WorldWideScience

Sample records for ellipsoidally symmetric distributions

  1. Potential distribution of a nonuniformly charged ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.; Aoki, J.; Soga, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A convenient formula is obtained for fast calculation of the three-dimensional potential distribution associated with a spatially varying charge-density distribution by reconstructing it as a superposed set of nested spheroidal shells. It is useful for experimental analyses of near-equilibrium states of non-neutral plasmas and for quick evaluation of the gravity field associated with stellar mass distributions

  2. Distributed Searchable Symmetric Encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Leenders, Bram; Lim, Hoon Wei; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Huaxiong; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) allows a client to store encrypted data on a storage provider in such a way, that the client is able to search and retrieve the data selectively without the storage provider learning the contents of the data or the words being searched for. Practical SSE schemes

  3. Probability distribution of distance in a uniform ellipsoid: Theory and applications to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, Michelle; Fischbach, Ephraim

    2000-01-01

    A number of authors have previously found the probability P n (r) that two points uniformly distributed in an n-dimensional sphere are separated by a distance r. This result greatly facilitates the calculation of self-energies of spherically symmetric matter distributions interacting by means of an arbitrary radially symmetric two-body potential. We present here the analogous results for P 2 (r;ε) and P 3 (r;ε) which respectively describe an ellipse and an ellipsoid whose major and minor axes are 2a and 2b. It is shown that for ε=(1-b 2 /a 2 ) 1/2 ≤1, P 2 (r;ε) and P 3 (r;ε) can be obtained as an expansion in powers of ε, and our results are valid through order ε 4 . As an application of these results we calculate the Coulomb energy of an ellipsoidal nucleus, and compare our result to an earlier result quoted in the literature. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  5. Plug and Play Robust Distributed Control with Ellipsoidal Parametric Uncertainty System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a continuous linear time invariant system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty structured into subsystems. Since the design of a local controller uses only information on a subsystem and its neighbours, we combine the plug and play idea and robust distributed control to propose one distributed control strategy for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty. Firstly for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty, a necessary and sufficient condition for robust state feedback control is proposed by means of linear matrix inequality. If this necessary and sufficient condition is satisfied, this robust state feedback gain matrix can be easily derived to guarantee robust stability and prescribed closed loop performance. Secondly the plug and play idea is introduced in the design process. Finally by one example of aircraft flutter model parameter identification, the efficiency of the proposed control strategy can be easily realized.

  6. Dose dependence of tensoresistance for the symmetrical orientation of the deformation axis relatively to all isoenergetic ellipsoids in γ-irradiated (60Co n-Si crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Gaidar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose dependence of tensoresistance X /0, which was measured at the symmetrical orientation of the deformation axis (compression relatively to all isoenergetic ellipsoids both in the initial and in -irradiated samples, was investigated in n-Si crystals. It has been shown that changing the irradiation doses is accompanied by not only quantitative but also qualitative changes in the functional dependence X /0 = f (Х. Features of tensoresistance in n-Si irradiated samples were found depending on three crystallographic directions, along which the samples were cut out and the mechanical stress Х was applied.

  7. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-08

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al . 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468 , 1799-1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas.

  8. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919

  9. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  10. Kinetic-energy distribution for symmetric fission of 236U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissot, R.; Bocquet, J.P.; Ristori, C.; Crancon, J.; Guet, C.R.; Nifenecker, H.A.; Montoya, M.

    1980-01-01

    Fission fragment kinetic-energy distributions have been measured at the Grenoble high-flux reactor with the Lohengrin facility. Spurious events were eliminated in the symmetric region by a coherence test based on a time-of-flight measurement of fragment velocities. A Monte-Carlo calculation is then performed to correct the experimental data for neutron evaporation. The difference between the most probable kinetic energy in symmetric fission and the fission in which the heavy fragment is 'magic' (Zsub(H)=50) is found to be approximately =30 MeV. The results suggest that for the symmetric case the total excitation energy available at scission is shared equally among the fragments. (author)

  11. Ellipsoids and matrix-valued valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Monika

    2003-01-01

    We obtain a classification of Borel measurable, GL(n) covariant, symmetric-matrix-valued valuations on the space of n-dimensional convex polytopes. The only ones turn out to be the moment matrix corresponding to the classical Legendre ellipsoid and the matrix corresponding to the ellipsoid recently discovered by E. Lutwak, D. Yang, and G. Zhang.

  12. Implications of the Cosmological Constant for Spherically Symmetric Mass Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, scientists have made the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is increasing rather than decreasing. This acceleration leads to an additional term in Albert Einstein's field equations which describe general relativity and is known as the cosmological constant. This work explores the aftermath of a non-vanishing cosmological constant for relativistic spherically symmetric mass distributions, which are susceptible to change against Einstein's field equations. We introduce a stellar structure equation known as the Tolman-Oppenhiemer-Volkoff (TOV) equation modified for a cosmological constant, which is derived from Einstein's modified field equations. We solve this modified TOV equation for these spherically symmetric mass distributions and obtain stellar properties such as mass and radius and investigate changes that may occur depending on the value of the cosmological constant.

  13. Magnetostatics of anisotropic superconducting ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    The magnetization and the magnetic field distribution inside (outside) an anisotropic type II superconducting ellipsoid, with filamentary structure, is formulated. We have shown that the magnetic field in this case is different from that of the general anisotropic one. The nucleations of the flux lines for specimens with large demagnetization factors are theoretically studied. We have shown that the nucleations of the flux lines, for specimens with large demagnetization factor, appears at a field larger than that of ellipsoidal shape. (author). 15 refs

  14. Shape matters: The case for Ellipsoids and Ellipsoidal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillack, Andreas F. [ORNL; Robinson, Bruce H. [University of Washington, Seattle

    2017-11-01

    We describe the shape potentials used for the van der Waals interactions between soft-ellipsoids used to coarse-grain molecular moieties in our Metropolis Monte-Carlo simulation software. The morphologies resulting from different expressions for these van der Waals interaction potentials are discussed for the case of a prolate spheroid system with a strong dipole at the ellipsoid center. We also show that the calculation of ellipsoids is, at worst, only about fivefold more expensive computationally when compared to a simple Lennard- Jones sphere. Finally, as an application of the ellipsoidal shape we parametrize water from the original SPC water model and observe – just through the difference in shape alone – a significant improvement of the O-O radial distribution function when compared to experimental data.

  15. Semantically Secure Symmetric Encryption with Error Correction for Distributed Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Partala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed storage system (DSS is a fundamental building block in many distributed applications. It applies linear network coding to achieve an optimal tradeoff between storage and repair bandwidth when node failures occur. Additively homomorphic encryption is compatible with linear network coding. The homomorphic property ensures that a linear combination of ciphertext messages decrypts to the same linear combination of the corresponding plaintext messages. In this paper, we construct a linearly homomorphic symmetric encryption scheme that is designed for a DSS. Our proposal provides simultaneous encryption and error correction by applying linear error correcting codes. We show its IND-CPA security for a limited number of messages based on binary Goppa codes and the following assumption: when dividing a scrambled generator matrix G^ into two parts G1^ and G2^, it is infeasible to distinguish G2^ from random and to find a statistical connection between G1^ and G2^. Our infeasibility assumptions are closely related to those underlying the McEliece public key cryptosystem but are considerably weaker. We believe that the proposed problem has independent cryptographic interest.

  16. Ellipsoid analysis of calvarial shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Petra A; Becker, Devra; Govier, Daniel P; Krantz, Steven G; Kane, Alex

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a novel quantitative method of describing calvarial shape by using ellipsoid geometry. The pilot application of Ellipsoid Analysis was to compare calvarial form among individuals with untreated unilateral coronal synostosis, metopic synostosis, and sagittal synostosis and normal subjects. The frontal, parietal, and occipital bones of 10 preoperative patients for each of the four study groups were bilaterally segmented into six regions using three-dimensional skull reconstructions generated by ANALYZE imaging software from high-resolution computed tomography scans. Points along each segment were extracted and manipulated using a MATLAB-based program. The points were fit to the least-squares nearest ellipsoid. Relationships between the six resultant right and left frontal, parietal, and occipital ellipsoidal centroids (FR, FL, PR, PL, OR, and OL, respectively) were tested for association with a synostotic group. Results from the pilot study showed meaningful differences between length ratio, angular, and centroid distance relationships among synostotic groups. The most substantial difference was exhibited in the centroid distance PL-PR between patients with sagittal synostosis and metopic synostosis. The measures most commonly significant were centroid distances FL-PR and FL-PL and the angle OR-FR-PR. Derived centroid relationships were reproducible. Ellipsoid Analysis may offer a more refined approach to quantitative analysis of cranial shape. Symmetric and asymmetric forms can be compared directly. Relevant shape information between traditional landmarks is characterized. These techniques may have wider applicability in quantifying craniofacial morphology with increase in both specificity and general applicability over current methods.

  17. Propagation of symmetric and anti-symmetric surface waves in aself-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma layer with generalized (r, q) distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2018-05-01

    The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma layer with the (r, q) distribution are investigated. The result shows that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode in the plasma layer decreases with an increase in the wave number. It is also shown that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode decreases with an increase in the spectral index r. However, the wave frequency of the anti-symmetric mode increases with an increase in the wave number. It is also found that the anti-symmetric mode wave frequency increases with an increase in the spectral index r. In addition, it is found that the influence of the self-gravitation on the symmetric mode wave frequency decreases with increasing scaled Jeans frequency. Moreover, it is found that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode increases with an increase in the dust charge; however, the anti-symmetric mode shows opposite behavior.

  18. Classical studies of the ellipsoidal shapes for dynamical deformation theories of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaud, B.

    1978-01-01

    The shape-dependent functions of the Liquid Drop and the Droplet Models are analytically calculated for an ellipsoid. Using the ellipsoidal symmetries, these functions (including the curvature function) are written in terms of three basic expressions. The nuclear deformation energy can be calculated in a simple way for axially symmetric and asymmetric ellipsoidal nuclei whatever the magnitude of the deformation is

  19. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF

  20. Triaxial Ellipsoidal Quantum Billiards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, Holger; Wiersig, Jan; Dullin, Holger R.

    1999-01-01

    The classical mechanics, exact quantum mechanics and semiclassical quantum mechanics of the billiard in the triaxial ellipsoid are investigated. The system is separable in ellipsoidal coordinates. A smooth description of the motion is given in terms of a geodesic flow on a solid torus, which is a

  1. Reference Ellipsoid and Geoid in Chronometric Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2016-02-01

    Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height). We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it in chronometric

  2. Reference ellipsoid and geoid in chronometric geodesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Kopeikin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height. We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it

  3. Reference Ellipsoid and Geoid in Chronometric Geodesy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M., E-mail: kopeikins@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Department of Physical Geodesy and Remote Sensing, Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-25

    Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height). We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it in

  4. Symmetric Blind Information Reconciliation for Quantum Key Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiktenko, Evgeniy O.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a quantum-proof key-exchange scheme which is fast approaching the communication industry. An essential component in QKD is the information reconciliation step, which is used for correcting the quantum-channel noise errors. The recently suggested blind-reconciliation technique, based on low-density parity-check codes, offers remarkable prospectives for efficient information reconciliation without an a priori quantum bit error rate estimation. We suggest an improvement of the blind-information-reconciliation protocol promoting a significant increase in the efficiency of the procedure and reducing its interactivity. Finally, the proposed technique is based on introducing symmetry in operations of parties, and the consideration of results of unsuccessful belief-propagation decodings.

  5. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2016-12-24

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.

  6. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  7. Constructing a Watts-Strogatz network from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Mozart B C; Kim, Seokjin; Huang, Rongbing

    2017-01-01

    Though the small-world phenomenon is widespread in many real networks, it is still challenging to replicate a large network at the full scale for further study on its structure and dynamics when sufficient data are not readily available. We propose a method to construct a Watts-Strogatz network using a sample from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution. Our method yields an estimated degree distribution which fits closely with that of a Watts-Strogatz network and leads into accurate estimates of network metrics such as clustering coefficient and degree of separation. We observe that the accuracy of our method increases as network size increases.

  8. Even distribution/dividing of single-phase fluids by symmetric bifurcation of flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We addressed an issue of distributing a flow to a number of flow channels uniformly. ► The flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels. ► Some key parameters to the flow distribution uniformity have been identified. ► Flow uniformity was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs. ► A novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was provided. -- Abstract: This study addresses a fundamental issue of distributing a single-phase fluid flow into a number of flow channels uniformly. A basic mechanism of flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels that symmetrically split one flow channel into two downstream channels. Applying the basic mechanism, cascades flow distributions are designed to split one flow into a large number of downstream flows uniformly. Some key parameters decisive to the flow distribution uniformity in such a system have been identified, and the flow distribution uniformity of air was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs using CFD analysis. The effect of the key parameters of the flow channel designs to the flow distribution uniformity was investigated. As an example of industrial application, a novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was proposed and some CFD analysis results for the device were provided. The optimized flow distributor makes a very good uniform flow distribution which will significantly improve the efficiency of fluid packaging. The technology is expected to be of great significance to many industrial devices that require high uniformity of flow distribution

  9. Constructing a Watts-Strogatz network from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart B C Menezes

    Full Text Available Though the small-world phenomenon is widespread in many real networks, it is still challenging to replicate a large network at the full scale for further study on its structure and dynamics when sufficient data are not readily available. We propose a method to construct a Watts-Strogatz network using a sample from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution. Our method yields an estimated degree distribution which fits closely with that of a Watts-Strogatz network and leads into accurate estimates of network metrics such as clustering coefficient and degree of separation. We observe that the accuracy of our method increases as network size increases.

  10. Ellipsoidal all-dielectric Fano resonant core-shell metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Kumar, Ajeet

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, ellipsoidal core (Si) and shell (SiO2) metamaterial has been proposed for highly directional properties. At the wavelength of magnetic resonance, Fano dip occurs in the backward scattering cross section and forward scattering enhancement takes place at the same wavelength so that there is an increment in the directivity. Effect on the directivity by changing the length of ellipsoidal nanoparticle along semi-axes has been analyzed. Two Fano resonances have been observed by decreasing the length of the nanoparticle along the semi-axis having electric polarization, where first and second Fano resonances are attributed to the dipole and quadrupole moments, respectively. These Fano resonant wavelengths in ellipsoidal nanoparticle exhibit higher directivity than the Kerker's type scattering or forward scattering shown by symmetrical structures like sphere. So, this core-shell metamaterial can act as an efficient directional nanoantenna.

  11. Symmetric extension of bipartite quantum states and its use in quantum key distribution with two-way postprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhr, Geir Ove

    2010-01-01

    Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the

  12. Symmetric extension of bipartite quantum states and its use in quantum key distribution with two-way postprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhr, Geir Ove

    2010-11-08

    Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the

  13. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  14. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  15. A calculation model for primary intensity distributions from cylindrically symmetric x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Dimitre; Maltz, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    A calculation model for the quantitative prediction of primary intensity fluence distributions obtained by the Bragg diffraction focusing of kilovoltage radiation by cylindrical x-ray lenses is presented. The mathematical formalism describes primary intensity distributions from cylindrically-symmetric x-ray lenses, with a planar isotropic radiation source located in a plane perpendicular to the lens axis. The presence of attenuating medium inserted between the lens and the lens focus is accounted for by energy-dependent attenuation. The influence of radiation scattered within the media is ignored. Intensity patterns are modeled under the assumption that photons that are not interacting with the lens are blocked out at any point of interest. The main characteristics of the proposed calculation procedure are that (i) the application of vector formalism allows universal treatment of all cylindrical lenses without the need of explicit geometric constructs; (ii) intensity distributions resulting from x-ray diffraction are described by a 3D generalization of the mosaic spread concept; (iii) the calculation model can be immediately coupled to x-ray diffraction simulation packages such as XOP and Shadow. Numerical simulations based on this model are to facilitate the design of focused orthovoltage treatment (FOT) systems employing cylindrical x-ray lenses, by providing insight about the influence of the x-ray source and lens parameters on quantities of dosimetric interest to radiation therapy

  16. Time-reversal symmetric work distributions for closed quantum dynamics in the histories framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Harry J D; Anders, Janet

    2017-01-01

    A central topic in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics is the definition of thermodynamic work in the quantum regime. One widely used solution is to define work for a closed system undergoing non-equilibrium dynamics according to the two-point energy measurement scheme. However, due to the invasive nature of measurement the two-point quantum work probability distribution cannot describe the statistics of energy change from the perspective of the system alone. We here introduce the quantum histories framework as a method to characterise the thermodynamic properties of the unmeasured , closed dynamics. Constructing continuous power operator trajectories allows us to derive an alternative quantum work distribution for closed quantum dynamics that fulfils energy conservation and is time-reversal symmetric. This opens the possibility to compare the measured work with the unmeasured work, contrasting with the classical situation where measurement does not affect the work statistics. We find that the work distribution of the unmeasured dynamics leads to deviations from the classical Jarzynski equality and can have negative values highlighting distinctly non-classical features of quantum work. (fast track communication)

  17. Stability of congruent Darwin ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoul, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of synchronous oscillations of congruent Darwin ellipsoids is reconsidered. Contrary to results obtained by Chandrasekhar, it is shown that along a Darwin sequence the configurations remain stable with respect to ellipsoidal disturbances until they become too closely spaced. The precise limit which separates stable from unstable systems is found. Apart from some minor differences the Darwin sequence is the exact analog of the Roche sequence

  18. Towards a Symmetric Momentum Distribution in the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, O M; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2013-01-01

    TheMuon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at Rutherford Appleton Labratory (UK). It is a proof-of-principle experiment for ionisation cooling, which is a prerequisite for a future Neutrino Factory (NF) or a Muon Collider. The muon beam will have a symmetrical momentum distribution in the cooling channel of theNF [1]. In the MICE beamline pions are captured by a quadrupole triplet, beam momentum is selected by dipole 1 (D1) before the beam traverses the decay solenoid. After the decay solenoid the beam momentum is selected by dipole 2 (D2), the beam is focused in two quadrupole triplets and characterised by time-of-flight (TOF) detectors TOF0 and TOF1 before entering the cooling channel. By doing a so-called D1-scan, where the optics parameters are scaled according to the upstream beam momentum, the purity and momentum distribution of the decay muons are changed. In this paper simulation results from G4Beamline (G4BL) [2] and data from MICE are presented and compared.

  19. Bayesian linear regression with skew-symmetric error distributions with applications to survival analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Rubio, Francisco J.

    2016-02-09

    We study Bayesian linear regression models with skew-symmetric scale mixtures of normal error distributions. These kinds of models can be used to capture departures from the usual assumption of normality of the errors in terms of heavy tails and asymmetry. We propose a general noninformative prior structure for these regression models and show that the corresponding posterior distribution is proper under mild conditions. We extend these propriety results to cases where the response variables are censored. The latter scenario is of interest in the context of accelerated failure time models, which are relevant in survival analysis. We present a simulation study that demonstrates good frequentist properties of the posterior credible intervals associated with the proposed priors. This study also sheds some light on the trade-off between increased model flexibility and the risk of over-fitting. We illustrate the performance of the proposed models with real data. Although we focus on models with univariate response variables, we also present some extensions to the multivariate case in the Supporting Information.

