCIA EN LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO. UNA CUESTIÓN DE JUSTICIA ESPACIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Soto Villagrán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar cómo se entrelazan las divisiones espaciales y las divisiones de género en la construcción social del miedo, como un elemento fundamental de los modos de habitar la urbe desde la experiencia espacial de las mujeres como colectivo. Nos centramos en el caso de una colonia popular de la Ciudad de México, poniendo énfasis en las dimensiones espaciales del miedo a la violencia y su relación con la justicia espacial y de género.

  5. Os labirintos da cidade: Marcial em Roma

    OpenAIRE

    Torrão, João Manuel Nunes; Andrade, António Manuel Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Martial had unparalleled knowledge of the city of Rome and he provides guidance to todays’s readers in the street maze of the city. That city had specific feaures which made the circulation of people and vehicles difficult, in spite of the efforts made by some politicians to improve the urban network. Marcial conhecia como ninguém a cidade de Roma e serve de guia aos leitores da actualidade através das ruas labirínticas da Urbe. Essa cidade apresentava características especí...

  6. Seguridad urbana y vulnerabilidad social en Ciudad Juárez. Un modelo desde la perspectiva de análisis espacial

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Morales Cárdenas; Marisol Rodríguez Sosa; Erick Sánchez Flores

    2013-01-01

    Partiendo del concepto de “seguridad urbana”, introducido por un-Habitat en 2007 dentro de la agenda de Ciudades seguras, el presente trabajo propone analizar a Ciudad Juárez, urbe considerada entre las más inseguras y violentas del país y del mundo. Se presenta el desarrollo de un índice de seguridad urbana (isu) basado en un modelo multicriterio de análisis espacial que propone identificar y explicar cómo se manifiestan territorialmente las amenazas a la seguridad urbana y su relación con l...

  7. Smarter urban planning through a citizen-based approach. The Smart urban planning method

    OpenAIRE

    Marsal, Maria Lluïsa, 1974-

    2013-01-01

    En la present dissertació proposem un mètode objectiu per a l’actualització de les metodologies tradicionals de planificació urbanística basat en l’opinió dels ciutadans al respecte dels seus requeriments urbans presents i futurs. Específicament, la nostra metodologia està basada en enquestes web a la ciutadania per conèixer com distribueixen el seu temps urbà i en la opinió de com cobrir les seves necessitats urbanes. S’utilitzen eines de mineria de dades per al processat de les dades recoll...

  8. Regeneración urbana, discurso patrimonial oficial y segregación social en la Av. 24 de Mayo

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Lloré, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    La ciudad de Quito, y en particular su Centro Histórico, atraviesan un nuevo ciclo de transformaciones. Esta investigación interroga por los impactos de las políticas de patrimonio y modernización en la vida social de la zona de la Av. 24 de Mayo (ubicada en el denominado casco antiguo de la capital ecuatoriana), y por el destino, en este contexto, de las dinámicas culturales y económicas de sectores populares como los que se asientan y transitan en esta franja de la urbe y en los barrios que...

  9. La ciudad socialista: Visión y práctica urbana del Partido Comunista de Chile, 1967-1973 The socialist city: vision and urban practice of the Communist Party of Chile, 1967-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Cofré

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ¿Tuvieron los comunistas chilenos, entre 1967 y 1973, una visión propia sobre el problema urbano en Santiago? de ser así ¿cómo era la ciudad que los comunistas buscaban construir en la capital? Inspirados tanto en el marxismo y el modelo Soviético de desarrollo urbano, como en sus prácticas políticas concretas a nivel nacional, comunal y barrial, los comunistas no sólo imaginaron una urbe distinta sino que avanzaron en su construcción.

  10. Maaleht soovitab : Pidu Pärimusmuusika Aidas. Corelli Music lõpetab suvehooaja. Homme selgub Virumaa superstaar. "Kohtumispaik Eesti". Laulavad vennad Urbid. Kogu pere rokifestival

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    6. sept. Pärimusmuusika Aidas hooaja avapeol esinevad ansambel Paabel, Kulno Malva ja DJ Harlet. Agentuur Corelli Music lõpetab suvehooaja jaapani klavessinisti Yoshiko Ieki kontserdiga 8. sept. Tallinnas Pühavaimu kirikus ja 10. sept. Maardu mõisas, uus hooaeg algab oktoobris kavaga "Vivaldi, Casanova ja Veneetsia". Kadrina laululaval valitakse "Viru simmani" raames Virumaa superstaar, esinevad Kuldne Trio, Terminaator ja DJ Erki Ohmann. Vanemuise kontserdimajas annab Põhjamaade sümfooniaorkester 6. sept. kontserdi "Kohtumispaik Eesti", dirigent Anu Tali. 13. sept. esinevad Vanemuise kontserdisaalis vennad Toomas ja Tarmo Urb. 6. sept.Tartus Narva mnt pool Kaarsilla juures pargis rokifestival "Rock ja Art", peaesinejaks ansambel Kosmikud

  11. Estudio de factibilidad para la creación de una empresa productora y comercializadora de adoquines ubicada en el barrio Santa Lucía del retorno, Canton Ibarra provincia de Imbabura.

    OpenAIRE

    Pabón Torres, Natalia Belén

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto tiene como objetivo dar a conocer la creacion de una empresa productora y comercializadora de adoquines en el barrio Santa Lucia del retorno. Ciudad de Ibarra. Provincia de Imbabura. A raíz de la regeneración urbana que esta viviendo la ciudad de Ibarra, la utilización de los adoquines se ha vuelto la materia de prima en la construcción y mejoramiento de la capa de rodamiento de las calles de la urbe y debido de a sus caracteristicas fisicas el adoquin es un material m...

  12. Oportunidades y retos que ofrece la financiación alternativa para el sector social en un entorno smart city

    OpenAIRE

    Ortuño Cámara, José Luis,

    2017-01-01

    Les noves tecnologies estan canviant la forma en què les ciutats organitzen la formulació de les seves polítiques i el creixement urbà. La idea de ser Smart ha sorgit com un mecanisme clau perquè les ciutats trobin solucions innovadores als desafiaments als quals s'enfronten. Aquesta necessitat de reajustar els models de ciutat ha vingut donada per diversos factors, i en aquest sentit, s'ha desenvolupat el present estudi. Es tracta d'una recerca que també té per ambició conduir a la reflexió ...

  13. INTERSUBJETIVIDADE E GESTALT COMO FUNDAMENTO DA ANÁLISE EM GEOGRAFIA URBANA

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Dos Santos Junior, Washington

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo fundamenta a análise em Geografia Urbana com base na intersubjetividade de Heidegger e na Gestalt Urbana de Maria E. Kohlsdorf. Para tanto, deve-se romper com a Geografia de herança cartesiana e kantiana e reintroduzir no debate a noção de Geografia como dimensão do ser. Assim, a existência autêntica dá-se quando os sujeitos exercem sua cidadania e reduzem a participação que planejadores e governantes tem na condução da vida urbana, bem como na alteridade vivenciada nas urbes, ain...

  14. LECTURAS... LA MODERNIDAD LATINOAMERICANA EN SU LABERINTO. UNA, DOS, TRES CIUDADES---¿CUÁNTAS CABEN EN UNA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinda Sznol

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Alrededor de dos conceptos complementarios e igualmente desafiante de la imagen tradicional de ciudad, desarrolla Nestor García Canclini su mirada sobre el mundo urbano contemporaneo: por un lado, designa procesos de Hibridación para refererse a las diversas mezclas interculturales con constituyentes la modernidad y le dan un perfil específico en America Latina y por otro retrata a partir de la idea de fragmentacion, la experiencia cotidiana de los ciudadanos en las grandes urbes.