  20. Equilibrium and dynamics of uniform density ellipsoidal non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubin, D.H.E.

    1993-01-01

    When a single-species plasma is confined in a harmonic Penning trap at cryogenic temperature, the thermal equilibrium is approximately a uniform density spheroid (ellipsoid of revolution). Normal modes corresponding to quadrupole excitations of this plasma have recently been measured. In this paper, nonlinear equations of motion are derived for these quadrupole oscillations. For large amplitudes, the oscillations deform a spheroidal plasma into a triaxial ellipsoid with time-dependent shape and orientation. The integrals of the motion are found and the cylindrically symmetric finite-amplitude oscillations of a spheroid are studied. An analysis of all possible ellipsoidal equilibria is also carried out. New equilibria are discovered which correspond to finite-amplitude versions of the noncylindrically symmetric linear quadrupole oscillations. The equilibria are shown to fall into two classes in which the ellipsoids are either tilted or aligned with respect to the magnetic field. Some of these equilibria have densities well above the Brillouin limit

  1. New definition of complexity for self-gravitating fluid distributions: The spherically symmetric, static case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L.

    2018-02-01

    We put forward a new definition of complexity, for static and spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, based on a quantity, hereafter referred to as complexity factor, that appears in the orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor, in the context of general relativity. We start by assuming that the homogeneous (in the energy density) fluid, with isotropic pressure is endowed with minimal complexity. For this kind of fluid distribution, the value of complexity factor is zero. So, the rationale behind our proposal for the definition of complexity factor stems from the fact that it measures the departure, in the value of the active gravitational mass (Tolman mass), with respect to its value for a zero complexity system. Such departure is produced by a specific combination of energy density inhomogeneity and pressure anisotropy. Thus, zero complexity factor may also be found in self-gravitating systems with inhomogeneous energy density and anisotropic pressure, provided the effects of these two factors, on the complexity factor, cancel each other. Some exact interior solutions to the Einstein equations satisfying the zero complexity criterium are found, and prospective applications of this newly defined concept, to the study of the structure and evolution of compact objects, are discussed.

  2. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  3. Symmetric grey box identification and distributed beam-based controller design for free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Sven

    2014-09-15

    The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchtrotron (DESY) in Hamburg will, starting in 2015, open up completely new research opportunities for scientist and industrial users by exploiting ultrashort X-ray laser pulses. Bunches of electrons are accelerated by a radio frequency field inside superconducting cavities up to an energy of 17.5 GeV. A periodic arrangement of magnets forces the accelerated electrons onto a tight slalom path leading to a process in that the electrons emit extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. The generation of equidistant X-ray flashes with a constant intensity requires an extremely high precision field control in combination with beam-based signals. FLASH, which can be seen as a pilot test facility, allows to develop and test controller concepts even before the European XFEL is in operation. In this thesis it is shown that a physical white box model structure, which describes the behavior of each subsystem within the radio frequency field control loop, obeys as first-order approximation the special orthogonal group of dimension two (SO(2)). Presented is a grey box identification approach, which combines the physical model structure with general identification methods. The accelerator modules are operated in a pulsed mode. Thus, the excitation of the system and therefore the identification of the input-output behavior is only possible within a short time period. Developed is an adaptive identification approach with a specified SO(2) symmetric model structure. The proposed controller design strategy fulfills the requirements of a high precision field performance. Adapting the feedforward signal by using an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm reduces remaining repetitive field errors from pulse to pulse. It is shown, that exploiting the SO(2) symmetric structure and using the developed tensor based ILC representation simplifies the feedforward update computation. Magnetic chicanes, so

  4. Symmetric grey box identification and distributed beam-based controller design for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Sven

    2014-09-01

    The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchtrotron (DESY) in Hamburg will, starting in 2015, open up completely new research opportunities for scientist and industrial users by exploiting ultrashort X-ray laser pulses. Bunches of electrons are accelerated by a radio frequency field inside superconducting cavities up to an energy of 17.5 GeV. A periodic arrangement of magnets forces the accelerated electrons onto a tight slalom path leading to a process in that the electrons emit extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. The generation of equidistant X-ray flashes with a constant intensity requires an extremely high precision field control in combination with beam-based signals. FLASH, which can be seen as a pilot test facility, allows to develop and test controller concepts even before the European XFEL is in operation. In this thesis it is shown that a physical white box model structure, which describes the behavior of each subsystem within the radio frequency field control loop, obeys as first-order approximation the special orthogonal group of dimension two (SO(2)). Presented is a grey box identification approach, which combines the physical model structure with general identification methods. The accelerator modules are operated in a pulsed mode. Thus, the excitation of the system and therefore the identification of the input-output behavior is only possible within a short time period. Developed is an adaptive identification approach with a specified SO(2) symmetric model structure. The proposed controller design strategy fulfills the requirements of a high precision field performance. Adapting the feedforward signal by using an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm reduces remaining repetitive field errors from pulse to pulse. It is shown, that exploiting the SO(2) symmetric structure and using the developed tensor based ILC representation simplifies the feedforward update computation. Magnetic chicanes, so

  5. Intersection of a Sure Ellipsoid and a Random Ellipsoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun K. Gupta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} An Expression for the expected value of the intersection of a sure sphere and a random sphere has been derived by Laurent (1974. In the present paper we derive the expression for the expected intersection volume of a sure ellipsoid and a random ellipsoid

  6. Ellipsoidal fuzzy learning for smart car platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Julie A.; Kosko, Bart

    1993-12-01

    A neural-fuzzy system combined supervised and unsupervised learning to find and tune the fuzzy-rules. An additive fuzzy system approximates a function by covering its graph with fuzzy rules. A fuzzy rule patch can take the form of an ellipsoid in the input-output space. Unsupervised competitive learning found the statistics of data clusters. The covariance matrix of each synaptic quantization vector defined on ellipsoid centered at the centroid of the data cluster. Tightly clustered data gave smaller ellipsoids or more certain rules. Sparse data gave larger ellipsoids or less certain rules. Supervised learning tuned the ellipsoids to improve the approximation. The supervised neural system used gradient descent to find the ellipsoidal fuzzy patches. It locally minimized the mean-squared error of the fuzzy approximation. Hybrid ellipsoidal learning estimated the control surface for a smart car controller.

  7. Transformation of an empirical distribution to normal distribution by the use of Johnson system of translation and symmetrical quantile method

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvík Friebel; Jana Friebelová

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with approximation of empirical distribution to standard normal distribution using Johnson transformation. This transformation enables us to approximate wide spectrum of continuous distributions with a normal distribution. The estimation of parameters of transformation formulas is based on percentiles of empirical distribution. There are derived theoretical probability distribution functions of random variable obtained on the base of backward transformation standard normal ...

  8. Quantum Monodromy in Prolate Ellipsoidal Billiards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, Holger; Dullin, Holger R.

    2002-01-01

    This is the third in a series of three papers on quantum billiards with elliptic and ellipsoidal boundaries. In the present paper we show that the integrable billiard inside a prolate ellipsoid has an isolated singular point in its bifurcation diagram and, therefore, exhibits classical and quantum

  9. Absorbed fractions for alpha particles in ellipsoidal volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Baldari, Sergio; Italiano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry of alpha particles is gaining attention due to the increasing applications in cancer treatment and also for the assessment of environmental contamination from radionuclides. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic alpha particles in the energy interval between 0.1 and 10 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made of soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, three oblate and three prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a ‘generalized radius’ was found; and the dependence of the fit parameters on the alpha energy is discussed and fitted by parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for alpha particles in the energy range explored can be calculated for volumes and for ellipsoidal shapes of practical interest. This method can be applied to the evaluation of absorbed fraction from alpha-emitting radionuclides. The contribution to the deposited energy coming from electron and photon emissions can be accounted for exploiting the specific formulations previously introduced. As an example of application, the dosimetry of 213 Bi and its decay chain in ellipsoids is reported. (paper)

  10. Analytical characterization of radiation fields generated by certain witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Kalla, S.L.; Abbas, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in obtaining accurate predictions concerning radiation fields produced by ion beams impinging on homogeneous plane targets, the effect of this process being exothermic nuclear reactions. Previous theoretical studies made by the authors have focused on radiation fields generated by homogeneous plane disk- or ring-shaped sources, based on a unified treatment of the radiation field distribution developed by Hubbell and co-workers. In the case of an equivalent homogeneous source anisotropically emitting in non dispersive media, the Legendre polynomial series expansion method for specific emissivity function can be successfully applied when conditions for the convergence of the approximating series are satisfied. We have developed an analytical expression for the radiation field distribution around a homogeneous disk-shaped target bombarded by Witch-type distributed (in transverse plane) ion beams whose elementary areas anisotropically emit following a cos-type law in non dispersive media. Results of this investigation can be extended to various experimental situations in which the assumption of an angular omni-directional as well as of a constant space distribution of nuclear reaction emissivity over the accelerator target surface or other kinds of axi-symmetric plane sources of radiation is no longer valid. Animated 3 D graphics visualization is suggested

  11. New cancer diagnostics and therapeutics from a ninth 'hallmark of cancer': symmetric self-renewal by mutated distributed stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, James L

    2013-11-01

    A total of eight cellular alterations associated with human carcinogenesis have been framed as the 'hallmarks of cancer'. This representation overlooks a ninth hallmark of cancer: the requirement for tumor-originating distributed stem cells to shift sufficiently from asymmetric to symmetric self-renewal kinetics for attainment of the high cell production rate necessary to form clinically significant tumors within a human lifespan. Overlooking this ninth hallmark costs opportunities for discovery of more selective molecular targets for development of improved cancer therapeutics and missing cancer stem cell biomarkers of greater specificity. Here, the biological basis for the ninth hallmark of cancer is considered toward highlighting its importance in human carcinogenesis and, as such, its potential for revealing unique molecules for targeting cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

  12. Determining space-energy distribution of thermal neutrons in heterogeneous cylindrically symmetric reactor cell, Master Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M. V.

    1966-06-01

    A combination of multigroup method and P 3 approximation of spherical harmonics method was chosen for calculating space-energy distribution of thermal neutron flux in elementary reactor cell. Application of these methods reduced solution of complicated transport equation to the problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of six ordinary firs-order differential equations. A procedure is proposed which avoids numerical solution and enables analytical solution when applying certain approximations. Based on this approach, computer codes were written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer: SIGMA code for calculating group constants for a given material; MULTI code which uses results of SIGMA code as input and calculates spatial ana energy distribution of thermal neutron flux in a reactor cell. Calculations of thermal neutron spectra for a number of reactor cells were compared to results available from literature. Agreement was satisfactory in all the cases, which proved the correctness of the applied method. Some possibilities for improving the precision and acceleration of the calculation process were found during calculation. (author)

  13. Relations between the matter density and layer thickness radial distributions in spherically symmetric objects: for high energy nuclear physics and astrophysics use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Zawislawski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown how it is possible to transform known data on radial distribution of the matter layer thickness to unknown radial distribution of the matter density inside spherically symmetric objects. Appropriate formulas and testing of them are presented. An application of the method for the radial distribution of the matter density inside a target nucleus is discussed as an example. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  15. Ellipsoidal prediction regions for multivariate uncertainty characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul

    2018-01-01

    , for classes of decision-making problems based on robust, interval chance-constrained optimization, necessary inputs take the form of multivariate prediction regions rather than scenarios. The current literature is at very primitive stage of characterizing multivariate prediction regions to be employed...... in these classes of optimization problems. To address this issue, we introduce a new class of multivariate forecasts which form as multivariate ellipsoids for non-Gaussian variables. We propose a data-driven systematic framework to readily generate and evaluate ellipsoidal prediction regions, with predefined...... probability guarantees and minimum conservativeness. A skill score is proposed for quantitative assessment of the quality of prediction ellipsoids. A set of experiments is used to illustrate the discrimination ability of the proposed scoring rule for potential misspecification of ellipsoidal prediction regions...

  16. Propagation of a shock wave in a radiating spherically symmetric distribution of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Nunez, L.; Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela)

    1987-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres reported by Herrera et al. (1980) is extended to the case in which the sphere is divided in two regions by a shock wave front. The equations of state at both sides of the shock are different, and the solutions are matched on it via the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. The outer-region metric is matched with a Vaidya solution on the boundary surface of the sphere. As an example of the procedure, two known solutions for radiating systems are considered. The matter distribution is free of singularities everywhere within the sphere and a Gaussian-like pulse is assumed to carry out a fraction of the total mass. Exploding models are then obtained. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of recent work on gravitational collapse and supernovae. 29 references

  17. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  18. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  19. Uncertainties, confidence ellipsoids and security polytopes in LSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Michael

    1992-05-01

    For a given error model, the uncertainties of and the couplings between parameters estimated by a least-squares adjustment (LSA) are formalized. The error model is restricted to normally distributed random errors and to systematic errors that remain constant during measurement, but whose magnitudes and signs are unknown. An outline of the associated, new formalism for estimating measurement uncertainties is sketched as regards its function as a measure of the consistency between theory and experiment. The couplings due to random errors lead to ellipsoids stemming from singular linear mappings of Hotelling's ellipsoids. Those introduced by systematic errors create convex polytopes, so-called security polytopes, which are singular linear mappings of hyperblocks caused by a ldworst-case treatment” of systematic errors.

  20. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of scatter in non-uniform symmetrical attenuating media for point and distributed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.J.; Rosenthal, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report results of scatter simulations for both point and distributed sources of 99m Tc in symmetrical non-uniform attenuating media. The simulations utilized Monte Carlo techniques and were tested against experimental phantoms. Both point and ring sources were used inside a 10.5 cm radius acrylic phantom. Attenuating media consisted of combinations of water, ground beef (to simulate muscle mass), air and bone meal (to simulate bone mass). We estimated/measured energy spectra, detector efficiencies and peak height ratios for all cases. In all cases, the simulated spectra agree with the experimentally measured spectra within 2 SD. Detector efficiencies and peak height ratios also are in agreement. The Monte Carlo code is able to properly model the non-uniform attenuating media used in this project. With verification of the simulations, it is possible to perform initial evaluation studies of scatter correction algorithms by evaluating the mechanisms of action of the correction algorithm on the simulated spectra where the magnitude and sources of scatter are known. (author)

  2. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  3. Molecular dynamics study of the role of symmetric tilt grain boundaries on the helium distribution in nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Pencer, J.

    2018-04-01

    Helium impurities, from either direct implantation or transmutation reactions, have been associated with embrittlement in nickel-based alloys. Helium has very low solubility in nickel, and has been found to aggregate at lattice defects such as vacancies, dislocations, and grain boundaries. The retention and precipitation of helium in nickel-based alloys have deleterious effects on the material mechanical properties. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to helium effects in the host metal are not fully understood. In the present work, we investigate the role of symmetric tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures on the distribution of helium in nickel using molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate the family of STGBs specific to the 〈 110 〉 tilt axis. The present results indicate that accumulation of helium at the grain boundary may be modulated by details of grain boundary geometry. A plausible correlation between the grain boundary energy and misorientation with the accumulation and mobility of helium is proposed. Small clusters with up to 6 helium atoms show significant interstitial mobility in the nickel bulk, but also become sites for nucleation and grow of more stable helium clusters. High-energy GBs are found mainly populated with small helium clusters. The high mobility of small clusters along the GBs indicates the role of these GBs as fast two-dimensional channels for diffusion. In contrast, the accumulation of helium in large helium clusters at low-energy STGB creates a favorable environment for the formation of large helium bubbles, indicating a potential role for low-energy STGB in promoting helium-induced GB embrittlement.

  4. Optimal cloning of arbitrary mirror-symmetric distributions on the Bloch sphere: a proposal for practical photonic realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Miranowicz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We study state-dependent quantum cloning that can outperform universal cloning (UC). This is possible by using some a priori information on a given quantum state to be cloned. Specifically, we propose a generalization and optical implementation of quantum optimal mirror phase-covariant cloning, which refers to optimal cloning of sets of qubits of known modulus of the expectation value of Pauli's Z operator. Our results can be applied to cloning of an arbitrary mirror-symmetric distribution of qubits on the Bloch sphere including in special cases UC and phase-covariant cloning. We show that the cloning is optimal by adapting our former optimality proof for axisymmetric cloning (Bartkiewicz and Miranowicz 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 042330). Moreover, we propose an optical realization of the optimal mirror phase-covariant 1→2 cloning of a qubit, for which the mean probability of successful cloning varies from 1/6 to 1/3 depending on prior information on the set of qubits to be cloned. The qubits are represented by polarization states of photons generated by the type-I spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The scheme is based on the interference of two photons on an unbalanced polarization-dependent beam splitter with different splitting ratios for vertical and horizontal polarization components and the additional application of feedforward by means of Pockels cells. The experimental feasibility of the proposed setup is carefully studied including various kinds of imperfections and losses. Moreover, we briefly describe two possible cryptographic applications of the optimal mirror phase-covariant cloning corresponding to state discrimination (or estimation) and secure quantum teleportation.

  5. Dimension of the Earth's general ellipsoid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Raděj, K.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2002), s. 31-41 ISSN 0167-9295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Earth's dimensions * Earth's ellipsoid * fundamental constants Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2002

  6. On computing ellipsoidal harmonics using Jekeli's renormalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bouman, J.; Bosch, W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), s. 713-726 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth's gravitational field * spherical and ellipsoidal harmonics * hypergeometric function Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2012

  7. An ellipsoidal calculus based on propagation and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, L; Sabater, A; Thomas, F

    2002-01-01

    Presents an ellipsoidal calculus based solely on two basic operations: propagation and fusion. Propagation refers to the problem of obtaining an ellipsoid that must satisfy an affine relation with another ellipsoid, and fusion to that of computing the ellipsoid that tightly bounds the intersection of two given ellipsoids. These two operations supersede the Minkowski sum and difference, affine transformation and intersection tight bounding of ellipsoids on which other ellipsoidal calculi are based. Actually, a Minkowski operation can be seen as a fusion followed by a propagation and an affine transformation as a particular case of propagation. Moreover, the presented formulation is numerically stable in the sense that it is immune to degeneracies of the involved ellipsoids and/or affine relations. Examples arising when manipulating uncertain geometric information in the context of the spatial interpretation of line drawings are extensively used as a testbed for the presented calculus.

  8. Ellipsoids (v1.0): 3-D magnetic modelling of ellipsoidal bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Diego; Oliveira, Vanderlei C., Jr.