  15. Imágenes victorianas en la producción discursiva de la identidad argentina de entresiglos : Entre el campo y la ciudad: el trabajo y el ahorro

    OpenAIRE

    Gugliara, Griselda

    2011-01-01

    En la Argentina de entresiglos, el estilo de la gran aldea desaparecía en forma estrepitosa para abrir paso a una percepción de la vida urbana según la imagen caótica y salvaje de las grandes urbes. Así, el perfil de la ciudad moderna y pujante aparecía contaminado por la inquietante amenaza de la enfermedad y de la locura ante la mirada desconcertada del observador. Es que, en las últimas décadas del siglo XIX, Buenos Aires y su ritmo se convirtieron en «una suerte de monumento a los cambios...

  16. Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BOOKS AND ARTICLES Adalemo, I.A. “The Physical Growth of Metropolitan Lagos and Associated Planning Problems,” in DA. Oyeleye (ed.). Spatial Expansion and Concomitant Problems in the Lagos Metropolitan Area (An Example of a Rapidly Urbanizing Area). Lagos: Department of Geography, University of Lagos, 1981, pp.1-37. Adefolalu, A.A. “Intra-Urban Transport Services in Lagos,” in Oyeleye (ed.). Spatial Expansion and Concomitant Problems in the Lagos Metropolitan Area (An Example of a Rapidly Urb...

  17. Changes in brain levels of N-acylethanolamines and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Lambertsen, Kate L.; Petersen, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are bioactive lipids that can modulate inflammatory responses and protect neurons against glutamatergic excitotoxicity. We have used a model of focal cerebral ischemia in young adult mice to investigate the relationship between focal...... induction of ischemia. Accumulation of NAEs did not depend on regulation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D or fatty acid amide hydrolase. Treatment with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester; 1 mg/kg; i.p.) 1...

  18. Salud y enfermedad en Tunja y su Provincia durante el período colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Porras Collantes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La salud pública es provincia del bienestar social, de la asistencia pública, que las modernas sociedades han integrado a la planificación urbana. Las condiciones físicas del sitio en que Tunja fue fundada, empero, entrabaron la planificación urbana colonial de la urbe y fueron óbice insalvable que conspiró contra su sanidad pública. En efecto, las necesidades tácticas de la guerra de conquista fueron causa determinante para que se fundara a Tunja en un sitio por demás inconveniente para una ciudad, como apropiado para un castro militar.

  19. Salud y enfermedad en tunja y su provincia durante el período colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Collantes, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    La salud pública es provincia del bienestar social, de la asistencia pública, que las modernas sociedades han integrado a la planificación urbana. Las condiciones físicas del sitio en que Tunja fue fundada, empero, entrabaron la planificación urbana colonial de la urbe y fueron óbice insalvable que conspiró contra su sanidad pública. En efecto, las necesidades tácticas de la guerra de conquista fueron causa determinante para que se fundara a Tunja en un sitio por demás inconveniente para una ...

  20. Bestias hidras y cancerberos: los mundos recorridos por Hermosa

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Mariño, Milena

    2001-01-01

    La presente tesis aborda el tema de las bestias urbanas o monstruos urbanos, seres míticos que deambulan en los imaginarios de la urbe, llámense asesinos, ladrones, asaltantes, pandilleros, prostitutas, travestíes u homosexuales. Sus cuerpos anómalos y deformes asemejan a las grandes fauces de cerbero, su malicia es tan grande como el más endemoniado de los animales de la tierra y sus gritos harían estallar los tímpanos de Odiseo. De esa zoología monstruosa surge el rostro de J...

  1. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Saul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and one yeast (Candida albicans. These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml, clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml. Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml. Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml. Conclusion This in vitro study

  2. Rio Bauta Abajo, Orocovis, Puerto Rico Monitoring: Citizen Science in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, L. D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2015-12-01

    "Conoce tu rio" (Learn about your river) is a Citizen Science-"Para La Naturaleza" Project with the purpose of providing citizens effective monitoring methods for water quality and macro invertebrates. Through the monthly monitoring of Rio Grande de Manatí watershed in Puerto Rico, volunteers gained the knowledge and skills necessary to conduct the same methodology in other rivers of Puerto Rico. This is the case of the Rio Bauta Abajo-Orocovis group, initiated by a volunteer of "Conoce tu Rio". The new group has the objective of monitoring the water quality, shrimps and other macro invertebrate diversity and abundance in a stream reach of Rio Bauta Abajo, Orocovis, Puerto Rico. The group is also part of the EPA Equipment Loan Program for Pathogen and Water Quality Monitoring. Shrimps and macro invertebrates are captured using nets. In this ongoing project, preliminary results show that 5 of the 17 shrimp species of Puerto Rico and the freshwater crab have been captured in the monitoring point of Rio Bauta Abajo. The most abundant species captured was Atya scabra representing 70% of the abundance. The second most abundant species was Xiphocaris elongata representing 20% of the abundance. We also found a large number of gravid females of two shrimp species. Sixty percent of captured Atya scabra were gravid while 100% of the captured Xiphocaris elongata were gravid. Water quality is within the standard except for phosphorous and nitrogen. The most abundant species inhabit different habitats in the river. Atya scabra is found in the riffles and Xiphocaris elongata is found in the stream borders and or pools. The high number of gravid females suggests that the dry season is the reproductive season for this two species. The high concentration of phosphorous and nitrogen suggest that in the area there area either crops of animals facilities whose runoff is getting to the river. This monitoring group expects to continue motivating citizens to monitor the water quality in

  3. Trophic analysis of three species of Marilia (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae) from the neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaga, María Celina; Rueda Martín, Paola Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The trophic ecology of the aquatic insect fauna has been widely studied for the Northern temperate zone. However, the taxa originally classified within a given particular trophic group in temperate ecosystems, do not necessarily exhibit the same dietary profile beyond its geographic limits. Since, the trophic ecology of caddisfly larvae is largely incomplete in the Neotropical Region, the present work aims to describe feeding habits inferred from quantitative analysis of data taxonomically resolved at the species level. For this, the feeding habits of three Trichoptera species Marilia cinerea, M. elongata and M. flexuosa were recorded in the Yungas forests of Argentina and Bolivia. A total of 15 larvae of each species were sampled from 13 different streams were selected for gut content analysis. The ingested material was extracted from the foregut and midgut by using ventral dissection of thorax. For each species, mandibles were dissected, mounted in glycerin and illustrated in order to highlight morphological differences between these mouth pieces purportedly associated to the dietary behavior of individuals, and their habitats. The niche overlap was estimated through Schoener's method. The diet analysis revealed that M. cinerea, M. elongata and M. flexuosa feed on the same food items, but through different patterns of preferences. Larvae of M. cinerea were collected on both emerging surfaces of rocks on which a thin layer of running water flows and streams sliding areas with stony bottoms attached to the rock surfaces. They displayed a gut content consisting predominantly of invertebrate vestiges and have strong mouthparts provided of large molar areas; this allowed us to allocate the species within the functional group of predators. M. elongata feeds mainly on fine particulate material, its mouthparts are scoop-shaped and occurs in areas of low flow; this set of features is linked to a collector-gatherer strategy. Finally, larvae of M. flexuosa have been

  4. Identification of Armillaria nabsnona in gastrodia tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizaki, Haruo; Kuninaga, Shiro; Yamamoto, Mizuho; Asazu, Sandra Naomi; Sawa, Satoko; Kojoma, Mareshige; Yokosawa, Ryozo; Yoshida, Naotoshi

    2008-07-01

    The symbiosis between Armillaria species and an achlorophylous orchid Gastrodia elata BLUME has been reported. The main species described as a symbiont is Armillaria mellea (VAHL: FR.) KUMMER, known widely as a primary root rot pathogen. Samples collected from the rhizomorphs attached to the tuber of G. elata were separated and analyzed. Molecular analysis based on sequencing of the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS-1) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed, coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the IGS-1 region. Cultural morphology and features of basidiomata were also used to characterize the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis and morphological data strongly suggested that the fungus present in the tubers of G. elata is Armillaria nabsnona. This is the first report of occurrence of this Armillaria species in association with G. elata.