    2017-09-01

    A considerable amount of literature has been published on the magnetic modelling of uniformly magnetized ellipsoids since the second half of the nineteenth century. Ellipsoids have flexibility to represent a wide range of geometrical forms, are the only known bodies which can be uniformly magnetized in the presence of a uniform inducing field and are the only finite bodies for which the self-demagnetization can be treated analytically. This property makes ellipsoids particularly useful for modelling compact orebodies having high susceptibility. In this case, neglecting the self-demagnetization may strongly mislead the interpretation of these bodies by using magnetic methods. A number of previous studies consider that the self-demagnetization can be neglected for the case in which the geological body has an isotropic susceptibility lower than or equal to 0.1 SI. This limiting value, however, seems to be determined empirically and there has been no discussion about how this value was determined. In addition, the geoscientific community lacks an easy-to-use tool to simulate the magnetic field produced by uniformly magnetized ellipsoids. Here, we present an integrated review of the magnetic modelling of arbitrarily oriented triaxial, prolate and oblate ellipsoids. Our review includes ellipsoids with both induced and remanent magnetization, as well as with isotropic or anisotropic susceptibility. We also discuss the ambiguity between confocal ellipsoids with the same magnetic moment and propose a way of determining the isotropic susceptibility above which the self-demagnetization must be taken into consideration. Tests with synthetic data validate our approach. Finally, we provide a set of routines to model the magnetic field produced by ellipsoids. The routines are written in Python language as part of the Fatiando a Terra, which is an open-source library for modelling and inversion in geophysics.

  9. Ellipsoids (v1.0: 3-D magnetic modelling of ellipsoidal bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of literature has been published on the magnetic modelling of uniformly magnetized ellipsoids since the second half of the nineteenth century. Ellipsoids have flexibility to represent a wide range of geometrical forms, are the only known bodies which can be uniformly magnetized in the presence of a uniform inducing field and are the only finite bodies for which the self-demagnetization can be treated analytically. This property makes ellipsoids particularly useful for modelling compact orebodies having high susceptibility. In this case, neglecting the self-demagnetization may strongly mislead the interpretation of these bodies by using magnetic methods. A number of previous studies consider that the self-demagnetization can be neglected for the case in which the geological body has an isotropic susceptibility lower than or equal to 0.1 SI. This limiting value, however, seems to be determined empirically and there has been no discussion about how this value was determined. In addition, the geoscientific community lacks an easy-to-use tool to simulate the magnetic field produced by uniformly magnetized ellipsoids. Here, we present an integrated review of the magnetic modelling of arbitrarily oriented triaxial, prolate and oblate ellipsoids. Our review includes ellipsoids with both induced and remanent magnetization, as well as with isotropic or anisotropic susceptibility. We also discuss the ambiguity between confocal ellipsoids with the same magnetic moment and propose a way of determining the isotropic susceptibility above which the self-demagnetization must be taken into consideration. Tests with synthetic data validate our approach. Finally, we provide a set of routines to model the magnetic field produced by ellipsoids. The routines are written in Python language as part of the Fatiando a Terra, which is an open-source library for modelling and inversion in geophysics.

  10. Collisionless analogs of Riemann S ellipsoids with halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A spheroidal halo ensures equilibrium of the collisionless analogs of the Riemann S ellipsoids with oscillations of the particles along the direction of their rotation. Sequences of collisionless triaxial ellipsoids begin and end with dynamically stable members of collisionless embedded spheroids. Both liquid and collisionless Riemann S ellipsoids with weak halo have properties that resemble those of bars of SB galaxies

  11. Ellipsoidal prediction regions for multivariate uncertainty characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul

    2018-01-01

    While substantial advances are observed in probabilistic forecasting for power system operation and electricity market applications, most approaches are still developed in a univariate framework. This prevents from informing about the interdependence structure among locations, lead times and vari......While substantial advances are observed in probabilistic forecasting for power system operation and electricity market applications, most approaches are still developed in a univariate framework. This prevents from informing about the interdependence structure among locations, lead times...... probability guarantees and minimum conservativeness. A skill score is proposed for quantitative assessment of the quality of prediction ellipsoids. A set of experiments is used to illustrate the discrimination ability of the proposed scoring rule for potential misspecification of ellipsoidal prediction regions...

  12. Elastic buckling of ellipsoids of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solal, Roger; Hoffmann, Alain; Roche, Roland.

    1976-02-01

    The CEASEMT system of calculation by finite elements is used to determine critical internal pressures on a flattened ellipsoid of revolution. This case resembles that of an ellipsoidal head of a thin pressure vessel fitted onto a flexible colla. The calculations are performed assuming the geometry perfect, the deformations slight and the behaviour of the material perfectly elastic. The results obtained are presented favourably by plotting a reduced pressure p* against the geometry. A good definition of p* would be: p*=pπ 2 E/1-μ 2 .e 2 b 2 /a 4 (p* critical pressure, E Young's modulus, μ Poisson's coefficient, e thickness, a half large axis, b half small axis). When a/b is above 2 the p value remains close to 1. For lower a/b values the p value rises considerably with a/b [fr

  13. Circulation of a triaxial, charged ellipsoidal droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.L.; Rosensteel, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Kelvin circulation, which is the Casimir invariant of the general collective motion gcm(3) Lie algebra, is determined for a rapidly rotating triaxial nucleus in the classical domain. The potential energy is approximated by the sum of Coulomb repulsion and attractive surface energy terms, and the kinetic energy is adopted from the Riemann ellipsoidal model. An accurate approximation valid for both small and large deformations is reported for the potential energy. The Riemann ellipsoid theory allows for collective rotation in the continuum from rigid body motion to irrotational flow; the rigidity parametrizes this kinematical continuum. Analytic formulas are derived for the circulation, angular momentum, and energy as functions of the axis lengths, fissility, and rigidity. In particular, the bifurcation point to Jacobi triaxial shapes from noncollective oblate spheroids is given by a simple analytic formula. For a given fissility, the bifurcation point depends sensitive- ly on the rigidity. The Kelvin circulation remains approximately constant for triaxial ellipsoids as the angular momentum increases. This implies that gcm(3) is an approximate partial dynamical symmetry for rapidly rotating triaxial nuclei

  14. Application for coordinate transformation between Gaus - Kruger projection: Bessel ellipsoid and UTM projection: WGS84 ellipsoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gojković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical surface of the earth has irregular shape which is not mathematically defined, therefore the shape of the Earth is approximated with mathematically defined surfaces such as ellipsoid and sphere. The developing of a global positioning systems, thus and modern navigation systems, as effect produce large amounts of data which contain the problem of homogeneity. This problem could be exceed if all the data are store in the same coordinate system. Hence the need for data transformation from local coordinate systems to the global coordinate systems. Global level implies WGS84 ellipsoid and UTM projection while national coordinate system of Republic Serbia is Gauss-Kruger with Bessel ellipsoid. This coordinate system of Republic Serbia on a global level has a local character. Applying appropriate mathematical models and functions it is possible to transform coordinates from one system to another and vice versa. The paper describes coordinate transformations from Gauss-Kruger coordinate system ellipsoid Bessel to UTM projection WGS84 ellipsoid and vice versa, and also an application which provides transformation of its kind that is made using open source environment. Name of the application is TRANS7_GK_UTM_GK and it can be found and used on the web page of the faculty for Mining and Geology under the link http://gk2utm.rgf.bg.ac.rs with a user guide.

  15. Libration-driven flows in ellipsoidal shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasquerier, D.; Grannan, A. M.; Vidal, J.; Cébron, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Planets and satellites can undergo physical librations, which consist of forced periodic variations in their rotation rate induced by gravitational interactions with nearby bodies. This mechanical forcing may drive turbulence in interior fluid layers such as subsurface oceans and metallic liquid cores through a libration-driven elliptical instability (LDEI) that refers to the resonance of two inertial modes with the libration-induced base flow. LDEI has been studied in the case of a full ellipsoid. Here we address for the first time the question of the persistence of LDEI in the more geophysically relevant ellipsoidal shell geometries. In the experimental setup, an ellipsoidal container with spherical inner cores of different sizes is filled with water. Direct side view flow visualizations are made in the librating frame using Kalliroscope particles. A Fourier analysis of the light intensity fluctuations extracted from recorded movies shows that the presence of an inner core leads to spatial heterogeneities but does not prevent LDEI. Particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulations are performed on selected cases to confirm our results. Additionally, our survey at a fixed forcing frequency and variable rotation period (i.e., variable Ekman number, E) shows that the libration amplitude at the instability threshold varies as ˜E0.65. This scaling is explained by a competition between surface and bulk dissipation. When extrapolating to planetary interior conditions, this leads to the E1/2 scaling commonly considered. We argue that Enceladus' subsurface ocean and the core of the exoplanet 55 CnC e should both be unstable to LDEI.

  16. User defined function for transformation of ellipsoidal coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topographic plane of the Earth has irregular shape, and for the purpose of mathematical defining, it is to be approximated by rotational ellipsoid. As local geodetic datum, rotational ellipsoids of various sizes are used in the world. More widely usage of the GPS while performing surveying tasks has resulted in the need to define global geodetic datum in order to obtain the best approximation the entire Earth. For this purpose, geocentric rotational ellipsoid WGS84 was defined and the results of the GPS measurements are shown in relation to it. By applying the appropriate equations, the ellipsoidal coordinates are being transformed from WGS84 into the coordinates on the local rotational ellipsoid, i.e. on the view plane. The paper shows User Defined Function created for Excel, by which the coordinates in the territory of Belgrade are being transformed from WGS84 of rotational ellipsoid into the Gauss-Krüger projection plane.

  17. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matviychuk, Oksana G. [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya str., Ekaterinburg, 620990, Russia and Ural Federal University, 19 Mira str., Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  18. Discrete ellipsoidal statistical BGK model and Burnett equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Pei

    2018-06-01

    A new discrete Boltzmann model, the discrete ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ESBGK) model, is proposed to simulate nonequilibrium compressible flows. Compared with the original discrete BGK model, the discrete ES-BGK has a flexible Prandtl number. For the discrete ES-BGK model in the Burnett level, two kinds of discrete velocity model are introduced and the relations between nonequilibrium quantities and the viscous stress and heat flux in the Burnett level are established. The model is verified via four benchmark tests. In addition, a new idea is introduced to recover the actual distribution function through the macroscopic quantities and their space derivatives. The recovery scheme works not only for discrete Boltzmann simulation but also for hydrodynamic ones, for example, those based on the Navier-Stokes or the Burnett equations.

  19. Energy behaviour of neutrons generated by Witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical deuteron beams accelerated onto plane tritium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Timus, B.D.; Kalla, S.L.; Srivastava, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an analytical study of the spatial dependency of the d-T neutron energy in the vicinity of a homogeneous tritium-occluded plane target. Close to the target, and along the path of incidence of axially symmetric deuteron beams, the transverse density of accelerated deuterons is assumed to be governed by a law approximated by the 'Witch' function. In particular circumstances, the elementary neutron emission process in non-dispersive media can be considered to be omni-directional (due consideration being paid to collision kinetics, depending upon mass and kinetic energy of particles involved in the nuclear collision, nuclear reaction energy, etc.). Consequently, analytical expressions can be considerably simplified. By applying the classical kinetic energy and momentum conservation laws to nuclear processes, a theoretical description is obtained, taking into account the exoergic character of d-T fusion reaction. A number of expressions for energetic prediction of the fast neutron field are proposed. The associated relations, involving elementary functions, can be investigated using a desk-top computer. Computationally tractable tools are of importance in the study of diverse situations such as induced reactions and activation analysis using 14 MeV neutron generators, investigations in health-physics, radiation dose measurements, nuclear medicine, damage effects, and simulation studies

  20. Application of covariance clouds for estimating the anisotropy ellipsoid eigenvectors, with case study in uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali Esfahlan, D.; Madani, H.; Tahmaseb Nazemi, M. T.; Mahdavi, F.; Ghaderi, M. R.; Najafi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Various methods of Kriging and nonlinear geostatistical methods considered as acceptable methods for resource and reserve estimations have characters such as the least estimation variance in their nature, and accurate results in the acceptable confidence levels range could be achieved if the required parameters for the estimation are determined accurately. If the determined parameters don't have the sufficient accuracy, 3-D geostatistical estimations will not be reliable any more, and by this, all the quantitative parameters of the mineral deposit (e.g. grade-tonnage variations) will be misinterpreted. One of the most significant parameters for 3-D geostatistical estimation is the anisotropy ellipsoid. The anisotropy ellipsoid is important for geostatistical estimations because it determines the samples in different directions required for accomplishing the estimation. The aim of this paper is to illustrate a more simple and time preserving analytical method that can apply geophysical or geochemical analysis data from the core-length of boreholes for modeling the anisotropy ellipsoid. By this method which is based on the distribution of covariance clouds in a 3-D sampling space of a deposit, quantities, ratios, azimuth and plunge of the major-axis, semi-major axis and the minor-axis determine the ore-grade continuity within the deposit and finally the anisotropy ellipsoid of the deposit will be constructed. A case study of an uranium deposit is also analytically discussed for illustrating the application of this method.

  1. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  2. Post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid for relativistic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wenbiao; Mazurova, Elena

    2016-02-01

    We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference spacetime in relativistic geodesy for conducting a relativistic calculation of the geoid's undulation and the deflection of the plumb line from the vertical. We chose an axisymmetric ellipsoidal body made up of a perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis, as a source generating the reference geometry of the background manifold through Einstein's equations. We then reformulate and extend hydrodynamic calculations of rotating fluids done by a number of previous researchers for astrophysical applications to the realm of relativistic geodesy to set up algebraic equations defining the shape of the post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid. To complete this task, we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational field potentials inside the fluid body and represent them in terms of the elementary functions depending on the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. We fully explore the coordinate (gauge) freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and demonstrate that the fractional deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Maclaurin ellipsoid can be made much smaller than the previously anticipated estimate based on the astrophysical application of the coordinate gauge advocated by Bardeen and Chandrasekhar. We also derive the gauge-invariant relations of the post-Newtonian mass and the constant angular velocity of the rotating fluid with the parameters characterizing the shape of the post-Newtonian ellipsoid including its eccentricity, a semiminor axis, and a semimajor axis. We formulate the post-Newtonian theorems of Pizzetti and Clairaut that are used in geodesy to connect the geometric parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the physically measurable force of gravity at the pole and equator of the ellipsoid. Finally, we expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid to

  3. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jun, E-mail: phyjiang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Cheng, Yongjun, E-mail: cyj83mail@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Bromley, M.W.J., E-mail: brom@physics.uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4075 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations.

  4. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J.; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C 6 , C 8 and C 10 atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations

  5. A formal power series expansion-regularization approach for Lévy stable distributions: the symmetric case with \\alpha =2/M (M positive integer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanto-Neto, J. C.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Raposo, E. P.; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    In practice, the Lévy α-stable distribution is usually expressed in terms of the Fourier integral of its characteristic function. Indeed, known closed form expressions are relatively scarce given the huge parameters space: 0\\lt α ≤slant 2 ({{L\\'{e}vy}} {{index}}), -1≤slant β ≤slant 1 ({{skewness}}),σ \\gt 0 ({{scale}}), and -∞ \\lt μ \\lt ∞ ({{shift}}). Hence, systematic efforts have been made towards the development of proper methods for analytically solving the mentioned integral. As a further contribution in this direction, here we propose a new way to tackle the problem. We consider an approach in which one first solves the Fourier integral through a formal (thus not necessarily convergent) series representation. Then, one uses (if necessary) a pertinent sum-regularization procedure to the resulting divergent series, so as to obtain an exact formula for the distribution, which is amenable to direct numerical calculations. As a concrete study, we address the centered, symmetric, unshifted and unscaled distribution (β =0, μ =0, σ =1), with α ={α }M=2/M, M=1,2,3\\ldots . Conceivably, the present protocol could be applied to other sets of parameter values.

  6. Mesotherapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Matsukura, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2010-04-01

    Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung disease, is a rare disorder characterized by fat distribution around the shoulders, arms, and neck in the context of chronic alcoholism. Complete excision of nonencapsulated lipomas is difficult. However, reports describing conservative therapeutic measures for lipomatosis are rare. The authors present the case of a 42-year-old man with a diagnosis of benign symmetric lipomatosis who had multiple, large, symmetrical masses in his neck. Multiple phosphatidylcholine injections in the neck were administered 4 weeks apart, a total of seven times to achieve lipolysis. The patient's lipomatosis improved in response to the injections, and he achieved good cosmetic results. Intralesional injection, termed mesotherapy, using phosphatidylcholine is a potentially effective therapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis that should be reconsidered as a therapeutic option for this disease.

  7. INFLUENCE OF LASER BEAM PROFILE ON LIGHT SCATTERING BY HUMAN SKIN DURING PHOTOMETRY BY ELLIPSOIDAL REFLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bezuglyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct accounting of laser emitter parameters for improvement of diagnostic authenticity of methods of optical biomedical diagnostic is important problem for applied biophotonic tasks. The purpose of the current research is estimation of influence of energy distribution profile in transversal section of laser beam on light scattering by human skin layers at photometry by ellipsoidal reflectors.Biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors for investigation of biological tissue specimens in transmitted and reflected light uses laser probing radiation with infinitely thin, Gauss-type and uniform cross-section profile. Distribution of beams with denoted profiles, which consist of 20 million photons with wavelength 632.8 nm, was modeled by using of Monte-Carlo simulation in human skin layers (corneous layer, epidermis, derma and adipose tissue of various anatomic thickness and with ellipsoidal reflectors with focal parameter equal to 16.875 mm and eccentricity of 0.66.The modeling results represent that illuminance distribution in zones of photometric imaging is significantly influenced by the laser beam cross-section profile for various thickness of corneous layer and epidermis in transmitted and reflected light, and also derma in reflected light. Illuminance distribution for adipose tissue in reflected and transmitted light, and also derma in transmitted light, practically do not depend of laser beam profile for anatomic thicknesses, which are appropriate for human skin on various sections of body.There are represented results of modified Monte-Carlo simulation method for biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors during biometry of human skin layers. For highly scattered corneous layer and epidermis the illumination of middle and external rings of photometric images changes depending from the laser beam profile for more than 50 % in transmitted and 30 % in reflected light. For weakly scattering skin layers (derma and adipose layer

  8. THE TILT OF THE HALO VELOCITY ELLIPSOID AND THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Martin C.; Wyn Evans, N.; An, Jin H.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of ∼1800 halo subdwarf stars with radial velocities and proper motions is assembled from Bramich et al.'s light-motion catalog of 2008. This is based on the repeated multiband Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric measurements in Stripe 82. Our sample of halo subdwarfs is extracted via a reduced proper motion diagram and distances are obtained using photometric parallaxes, thus giving full phase-space information. The tilt of the velocity ellipsoid with respect to the spherical polar coordinate system is computed and found to be consistent with zero for two of the three tilt angles, and very small for the third. We prove that if the inner halo is in a steady state and the triaxial velocity ellipsoid is everywhere aligned in spherical polar coordinates, then the potential must be spherically symmetric. The detectable, but very mild, misalignment with spherical polars is consistent with the perturbative effects of the Galactic disk on a spherical dark halo. Banana orbits are generated at the 1:1 resonance (in horizontal and vertical frequencies) by the disk. They populate Galactic potentials at the typical radii of our subdwarf sample, along with the much more dominant short-axis tubes. However, on geometric grounds alone, the tilt cannot vanish for the banana orbits and this leads to a slight, but detectable, misalignment. We argue that the tilt of the stellar halo velocity ellipsoid therefore provides a hitherto largely neglected but important line of argument that the Milky Way's dark halo, which dominates the potential, must be nearly spherical.