  5. Analysis of indole compounds in Armillaria mellea fruiting bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Maślanka, Anna; Ekiert, Halina; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    A TLC method with densitometric detection for identification and quantitation of indole compounds in methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies of Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) P. Kumm. (Basidiomycota)--Honey mushroom has been developed. The TLC method with densitometric detection was validated for determination of tryptamine and serotonin contents. The use of this chromatographic-densitometric method for analysis of extracts allowed for a precise, easy and quick determination of the compounds under study. We identified three physiologically active indole compounds: tryptamine. L- tryptophan and serotonin. This analysis demonstrated the highest contents of L-tryptophan (4.467 mg/100 g d.w.). The contents of tryptamine were comparable with the contents of serotonin and amounted to: 2.740 and 2.207 mg/100 g d. w.

  6. KANADA’DA YETİŞEN İKİ Thuja L. (CUPRESSACEAE) TÜRÜNÜN UÇUCU YAĞ KOMPOZİSYONU

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Kanada’da yetişen Thuja occidentalis L. ve Tetraclinis articulate (Vahl) Masters (synonym: Thuja articulate) türlerinin ibrelerinden elde edilen yağlar HS-SPME / GC-MS tekniği ile analiz  edildi. Sırasıyla %92.30 and %93.42’lik toplam yağ miktarında otuzbir ve ellibir bileşen tespit edildi. Thuja occidentalis’in ana bileşenleri bornilasetat (%30.00), limonen (%7.56), kamfor (%7.33), α-pinen (%7.18) ve δ-kadinen (%6.01) olarak belirlendi; Tetraclinis articulata’da ise α pinen (%32.67), 3-karen...

  7. Mechanical behavior of wood subjected to mode II fracture, using an energetic criterion: Application on THUJA of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saoud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shear strength is one of the properties often used to qualify a wood species for use in industry. But until now there is no standardized test which allows understanding this phenomenon. This paper constitutes a new approach to study the behavior of the wood material subjected to the mode II fracture. For that we designed and realized a new prototype of a wooden specimen that we tested in our laboratory which gives rise to an evaluation of the fracture until separation by pure shear of the specimen in the TL plane. The experimental data from a first series of tests on Thuja wood (Tetraclinis Articulata (Vahl Masters as a test material as well as the calculation of mode II initiation fracture toughness and the critical stress intensity factor are presented in this paper

  8. Some Boletes of Thailand

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    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect and identify some Boletes of Thailand. Through periodical excursions in woodland area in the north, northeast and south of Thailand, and regular visits to markets inthe areas during 1995-2005, 20 species of Boletes were collected and identified. These were Boletellus ananas (M.A.Curtis Murrill, Boletellus emodensis (Berk. Singer, Boletellus sp. 1, Boletellus sp. 2, Boletellus sp. 3,Boletinus sp., Boletus griseipurpureus Corner, Boletus bicolor Peck, Boletus nanus (Massee. Singer, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2, Boletus sp. 3, Heimiella retispora (Pat. & C.F. Baker Boedijn, Phlebopus colossus (R.Heim Singer, Phylloporus pelletieri (Lev. Quel., Pulveroboletus ravenelii (Berk. & M.A.Curtis Murrill, Pulveroboletus sp., Strobilomyces confusus Singer, Strobilomyces floccopus (Vahl P. Karst., and Tylopilusalbo - ater (Schwein Murrill.

  9. Comparison of Pollen Abortiveness in Four Weed Species Treated with Mercuric Chloride

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    Emelina Regis

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain abortiveness due to mercury exposure was investigated in four species of weeds, namely Cleome rutidosperma Mart., Conmelina diffusa Burm.f., Ludwigia micrantha (L. Hara, and Stachytarpheta jamicensis (L. Vahl. All four species tested showed mean pollen grain abortion rates significantly higher than those of their unexposed cohorts. Phollen grain abortion was manifested by reduced size and staining deficiencies. Scheffe’s test for variability indicated that higher mercury concentrations are required to effect changes in pollen grain abortiveness. The weed species tested can possibly be used as bioindicators of mercury pollution. Because of the plant’s ability to absorb mercury, these species can also be considered as possible bioremediators.

  10. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  11. Arhitektuurivõistlused 2008 / Mait Väljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljas, Mait

    2008-01-01

    Võistluste tulemused: Pekingi saatkonnahoone: I preemia - A. Põime, L. Põime, L. Vaimel; Riia saatkonnahoone: I - L.-K. Stöör, Ü.-T. Stöör, H. Urb; Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uus õppehoone: I - SEA + Effekt (Taani); Eesti Maaülikooli Kreutzwaldi 5 õppehoone juurdeehitis: I - P. Loo, J. Skolimowski, L. Vene, K. Kruuse (KAMP Arhitektid); TÜ Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia loomeinkubaatori ja lavakunstide õppehoone: I - S. Vallner, H. Urb, I. Peil, H. Lass, S.-M. Mändmaa (Kavakava); Tamula järve ranna-ala mahuline planeering: I - K. Enno, L. Luhse, M. Zeleznova, R. Ailt (K. Enno Arhitektuuribüroo); Tartu pärmivabriku kvartali arhitektuurivõistlus: võidutöö - Atelier Thomas Pucher / Bramberger Architects (Austria); Paldiski mnt. 50 kinnistu ja lähiala: I-II - T. Laigu, K. Ojaliiv, M. Rass, A. Uukado (QP Arhitektid); maastikuarhitektuuri võistlus "Eesti Maaülikooli Tähtvere linnaku välialad": I - H. Runnel, T. Ong; Tartu rahu tähisala kujundus: I - M. Kinks, K. Süda; Veneetsia XI rahvusvahelise arhitektuuribiennaali ideekavandi võistlus: I - M. Kask, R. Lõoke, N. Külm; aasta betoonehitis 2007 - Puurmani kaarsild, konstruktorid S. Idnurm, J. Idnurm; Eesti parim puitehitis 2008: eramu Loobul - R. Vaiksoo; võistluse "Eramu 2006-2007" peapreemia: villa Paldiskis - S. Vallner, I. Peil

  12. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  13. Parabens inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase: A potential role in paraben-enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodani, Sean D; Overby, Haley B; Morisseau, Christophe; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-11-16

    Parabens are a class of small molecules that are regularly used as preservatives in a variety of personal care products. Several parabens, including butylparaben and benzylparaben, have been found to interfere with endocrine signaling and to stimulate adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized these biological effects could be due to interference with the endocannabinoid system and identified fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the direct molecular target of parabens. FAAH inhibition by parabens yields mixed-type and time-independent kinetics. Additionally, structure activity relationships indicate FAAH inhibition is selective for the paraben class of compounds and the more hydrophobic parabens have higher potency. Parabens enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent fashion, different from two other FAAH inhibitors URB597 and PF622. Moreover, parabens, URB597 and PF622 all failed to enhance AEA-induced differentiation. Furthermore, rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 )-selective antagonist, did not attenuate paraben-induced adipocyte differentiation. Thus, adipogenesis mediated by parabens likely occurs through modulation of endocannabinoids, but cell differentiation is independent of direct activation of CB 1 by endocannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Checklist of Macroalgae in Waisai Coast, Raja Ampat

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    Retno Suryandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are very abundant organisms in Indonesian coastal zone. They comprise 8.6% of the total marine organisms.The aim of the research was to identify macroalgae in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat. The results showed that 38 macroalgae were found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat but only 29 species of macroalgae can be identified. Macroalgae found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat are green algae, red algae and brown algae. Green algae found and identified are Caulerpa macra (Weber-van Bosse Draisma & Prud’homme, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder wx Kutzing W.R.Taylor,  Caulerpa sertularoides (S. Gmelin Howe f. brevipes (J. Agardh Svedilus, Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl C. Agardh, Halimeda discoidea Decaisne, Halimeda Opuntia (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda cylindraceae Decaisne, Halimeda macroloba Decaisne, Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley A. Gepp & E.S. Gepp, Codium geppiorum O.C.Schmidt, Boergesenia forbesii (Hardvey Feldmann, Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål Børgesen, Chaetomorpha spiralisOkamura, Anadyomene wrightii Harvey ex. J. E. Gray, Neomeris annulata Dickie. Red algae species found and successfully identified areAcanthophora spicifera (M. Vahl Børgesen, Laurencia papilosa (C. Agardh Greville, Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh E.Y. Dawson, Amphiora fragilissima (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh. Brown algae species  found and identified are Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F. Gmelin P.C. Silva, Sargassum aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh, Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh, Padina australis Hauck, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutzing De Paula & De Clerck Hydroclathrus clatratus (C. Agardh M. Howe. The only species found in Indonesia is Sargassum aquifolium.