  9. A new approach of recognition of ellipsoidal micro- and nanoparticles on AFM images and determination of their sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadeev, Albert A; Kh Salakhov, Myakzyum

    2016-01-01

    In this work we develop an approach of automatic recognition of ellipsoidal particles on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image and determination of their size, which is based on image segmentation and the surface approximation by ellipsoids. In addition to the comparative simplicity and rapidity of processing, this method allows us to determine the size of particles, the surface of which is not completely visible on the image. The proposed method showed good results on simulated images including noisy ones. Using this algorithm the size distributions of silica particles on experimental AFM images have been determined. (paper)

  10. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  11. Needlelike motion of prolate ellipsoids in the sea of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, R.; Ravichandran, S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2001-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of translational motion of isolated prolate ellipsoids in the sea of spheres have been carried out for several different values of the aspect ratio (κ), obtained by changing either the length or the diameter of the ellipsoids, at several different solvent densities. The interaction among the spheres is given by the Lennard-Jones pair potential while that between spheres and ellipsoids is given by a modified Gay-Berne potential. Both the mean-square displacements of the center of mass of the ellipsoids and their orientational time correlation function have been calculated. It is found that at short to intermediate times, the motion of ellipsoids is anisotropic and primarily needlelike—the molecules prefer to move parallel to their long axis. The ratio of these two diffusion constants (D∥ and D⊥) approaches κ, suggesting a decoupling of D∥ from the length of the ellipsoid. The diffusion becomes isotropic in the long time with the total diffusion coefficient given by D∥+2D⊥. The crossover from the anisotropic to the isotropic diffusion is surprisingly sharp and clear in most cases.

  12. Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.

  13. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  15. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  17. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  18. Ellipsoidal terrain correction based on multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Safari, A.

    2004-09-01

    An operational algorithm for computation of terrain correction (or local gravity field modeling) based on application of closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid is presented. Multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid has been derived and is described in detail for the first time. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid are selected and the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity (i.e. gravitational acceleration) of the mass elements are computed via numerical solution of the Newton integral in terms of geodetic coordinates {λ,ϕ,h}. Four base- edge points of the ellipsoidal mass elements are transformed into a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection surface to build Cartesian mass elements by associating the height of the corresponding ellipsoidal mass elements to the transformed area elements. Using the closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity of the transformed Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with those of the numerical solution of the Newton integral for the ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates. Numerical tests indicate that the difference between the two computations, i.e. numerical solution of the Newton integral for ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates and closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, in a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection, is less than 1.6×10-8 m2/s2 for a mass element with a cross section area of 10×10 m and a height of 10,000 m. For a mass element with a cross section area of 1×1 km and a height of 10,000 m the difference is less than 1.5×10-4m2/s2. Since 1.5× 10-4 m2/s2 is equivalent to 1.5×10-5m in the vertical

  19. X-ray microfocusing with off-axis ellipsoidal mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu, E-mail: yumoto@spring8.or.jp; Koyama, Takahisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors for two-dimensionally focusing X-rays to nanometer sizes have not been realized because of technical problems in their fabrication processes. The objective of the present study is to develop fabrication techniques for ellipsoidal focusing mirrors in the hard-X-ray region. We design an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror for use under total reflection conditions up to the X-ray energy of 8 keV. We fabricate an ellipsoidal mirror with a surface roughness of 0.3 nm RMS (root-mean-square) and a surface figure error height of 3.0 nm RMS by utilizing a surface profiler and surface finishing method developed by us. The focusing properties of the mirror are evaluated at the BL29XUL beamline in SPring-8. A focusing beam size of 270 nm × 360 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) at an X-ray energy of 7 keV is observed with the use of the knife-edge scanning method. We expect to apply the developed fabrication techniques to construct ellipsoidal nanofocusing mirrors.

  20. The Hubble IR cutoff in holographic ellipsoidal cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Cruz, Norman [Grupo de Cosmologia y Gravitacion-UBB, Concepcion (Chile)

    2018-01-15

    It is well known that for spatially flat FRW cosmologies, the holographic dark energy disfavors the Hubble parameter as a candidate for the IR cutoff. For overcoming this problem, we explore the use of this cutoff in holographic ellipsoidal cosmological models, and derive the general ellipsoidal metric induced by a such holographic energy density. Despite the drawbacks that this cutoff presents in homogeneous and isotropic universes, based on this general metric, we developed a suitable ellipsoidal holographic cosmological model, filled with a dark matter and a dark energy components. At late time stages, the cosmic evolution is dominated by a holographic anisotropic dark energy with barotropic equations of state. The cosmologies expand in all directions in accelerated manner. Since the ellipsoidal cosmologies given here are not asymptotically FRW, the deviation from homogeneity and isotropy of the universe on large cosmological scales remains constant during all cosmic evolution. This feature allows the studied holographic ellipsoidal cosmologies to be ruled by an equation of state ω = p/ρ, whose range belongs to quintessence or even phantom matter. (orig.)

  1. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  2. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  3. Dislocation pile-ups, slip-bands, ellipsoids, and cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence M.

    2005-01-01

    The classic theories of dislocation pile-ups, initiated by Eshelby, Frank and Nabarro, and by Leibfried, can be greatly simplified if it is recognised that the dislocations in the pile-up will experience uniform stress if they are lodged in an ellipsoidal interface. Elementary algebra then produces the familiar results from continuum theory. It seems possible that the ellipsoid construction may represent physical reality if it is taken to represent a three-dimensional slip-band. If so, there are concentrated forces spreading the band perpendicular to the slip band as well as parallel to it. Such ellipsoids also represent Mode II and Mode III cracks, and give a method for dealing with the more complicated Mode I cracks

  4. Microscopic analysis of Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Zou, Ruiping; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2013-06-01

    Hoppers are widely used in process industries. With such widespread application, difficulties in achieving desired operational behaviors have led to extensive experimental and mathematical studies in the past decades. Particularly, the discrete element method has become one of the most important simulation tools for design and analysis. So far, most studies are on spherical particles for computational convenience. In this work, ellipsoidal particles are used as they can represent a large variation of particle shapes. Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles is presented highlighting the effect of particle shape on the microscopic properties.

  5. On Symmetric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Ryan; Cho, Ilwoo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study structure theorems of algebras of symmetric functions. Based on a certain relation on elementary symmetric polynomials generating such algebras, we consider perturbation in the algebras. In particular, we understand generators of the algebras as perturbations. From such perturbations, define injective maps on generators, which induce algebra-monomorphisms (or embeddings) on the algebras. They provide inductive structure theorems on algebras of symmetric polynomials. As...

  6. Three-dimensional nonstationary dynamics of a charged bunches-ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, Yu.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work is aimed at studying the changes in the beam dynamics at the beginning of acceleration, when the zero longitudinal emittance is transformed into the final longitudinal phase volume. This process is studied on the bunch-ellipsoid self-consistent model with the charge uniform distribution. The results obtained present the evaluation of the parameters, whereby the longitudinal dynamics in the bunch significantly changes, namely, the particles bunch with increase in the spatial charge transfers into a new state with doubled frequency of the longitudinal oscillations [ru

  7. Computing the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid of a polytopic projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, Jianzhe; den Hertog, Dick

    We introduce a novel scheme based on a blending of Fourier-Motzkin elimination (FME) and adjustable robust optimization techniques to compute the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid (MVE) in a polytopic projection. It is well-known that deriving an explicit description of a projected polytope is

  8. Computing the Maximum Volume Inscribed Ellipsoid of a Polytopic Projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, J.; den Hertog, D.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel scheme based on a blending of Fourier-Motzkin elimination (FME) and adjustable robust optimization techniques to compute the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid (MVE) in a polytopic projection. It is well-known that deriving an explicit description of a projected polytope is

  9. Ramification of Datum and Ellipsoidal Parameters on Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... also post processed using Ghana War Office datum and ellipsoidal parameters. The results for the two ... rely on the datum (Kotzev, 2013). It is equally ..... Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (MS excel) was used for analysis of the ...

  10. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-01-01

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced

  11. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  12. Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields

  13. Electroencephalography in ellipsoidal geometry with fourth-order harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Sosa, M; Gutierrez, D

    2016-08-01

    We present a solution to the electroencephalographs (EEG) forward problem of computing the scalp electric potentials for the case when the head's geometry is modeled using a four-shell ellipsoidal geometry and the brain sources with an equivalent current dipole (ECD). The proposed solution includes terms up to the fourth-order ellipsoidal harmonics and we compare this new approximation against those that only considered up to second- and third-order harmonics. Our comparisons use as reference a solution in which a tessellated volume approximates the head and the forward problem is solved through the boundary element method (BEM). We also assess the solution to the inverse problem of estimating the magnitude of an ECD through different harmonic approximations. Our results show that the fourth-order solution provides a better estimate of the ECD in comparison to lesser order ones.

  14. ALEGRA-MHD Simulations for Magnetization of an Ellipsoidal Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized...diffusion has saturated. The simplicity of the interior solution lends itself well to verification of computational electromagnetic simulations...via computation with ALEGRA. The computed solution in the interior core of the ellipsoid converges to the exact solution at first order, as expected

  15. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yangjing_928@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A micro X-ray fluorescence setup based on an ellipsoidal capillary was presented. • The optimal parameters of ellipsoidal capillary were designed. • The 2D mapping image of biological sample was obtained. - Abstract: A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  16. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  17. Dynamic cluster generation for a fuzzy classifier with ellipsoidal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a fuzzy classifier with ellipsoidal regions that dynamically generates clusters. First, for the data belonging to a class we define a fuzzy rule with an ellipsoidal region. Namely, using the training data for each class, we calculate the center and the covariance matrix of the ellipsoidal region for the class. Then we tune the fuzzy rules, i.e., the slopes of the membership functions, successively until there is no improvement in the recognition rate of the training data. Then if the number of the data belonging to a class that are misclassified into another class exceeds a prescribed number, we define a new cluster to which those data belong and the associated fuzzy rule. Then we tune the newly defined fuzzy rules in the similar way as stated above, fixing the already obtained fuzzy rules. We iterate generation of clusters and tuning of the newly generated fuzzy rules until the number of the data belonging to a class that are misclassified into another class does not exceed the prescribed number. We evaluate our method using thyroid data, Japanese Hiragana data of vehicle license plates, and blood cell data. By dynamic cluster generation, the generalization ability of the classifier is improved and the recognition rate of the fuzzy classifier for the test data is the best among the neural network classifiers and other fuzzy classifiers if there are no discrete input variables.

  18. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  19. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  20. Production of quasi ellipsoidal laser pulses for next generation high brightness photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rublack, T., E-mail: Tino.Rublack@desy.de [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Good, J.; Khojoyan, M.; Krasilnikov, M.; Stephan, F. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Hartl, I.; Schreiber, S. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Andrianov, A.; Gacheva, E.; Khazanov, E.; Mironov, S.; Potemkin, A.; Zelenogorskii, V.V. [IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Syresin, E. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-01

    The use of high brightness electron beams in Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications is of increasing importance. One of the most promising methods to generate such beams is the usage of shaped photocathode laser pulses. It has already demonstrated that temporal and transverse flat-top laser pulses can produce very low emittance beams [1]. Nevertheless, based on beam simulations further improvements can be achieved using quasi-ellipsoidal laser pulses, e.g. 30% reduction in transverse projected emittance at 1 nC bunch charge. In a collaboration between DESY, the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science (IAP RAS) in Nizhny Novgorod and the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna such a laser system capable of producing trains of laser pulses with a quasi-ellipsoidal distribution, has been developed. The prototype of the system was installed at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) and is currently in the commissioning phase. In the following, the laser system will be introduced, the procedure of pulse shaping will be described and the last experimental results will be shown.

  1. Design stresses in probabilistic form for ellipsoidal and toroidal pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.O.

    1979-01-01

    Design has customarily been based on applied loading, geometry, and handbook values for strength to give a deterministic solution. The engineering profession, however, has become increasingly concerned with the adequacy of design calculations. This concern indicates a need for critical evaluation of designs based on arbitrary multipliers, such as factors of safety or worst-case treatment. Ellipsoids are frequently used for end closure of cylindrical pressure shells. Toroids of elliptic or circular cross-section, are widely used, e.g., for connecting two parallel legs in a U-shape. This paper gives equations for means and standard deviations of stresses developed in ellipsoids and toroids with internal pressure. Inherent are: (1) design variables are generally characterized by spectra of values (assumed to be normally distributed), rather than by unique values, and (2) a small, but finite, probability of failure must be recognized in any design. By coupling stresses due to applied loading as calculated by the given equations with strength available in a material, reliability (or the alternative probability of failure) can be calculated. Conversely, for a given reliability the appropriate size can be determined. (orig.)

  2. Performance limitations of translationally symmetric nonimaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, John C.; Shatz, Narkis E.; Winston, Roland

    2001-11-01

    The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quality, referred to herein as the translational skew invariant, is analogous to the conventional skew invariant, which is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. The invariance of both of these quantities is a consequence of Noether's theorem. We show how performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices can be derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. Examples of computed performance limits are provided. In addition, we show that a numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking surface microstructure can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry. The optimized design provides a 47.4% increase in efficiency and concentration relative to an ideal translationally symmetric concentrator.

  3. Space-charge calculation for bunched beams with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    A method for calculating 3-D space-charge forces has been developed that is suitable for bunched beams of either ions or relativistic electrons. The method is based on the analytic relations between charge-density and electric fields for a distribution with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry in real space. At each step we use a Fourier-series representation for the smooth particle-density function obtained from the distribution of the macroparticles being tracked through the elements of the system. The resulting smooth electric fields reduce the problem of noise from artificial collisions, associated with small numbers of interacting macroparticles. Example calculations will be shown for comparison with other methods. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Behaviors of ellipsoidal micro-particles within a two-beam optical levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, T.; Yang, M.; Ren, K.F.; Pouligny, B.; Loudet, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    The two-beam levitator (TBL) is a standard optical setup made of a couple of counter-propagating beams. Note worthily, TBLs allow the manipulation and trapping of particles at long working distances. While much experience has been accumulated in the trapping of single spherical particles in TBLs, the behaviors of asymmetrical particles turn out to be more complex, and even surprising. Here, we report observations with prolate ellipsoidal polystyrene particles, with varying aspect ratio and ratio of the two beam powers. Generalizing the earlier work by Mihiretie et al. in single beam geometries [JQSRT 126, 61 (2013)], we observe that particles may be either static, or permanently oscillating, and that the two-beam geometry produces new particle responses: some of them are static, but non-symmetrical, while others correspond to new types of oscillations. A two-dimensional model based on ray-optics qualitatively accounts for these configurations and for the “primary” oscillations of the particles. Furthermore, levitation powers measured in the experiments are in fair agreement with those computed from GLMT (Generalized Lorentz Mie Theory), MLFMA (Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm) and approximate ray-optics methods. - Highlights: • Spheroids in two-laser beam geometry may stabilize in asymmetric configurations. • Particles undergo different types of oscillations, in polar and azimuthal angles. • Polar angle oscillations and asymmetric equilibriums are predicted by ray-optics. • The basic levitation force decreases with particle aspect ratio. • Experiments, simple ray optics and MLFMA calculations show similar tendencies.

  5. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  6. Counting with symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics.  It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions.  Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions.  Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4.  The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...

  7. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....

  8. Libration-Driven Elliptical Instability Experiments in Ellipsoidal Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Lemasquerier, D. G.; Favier, B.; Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Planets and satellites can be subjected to physical libration, which consists in forced periodic variations in their rotation rate induced by gravitational interactions with nearby bodies. These librations may mechanically drive turbulence in interior liquid layers such as subsurface oceans and metallic liquid cores. One possible driving-process is called the Libration-Driven Elliptical Instability (LDEI) and refers to the resonance of two inertial modes with the libration induced base flow. LDEI has been experimentally and numerically studied in the case of a full ellipsoid (e.g. Cébron et al. [2012c], Grannan et al. [2014] and Favier et al. [2015]). In this study, we address the question of the persistence of the LDEI in the theoretically complex case of an ellipsoidal shell which is more geophysically relevant to model planetary liquid layers. We use an ellipsoidal acrylic container filled with water and add spherical inner cores of different sizes. We perform direct side-view visualizations of the flow in the librating frame using Kalliroscope particles. A Fourier analysis of the light intensity extracted from the recorded movies shows that LDEI persists in a shell geometry for a libration frequency which is 4 and 2.4 time the rotation rate, and allows an identification of the mode coupling. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is performed in vertical and horizontal planes on a selected case to confirm our light intensity results. Additionaly, our survey at a fixed forcing-frequency and variable Ekman number (E) allows a comparison with a local stability analysis, and shows that the libration amplitude at the threshold of the instability varies as ≈[E0.63, E0.72]. When extrapolating to planetary interiors conditions, such a scaling leads to an easier excitation of the elliptical instability than the E0.5 scaling commonly considered.

  9. New solutions of the generalized ellipsoidal wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Exton

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects and a contribution to the theory of new forms of solutions of an algebraic form of the generalized ellipsoidal wave equation are deduced by considering the Laplace transform of a soluble system of linear differential equations. An ensuing system of non-linear algebraic equations is shown to be consistent and is numerically implemented by means of the computer algebra package MAPLE V. The main results are presented as series of hypergeometric type of there and four variables which readily lend themselves to numerical handling although this does not indicate all of the detailedanalytic properties of the solutions under consideration.

  10. Ellipsoidal reflector for measuring oto-acoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Pulkki, Ville; Heiskanen, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    A truncated prolate ellipsoidal reflector having the ear canal of a listener at one focal point and large- diaphragm low-noise microphone at the other focal point is proposed for free-field recordings of oto-acoustic emissions. A prototype reflector consisting of three pieces is presented, which...... enables measuring the response of the system with different truncations. The response of the system is measured with a miniature loud- speaker, and proof-of-concept measurements of oto-acoustic emissions are presented. The effect of truncation and other physical parameters to the performance of the system...

  11. A 3D DLM/FD method for simulating the motion of spheres and ellipsoids under creeping flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Guo, Aixia; Chiu, Shang-Huan; Glowinski, Roland

    2018-01-01

    We present in this article a novel distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain (DLM/FD) method for simulating fluid-particle interaction in three-dimensional (3D) Stokes flow. The methodology is validated by comparing the numerical results for a neutrally buoyant particle, of either spherical or prolate shape, with the associated Jeffrey's solutions for a simple shear flow. The results concerning two balls, interacting under creeping flow conditions in a bounded shear flow, are consistent with those available in the literature. We will discuss also the interactions of two balls in a bounded shear flow, when these balls are very close initially. For a prolate ellipsoid rotating in a shear flow under the sole effect of the particle inertia, shear plane tumbling is stable, while log-rolling is unstable. For two prolate ellipsoids interacting in a bounded shear flow, the results are similar to those for two balls if the major axes are initially orthogonal to the shear plane (a result not at all surprising considering that the intersections of the ellipsoids with the shear pane are circular).

  12. The design and test of ellipsoidal glass capillaries as condensers for X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Gang; Xiong Ying; Liu Longhua; Huang Xinlong; Tian Yangchao

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution X-ray microscope endstation was constructed on a wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Parameters of the ellipsoidal glass capillaries as condensers were calculated and designed based on the illumination requests in the X-ray microscope system. Performance of the ellipsoidal glass capillaries was tested. The results indicate that the beam size agrees with the designed parameters and focus efficiencies of the ellipsoidal glass capillary condensers are better than 85%. (authors)

  13. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  14. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitz, Eric, E-mail: eheitz.research@gmail.com

    2017-04-21

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  15. Symmetric waterbomb origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.

  16. Symmetric modular torsatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  17. Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed

  18. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1984-01-01

    Inclusive and coincidence measurements have been performed to study symmetric products from the reactions 74--186 MeV 12 C+ 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be+ 40 Ca, and 153 MeV 6 Li+ 40 Ca. The binary decay of the composite system has been verified. Energy spectra, angular distributions, and fragment correlations are presented. The total kinetic energies for the symmetric products from these very light composite systems are compared to liquid drop model calculations and fission systematics

  19. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  20. Anisotropic hypersonic phonon propagation in films of aligned ellipsoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J; Schneider, Dirk; Fytas, George; Furst, Eric M

    2014-11-14

    A material with anisotropic elastic mechanical properties and a direction-dependent hypersonic band gap is fabricated using ac electric field-directed convective self-assembly of colloidal ellipsoids. The frequency of the gap, which is detected in the direction perpendicular to particle alignment and entirely absent parallel to alignment, and the effective sound velocities can be tuned by the particle aspect ratio. We hypothesize that the band gap originates from the primary eigenmode peak, the m-splitted (s,1,2) mode, of the particle resonating with the effective medium. These results reveal the potential for powerful control of the hypersonic phononic band diagram by combining anisotropic particles and self-assembly.

  1. Entropies from Coarse-graining: Convex Polytopes vs. Ellipsoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kalogeropoulos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the Boltzmann/Gibbs/Shannon SBGS and the non-additive Havrda-Charvát/Daróczy/Cressie-Read/Tsallis Sq and the Kaniadakis κ-entropy Sκ from the viewpoint of coarse-graining, symplectic capacities and convexity. We argue that the functional form of such entropies can be ascribed to a discordance in phase-space coarse-graining between two generally different approaches: the Euclidean/Riemannian metric one that reflects independence and picks cubes as the fundamental cells in coarse-graining and the symplectic/canonical one that picks spheres/ellipsoids for this role. Our discussion is motivated by and confined to the behaviour of Hamiltonian systems of many degrees of freedom. We see that Dvoretzky’s theorem provides asymptotic estimates for the minimal dimension beyond which these two approaches are close to each other. We state and speculate about the role that dualities may play in this viewpoint.

  2. Revisiting the stellar velocity ellipsoid-Hubble-type relation: observations versus simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martig, M.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Leaman, R.; Lyubenova, M.

    2018-04-01

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) in galaxies can provide important information on the processes that participate in the dynamical heating of their disc components (e.g. giant molecular clouds, mergers, spiral density waves, and bars). Earlier findings suggested a strong relation between the shape of the disc SVE and Hubble type, with later-type galaxies displaying more anisotropic ellipsoids and early types being more isotropic. In this paper, we revisit the strength of this relation using an exhaustive compilation of observational results from the literature on this issue. We find no clear correlation between the shape of the disc SVE and morphological type, and show that galaxies with the same Hubble type display a wide range of vertical-to-radial velocity dispersion ratios. The points are distributed around a mean value and scatter of σz/σR = 0.7 ± 0.2. With the aid of numerical simulations, we argue that different mechanisms might influence the shape of the SVE in the same manner and that the same process (e.g. mergers) does not have the same impact in all the galaxies. The complexity of the observational picture is confirmed by these simulations, which suggest that the vertical-to-radial axis ratio of the SVE is not a good indicator of the main source of disc heating. Our analysis of those simulations also indicates that the observed shape of the disc SVE may be affected by several processes simultaneously and that the signatures of some of them (e.g. mergers) fade over time.

  3. Potential surfaces in symmetric heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Piller, C.; Mignen, J.; Raffray, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The entrance channel in symmetric heavy-ion reactions is studied in the liquid-drop model approach including the nuclear proximity energy and allowing ellipsoidal deformations of the colliding nuclei. In the whole mass range a sudden transition occurs from oblate to prolate shapes when the proximity forces become important. This strongly affects the effective moment of inertia. The ellipsoidal deformations reduce the fusion barrier width for light systems and lower the potential barrier height for medium and heavy nuclei. The results are in agreement with the empirical effective barrier shift determined by Aguiar et al for the 58 Ni + 58 Ni, 74 Ge + 74 Ge and 80 Se + 80 Se systems. The sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion reactions might be explained by the slowness of the process. Below the static fusion barrier, the reaction time is long; allowing some adiabaticity and deformations of the colliding ions. Above the barrier, the reaction is more sudden and the deformation degree of freedom is frozen

  4. Simulation of enhanced deposition due to magnetic field alignment of ellipsoidal particles in a lung bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R C; Roshchenko, A; Minev, P; Finlay, W H

    2013-02-01

    Aerosolized chemotherapy has been recognized as a potential treatment for lung cancer. The challenge of providing sufficient therapeutic effects without reaching dose-limiting toxicity levels hinders the development of aerosolized chemotherapy. This could be mitigated by increasing drug-delivery efficiency with a noninvasive drug-targeting delivery method. The purpose of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to study the resulting local enhancement of deposition due to magnetic field alignment of high aspect ratio particles. High aspect ratio particles were approximated by a rigid ellipsoid with a minor diameter of 0.5 μm and fluid particle density ratio of 1,000. Particle trajectories were calculated by solving the coupled fluid particle equations using an in-house micro-macro grid finite element algorithm based on a previously developed fictitious domain approach. Particle trajectories were simulated in a morphologically realistic geometry modeling a symmetrical terminal bronchiole bifurcation. Flow conditions were steady inspiratory air flow due to typical breathing at 18 L/min. Deposition efficiency was estimated for two different cases: [1] particles aligned with the streamlines and [2] particles with fixed angular orientation simulating the magnetic field alignment of our previous in vitro study. The local enhancement factor defined as the ratio between deposition efficiency of Case [1] and Case [2] was found to be 1.43 and 3.46 for particles with an aspect ratio of 6 and 20, respectively. Results indicate that externally forcing local alignment of high aspect ratio particles can increase local deposition considerably.

  5. Symmetric and Asymmetric Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Embedded Nanoparticles: Effects of Size Distribution and Temperature on Tunneling Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useinov, Arthur; Lin, Hsiu-Hau; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2017-08-21

    The problem of the ballistic electron tunneling is considered in magnetic tunnel junction with embedded non-magnetic nanoparticles (NP-MTJ), which creates additional conducting middle layer. The strong temperature impact was found in the system with averaged NP diameter d av  tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) voltage behaviors. The low temperature approach also predicts step-like TMR and quantized in-plane spin transfer torque (STT) effects. The robust asymmetric STT respond is found due to voltage sign inversion in NP-MTJs with barrier asymmetry. Furthermore, it is shown how size distribution of NPs as well as quantization rules modify the spin-current filtering properties of the nanoparticles in ballistic regime. Different quantization rules for the transverse component of the wave vector are considered to overpass the dimensional threshold (d av  ≈ 1.8 nm) between quantum well and bulk-assisted states of the middle layer.

  6. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  7. Symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...

  8. A symmetric safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny

    2010-01-01

    How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.

  9. Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L

    2006-09-29

    The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy.

  10. Symmetric q-Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dattoli

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.

  11. Entropy production of a Brownian ellipsoid in the overdamped limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Raffaele; Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the translational and rotational motion of an ellipsoidal Brownian particle from the viewpoint of stochastic thermodynamics. The particle's Brownian motion is driven by external forces and torques and takes place in an heterogeneous thermal environment where friction coefficients and (local) temperature depend on space and time. Our analysis of the particle's stochastic thermodynamics is based on the entropy production associated with single particle trajectories. It is motivated by the recent discovery that the overdamped limit of vanishing inertia effects (as compared to viscous fricion) produces a so-called "anomalous" contribution to the entropy production, which has no counterpart in the overdamped approximation, when inertia effects are simply discarded. Here we show that rotational Brownian motion in the overdamped limit generates an additional contribution to the "anomalous" entropy. We calculate its specific form by performing a systematic singular perturbation analysis for the generating function of the entropy production. As a side result, we also obtain the (well-known) equations of motion in the overdamped limit. We furthermore investigate the effects of particle shape and give explicit expressions of the "anomalous entropy" for prolate and oblate spheroids and for near-spherical Brownian particles.

  12. Quantifying the Rate of Ellipsoid Zone Loss in Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Cindy X; Light, Jacob G; Handa, James T

    2018-02-01

    To determine a reliable method of using the ellipsoid zone (EZ) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to track disease progression in Stardgardt disease (STGD). Retrospective reliability study. STGD patients with genetically confirmed ABCA4 gene mutations seen at the Wilmer Eye Institute with follow-up visits separated by at least 12 months were identified. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) macula volume scans centered at the fovea and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were obtained. The area of EZ loss was calculated from the SD-OCT and the area of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) loss from the FAF. Scans were reanalyzed by the primary grader to assess intragrader reliability, and reanalyzed by a second grader to assess intergrader reliability. Sixteen STGD patients (total of 31 eyes) were followed for a mean of 2 years (range 1-4.7 years). The mean rate of EZ loss, 0.31 ± 0.31 mm 2 /year, was similar to the average rate of RPE loss, 0.33 ± 0.38 mm 2 /year. The average area of EZ loss at the initial examination, 4.18 ± 1.91 mm 2 , was larger than the initial area of RPE loss, 2.25 ± 1.66 mm 2 (P disease progression in STGD. This could be used as a sensitive anatomic outcome measure in clinical trials related to STGD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electromagnetic characteristics of systems of prolate and oblate ellipsoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Pouyan; Amiri-Hezaveh, Amirhossein; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Jin, Jian-Ming

    2017-11-01

    The present study suggests a novel model for simulating electromagnetic characteristics of spheroidal nanofillers. The electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of prolate and oblate ellipsoids in the X-band frequency range is studied. Different multilayered nanocomposite configurations incorporating carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoplatelets, and carbon blacks are fabricated and tested. The best performance for a specific thickness is observed for the multilayered composite with a gradual increase in the thickness and electrical conductivity of layers. The simulation results based on the proposed model are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of filler alignment on shielding efficiency is also studied by using the nematic order parameter. The ability of a nanocomposite to shield the incident power is found to decrease by increasing alignment especially for high volume fractions of prolate fillers. The interaction of the electromagnetic wave and the fillers is mainly affected by the polarization of the electric field; when the electric field is perpendicular to the equatorial axis of a spheroid, the interaction is significantly reduced and results in a lower shielding efficiency. Apart from the filler alignment, size polydispersity is found to have a significant effect on reflected and transmitted powers. It is demonstrated that the nanofillers with a higher aspect ratio mainly contribute to the shielding performance. The results are of interest in both shielding structures and microwave absorbing materials.

  14. Numerical solutions of the semiclassical Boltzmann ellipsoidal-statistical kinetic model equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chin-Yuan; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Computations of rarefied gas dynamical flows governed by the semiclassical Boltzmann ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) kinetic model equation using an accurate numerical method are presented. The semiclassical ES model was derived through the maximum entropy principle and conserves not only the mass, momentum and energy, but also contains additional higher order moments that differ from the standard quantum distributions. A different decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. The numerical method in phase space combines the discrete-ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock capturing method in physical space. Numerical solutions of two-dimensional Riemann problems for two configurations covering various degrees of rarefaction are presented and various contours of the quantities unique to this new model are illustrated. When the relaxation time becomes very small, the main flow features a display similar to that of ideal quantum gas dynamics, and the present solutions are found to be consistent with existing calculations for classical gas. The effect of a parameter that permits an adjustable Prandtl number in the flow is also studied. PMID:25104904

  15. Influence of Electron Molecule Resonant Vibrational Collisions over the Symmetric Mode and Direct Excitation-Dissociation Cross Sections of CO2 on the Electron Energy Distribution Function and Dissociation Mechanisms in Cold Pure CO2 Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M

    2016-05-05

    A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.

  16. Studies on radiation symmetrization in heavy-ion driven hohlraum targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal, M.; Atzeni, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation symmetrization within spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindral hohlraum targets for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is studied by means of a 3-D numerical, static model, in which realistic assumptions are made concerning the geometry of the system and, particularly, of the radiation converters. Among the systems so far studied, only spherical hohlraums with six converters achieve the illumination symmetry of the fusion capsule considered necessary for ICF applications. A parametric study of cylindrical hohlraums enlightens the effect of several parameter changes, and suggests directions for further studies, aiming at the design of two-converter targets

  17. Gravitational potential of perturbed ellipsoidal inhomogeneous configurations with the account of the 'fifth' force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masyukov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical representations of the gravitational potential of perturbed inhomogeneous ellipsoidal configurations with the account of the 'fifth' force are obtained in the form of the series in the parameter of perturbation. 11 refs

  18. Longitudinal phase-space manipulation of ellipsoidal electron bunches in realistic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. van der Geer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recent publication of a practical recipe to create “pancake” electron bunches which evolve into uniformly filled ellipsoids, a number of papers have addressed both an alternative method to create such ellipsoids as well as their behavior in realistic fields. So far, the focus has been on the possibilities to preserve the initial “thermal” transverse emittance. This paper addresses the linear longitudinal phase space of ellipsoidal bunches. It is shown that ellipsoidal bunches allow ballistic compression at subrelativistic energies, without the detrimental effects of nonlinear space-charge forces. This in turn eliminates the need for the large correlated energy spread normally required for longitudinal compression of relativistic particle beams, while simultaneously avoiding all problems related to magnetic compression. Furthermore, the linear space-charge forces of ellipsoidal bunches can be used to reduce the remaining energy spread even further, by carefully choosing the beam transverse size, in a process that is essentially the time-reversed process of the creation of an ellipsoid at the cathode. The feasibility of compression of ellipsoidal bunches is illustrated with a relatively simple setup, consisting of a half-cell S-band photogun and a two-cell booster compressor. Detailed GPT simulations in realistic fields predict that 100 pC ellipsoidal bunches can be ballistically compressed to 100 fs, at a transverse emittance of 0.7   μm, with a final energy of 3.7 MeV and an energy spread of only 50 keV.

  19. Self-consistent Analysis of Three-dimensional Uniformly Charged Ellipsoid with Zero Emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Yuri K.

    2001-01-01

    A self-consistent treatment of a three-dimensional ellipsoid with negligible emittance in time-dependent external field is performed. Envelope equations describing the evolution of an ellipsoid boundary are discussed. For a complete model it is required that the initial particle momenta be a linear function of the coordinates. Numerical example and verification of the problem by a 3-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are given

  20. Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Zhang, Yonghao; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Radtke, Gregg A.; Shan, Xiaowen

    2013-03-01

    A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses a single distribution function and features an adjustable Prandtl number. Numerical simulations show that using a moderate discrete velocity set, this model can accurately recover steady and transient solutions of the ES-BGK equation in the slip-flow and early transition regimes in the small Mach number limit that is typical of microscale problems of practical interest. In the transition regime in particular, comparisons with numerical solutions of the ES-BGK model, direct Monte Carlo and low-variance deviational Monte Carlo simulations show good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0.5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.

  1. Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying

    2012-07-30

    We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.

  2. A new Ellipsoidal Gravimetric-Satellite Altimetry Boundary Value Problem; Case study: High Resolution Geoid of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    A new ellipsoidal gravimetric-satellite altimetry boundary value problem has been developed and successfully tested. This boundary value problem has been constructed for gravity observables of the type (i) gravity potential (ii) gravity intensity (iii) deflection of vertical and (iv) satellite altimetry data. The developed boundary value problem is enjoying the ellipsoidal nature and as such can take advantage of high precision GPS observations in the set-up of the problem. The highlights of the solution are as follows: begin{itemize} Application of ellipsoidal harmonic expansion up to degree/order and ellipsoidal centrifugal field for the reduction of global gravity and isostasy effects from the gravity observable at the surface of the Earth. Application of ellipsoidal Newton integral on the equal area map projection surface for the reduction of residual mass effects within a radius of 55 km around the computational point. Ellipsoidal harmonic downward continuation of the residual observables from the surface of the earth down to the surface of reference ellipsoid using the ellipsoidal height of the observation points derived from GPS. Restore of the removed effects at the application points on the surface of reference ellipsoid. Conversion of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies into potential. Combination of the downward continued gravity information with the potential equivalent of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies. Application of ellipsoidal Bruns formula for converting the potential values on the surface of the reference ellipsoid into the geoidal heights (i.e. ellipsoidal heights of the geoid) with respect to the reference ellipsoid. Computation of the high-resolution geoid of Iran has successfully tested this new methodology!

  3. Characteristic function-based semiparametric inference for skew-symmetric models

    KAUST Repository

    Potgieter, Cornelis J.

    2012-12-26

    Skew-symmetric models offer a very flexible class of distributions for modelling data. These distributions can also be viewed as selection models for the symmetric component of the specified skew-symmetric distribution. The estimation of the location and scale parameters corresponding to the symmetric component is considered here, with the symmetric component known. Emphasis is placed on using the empirical characteristic function to estimate these parameters. This is made possible by an invariance property of the skew-symmetric family of distributions, namely that even transformations of random variables that are skew-symmetric have a distribution only depending on the symmetric density. A distance metric between the real components of the empirical and true characteristic functions is minimized to obtain the estimators. The method is semiparametric, in that the symmetric component is specified, but the skewing function is assumed unknown. Furthermore, the methodology is extended to hypothesis testing. Two tests for a hypothesis of specific parameter values are considered, as well as a test for the hypothesis that the symmetric component has a specific parametric form. A resampling algorithm is described for practical implementation of these tests. The outcomes of various numerical experiments are presented. © 2012 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  4. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...

  5. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    -seismic displacement and strain are no longer symmetric with different latitudes in plane model while always theoretically symmetrical in spherical model. 2) The errors of co-seismic strain will be increased when using corresponding formulas in plane coordinate. When we set the strike-slip fault along the equator, the maximum relative error can reach to several tens of thousand times in high latitude while 30 times near the fault. 3) The style of strain changes are eight petals while the errors are four petals, and apparent distortion at high latitudes. Furthermore, the influence of the earth's ellipticity and heterogeneity and terrain were calculated respectively. Especially the effect of terrain, which induced huge differences, should not be overlooked during the co-seismic calculations. Finally, taking all those affecting factors into account, we calculated the co-seismic effect of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and its adjacent area and faults using the heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain.