  15. Potential for seed bank formation of two weed species from Brazilian Amazonia Potencial para a formação de banco de sementes de duas espécies de plantas daninhas da Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr B. Dias-Filho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential for seed bank formation of two perennial weed species, Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. M. Vahl (Verbenaceae, both common in Amazonia , was evaluated in a degraded pasture area in eastern Brazilian Amazonia . Seeds were enclosed in nylon mesh packets and placed at the soil surface or buried at 5 or 10 cm deep. The number of viable seeds was recorded at 6, 10, 14 and 18 months after burial. Results showed that S. cayennensis has the ability to form persistent soil seed bank, while I. asarifolia seeds do not build up in the soil seed bank. For S. cayennensis and, to some extent, for I. asarifolia, seed survival was highest at greater burial depths.O potencial para a formação de banco de sementes de duas espécies perenes de plantas daninhas, Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. M. Vahl (Verbenaceae, ambas comuns na Amazônia, foi avaliado em uma área de pastagem degradada na Amazônia oriental brasileira. As sementes foram inseridas em envelopes de tela de nylon e colocadas na superfície do solo ou enterradas a cinco ou 10 cm de profundidade. O número de sementes viáveis foi avaliado aos 6, 12, 14 e 18 meses após o início do ensaio. Os resultados mostraram que S. cayennensis tem o potencial para formar banco de sementes persistente, enquanto que as sementes de I. asarifolia não apresentam esse potencial. Em S. cayennensis e, de certo modo, em I. asarifolia, a sobrevivência de sementes foi maior nas maiores profundidades.

  16. Regional variation in Argentinean populations of Bromus catharticus (Poaceae as measured by morphological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturi, Miguel J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one populations of Bromus catharticus Vahl., collected from the Pampean Dominion (Argentina, were classified using twenty four highly heritable traits by numerical taxonomic methods. After implementing a stepwise discriminant analysis, 18 traits were chosen as classificatory variables. Eight population groups were classified in two main clusters. Different morphotypes, primarily associated with panicle architecture and micro floral traits, were found. The patterns in the morphological variation seem to correspond to a gradient of humidity and temperature that diminishes from the NE to the SW. This pattern of classification reflects the geographical origin for most of the sampled populations, although there was some noise. Our results fit the patchy variation model, where populations are genetically selected for macro and micro environmental conditions.Treinta y una poblaciones de Bromus catharticus Vahl., recolectadas en el dominio Pampeano (Argentina, fueron clasificadas utilizando 24 caracteres altamente heredables por métodos de taxonomía numérica. Tras implementar el análisis discriminante del paso a paso (Stepwise, 18 variables fueron seleccionadas como variables clasificatorias. Ocho grupos de poblaciones fueron clasificadas en dos clusters principales. Diferentes morfotipos, principalmente asociados a la arquitectura de las panojas y a variables microflorales, fueron encontrados. El patrón de variación morfológico parece responder a un gradiente de humedad y temperatura que disminuye desde el NE al SW. Además, dicho patrón de clasificación refleja un origen geográfico para la mayoría de las poblaciones, aunque hubo algo de ruido. Nuestros resultados se ajustan a un modelo de variación en parches, donde las poblaciones están genéticamente seleccionadas por condiciones micro y macro ambientales.

  17. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUBHANGI NAGORAO INGOLE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  18. Flora Diversity from Kersik Luway Nature Monument, East Kalimantan

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    SRI HARTINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kersik Luway is one area in Padang Luway Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan which have some potential plants. Ornamental plants are can be found in this area, which several of them are attractive and useful. The aims of the research were to inventory interesting flora diversity in Kersik Luway. The method used in this research were explorative method at the place. The result showed that there were approximately 18 species of interesting flora in Kersik Luway. The plants are Vaccinium varingiaefolium, Ficus deltoideus, Eugenia zeylanica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosus, Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Nepenthes reinwardtiana. Hown eoricrcoea. Coelngyne pandurata, Coelogyne foerstermannii, Renanthera elongata, Grammatophyllum .speciosum, Cymbidium finlaysonianum, Stenochlaena palustris, Nephrolepis hirsutula, Davallia denticulata, Schizaea dichotoma, Psilotum nudum, and Lygodium microphyllum. The botanical information of each species is presented in this paper.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS HÍBRIDOS DE PAPAYA INTRODUCIDOS EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchi Alonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 2 híbridos de papaya "Tainung-01" y "Scarlett Princess" introducidos en el banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical, La Habana, Cuba. Y fueron comparados con el cultivar cubano Maradol. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del Grupo Formosa, frutos de forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos es de 1,6 kg (''Tainung-01'' y 1,7 kg (''Scarlett Princess'', de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y roja, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 98,5 y 63,8 kg.planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y directamente por los productores.

  20. Diversity and community structure of aquatic insects in a pond in Midnapore town, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sarmistha; Pahari, Priti R; Dutta, Tapan Kr; Bhattacharya, Tanmay

    2009-03-01

    In total 20 species of aquatic insects have been recorded from a weed infested pond. Odonata was numerically the most abundant group constituting of 54% of the total aquatic insects even though these belonged to three species. Coleoptera though constituted only 22% of aquatic insects had 10 species. Urothemis signata and Ranatra filliformes were eudominant and dominant species respectively. Hydrometra butlen is recorded from West Bengal for the first time. Five species of Hemiptera, Ranatra filiformes, Ranatra elongata, Diplonychus rusticus, Micronecta merope, Genis nitida and Hydrometra butlen; three species of Odonata, Urothemis signata, Agriocnemis pygmoea and Enllagma parvum and one species of Coleoptera viz., Coplatus indicus have been recorded from Paschim Medinipore district for the first time. Species diversity and evenness indices fluctuated from month to month and from one sampling site to other being <1 suggest a stressed and disturbed environment.

  1. Differentiation of some species of Neisseriaceae and other bacterial groups by DNA-DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønjum, T; Bukholm, G; Bøvre, K

    1989-05-01

    DNA-DNA hybridization using total genomic DNA probes may represent a way of differentiating between miscellaneous bacterial species. This was studied with type and reference strains of 20 species in Moraxella, Kingella, and other selected Gram-negative groups. Both radioactive and biotin labelling were employed. Most of the species examined were easily distinguished, such as Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, M.(B.) ovis, M. atlantae, M. phenylpyruvica, M. osloensis, Neisseria elongata, N. meningitidis, Kingella kingae, K. indologenes, K. dentrificans, Oligella urethralis, Eikenella corrodens, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and DF-2. This reflected the extent of the genetic distances between them as a basis for identification by hybridization. There was some clustering in the Moraxella group. Especially the closely related Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata and M. bovis showed strong hybridization affinities. This leads to potential problems in distinguishing these three species from each other by DNA-DNA hybridization with total genomic probes alone.