  6. Parameters of the CGCS 2000 Ellipsoid and Comparisons with GRS 80 and WGS 84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Pengfei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition of China Geodetic Coordinate System 2000(CGCS 2000 and defined constants of the ellipsoid adopted by CGCS 2000,the other geometrical and physical parameters of this ellipsoid are derived and compared with that from GRS 80 and WGS 84,respectively.Meanwhile the coordinates and normal gravity on the CGCS 2000 ellipsoid are compared with that on WGS 84 and GRS 80.The difference between the normal gravity on CGCS 2000 ellipsoid and that on GRS 80 is about -143.54×10-8 m/s2,while it is 0.02×10-8 m/s2 compared to WGS 84.The longitudes of a point on these three ellipsoids are the same,but the maximum difference of latitude between CGCS 2000 and GRS 80 is 8.26×10-11 arc seconds,which is about 2.5×10-6 mm,and the maximum difference of latitude between CGCS 2000 and WGS 84 is 3.6×10-6 arc seconds,which is about 0.11 mm.

  7. CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids: controllable synthesis, growth mechanism, and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ke; Gao, Tianyu [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Liu, Hui; Chen, Hao, E-mail: hchenhao@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Wang, Qi, E-mail: hchenhao@mail.hzau.edu.cn [School of Environment Sciences and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-01-15

    CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route with the assistance of nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of hydrothermal pH, temperature, and time on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of CdMoO{sub 4} were investigated. With an initial hydrothermal pH of 5.00, CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids were obtained at 180 °C for 24 h and found to possess the highest photocatalytic activity - 89% Rhodamine B can be degraded for 30 minutes presented in the 0.4 g/L CdMoO{sub 4} suspension. The formation mechanism of the CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids was initiated by the formation of small nanoparticles and bulk structures afterwards, which was followed by the growth of micro-ellipsoids. Experiment results showed that the evolution of the micro-ellipsoids was an Ostwald ripening process. (author)

  8. Revisiting the Low-Frequency Dipolar Perturbation by an Impenetrable Ellipsoid in a Conductive Surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiotis Vafeas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the scattering by a metallic ellipsoidal target, embedded in a homogeneous conductive medium, which is stimulated when a 3D time-harmonic magnetic dipole is operating at the low-frequency realm. The incident, the scattered, and the total three-dimensional electromagnetic fields, which satisfy Maxwell’s equations, yield low-frequency expansions in terms of positive integral powers of the complex-valued wave number of the exterior medium. We preserve the static Rayleigh approximation and the first three dynamic terms, while the additional terms of minor contribution are neglected. The Maxwell-type problem is transformed into intertwined potential-type boundary value problems with impenetrable boundary conditions, whereas the environment of a genuine ellipsoidal coordinate system provides the necessary setting for tackling such problems in anisotropic space. The fields are represented via nonaxisymmetric infinite series expansions in terms of harmonic eigenfunctions, affiliated with the ellipsoidal system, obtaining analytical closed-form solutions in a compact fashion. Until nowadays, such problems were attacked by using the very few ellipsoidal harmonics exhibiting an analytical form. In the present article, we address this issue by incorporating the full series expansion of the potentials and utilizing the entire subspace of ellipsoidal harmonic eigenfunctions.

  9. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  10. En-face imaging of the ellipsoid zone in the retina from optical coherence tomography B-scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, T.; Larkin, S.; Downing, M.; Csaky, K.

    2015-03-01

    It is generally believed that photoreceptor integrity is related to the ellipsoid zone appearance in optical coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans. Algorithms and software were developed for viewing and analyzing the ellipsoid zone. The software performs the following: (a), automated ellipsoid zone isolation in the B-scans, (b), en-face view of the ellipsoid-zone reflectance, (c), alignment and overlay of (b) onto reflectance images of the retina, and (d), alignment and overlay of (c) with microperimetry sensitivity points. Dataset groups were compared from normal and dry age related macular degeneration (DAMD) subjects. Scalar measurements for correlation against condition included the mean and standard deviation of the ellipsoid zone's reflectance. The imageprocessing techniques for automatically finding the ellipsoid zone are based upon a calculation of optical flow which tracks the edges of laminated structures across an image. Statistical significance was shown in T-tests of these measurements with the population pools separated as normal and DAMD subjects. A display of en-face ellipsoid-zone reflectance shows a clear and recognizable difference between any of the normal and DAMD subjects in that they show generally uniform and nonuniform reflectance, respectively, over the region near the macula. Regions surrounding points of low microperimetry (μP) sensitivity have nonregular and lower levels of ellipsoid-zone reflectance nearby. These findings support the idea that the photoreceptor integrity could be affecting both the ellipsoid-zone reflectance and the sensitivity measurements.

  11. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  12. Minimization of stress concentration factor in cylindrical pressure vessels with ellipsoidal heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnucki, K.; Szyc, W.; Lewinski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of stress concentration in a cylindrical pressure vessel with ellipsoidal heads subject to internal pressure. At the line, where the ellipsoidal head is adjacent to the circular cylindrical shell, a shear force and bending moment occur, disturbing the membrane stress state in the vessel. The degree of stress concentration depends on the ratio of thicknesses of both the adjacent parts of the shells and on the relative convexity of the ellipsoidal head, with the range for radius-to-thickness ratio between 75 and 125. The stress concentration was analytically described and, afterwards, the effect of these values on the stress concentration ratio was numerically examined. Results of the analysis are shown on charts

  13. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liming; Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core–shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of suspensions with core-shell inclusions were studied. • Less diluted suspensions were considered. • Flaky Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were studied. • The microwave properties could be simulated successfully.

  14. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liming, E-mail: lming_y@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China); Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core–shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of suspensions with core-shell inclusions were studied. • Less diluted suspensions were considered. • Flaky Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were studied. • The microwave properties could be simulated successfully.

  15. Spherically symmetric self-similar universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1979-10-01

    A spherically symmetric self-similar dust-filled universe is considered as a simple model of a hierarchical universe. Observable differences between the model in parabolic expansion and the corresponding homogeneous Einstein-de Sitter model are considered in detail. It is found that an observer at the centre of the distribution has a maximum observable redshift and can in principle see arbitrarily large blueshifts. It is found to yield an observed density-distance law different from that suggested by the observations of de Vaucouleurs. The use of these solutions as central objects for Swiss-cheese vacuoles is discussed.

  16. The Discovery of Ellipsoidal Variations in the Kepler Light Curve of HAT-P-7

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Jenkins, Jon; Rowe, Jason F.; Koch, David; Borucki, William J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the early Kepler observations of the previously discovered transiting planet HAT-P-7b. The light curve shows the transit of the star, the occultation of the planet, and the orbit phase-dependent light from the planet. In addition, phase-dependent light from the star is present, known as "ellipsoidal variations". The very nearby planet (only 4 stellar radii away) gravitationally distorts the star and results in a flux modulation twice per orbit. The ellipsoidal variat...

  17. The structural and thermodynamical properties of binary ellipsoidal fluid mixture Gay-Berne interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, a uniform classical fluid mixture comprising ellipsoidal molecules is studied. This mixture is composed of two types of ellipsoidal molecules interacting through the Gay-Berne potential with different sizes at temperature T. For this system, the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the Percus-Yevick closure relation is solved. Then the direct correlation function, pair correlation function and the pressure of the fluid at temperature T are calculated. The obtained results are in agreement with the previous theories and the results of molecular dynamic computer simulation.

  18. Bäcklund transformations for the Jacobi system on an ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiganov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We consider analogues of auto- and hetero-Bäcklund transformations for the Jacobi system on a threeaxis ellipsoid. Using the results in a Weierstrass paper, where the change of times reduces integrating the equations of motion to inverting the Abel mapping, we construct the differential Abel equations and auto-Bäcklund transformations preserving the Poisson bracket with respect to which the equations of motion written in the Weierstrass form are Hamiltonian. Transforming this bracket to the canonical form, we can construct a new integrable system on the ellipsoid with a Hamiltonian of the natural form and with a fourth-degree integral of motion in momenta.

  19. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of small ellipsoidal scatterers. [of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.

  20. Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Terras, Audrey

    This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random  matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.

  1. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  2. Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...

  3. Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.

  4. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  5. Unusual CoS2 ellipsoids with anisotropic tube-like cavities and their application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2012-07-14

    Unusual CoS(2) ellipsoids with anisotropic tube-like cavities have been synthesized from the simultaneous thermal decomposition and sulfidation of a preformed cobalt carbonate precursor. The as-prepared CoS(2) ellipsoids show interesting supercapacitive properties with high capacitance and good cycling performance.

  6. Terrain Correction on the moving equal area cylindrical map projection of the surface of a reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    An operational algorithm for computing the ellipsoidal terrain correction based on application of closed form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the cylindrical equal area map projected surface of a reference ellipsoid has been developed. As the first step the mapping of the points on the surface of a reference ellipsoid onto the cylindrical equal area map projection of a cylinder tangent to a point on the surface of reference ellipsoid closely studied and the map projection formulas are computed. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid is considered and the gravitational potential and the vector of gravitational intensity of these mass elements has been computed via the solution of Newton integral in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates. The geographical cross section areas of the selected ellipsoidal mass elements are transferred into cylindrical equal area map projection and based on the transformed area elements Cartesian mass elements with the same height as that of the ellipsoidal mass elements are constructed. Using the close form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates the potential of the Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with the same results based on the application of the ellipsoidal Newton integral over the ellipsoidal mass elements. The results of the numerical computations show that difference between computed gravitational potential of the ellipsoidal mass elements and Cartesian mass element in the cylindrical equal area map projection is of the order of 1.6 × 10-8m^2/s^2 for a mass element with the cross section size of 10 km × 10 km and the height of 1000 m. For a 1 km × 1 km mass element with the same height, this difference is less than 1.5 × 10-4 m^2}/s^2. The results of the numerical computations indicate that a new method for computing the terrain correction based on the closed form solution of the Newton integral in

  7. Simple and Multi-collision of an Ellipsoid with Planar Surfaces. Part I: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae–Doru Stănescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of simultaneous collisions between an ellipsoid and some planar surfaces. The approach is one based on the theory of screws and uses the notion of inertance. The authors consider that the coefficients of restitution are different for each planar surface and they obtain the velocities after the collision. An example concludes the theory.

  8. Optical alignment and confinement of an ellipsoidal nanorod in optical tweezers: a theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Zemánek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2012), s. 1224-1236 ISSN 1084-7529 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0348; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ellipsoidal nanorod * optical tweezers * Rayleigh approximation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.665, year: 2012

  9. A DEEP CUT ELLIPSOID ALGORITHM FOR CONVEX-PROGRAMMING - THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRENK, JBG; GROMICHO, J; ZHANG, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules that prevent

  10. The hard ellipsoid-of-revolution fluid II. The y-expansion equation of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.M.; Frenkel, D.

    1985-01-01

    The γ-expansion as introduced by Barboy and Gelbart is applied to a system of hard ellipsoids-of-revolution. The expansion is truncated after the third order term yielding an approximate theory requiring the second- and third-virial coefficients as inputs. As the third virial coefficient is not

  11. Plastic deformation and contact area of an elastic-plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of the residual or plastic deformation and the plastic contact area of an elastic–plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading. There are three regime responses of the deformation and contact area: elastic, elastic–plastic and fully

  12. Orientational dynamics of a triaxial ellipsoid in simple shear flow: Influence of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Tomas; Kotsubo, Yusuke; Aidun, Cyrus K; Do-Quang, Minh; Lundell, Fredrik

    2017-07-01

    The motion of a single ellipsoidal particle in simple shear flow can provide valuable insights toward understanding suspension flows with nonspherical particles. Previously, extensive studies have been performed on the ellipsoidal particle with rotational symmetry, a so-called spheroid. The nearly prolate ellipsoid (one major and two minor axes of almost equal size) is known to perform quasiperiodic or even chaotic orbits in the absence of inertia. With small particle inertia, the particle is also known to drift toward this irregular motion. However, it is not previously understood what effects from fluid inertia could be, which is of highest importance for particles close to neutral buoyancy. Here, we find that fluid inertia is acting strongly to suppress the chaotic motion and only very weak fluid inertia is sufficient to stabilize a rotation around the middle axis. The mechanism responsible for this transition is believed to be centrifugal forces acting on fluid, which is dragged along with the rotational motion of the particle. With moderate fluid inertia, it is found that nearly prolate triaxial particles behave similarly to the perfectly spheroidal particles. Finally, we also are able to provide predictions about the stable rotational states for the general triaxial ellipsoid in simple shear with weak inertia.

  13. Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm size using CT volumetry, spherical and ellipsoid formulas: validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalian, Hamid; Seyal, Adeel Rahim; Rezai, Pedram; Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Miller, Frank H; Bentrem, David J; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2014-01-10

    The accuracy for determining pancreatic cyst volume with commonly used spherical and ellipsoid methods is unknown. The role of CT volumetry in volumetric assessment of pancreatic cysts needs to be explored. To compare volumes of the pancreatic cysts by CT volumetry, spherical and ellipsoid methods and determine their accuracy by correlating with actual volume as determined by EUS-guided aspiration. Setting This is a retrospective analysis performed at a tertiary care center. Patients Seventy-eight pathologically proven pancreatic cysts evaluated with CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) were included. Design The volume of fourteen cysts that had been fully aspirated by EUS was compared to CT volumetry and the routinely used methods (ellipsoid and spherical volume). Two independent observers measured all cysts using commercially available software to evaluate inter-observer reproducibility for CT volumetry. The volume of pancreatic cysts as determined by various methods was compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Bland-Altman plot and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to determine mean difference and correlation between observers and methods. The error was calculated as the percentage of the difference between the CT estimated volumes and the aspirated volume divided by the aspirated one. CT volumetry was comparable to aspirated volume (P=0.396) with very high intraclass correlation (r=0.891, Pvolumetry. There was excellent inter-observer correlation in volumetry of the entire cohort (r=0.997, Pvolumetry is accurate and reproducible. Ellipsoid and spherical volume overestimate the true volume of pancreatic cysts.

  14. Acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottati, Itzhak; Eidelman, Shmuel

    1993-07-01

    Simulations of acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are presented. The simulations are done on a structured/unstructured grid with a modified Tait equation of state for water. The Euler equations are solved by applying a second-order Godunov method. The computed results compare very well with the experimental results.

  15. Application of the ellipsoid modeling of the average shape of nanosized crystallites in powder diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Lundegaard, Lars Fahl

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic broadening correction in X-ray powder diffraction by an ellipsoidal formula is applied on samples with nanosized crystals. Two cases of minerals with largely anisotropic crystallite shapes are presented. The properly applied formalism not only improves the fitting of the theoretical...

  16. A Deep Cut Ellipsoid Algorithm for convex Programming: theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.B.G.; Gromicho Dos Santos, J.A.; Zhang, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules that prevent

  17. A deep cut ellipsoid algorithm for convex programming : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim); S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules

  18. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  19. Tilting-connected symmetric algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    The notion of silting mutation was introduced by Iyama and the author. In this paper we mainly study silting mutation for self-injective algebras and prove that any representation-finite symmetric algebra is tilting-connected. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for a Bongartz-type Lemma to hold for silting objects.

  20. Symmetric group representations and Z

    OpenAIRE

    Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.

  1. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  2. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  3. The symmetric longest queue system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, Ivo; van der Wal, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We derive the performance of the exponential symmetric longest queue system from two variants: a longest queue system with Threshold Rejection of jobs and one with Threshold Addition of jobs. It is shown that these two systems provide lower and upper bounds for the performance of the longest queue

  4. Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in

  5. Initial value formulation for the spherically symmetric dust solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1990-01-01

    An initial value formulation for the dust solution with spherical symmetry is given explicitly in which the initial distributions of dust and its velocity on an initial surface are chosen to be the initial data. As special cases, the Friedmann universe, the Schwarzschild solution in comoving coordinates, and a spherically symmetric and radially inhomogeneous cosmological model are derived

  6. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han

    2018-01-17

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.

  7. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  8. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  9. On symmetric structures of order two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bousquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Let (ω n 0 < n be the sequence known as Integer Sequence A047749 http://www.research.att.com/ njas/sequences/A047749 In this paper, we show that the integer ω n enumerates various kinds of symmetric structures of order two. We first consider ternary trees having a reflexive symmetry and we relate all symmetric combinatorial objects by means of bijection. We then generalize the symmetric structures and correspondences to an infinite family of symmetric objects.

  10. Osteocyte Lacunae are Lenticular/Ellipsoid Spaces or Spiral/Helical Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Kanti Guha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the current concept of bone structure, the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid spaces occupied by osteocytes. These osteocytes are thought to communicate with each other through a tubular system made up of Canaliculi. The rest of the structures i.e., Haversian canal, and Volkmann’s canal are also tubular in shape. Considering this existing concept of bone microstructure described by various authors, it is highly unlikely that the lacunae alone would be lenticular/ellipsoid structure. In the present study author wanted to know that amongst the all tubular spaces, what is the reason that only the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid structure? Also to investigate whether these lenticular spaces are really lenticular/ellipsoid or they are cut sections of tubes, which are lying helically or spirally. It is well known from various previous studies that Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi are tubular shaped structures and how it is possible that lenticular/ellipsoid structure can present amongst them. So we thought that, it may be possible that these lenticular spaces are not actually lenticular but this lenticular shape is due to the cut sections of any type of tubule in various possible planes (i.e., transverse, longitudinal and various degrees of oblique plane. Aim: The present study was carried out to reinvestigate the shape of the osteocyte lacunae amongst the tubular system (i.e., Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi of compact bone. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out by preparing thin sections of adult bones (ground glass preparation and visualizing them under binocular light microscope and scanelectron microscope after following proper procedure. Results: We observed that the lacunae are actually spirally/helically placed tubules with several branching. These branching are considered as canaliculi. These branching are of various diameters and they

  11. Spreading Dynamics of an Ellipsoidal Drop Impacting on a Heated Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sungchan [Korea Nat’l. Univ. of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Unlike spherical drop impact, ellipsoidal drop impact can control the bouncing height on a heated surface by significantly altering impact behavior. To scrutinize the effect of the aspect ratio (AR) of the drop on the bounce suppression, in this study, non-axisymmetric spreading behaviors are observed from two side views and characterized based on the spreading width of the drop for horizontal principal axes. In addition, the maximum spreading width is investigated for various ARs. The results show that as the AR increases, the maximum spreading width of the minor axis increases, whereas that of the major axis shows no significant variation. In the regime of high AR and high impact velocity, liquid fragmentations by three parts are observed during bouncing. These fragmentations are discussed in this work. The hydrodynamic features of ellipsoidal drop impact will help understand bouncing control on non-wetting surfaces for several applications, such as self-cleaning and spray cooling.