  2. Native Mitral Valve Endocarditis Caused byNeisseria elongatasubsp.nitroreducensin a Patient with Marfan Syndrome: First Case in Italy and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossella, Parrinello; Patrizia, Carità; Fabio Oreste, Triolo; Renato, Trapani; Emanuele, Grassedonio; Vincenzo, Argano; Giuseppina, Novo; Silvana, Vallone; Teresa, Fasciana; Massimo, Verdecchia; Anna, Giammanco; Massimo, Midiri; Salvatore, Novo

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria elongata (NE) is an aerobic Gram-negative organism that constitutes part of the commensal human normal oropharyngeal flora. Although previously considered not to be pathogenic, it has been recognized as an occasional cause of significant infections in humans. We report here the first case in Italy of infective endocarditis of a native prolapsing mitral valve in a patient with Marfan syndrome, caused by NE subspecies nitroreducens which has been rarely isolated from clinical specimens. The culprit organism has been confirmed by mass spectrometry directly from the positive blood culture, as previously reported. The amplified gene has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KT591873. In spite of the reported aggressive nature of NE, clinical remission was promptly obtained, there being no requirement for surgery.

  3. Anticholinesterase activity of endemic plant extracts from Soqotra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %.

  4. Influence of air pollutants on ecosystems. Pt. 8. Bug fauna (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in the emission area of a fertilizer factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W.

    1985-01-01

    On a primary Mesobrometum-grassland catena in the immission area of a phosphate-fertilizer factory the fauna of Heteroptera is analysed by semi-quantitative standardized sweepnet samplings. Along the immission gradient the grassland catena is subdivided into 5 sampling areas. Dominance structure, species diversity and evenness (Shannon-Wiener) as well as identity indices (Jaccard, Renkonen, Wainstein) are calculated. The sampling areas are compared separated in groups of consumers. The stress by immission affects the distribution of phytophages in an indirect way by foodplants. The predators are influenced imperceptible. The abundance of salt tolerant phytophagous species increases towards the emittent. In this case values of species diversity and evenness are small. Contrary to that, diversity and evenness of predators increase by rising pollution. A coefficient of association (Southwood) is calculated for the predator-prey system of Nabis brevis and Notostira elongata. The results are compared with those made in undisturbed Mesobrometum-plant communities of the near surroundings.

  5. In situ observations of the radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French coast from Banyuls to Menton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tine, J.; Badie, C.; Fraizier, A.; Bertrand, I.

    1980-01-01

    The object of this preliminary work is to measure the gamma radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French Mediterranean coast line between Banyuls and Menton. The marine species measured are: mussels, sea urchins and ten species of seaweed, namely: Ulva sp., Codium sp., Zoostera marina, Corallina elongata, Stypocaulon scoparium, Cymodocee nodosa, Pterocladia pinnata, Asparagopsis armata, Cystoseira sp., Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. The sampling places are spread over twenty four stations, eight of which are maritime and six representative of coastal lakes west of the Rhone. This aggregate study allowed us to highlight certain particular points and to make a choice between the indicators for a subsequent study in the most interesting areas [fr

  6. Adaptive significance and ontogenetic variability of the waxy zone in Nepenthes rafflesiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Laurence; Di Giusto, Bruno

    2009-12-01

    The slippery waxy zone in the upper part of pitchers has long been considered the key trapping structure of the Nepenthes carnivorous plants; however, the presence of wax is reported to be variable within and between species of this species-rich genus. This study raises the question of the adaptive significance of the waxy zone and investigates the basis for an ontogenetic cause of its variability and correlation with pitcher shape. In Brunei (Borneo) the expression of the waxy zone throughout plant ontogeny was studied in two taxa of the Nepenthes rafflesiana complex, typica and elongata, which differ in pitcher shape and size. We also tested the adaptive significance of this zone by comparing the trapping efficiency and the number of prey captured of wax-bearing and wax-lacking plants. In elongata, the waxy zone is always well expanded and the elongated pitchers change little in form during plant development. Wax efficiently traps experimental ants but the number of captured prey in pitchers is low. In contrast, in typica, the waxy zone is reduced in successively produced pitchers until it is lost at the end of the plant's juvenile stage. The form of pitchers thus changes continuously throughout plant ontogeny, from elongated to ovoid. In typica, the number of captured prey is greater, but the role of wax in trapping is minor compared with that of the digestive liquid, and waxy plants do not show a higher insect retention and prey abundance as compared with non-waxy plants. The waxy zone is not always a key trapping structure in Nepenthes and can be lost when supplanted by more efficient features. This study points out how pitcher structure is submitted to selection, and that evolutionary changes in developmental mechanisms could play a role in the morphological diversity of Nepenthes.

  7. A Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Tribe Corallineae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) with an Assessment of Genus-Level Taxonomic Features and Descriptions of Novel Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Katharine R; Saunders, Gary W

    2013-02-01

    A multigene phylogeny using COI-5P (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1), psbA (PSII reaction center protein D1), and EF2 (elongation factor 2) sequence data for members of the tribe Corallineae was constructed to assess generic boundaries. We determined that traditional reliance on conceptacle position as an indicator of generic affinities in the Corallineae is not supported and taxonomic changes are required. We found that species currently assigned to Pseudolithophyllum muricatum resolved within the Corallineae in all analyses. This is the first record of crustose members in the subfamily Corallinoideae. Further-more, the genus Serraticardia was polyphyletic; we propose to synonomize Serraticardia with Corallina, transfer the type species S. maxima to Corallina (C. maxima (Yendo) comb. nov.), and describe the new genus Johansenia for S. macmillanii (J. macmillanii (Yendo) comb. nov.). Our molecular data also indicate that species in the genus Marginisporum have evolutionary affinities among species of Corallina and these genera should also be synonymized. This necessitates the combinations C. aberrans (Yendo) comb. nov. for M. aberrans (Yendo) Johansen & Chihara, C. crassissima (Yendo) comb. nov. for M. crassissimum (Yendo) Ganesan, and C. declinata (Yendo) comb. nov. for M. declinata (Yendo) Ganesan. Corallina elongata was divergent from all other members of Corallina and is transferred to a new genus, Ellisolandia (E. elongata (J. Ellis & Solander) comb. nov). In addition, COI-5P and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data combined with morphological characters were used to establish that rather than the four Corallina species recognized in Canada, there are nine. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Chemical and enzymatic fractionation of cell walls from Fucales: insights into the structure of the extracellular matrix of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud-Bouët, Estelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Kloareg, Bernard; Hervé, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms evolutionarily distant from land plants, with a distinctive cell wall. They feature carbohydrates shared with plants (cellulose), animals (fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, FCSPs) or bacteria (alginates). How these components are organized into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) still remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis of the corresponding biosynthetic routes points toward a complex evolutionary history that shaped the ECM structure in brown algae. Methods Exhaustive sequential extractions and composition analyses of cell wall material from various brown algae of the order Fucales were performed. Dedicated enzymatic degradations were used to release and identify cell wall partners. This approach was complemented by systematic chromatographic analysis to study polymer interlinks further. An additional structural assessment of the sulfated fucan extracted from Himanthalia elongata was made. Key Results The data indicate that FCSPs are tightly associated with proteins and cellulose within the walls. Alginates are associated with most phenolic compounds. The sulfated fucans from H. elongata were shown to have a regular α-(1→3) backbone structure, while an alternating α-(1→3), (1→4) structure has been described in some brown algae from the order Fucales. Conclusions The data provide a global snapshot of the cell wall architecture in brown algae, and contribute to the understanding of the structure–function relationships of the main cell wall components. Enzymatic cross-linking of alginates by phenols may regulate the strengthening of the wall, and sulfated polysaccharides may play a key role in the adaptation to osmotic stress. The emergence and evolution of ECM components is further discussed in relation to the evolution of multicellularity in brown algae. PMID:24875633

  9. Analysis of daphnane orthoesters in poisonous Australian pimelea species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sharon; Fletcher, Mary T; McKenzie, Ross A

    2010-06-23

    Cattle grazing in arid rangelands of Australia suffer periodic extensive and serious poisoning by the plant species Pimelea trichostachya, P. simplex, and P. elongata. Pimelea poisoning (also known as St. George disease and Marree disease) has been attributed to the presence of the diterpenoid orthoester simplexin in these species. However, literature relating to previous studies is complicated by taxonomic revisions, and the presence of simplexin has not previously been verified in all currently recognized taxa capable of inducing pimelea poisoning syndrome, with no previous chemical studies of P. trichostachya (as currently classified) or P. simplex subsp. continua. We report here the isolation of simplexin from P. trichostachya and the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to measure simplexin concentrations in pimelea plant material. Simplexin was quantified by positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) of the m/z 533.3 > 253.3 transition. LC-MS/MS analysis of the four poisonous taxa P. trichostachya, P. elongata, P. simplex subsp. continua, and P. simplex subsp. simplex showed similar profiles with simplexin as the major diterpenoid ester component in all four taxa accompanied by varying amounts of related orthoesters. Similar analyses of P. decora, P. haematostachya, and P. microcephala also demonstrated the presence of simplexin in these species but at far lower concentrations, consistent with the limited reports of stock poisoning associated with these species. The less common, shrubby species P. penicillaris contained simplexin at up to 55 mg/kg dry weight and would be expected to cause poisoning if animals consumed sufficient plant material.

  10. Chemical and enzymatic fractionation of cell walls from Fucales: insights into the structure of the extracellular matrix of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud-Bouët, Estelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Kloareg, Bernard; Hervé, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms evolutionarily distant from land plants, with a distinctive cell wall. They feature carbohydrates shared with plants (cellulose), animals (fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, FCSPs) or bacteria (alginates). How these components are organized into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) still remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis of the corresponding biosynthetic routes points toward a complex evolutionary history that shaped the ECM structure in brown algae. Exhaustive sequential extractions and composition analyses of cell wall material from various brown algae of the order Fucales were performed. Dedicated enzymatic degradations were used to release and identify cell wall partners. This approach was complemented by systematic chromatographic analysis to study polymer interlinks further. An additional structural assessment of the sulfated fucan extracted from Himanthalia elongata was made. The data indicate that FCSPs are tightly associated with proteins and cellulose within the walls. Alginates are associated with most phenolic compounds. The sulfated fucans from H. elongata were shown to have a regular α-(1→3) backbone structure, while an alternating α-(1→3), (1→4) structure has been described in some brown algae from the order Fucales. The data provide a global snapshot of the cell wall architecture in brown algae, and contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationships of the main cell wall components. Enzymatic cross-linking of alginates by phenols may regulate the strengthening of the wall, and sulfated polysaccharides may play a key role in the adaptation to osmotic stress. The emergence and evolution of ECM components is further discussed in relation to the evolution of multicellularity in brown algae. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  11. Corallina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, C J; Brodie, J; Goss, B; Yallop, M; Lee, S; Perkins, R

    2014-01-01

    The photophysiology of three geniculate coralline algal species ( Corallina officinalis , C. caespitosa and Ellisolandia elongata ) was determined in intertidal rock pools in the south-west UK at Combe Martin (51°12'31N 4°2'19W) and Heybrook Bay (50°31'66N 4°11'41W), at the start, middle and end of summer (September 1 and 2) and winter (February 9 and 10) daylight tidal emersion periods, in relation to prevailing irradiance, temperature and carbonate chemistry conditions. Algal photophysiology was assessed from rapid light curves performed using pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Corallina and Ellisolandia experienced significant fluctuations in irradiance, temperature and carbonate chemistry over seasonal and tidal cycles. Rock pool carbonate chemistry was predictable ( R 2  = 0.82, P  < 0.0001) by photodose (summed irradiance) plus water temperature, but not significantly related to photophysiology. In contrast, Corallina and Ellisolandia relative maximum electron transfer rate showed a significant negative relationship ( R 2  = 0.65, P  < 0.0001) with irradiance plus water temperature. At a seasonal resolution, photoacclimation to maximize both light harvesting during winter months and photoprotection during summer months was observed for all species. Dynamic photoinhibition was apparent over both summer and winter tidal emersion, in relation to irradiance fluctuations. More effective photoinhibition was apparent during summer months, with greater sensitivity to irradiance and slower recovery in F v / F m , observed during winter. With sustained high irradiance over tidal emersion, the establishment of high pH/low inorganic carbon conditions may impact photochemistry. This study represents the first assessment of C. officinalis , C. caespitosa and E. elongata photophysiology underpinned by clear species concepts and highlights their ability to adapt to the dramatically fluctuating conditions experienced in intertidal rock pools.

  12. BIODIVERSITY OF CORALLINE ALGAE IN THE NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC INCLUDING CORALLINA CAESPITOSA SP. NOV. (CORALLINOIDEAE, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel H; Brodie, Juliet; Russell, Stephen; Irvine, Linda M; Orfanidis, Sotiris

    2009-02-01

    The Corallinoideae (Corallinaceae) is represented in the northeastern Atlantic by Corallina officinalis L.; Corallina elongata J. Ellis et Sol.; Haliptilon squamatum (L.) H. W. Johans., L. M. Irvine et A. M. Webster; and Jania rubens (L.) J. V. Lamour. The delimitation of these geniculate coralline red algae is based primarily on morphological characters. Molecular analysis based on cox1 and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies supported the division of the Corallinoideae into the tribes Janieae and Corallineae. Within the Janieae, a sequence difference of 46-48 bp (8.6%-8.9%) between specimens of H. squamatum and J. rubens in the cox1 phylogeny leads us to conclude that they are congeneric. J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata (L.) Yendo clustered together in both phylogenies, suggesting that for those genes, there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. Within the Corallineae, it appears that in some regions, the name C. elongata has been misapplied. C. officinalis samples formed two clusters that differed by 45-54 bp (8.4%-10.0%), indicating species-level divergence, and morphological differences were sufficient to define two species. One of these clusters was consistent with the morphology of the type specimen of C. officinalis (LINN 1293.9). The other species cluster is therefore described here as Corallina caespitosa sp. nov. This study has demonstrated that there is a clear need for a revision of the genus Corallina to determine the extent of "pseudocryptic" diversity in this group of red algae. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  14. Crecimiento económico y demográfico regional en Colombia, 1985-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Galvis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el crecimiento económico y demográfico de Colombia han primado las grandes urbes, y en términos demográficos hoy es un país urbano. Este artículo examina la dinámica del crecimiento económico, en especial, la dinámica poblacional desde mediados de los ochenta. El análisis de las matrices de transición de Markov indica que el comportamiento demográfico de los municipios muestra signos de persistencia. Las principales ciudades mantienen su jerarquía y siguen siendo las más densamente pobladas. Los municipios con bajo nivel de densidad se han mantenido relativamente estancados en términos demográficos.

  15. Análise comparativa de feiras no Alto Minho: relação entre espaço e apropriação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joana Clementina Araújo Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Arquitectura Análise comparativa de feiras do Alto Minho – relação entre espaço e apropriação é uma investigação na qual se pretende explorar a feira e os seus espaços enquanto parte integrante da urbe. Partindo de um olhar sobre as feiras, a partir do âmbito disciplinar da arquitetura, procura-se a compreensão desta prática inserida no quotidiano das cidades, elaborando-se uma análise critica sobre a sua pertinência, e a dos espaços e...

  16. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Kremer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  17. Construcción de lo urbano en la dramaturgia bogotana contemporánea. preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camacho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación analiza la manera como se configura lo urbano en cuatro obras de la dramaturgia bogotana contemporánea. El estudio del espacio en estos textos dramáticos revela las visiones de ciudad que rigen las piezas y, en consecuencia, determina cuál es el grado de relación entre las urbes imaginadas y la ciudad real que habitan sus autores. Dado que el teatro es una de las expresiones artísticas por medio de las cuales una determinada sociedad construye su identidad grupal y cultural, una mirada a la ciudad a través del drama capitalino contemporáneo ayuda a comprender referentes, mitologías y sentidos de pertenencia que se han creado en torno a Bogotá en el imaginario de sus ciudadanos.