  12. New fabrication method for an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror with a metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Takeda, Shin; Morita, Shin-ya; Hino, Masahiro; Oda, Tatsuro; Kato, Jun-ichi; Yamagata, Yutaka; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2014-10-06

    We propose an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror using a metal substrate made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated material for the first time. Electroless NiP has great advantages for realizing an ellipsoidal neutron mirror because of its amorphous structure, good machinability and relatively large critical angle of total reflection for neutrons. We manufactured the mirror by combining ultrahigh precision cutting and fine polishing to generate high form accuracy and low surface roughness. The form accuracy of the mirror was estimated to be 5.3 μm P-V and 0.8 μm P-V for the minor-axis and major-axis direction respectively, while the surface roughness was reduced to 0.2 nm rms. The effect of form error on focusing spot size was evaluated by using a laser beam and the focusing performance of the mirror was verified by neutron experiments.

  13. Measuring stone volume - three-dimensional software reconstruction or an ellipsoid algebra formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Johnston, Richard; Shaida, Nadeem; Winterbottom, Andrew; Wiseman, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    To determine the optimal method for assessing stone volume, and thus stone burden, by comparing the accuracy of scalene, oblate, and prolate ellipsoid volume equations with three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructed stone volume. Kidney stone volume may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome for renal stones. While the precise measurement of stone volume by 3D reconstruction can be accomplished using modern computer tomography (CT) scanning software, this technique is not available in all hospitals or with routine acute colic scanning protocols. Therefore, maximum diameters as measured by either X-ray or CT are used in the calculation of stone volume based on a scalene ellipsoid formula, as recommended by the European Association of Urology. In all, 100 stones with both X-ray and CT (1-2-mm slices) were reviewed. Complete and partial staghorn stones were excluded. Stone volume was calculated using software designed to measure tissue density of a certain range within a specified region of interest. Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. Stone volumes were analysed to determine the average 'shape' of the stones. The maximum stone diameter on X-ray was 3-25 mm and on CT was 3-36 mm, with a reasonable correlation (r = 0.77). Smaller stones (15 mm towards scalene ellipsoids. There was no difference in stone shape by location within the kidney. As the average shape of renal stones changes with diameter, no single equation for estimating stone volume can be recommended. As the maximum diameter increases, calculated stone volume becomes less accurate, suggesting that larger stones have more asymmetric shapes. We recommend that research looking at stone clearance rates should use 3D-reconstructed stone volumes when available, followed by prolate, oblate, or scalene ellipsoid formulas depending on the maximum stone diameter. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  14. ORTEP-III: Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.N.; Johnson, C.K.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes a computer program for drawing crystal structure illustrations. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can also produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study.

  15. Aging linear viscoelasticity of matrix-inclusion composite materials featuring ellipsoidal inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    LAVERGNE, Francis; SAB, Karam; SANAHUJA, Julien; BORNERT, Michel; TOULEMONDE, Charles

    2016-01-01

    A multi-scale homogenization scheme is proposed to estimate the time-dependent strains of fiber-reinforced concrete. This material is modeled as an aging linear viscoelastic composite material featuring ellipsoidal inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic cementitious matrix characterized by a time-dependent Poisson's ratio. To this end, the homogenization scheme proposed in Lavergne et al. [1] is adapted to the case of a time-dependent Poisson's ratio and it is successfully validated on a non-a...

  16. Experimental study of the moment of inertia of a cone-angular variation and inertia ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintao, Carlos A F; Souza de Filho, Moacir P; Usida, Wesley F; Xavier, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental set-up which differs from the traditional ones is established in order to determine the moment of inertia of a right circular cone. Its angular variation and inertia ellipsoid are determined by means of an experimental study. In addition, a system that allows for the evaluation of the angular acceleration and torque through electric current or frequency measurement is utilized

  17. Manufacturing method for hard x-ray focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establishing the manufacturing method for hard x-ray nano-focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface. Ellipsoidal mirror optics, which can produce point focus with a mirror, has a noticeable feature of a high focusing efficiency, although an ultra-precise surface figure with an accuracy of a few nanometers is required for nano-focusing mirrors. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the manufacturing process for ellipsoidal mirrors, which is consisted of a precision grinding process, a removal process of surface roughness, and a computer-controlled shape correction. The precision processing machine for both a removal of surface roughness and a shape correction was developed. This validated the utility of removing surface roughness with a spatial wavelength of 40 μm, which is the tool mark of the grinding process. The developed process achieved the improvement of surface roughness from 1.6 nm to 0.1 nm (RMS), and the figure correction with a high accuracy of < 10 nm and a spatial resolution of < 2 mm. (author)

  18. Measurement of self-shaped ellipsoidal bunches from a photoinjector with postacceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’Shea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown the possibility of generating self-shaped ellipsoidal beams with properties commensurate with the requirements of future light sources such as free-electron lasers and inverse Compton sources. In this so-termed “blowout” regime, short laser bunches are transformed via photoemission into short electron bunches which then self-consistently evolve into nearly uniform-density ellipsoids under space-charge forces. We report here on the first blowout studies conducted in collaboration between the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Lab and the Photo Injector Test Facility, Zeuthen (PITZ. The measurements conducted at the PITZ photoinjector facility examine the evolution of 750 pC, 2.7 ps FWHM electron bunches born in an L-band photoinjector and subsequently accelerated through a nine-cell L-band booster for a resulting energy of 12 MeV. These measurements represent the first observations of self-shaped ellipsoid evolution under postinjector acceleration, a key step in demonstrating the utility of such self-shaped beams at higher energy, where the advantages in both transverse and longitudinal and transverse phase space may be exploited in creating very high brightness beams.

  19. The TMS-1 corneal topography measurement applied to calibrated ellipsoidal convex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, W A; Matilla, M T

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the accuracy of the TMS-1 videokeratoscope (Computed Anatomy Inc.) by using convex ellipsoidal surfaces. The ellipsoids were calibrated using Form Talysurf analysis, which allowed for subsequent calculation of the vertex radius and p value. The videokeratoscope was used to examine the same ellipsoids. The data provided by the instrument software were used to plot a graph of r2 verses y2, where r is the measured radius at y, the distance from the corneal point being measured to the optical axis of the instrument. The intercept on the ordinate of this graph gives the vertex radius, and the slope give the p value. The results arising from the Talysurf and the TMS-1 techniques were compared. The TMS-1 videokeratoscope gave readings for the vertex radius that were generally higher than those of the Talysurf analysis. The vertex radius was up to 0.09 mm greater. The p value results were similar by the two methods for p values of approximately 0.8; however, the TMS-1 results were higher, and the discrepancy increased as the p value approached that of a paraboloid. Although the videokeratoscope may be useful in comparative studies of the cornea, there must be some doubt about the absolute values displayed as the surface becomes increasingly aspheric.

  20. Error Ellipsoid Analysis for the Diameter Measurement of Cylindroid Components Using a Laser Radar Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchun Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of three-dimensional (3D data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS. First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS.

  1. Local fields and effective conductivity tensor of ellipsoidal particle composite with anisotropic constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Volodymyr I.; Sevostianov, Igor; Giraud, Albert

    2017-11-01

    An accurate semi-analytical solution of the conductivity problem for a composite with anisotropic matrix and arbitrarily oriented anisotropic ellipsoidal inhomogeneities has been obtained. The developed approach combines the superposition principle with the multipole expansion of perturbation fields of inhomogeneities in terms of ellipsoidal harmonics and reduces the boundary value problem to an infinite system of linear algebraic equations for the induced multipole moments of inhomogeneities. A complete full-field solution is obtained for the multi-particle models comprising inhomogeneities of diverse shape, size, orientation and properties which enables an adequate account for the microstructure parameters. The solution is valid for the general-type anisotropy of constituents and arbitrary orientation of the orthotropy axes. The effective conductivity tensor of the particulate composite with anisotropic constituents is evaluated in the framework of the generalized Maxwell homogenization scheme. Application of the developed method to composites with imperfect ellipsoidal interfaces is straightforward. Their incorporation yields probably the most general model of a composite that may be considered in the framework of analytical approach.

  2. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  3. Symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, I G

    1997-01-01

    One of the most classical areas of algebra, the theory of symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials has long been known to be connected to combinatorics, representation theory, and other branches of mathematics. Written by perhaps the most famous author on the topic, this volume explains some of the current developments regarding these connections. It is based on lectures presented by the author at Rutgers University. Specifically, he gives recent results on orthogonal polynomials associated with affine Hecke algebras, surveying the proofs of certain famous combinatorial conjectures.

  4. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  5. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  6. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  7. Atomic level simulations of interaction between edge dislocations and irradiation induced ellipsoidal voids in alpha-iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bida [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang, Minsheng, E-mail: mshuang@hust.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhenhuan [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-04-15

    High concentrations of vacancies tend to be formed inside the metal materials under irradiation, and then accumulate and cluster together gradually to promote the formation of nanovoids. Generally, these voids act as obstacles for dislocation glide and thereby change/degrade the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials. In this work, the interaction between ellipsoidal nanovoids with edge dislocations in alpha-iron has been studied by atomic simulations. The results illuminate that the ellipsoidal void’s semi-major axis on the slip plane and parallel to the dislocation line is the dominant factor controlling the obstacle strength of ellipsoidal nanovoids. Two other semi-major axes, which are perpendicular to the glide plane and parallel to the Burgers vector, respectively, can also influence the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for dislocation shearing the ellipsoidal void. The intrinsic atomic mechanisms controlling above phenomena, such as nanovoid-geometry spatial constraint and nanovoid-surface curvature on dislocation evolution, have been discussed carefully. The classical continuum model has been amended to describe the dislocation-ellipsoidal nanovoid interaction base on current results. In addition, the influence of temperature on the CRSS of ellipsoidal nanovoids has also been investigated.

  8. Optical levitation and long-working-distance trapping: From spherical up to high aspect ratio ellipsoidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihiretie, Besira; Loudet, Jean-Christophe; Pouligny, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Radiation pressure forces from a moderately focused vertical laser beam are used to levitate transparent particles, a few micrometers in size. Having recalled basic results about levitation of spheres, and applications to long-working distance trapping, we turn to ellipsoid-shaped particles. Experiments are carried out with polystyrene particles, inside a glass chamber filled with water. The particles are lifted up to contact with the chamber top surface. We examine particle equilibrium in such conditions and show that the system “bifurcates” between static on-axis equilibrium with short ellipsoids, to sustained oscillations with longer ones. A similar Hopf bifurcation is found using a simple ray-optics model of the laser-ellipsoid interaction, providing a qualitative account of the observed oscillations. -- Highlights: ► We study optical levitation of non-spherical micrometer-sized particles. ► Short ellipsoids get trapped on laser beam axis, similarly to spheres. ► Long ellipsoids oscillate, through coupled translation and tilt motions. ► We propose a simple ray-optics model of light interaction with an ellipsoid. ► From computed radiation pressure forces, we explain the observed oscillations

  9. Authentication for Bulk Data Dissemination in Sensor Networks Using Symmetric Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Limin; Kulkarni, Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    .... Our protocol uses the secret instantiation algorithm for distributing the keys. We apply the symmetric key signatures at the segment/group level and use hashed verification at the packet level...

  10. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  11. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  12. Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  13. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  14. The combined geodetic network adjusted on the reference ellipsoid – a comparison of three functional models for GNSS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadaj Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients. While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional

  15. Novel design for centrifugal counter-current chromatography: VI. Ellipsoid column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongyu; Yang, Yi; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A novel ellipsoid column was designed for centrifugal counter-current chromatography. Performance of the ellipsoid column with a capacity of 3.4 mL was examined with three different solvent systems composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v) (BAW), hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1, v/v) (HEMH), and 12.5% (w/w) PEG1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate in water (PEG-DPP) each with suitable test samples. In dipeptide separation with BAW system, both stationary phase retention (Sf) and peak resolution (Rs) of the ellipsoid column were much higher at 0° column angle (column axis parallel to the centrifugal force) than at 90° column angle (column axis perpendicular to the centrifugal force), where elution with the lower phase at a low flow rate produced the best separation yielding Rs at 2.02 with 27.8% Sf at a flow rate of 0.07 ml/min. In the DNP-amino acid separation with HEMW system, the best results were obtained at a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min with 31.6% Sf yielding high Rs values at 2.16 between DNP-DL-glu and DNP-β-ala peaks and 1.81 between DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala peaks. In protein separation with PEG-DPP system, lysozyme and myolobin were resolved at Rs of 1.08 at a flow rate of 0.03 ml/min with 38.9% Sf. Most of those Rs values exceed those obtained from the figure-8 column under similar experimental conditions previously reported.

  16. Self-consistent imbedding and the ellipsoidal model model for porous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korringa, J.; Brown, R.J.S.; Thompson, D.D.; Runge, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Equations are obtained for the effective elastic moduli for a model of an isotropic, heterogeneous, porous medium. The mathematical model used for computation is abstract in that it is not simply a rigorous computation for a composite medium of some idealized geometry, although the computation contains individual steps which are just that. Both the solid part and pore space are represented by ellipsoidal or spherical 'grains' or 'pores' of various sizes and shapes. The strain of each grain, caused by external forces applied to the medium, is calculated in a self-consistent imbedding (SCI) approximation, which replaces the true surrounding of any given grain or pore by an isotropic medium defined by the effective moduli to be computed. The ellipsoidal nature of the shapes allows us to use Eshelby's theoretical treatment of a single ellipsoidal inclusion in an infiinte homogeneous medium. Results are compared with the literature, and discrepancies are found with all published accounts of this problem. Deviations from the work of Wu, of Walsh, and of O'Connell and Budiansky are attributed to a substitution made by these authors which though an identity for the exact quantities involved, is only approximate in the SCI calculation. This reduces the validity of the equations to first-order effects only. Differences with the results of Kuster and Toksoez are attributed to the fact that the computation of these authors is not self-consistent in the sense used here. A result seems to be the stiffening of the medium as if the pores are held apart. For spherical grains and pores, their calculated moduli are those given by the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds. Our calculation reproduces, in the case of spheres, an early result of Budiansky. An additional feature of our work is that the algebra is simpler than in earlier work. We also incorporate into the theory the possibility that fluid-filled pores are interconnected

  17. Towards high resolution polarisation analysis using double polarisation and ellipsoidal analysers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Y-Marero, D

    2002-01-01

    Classical polarisation analysis methods lack the combination of high resolution and high count rate necessary to cope with the demand of modern condensed-matter experiments. In this work, we present a method to achieve high resolution polarisation analysis based on a double polarisation system. Coupling this method with an ellipsoidal wavelength analyser, a high count rate can be achieved whilst delivering a resolution of around 10 mu eV. This method is ideally suited to pulsed sources, although it can be adapted to continuous sources as well. (orig.)

  18. Shape matters: Near-field fluid mechanics dominate the collective motions of ellipsoidal squirmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, K; Matsunaga, D; Imai, Y; Omori, T; Ishikawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Microswimmers show a variety of collective motions. Despite extensive study, questions remain regarding the role of near-field fluid mechanics in collective motion. In this paper, we describe precisely the Stokes flow around hydrodynamically interacting ellipsoidal squirmers in a monolayer suspension. The results showed that various collective motions, such as ordering, aggregation, and whirls, are dominated by the swimming mode and the aspect ratio. The collective motions are mainly induced by near-field fluid mechanics, despite Stokes flow propagation over a long range. These results emphasize the importance of particle shape in collective motion.

  19. OR TEP-II: a FORTRAN Thermal-Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.K.

    1976-03-01

    A computer program is described for drawing crystal structure illustrations using a mechanical plotter. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study. The most recent version of the program, OR TEP-II, has a hidden-line-elimination feature to omit those portions of atoms or bonds behind other atoms or bonds

  20. Ellipsoidal diffraction grating as output coupler for quasi-optical gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogge, J.P.; Cao, H.; Tran, T.M.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kasparek, W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a diffraction grating arranged in the -1 Littrow mount as an output coupler for a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot resonator at microwave frequencies (100 GHz) was suggested in 1990. A planar grating with curvilinear grooves (in order to match the Littrow condition everywhere on the surface for a given Gaussian beam) gives a power coupling efficiency of 85% which is limited by the depolarization but gave approximately the same global efficiency because of distortion. We report low power tests on an improvement of the second scheme, based on curved grooves on an ellipsoidal surface, which gives a global efficiency of 94%. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs

  1. OR TEP-II: a FORTRAN Thermal-Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.K.

    1976-03-01

    A computer program is described for drawing crystal structure illustrations using a mechanical plotter. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study. The most recent version of the program, OR TEP-II, has a hidden-line-elimination feature to omit those portions of atoms or bonds behind other atoms or bonds.

  2. Comprehensive asynchronous symmetric rendezvous algorithm in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meenu Chawla

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Simulation results affirm that CASR algorithm performs better in terms of average time-to-rendezvous as compared ... process; neighbour discovery; symmetric rendezvous algorithm. 1. .... dezvous in finite time under the symmetric model. The CH ..... CASR algorithm in Matlab 7.11 and performed several.

  3. Computational science and re-discovery: open-source implementation of ellipsoidal harmonics for problems in potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    We present two open-source (BSD) implementations of ellipsoidal harmonic expansions for solving problems of potential theory using separation of variables. Ellipsoidal harmonics are used surprisingly infrequently, considering their substantial value for problems ranging in scale from molecules to the entire solar system. In this paper, we suggest two possible reasons for the paucity relative to spherical harmonics. The first is essentially historical—ellipsoidal harmonics developed during the late 19th century and early 20th, when it was found that only the lowest-order harmonics are expressible in closed form. Each higher-order term requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem, and tedious manual computation seems to have discouraged applications and theoretical studies. The second explanation is practical: even with modern computers and accurate eigenvalue algorithms, expansions in ellipsoidal harmonics are significantly more challenging to compute than those in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. The present implementations reduce the 'barrier to entry' by providing an easy and free way for the community to begin using ellipsoidal harmonics in actual research. We demonstrate our implementation using the specific and physiologically crucial problem of how charged proteins interact with their environment, and ask: what other analytical tools await re-discovery in an era of inexpensive computation?

  4. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  5. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  6. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

  7. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  8. Substring-Searchable Symmetric Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Melissa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a setting where a client wants to outsource storage of a large amount of private data and then perform substring search queries on the data – given a data string s and a search string p, find all occurrences of p as a substring of s. First, we formalize an encryption paradigm that we call queryable encryption, which generalizes searchable symmetric encryption (SSE and structured encryption. Then, we construct a queryable encryption scheme for substring queries. Our construction uses suffix trees and achieves asymptotic efficiency comparable to that of unencrypted suffix trees. Encryption of a string of length n takes O(λn time and produces a ciphertext of size O(λn, and querying for a substring of length m that occurs k times takes O(λm+k time and three rounds of communication. Our security definition guarantees correctness of query results and privacy of data and queries against a malicious adversary. Following the line of work started by Curtmola et al. (ACM CCS 2006, in order to construct more efficient schemes we allow the query protocol to leak some limited information that is captured precisely in the definition. We prove security of our substring-searchable encryption scheme against malicious adversaries, where the query protocol leaks limited information about memory access patterns through the suffix tree of the encrypted string.