  18. Los usos y los propietarios del suelo en Barranquilla en la Década de los 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Mauricio Ferez Santander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de Barranquilla en los años treinta no es solamente en los aspectos económicos, comerciales y de industrialización, esta ciudad tiene gran importancia en su actividad constructora que en cierta medida se da gracias al interés de los inmigrantes, que buscaban en la urbe una manera de mejorar la calidad de vida. Esto acompañado del aumento demográfico que también se presentaba dentro de la población. Así, dentro de este trabajo se busca explicar como desde la legalidad se buscaba construir la ciudad de una manera planificada, aunque con poco éxito como se puede demostrar con las situaciones de invasiones y urbanizaciones sin reglamentos y control.

  19. Väike 2002-2006 / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu initsiatiivil sündinud arhitektuurse väikevormi preemia määramisel hinnati aastatel 2002-2006 valminud väikevorme. I preemia - Saka trepistik, arhitektid Tiit Kaljundi ja Ivo-Martin Veelma Tiit Kaljundi Projektgrupist ning Eesti Panga galerii, arhitektid Ülar Mark ja Kaja Pae AB-st Urban Mark; III - Urmas Muru ja Peeter Pere Tabasalu vaskmaja perforeeritud plekist aiapiide eest; ära märgiti Rakvere Vallimäe trepp, arhitektid Heidi Urb ja Siiri Vallner AB-st Kavakava. Aukirja pälvisid parim tellija Viimsi vald ja parim ehitaja AS Linnaehitus. 3. juunini Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis avatud näituse "Väike 2002-2006" koostas Karin Paulus, kelle EAL valis 2006. a. parimaks kriitikuks

  20. La ciudad de México a través de cuatro cuentos / Mexico City as seen through four short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Tierno Tejera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde el siglo XIX hasta nuestros días, la ciudad se ha convertido en protagonista de innumerables relatos. A través de cuatro cuentos sobre la ciudad de México, que abarcan desde finales del siglo XIX hasta mediados del siglo XX, analizo cómo el crecimiento de la urbe ha ido acompasado con la transformación de los temas y de las técnicas narrativas de los relatos sobre esta gran metrópoli. ABSTRACT: From the nineteenth century to today, the city has become the leading character in countless narratives. Through four short stories about Mexico City, which were written between the end of the nineteenth century and the mid fifties, I analyse how the growth of the city has run parallel to the transformation of the themes and the narrative techniques in stories about this great metropolis.

  1. Cronotopo de las ciudades en Travesuras de la niña mala, de Mario Vargas Llosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Saraí Fernández-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una lectura cronotópica de la novela Travesuras de la niña mala, de Mario Vargas Llosa. Se hizo énfasis en el funcionamiento de las distintas ciudades en las que se desarrolla la trama como partes esenciales de la estructura argumentativa, la carga emotiva de estas urbes, las ideologías y las éticas implicadas, así como la evolución de los personajes según la metró- poli en la que van residiendo. También se analizó la relación entre la acción de los personajes, el contexto del autor y los acontecimientos representados, necesarios para conocer el sentido y la intención del texto.

  2. El teatro actual en España y Portugal en el contexto de la postmodernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Floeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El teatro actual de la Península Ibérica está marcado por los rasgos que pueden caracterizarse como típicos de la postmodernidad: diversidad estética, fragmentación de la acción dramática, deconstrucción del personaje, falta de solución y de mensaje, técnicas intertextuales y metateatrales, acercamiento a la estética del cine y del videoclip, participación del espectador en la construcción de sentido y concentración en la realidad cotidiana de las grandes urbes con los temas correspondientes de la violencia, droga y soledad. Sin embargo, en los dos países el teatro sigue el modelo de una postmodernidad que combina una estética abierta y fragmentada con un compromiso ético y político.

  3. Industrial ecology as a discipline for the analysis and design of sustainable urban settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver i Solà, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 11 d'agost de 2010 Malgrat representar només el 2,7% de la superfície del planeta, les ciutats del món són responsables del 75% del consum d'energia, i el 80% de les emissions de gasos d'efecte hivernacle. Encara que el focus d'atenció per mitigar el canvi climàtic s'ha centrat en els combustibles alternatius, vehicles, i la generació d'electricitat; la millora del disseny urbà, representa una oportunitat important que sovint no es valora prou. Aquesta tesi estén ...

  4. Abocats a viure a la llera del riu: el problema de l’infrahabitatge a Sabadell, 1939-1970. De l’habitatge protegit al negoci immobiliari

    OpenAIRE

    Masjuan, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    En aquesta recerca es pretén mostrar com el dèficit crònic d’habitatge en una ciutat industrial com Sabadell de 1939 a 1970 tingué en les riuades de 1962 el motiu per consolidar les patologies del creixement desregulat dels anys anteriors, i aprofundir així en un model urbà invertebrat que donarà lloc a una difusió suburbial dins la perifèria de Barcelona. Es mostra com els poders econòmics de l’època franquista supeditaren tot intent d’urbanisme al servei de les persones a l’especulació d...

  5. Antología hispánica: Jorge Guillén, natural de Valladolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available Valladolid -piedras doradas, insigne catedral herreriana, algunos pórticos del barroco más delirante, museo portentoso de imaginería sacra, viejos palacios, austeros conventos, algún jardín neoclásico- Valladolid, capital de Felipe III, asiento de la corte pre-renacentista de los Reyes Católicos, urbe impregnada de tradición latinizante, patria del terso y vigoroso Núñez de Arce (y patria, parece increíble, de Zorrilla, cantor de la Alhambra, puso en el temperamento de Jorge Guillén un mandato hacia la contención latina, hacia la nitidez lineal del contorno poético, hacia el acerado perfil de la estrofa.

  6. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Projecte de remodelació de la plaça de la Trinitat al districte de St Andreu de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Neus

    2010-01-01

    El projecte té per objecte fer una renovació del paviment actual en un estat greu de degradació tal i com es pot veure a l’Annex núm 2: Reportatge fotogràfic. La Plaça de la Trinitat, es un espai qualificat urbanísticament com a 6a, és a dir, un parc o jardí urbà. Es troba dins el barri de Trinitat Vella al districte de Sant Andreu de Barcelona. Està envoltada, pel carrer Turó de la Trinitat en la seva cota més alta, pel carrer Mare de Deu de Lorda en la seva cota més baixa, i entre la façana...

  8. THE METHODICAL ASPECTS OF WORKING-OUT "THE SCHEME OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF HANTY-MANSIJSKY AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT – UGRA" (2006-2015 YY AND TILL YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of working-out the methodical theses "The scheme of development and disposal of productive forces of Hanty-mansijsky autonomous district – UGRA" for the perspective period till the year 2020. The necessity of its working-out is caused by the raw materials orientation of the district’s economy, which is simpliciter depending on the condition of mineral and raw material base of the region, already experiencing today the influence of global and national processes on oil and gas market. SWOT-analysis of district’s development and the scheme structure are presented. The Institute of Economy of UrB of RAS along with the other executors took the participation in working-out the scheme structure.

  9. De la desintegración Espacial a la Conformación regional en la Sabana de Bogotá. Una Propuesta para el desarrollo de la Ciudad Región en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Báez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación aborda el tema del desarrollo regional en torno a una gran metrópoli como Bogotá y la Sabana de Bogotá. El crecimiento, expansión y relación con los municipios vecinos. Su entorno territorial; es un tema de discusión que cada día adquiere más fuerza desde hace varias décadas. Bogotá y la Sabana de Bogotá, se consideran en la actualidad como un caso representativo del caótico modelo de expansión urbana y crecimiento demográfico, enfrentado al desarrollo urb...

  10. Los edificios deportivos de la Roma Antigua Sportive buildings in the ancient Rome

    OpenAIRE

    Angela TEJA

    2013-01-01

    La educación física y el deporte retrocedió —en la Roma antigua— respecto a los ideales físico-corporales griegos. Por contra, se fomentó una notable cultura de espectáculos y divertimentos, especialmente durante la época imperial. A fin de dar cobijo a los diversos espectáculos se construyeron en la ciudad de Roma —y por mimetismo en todas las urbes del Imperio— sofisticados edificios. En efecto, además de una importante red de circos —el más emblemático de los cuales fue el circo Máximo—, s...

  11. A model library for dynamic transport and fate of micropollutants in integrated urban wastewater and stormwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Gevaert, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    The increasing efforts in reducing the emission of micropollutants (MP) into the natural aquatic environment require the development of modelling tools to support the decision making process. This article presents a library of dynamic modelling tools for estimating MP fluxes within Integrated Urb...... is presented to illustrate the potential of the use of the developed model library for developing, evaluating and comparing strategies for reduction of MP emissions from urban areas.......The increasing efforts in reducing the emission of micropollutants (MP) into the natural aquatic environment require the development of modelling tools to support the decision making process. This article presents a library of dynamic modelling tools for estimating MP fluxes within Integrated Urban...

  12. City Labs as Vehicles for Innovation in Urban Planning Processes

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    Christian Scholl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the role of urban experiments for local planning processes through a case-based analysis of the city lab of Maastricht. In conjunction with this, the article offers three contributions, as additional elements. Firstly, the paper develops a set of defining characteristics of city labs as an analytical concept which is relevant for discussions about (collaborative planning. Secondly, it refines the literature on collaborative planning by drawing attention to experimentation and innovation. Thirdly, the paper assesses the potential of city labs to contribute to the innovation of urban governance. The work draws from the literature on experimentation and learning as well as the literature on collaborative urban planning. In the conclusions, we discuss the potential of city labs as vehicles for learning about new urban planning approaches and their limitations as spaces for small-scale experimentation. The paper is based on research for the URB@Exp research project funded by JPI Urban Europe.

  13. Derecho a la movilidad. La experiencia de Bogotá D. C.

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    Fridole Ballén Duque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La movilidad en las grandes urbes se relaciona con la cultura ciudadana. El concepto ha evolucionado de la noción de tráfico o tránsito a la de sistema de movilidad. El “derecho a la mo vilidad” se define, por una parte, en función de los intereses que gobiernan los diferentes desplazamientos de las personas. Además, la movilidad está vinculada a derechos colectivos de gran relevancia en la vida contemporánea como son: medio ambiente, espacio público y accesibilidad universal. Para una mejor comprensión del asunto se aborda la experiencia de Bogotá y se analizan los avances y problemas de la ciudad con respecto al transporte público colectivo tradicional y el sistema de transporte masivo Transmilenio.

  14. 15 aastat ehitamist Eestis / Ado Eigi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eigi, Ado, 1938-2008

    2006-01-01

    Eesti arhitektuur viimase 15 aasta jooksul. Loetletud parimad arhitektuuriteosed: Mardi talu Saaremaal (Jüri Okas, 2002); Transgroup Investi büroohoone Tallinnas (Urmas Lõoke, 2005); Ferrumi kaubanduskeskuse hoone Kuressaares (Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Tarmo Laht, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, 2002); KUMU kunstimuuseum (Pekka Vapaavuori, 2005); Lootsi 3a korterelamu Tallinnas (Hanno Grossschmidt, 2005); City Plaza Tallinnas (Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Martin Melioranski, Indrek Rünkla, 2005); Okupatsioonide muuseum (Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, 2003); Pärnu kesklinna koolide võimla (Katrin Koov, Kaire Nõmm, Heidi Urb, Siiri Vallner, 2005); De la Gardie kaubamaja Tallinnas (Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Tarmo Laht, 2000); Lasnamäe spordihoone Tallinnas (Siiri Vallner, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi, 2003); TTP büroohoone Tallinnas (Meelis Press, 2005)

  15. Muestra del vocabulario empleado por la Comunidad Gay de Bogotá

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    Étienne Gagné

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo lexicográfico presenta una muestra del léxico empleado por la comunidad de jóvenes gays que se reúnen en establecimientos de la localidad de Chapinero (Bogotá. La práctica lexicográfica es una de las vías de entrada a la observación y el estudio de comunidades que permiten entender mejor la dinámica de la interacción en las grandes urbes. El documento que presentamos es parte de un proyecto que desarrollamos para la Maestría en Lingüística Española del Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

  16. La narrativa de la desesperanza: El embarcadero de los incurables (1998 de Fernando Cruz Kronfly

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    Iván Vicente Padilla Chasing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de entrar en algunos detalles de la novela El embarcadero de los incurables (1998, a través del problema de la desesperanza, este artículo busca, primero, articular esta novela a una tradición narrativa y, luego, ubicarla en el conjunto de la obra de Fernando Cruz Kronfly. En términos generales el problema y su expresión novelesca son entendidos como una evaluación estética de la crisis de la modernidad y sus valores, así como una toma de posición frente a los asaltos del sentir y el modo posmoderno de vida. A manera de ejemplo, haciendo énfasis en el tipo de novela practicado por el autor, en esta se analiza la condición de los sujetos de hoy y su intrascendencia en las urbes posmodernas.

  17. A angústia de viver na cidade

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    Ana Claudia Aymoré Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No romance Angústia, de Graciliano Ramos, a gradual dissolução psíquica de Luís da Silva tem uma relação intrínseca com as condições da vida urbana na modernidade, sendo a cidade referida ou semantizada ora como Babel, o caos urbano original, ora como Babilônia, a urbs corrompida pelo vício. Além disso, a recorrência de metáforas como a dos ratos (significando a degradação da vida, a corrupção da sexualidade ou o caráter predatório do materialismo burguês e a ênfase no estado de angústia revelam as interlocuções com conceitos filosóficos/psicológicos da Angst, tais como expressos em Freud, Kierkegaard e Heidegger.

  18. Planificación estratégica, administraciones locales y desarrollo territorial: una experiencia de la cooperación euro-latinoamericana en Colombia

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    Carlo TASSARA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reasons about the importance of the strategic planning for territorial development and on the contribution of the Euro-Latin American co-operation to the strengthening of the capacities of local authorities in Colombia. Within this context, the paper presents as case study the Project «European Union and Latin America for Welfare Integrated Policies» implemented between 2009 and 2013 under the URB AL Regional Programme. The Project, led by the Italian Region Emilia Romagna, has established a network of local authorities representing five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Italy and Spain for the exchange of best practices and the support to public policies for territorial development and local governance

  19. Influencia de la arborización en estructuras de Santa Fe de Bogotá

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    John Fabio Acuña C.

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles son vitales para cualquier ciudad, pues constituyen un referente fundamental para el adecuado uso de los sentidos debido a que comportan formas, olores, colores y sabores naturales en un medio donde el resto del paisaje es artificial. Contribuyen con la salud al purificar el aire; con la ecología y medio ambiente porque son anfitriones de muchas otras formas de vida, son fuente de belleza, recreación y armonía, dando además un sello de identidad a la urbe. Sin embargo, su implantación y manejo exige conocimientos y cuidados, para asegurar una armoniosa y perdurable integración con la ciudad.

  20. Planejamento ambiental para cidades pequenas: o caso de Perdões, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mariana Alvarenga do [UNESP

    2004-01-01

    A proposta deste trabalho é mostrar a importância do planejamento ambiental não só para centros urbanos médios e grandes, mas também para as cidades pequenas, tomando como estudo de caso a cidade de Perdões em Minas Gerais. Os pressupostos teóricos são providos através de uma revisão bibliográfica, baseada principalmente em cientistas sociais e geógrafos críticos, abordando temas como o desenvolvimento sustentável, a globalização e as novas redes urbanas, o planejamento urbano e ambiental urb...