  9. Equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid with the use of reduced coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of constructing equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid as a function of reduced coordinates. Equations for x and y coordinates are expressed with the use of the normal elliptic integral of the second kind and Jacobian elliptic functions. This solution allows to use common known and widely described in literature methods of solving such integrals and functions. The main advantage of this method is the fact that the calculations of x and y coordinates are practically based on a single algorithm that is required to solve the elliptic integral of the second kind. Equations are provided for three types of map projections: cylindrical, azimuthal and pseudocylindrical. These types of projections are often used in planetary cartography for presentation of entire and polar regions of extraterrestrial objects. The paper also contains equations for the calculation of the length of a meridian and a parallel of a triaxial ellipsoid in reduced coordinates. Moreover, graticules of three coordinates systems (planetographic, planetocentric and reduced in developed map projections are presented. The basic properties of developed map projections are also described. The obtained map projections may be applied in planetary cartography in order to create maps of extraterrestrial objects.

  10. Exact reconstruction formula for the spherical mean Radon transform on ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haltmeier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Many modern imaging and remote sensing applications require reconstructing a function from spherical averages (mean values). Examples include photoacoustic tomography, ultrasound imaging or SONAR. Several formulas of the back-projection type for recovering a function in n spatial dimensions from mean values over spheres centered on a sphere have been derived by D Finch, S K Patch and Rakesh (2004 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 35 1213–1240) for odd spatial dimension and by D Finch, M Haltmeier and Rakesh (2007 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 68 392–412) for even spatial dimension. In this paper we generalize some of these formulas to the case where the centers of integration lie on the boundary of an arbitrary ellipsoid. For the special cases n = 2 and n = 3 our results have recently been established by Y Salman (2014 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 420 612–20). For the higher dimensional case n>3 we establish proof techniques extending the ones in the above references. Back-projection type inversion formulas for recovering a function from spherical means with centers on an ellipsoid have first been derived by F Natterer (2012 Inverse Problems Imaging 6 315–20) for n = 3 and by V Palamodov (2012 Inverse Problems 28 065014) for arbitrary dimension. The results of Natterer have later been generalized to arbitrary dimension by M Haltmeier (2014 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46 214–32). Note that these formulas are different from the ones derived in the present paper. (paper)

  11. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Electromagnetic Attenuation by Semi-Ellipsoidal Shaped Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiang; Tang Chunmei; Chen Jianping; Chen Yudong; Zeng Xiaojun; Zhang Yachun

    2015-01-01

    Some reports presented that the radar cross section (RCS) from the radar antenna of military airplanes can be reduced by using a low-temperature plasma screen. This paper gives a numerical and experimental analysis of this RCS-reduction method. The shape of the plasma screen was designed as a semi-ellipsoid in order to make full use of the space in the radar dome. In simulations, we discussed the scattering of the electromagnetic (EM) wave by a perfect electric conductor (PEC) covered with this plasma screen using the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. The variations of their return loss as a function of wave frequency, plasma density profile, and collision frequency were presented. In the experiments, a semi-ellipsoidal shaped plasma screen was produced. Electromagnetic attenuation of 1.5 GHz EM wave was measured for a radio frequency (RF) power of 5 kW at an argon pressure of 200-1150 Pa. A good agreement is found between simulated and experimental results. It can be confirmed that the plasma screen is useful in applications for stealth of radar antenna. (paper)

  13. All-optical temporal fractional order differentiator using an in-fiber ellipsoidal air-microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Shuqian; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ninghua

    2017-12-01

    An all-optical temporal fractional order differentiator with ultrabroad bandwidth (~1.6 THz) and extremely simple fabrication is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal air-microcavity. The ellipsoidal air-microcavity is fabricated by splicing a single mode fiber (SMF) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) together using a simple arc-discharging technology. By changing the arc-discharging times, the propagation loss can be adjusted and then the differentiation order is tuned. A nearly Gaussian-like optical pulse with 3 dB bandwidth of 8 nm is launched into the differentiator and a 0.65 order differentiation of the input pulse is achieved with a processing error of 2.55%. Project supported by the the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61522509, 61377002, 61535012), the National High-Tech Research & Development Program of China (No. SS2015AA011002), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152052). Ming Li was supported in part by the Thousand Young Talent Program.

  14. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band integrity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep Saxena,1 Khushboo Srivastav,1 Chui M Cheung,2 Joanne YW Ng,3 Timothy YY Lai3 1Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, King George’s Medical University Lucknow, India; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional imaging of the macula has conventionally been resolved into four bands. However, some doubts were raised regarding authentication of the existence of these bands. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that the second band appeared to originate from the inner segment ellipsoids of the foveal cone photoreceptors, and therefore the previously called inner segment-outer segment junction is now referred to as inner segment ellipsoidband. Photoreceptor dysfunction may be a significant predictor of visual acuity in a spectrum of surgical and medical retinal diseases. This review aims to provide an overview and summarizes the role of the photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band in the management and prognostication of various vitreoretinal diseases. Keywords: spectral domain optical coherence tomography, inner segment-outer segment junction, external limiting membrane, macular hole, diabetic macular edema, age relate macular degeneration

  15. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-08-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  16. Robe's Restricted Problem of 2 + 2 Bodies with a Roche Ellipsoid - Triaxial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajiv; Kaur, Bhavneet; Yadav, Sushil

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the motion of two infinitesimal masses on the location and stability of the equilibrium points in Robe's restricted problem of 2 + 2 bodies with the bigger primary a Roche ellipsoid and the smaller a triaxial body. We suppose the bigger primary of mass m 1 to be filled with a homogeneous incompressible fluid of density ρ 1. The third and the fourth bodies (of mass m 3 and m 4 respectively) are small solid spheres of density ρ 3 and ρ 4 respectively inside the ellipsoid, with the assumption that the mass and the radius of the third and the fourth body are infinitesimal. We assume that m 2 is describing a circle around m 1. The masses m 3 and m 4 mutually attract each other, do not influence the motion of m 1 and m 2 but are influenced by them. We have taken into consideration all the three components of the pressure field in deriving the expression for the buoyancy force viz (i) due to the own gravitational field of the fluid (ii) that originating in the attraction of m 2 (iii) that arising from the centrifugal force. In this paper, equilibrium solutions of m 3 and m 4 and their linear stability are analyzed.

  17. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  18. Non-steady homogeneous deformations: Computational techniques using Lie theory, and application to ellipsoidal markers in naturally deformed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua R.; Titus, Sarah J.; Horsman, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The dynamic theory of deformable ellipsoidal inclusions in slow viscous flows was worked out by J.D. Eshelby in the 1950s, and further developed and applied by various authors. We describe three approaches to computing Eshelby's ellipsoid dynamics and other homogeneous deformations. The most sophisticated of our methods uses differential-geometric techniques on Lie groups. This Lie group method is faster and more precise than earlier methods, and perfectly preserves certain geometric properties of the ellipsoids, including volume. We apply our method to the analysis of naturally deformed clasts from the Gem Lake shear zone in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. This application demonstrates how, given three-dimensional strain data, we can solve simultaneously for best-fit bulk kinematics of the shear zone, as well as relative viscosities of clasts and matrix rocks.

  19. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  20. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)

  1. The structure of nematic model of liquid crystal with cylindrical and ellipsoidal molecules confined in between walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available   The density functional theory analogue of Percus Yevick (PY and Hyper-Netted chain (HNC has been used to write the grand potential of a liquid with cylindrical and ellipsoidal molecules. The integral equations for the density can be obtained by minimizing the grand potential with respect to the density. Some kinds of liquid crystals, can have the cylindrical or ellipsoidal rigid molecules. In this study we have calculated the density profile of this kind of liquids confined between hard walls and we compared the results. As it is seen from the graphs of the density profiles the molecules can be arranged as layers with respect to the walls.

  2. Random matrix ensembles for PT-symmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graefe, Eva-Maria; Mudute-Ndumbe, Steve; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Recently much effort has been made towards the introduction of non-Hermitian random matrix models respecting PT-symmetry. Here we show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between complex PT-symmetric matrices and split-complex and split-quaternionic versions of Hermitian matrices. We introduce two new random matrix ensembles of (a) Gaussian split-complex Hermitian; and (b) Gaussian split-quaternionic Hermitian matrices, of arbitrary sizes. We conjecture that these ensembles represent universality classes for PT-symmetric matrices. For the case of 2 × 2 matrices we derive analytic expressions for the joint probability distributions of the eigenvalues, the one-level densities and the level spacings in the case of real eigenvalues. (fast track communication)

  3. Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.; Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design

  4. Determining space-energy distribution of thermal neutrons in heterogeneous cylindrically symmetric reactor cell, Master Thesis; Odredjivanje prostorno energetske raspodele fluksa termalnih neutrona u heterogenoj cilindricno simetricnoj reaktorskoj celiji, Magistarski rad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matausek, M V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-06-15

    A combination of multigroup method and P{sub 3} approximation of spherical harmonics method was chosen for calculating space-energy distribution of thermal neutron flux in elementary reactor cell. Application of these methods reduced solution of complicated transport equation to the problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of six ordinary firs-order differential equations. A procedure is proposed which avoids numerical solution and enables analytical solution when applying certain approximations. Based on this approach, computer codes were written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer: SIGMA code for calculating group constants for a given material; MULTI code which uses results of SIGMA code as input and calculates spatial ana energy distribution of thermal neutron flux in a reactor cell. Calculations of thermal neutron spectra for a number of reactor cells were compared to results available from literature. Agreement was satisfactory in all the cases, which proved the correctness of the applied method. Some possibilities for improving the precision and acceleration of the calculation process were found during calculation. (author)

  5. Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  6. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  7. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  8. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  9. Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

    1977-01-24

    A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.

  10. Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    Charts N/A Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 14 Kamran Ghiassi N/A 1 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids Kevin T. Greeson...NUMBER (Include area code) 29 November 2017 Briefing Charts 01 November 2017 - 30 November 2017 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic ... Liquids K. Greeson, K. Ghiassi, J. Alston, N. Redeker, J. Marcischak, L. Gilmore, A. Guenthner Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRP 9 Antares

  11. The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, and symmetric transform given as the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generatin...... large sets of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....

  12. The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, symmetric transform, the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generating large sets...... of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....

  13. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs

  14. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.

  15. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  16. Design of an ellipsoidal mirror for freewave characterization of materials at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, M; Muñoz, J; Molina-Cuberos, G J; Margineda, J; García-Collado, Á J

    2016-01-01

    Free-wave characterization of the electromagnetic properties of materials at microwave frequencies requires that scattering at the edges of the samples and/or holder be minimized. Here, an ellipsoidal mirror is designed and characterized in order to decrease the size of the beam, thereby avoiding the scattering problems, even when relatively small samples are used. In the experimental configuration, both the emitting antenna and sample are located at the mirror focuses. Since both the emitted and reflected (focused) beams are Gaussian in nature, we make use of Gaussian beam theory to carry out the design. The mirror parameters are optimized by numerical simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics ® ) and then experimentally tested. An experimental setup is presented for dielectric, magnetic and chiral measurement in the 4.5–18 GHz band. (paper)

  17. Effects of tidal distortion on binary-star velocity curves and ellipsoidal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radial velocity curves for the more massive components of binaries with extreme mass ratios can show a large distortion due to tides, as first recognized by Sterne. Binaries in which the effect is large should be rare because nearly all such binaries would be in the rapid phase of mass transfer. However, the optical counterparts of some X-ray binaries may show the effect, which would then serve as a new means of extracting considerable information from the observations. The essential parts of the computational procedure are given. Light curves for ellipsoidal variables with extreme mass ratios were also computed, and were found to be less sinusoidal than those with normal mass ratios

  18. Ellipsoidal and parabolic glass capillaries as condensers for x-ray microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianghui; Duewer, Fred; Feser, Michael; Huang, Carson; Lyon, Alan; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    Single-bounce ellipsoidal and paraboloidal glass capillary focusing optics have been fabricated for use as condenser lenses for both synchrotron and tabletop x-ray microscopes in the x-ray energy range of 2.5-18 keV. The condenser numerical apertures (NAs) of these devices are designed to match the NA of x-ray zone plate objectives, which gives them a great advantage over zone plate condensers in laboratory microscopes. The fabricated condensers have slope errors as low as 20 μrad rms. These capillaries provide a uniform hollow-cone illumination with almost full focusing efficiency, which is much higher than what is available with zone plate condensers. Sub-50 nm resolution at 8 keV x-ray energy was achieved by utilizing this high-efficiency condenser in a laboratory microscope based on a rotating anode generator

  19. Degenerate Quadtree Latitude/Longitude Grid Based on WGS-84 Ellipsoidal Facet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Bailin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the needs of digital earth development and solving many global problems, a new discrete global grid system-DQLLG (degenerate quadtree latitude/longitude grid was put forward, which was based on WGS-84 ellipsoidal facet. The hierarchical subdivision method, characteristics and grid column/row coordinate system were detailed. The Latitude/Longitude coordinate, area and side length of multi-resolution meshes on different subdivision levels were calculated. Then the changes of mesh areas and side lengths were analyzed and compared that with spherical DQLLG. The research indicates that the DQLLG had many excellent features:uniformity, hierarchy, consistency of direction, extensive data compatibility and so on. It has certain practicality for Global GIS in the future.

  20. PID Based on Attractive Ellipsoid Method for Dynamic Uncertain and External Disturbances Rejection in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Patricio Ordaz Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis for LNDS (Lagrangian nonlinear dynamical systems with dynamic uncertain using a PID controller with external disturbances rejection based on attractive ellipsoid methods, since the PID-CT (proportional integral derivative computed torque compensator has been used for the nonlinear trajectory tracking of an LNDS, when there are external perturbations and system uncertainties. The global system convergence of the trivial solution has not been proved. In this sense, we propose an approach to find the gains of the nonlinear PID-CT controller to guarantee the boundedness of the trivial solution by means of the concept of the UUB (uniform-ultimately bounded stability. In order to show the effectiveness of the methodology proposed, we applied it in a real 2-DoF robot system.

  1. Geometrical optimization of an ellipsoidal plasma mirror toward tight focusing of ultra-intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Chen, Z L; Kodama, R; Buffechoux, S; Fuchs, J; Jin, Z

    2010-01-01

    We developed for the first time, very compact ( 3 ) extremely low f-number (f/number = 0.4) confocal ellipsoid focusing systems. Direct measurement of the laser focal spot using a low-energy laser beam indicates 1/5 reduction of the spot size compared to standard focusing (using a f/2.7 optics). Such mirror is thus able to achieve significant enhancement of the focused laser intensity without modifying the laser system itself. The mirror is then used under plasma mirror regime which enables us to compactify the size, to liberate us from the anxiety of protecting the optics from target debris after shots, and to enhance the temporal contrast. In this paper, we focus our attention to designing and optimizing the geometry of such innovative plasma optics.

  2. Connections of geometric measure of entanglement of pure symmetric states to quantum state estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Zhu Huangjun; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    We study the geometric measure of entanglement (GM) of pure symmetric states related to rank 1 positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) and establish a general connection with quantum state estimation theory, especially the maximum likelihood principle. Based on this connection, we provide a method for computing the GM of these states and demonstrate its additivity property under certain conditions. In particular, we prove the additivity of the GM of pure symmetric multiqubit states whose Majorana points under Majorana representation are distributed within a half sphere, including all pure symmetric three-qubit states. We then introduce a family of symmetric states that are generated from mutually unbiased bases and derive an analytical formula for their GM. These states include Dicke states as special cases, which have already been realized in experiments. We also derive the GM of symmetric states generated from symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC POVMs) and use it to characterize all inequivalent SIC POVMs in three-dimensional Hilbert space that are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl group. Finally, we describe an experimental scheme for creating the symmetric multiqubit states studied in this article and a possible scheme for measuring the permanence of the related Gram matrix.

  3. Effect of surface slope errors of the ellipsoidal mirror on the resolution of the PGM beamline at Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Mukund, R.; Sahni, V.C.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of geometrical shape errors and surface errors on the characteristics and performance of grazing incidence optics used in the design of beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities is considered. The methodology adopted for the simulation of slope errors is described and results presented for the ellipsoidal focussing mirror used in the design of PGM beamline at Indus-1. (author)

  4. Shape Evolution Synthesis of Monodisperse Spherical, Ellipsoidal, and Elongated Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles Using Ascorbic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W.F.; Yu, Y.T.; Wang, M.X.; Liu, F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Spherical, ellipsoidal, and elongated hematite particles have been obtained via a simple chemical precipitation reaction of FeCl3 and NaOH in the presence of ascorbic acid,(AA). The effects of pH, molar ratio of AA/Fe(III), and time on the formation and shape of the hematite particles were

  5. A New DOA Algorithm Based on Nonlinear Compress Core Function in Symmetric α-stable Distribution Noise Environment%一种对称琢稳定分布噪声环境下DOA估计新算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金全; 葛临东; 童莉

    2014-01-01

    脉冲噪声环境下波达方向( DOA)估计是阵列信号处理领域一个新兴研究方向。针对α稳定分布噪声环境下经典MUSIC算法性能退化的问题,提出了一种新的基于非线性压缩核函数( NCCF)的DOA估计算法。该算法利用基于NCCF的有界矩阵代替了MUSIC的协方差矩阵,通过对有界矩阵进行特征分解确定信号子空间和噪声子空间,借用MUSIC谱估计公式进行谱峰搜索,得到DOA的估计值。仿真结果表明,NCCF-MUSIC算法运算复杂度较低,相比于基于分数低阶统计量( FLOS)的MUSIC方法和基于广义类相关熵( GCAS)的MUSIC算法,该方法具有更好的准确度和稳定性。%Direction of arrival ( DOA) estimation in the impulse noise environment is a new research direc-tion in the array signal processing field. To solve the problem of performance degradation when applying classic MUSIC algorithm for DOA estimation in the α-stable distribution noise environment,a novel DOA estimation algorithm based on a nonlinear compress core function ( NCCF ) is provided and named as the NCCF-MUSIC. To obtain a DOA estimation,the NCCF-MUSIC method replaces the covariance matrix in MUSIC by a bounded matrix based on the NCCF,and then determines the signal subspace and the noise subspace by feature decomposition, and finally, introduces the MUSIC spectrum estimation algorithm to make a spectral peak searching. Simulation results show that the new NCCF-MUSIC method with a lower computation cost has the higher performance in accuracy and validity than the MUSIC methods based on fractional lower order statistics ( FLOS) or based on generalized correntropy-analogous statistics ( GCAS) .

  6. Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Based on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). When a system features symmetries, these can be utilized to substantially reduce MPS computation costs. It is conceptually straightforward to simulate canonical ensembles using symmetric METTS. In practice, it is important to alternate between different symmetric collapse bases to decrease autocorrelations in the Markov chain of METTS. To this purpose, we introduce symmetric Fourier and Haar-random block bases that are efficiently mixing. We also show how grand-canonical ensembles can be simulated efficiently with symmetric METTS. We demonstrate these approaches for spin-1 /2 X X Z chains and discuss how the choice of the collapse bases influences autocorrelations as well as the distribution of measurement values and, hence, convergence speeds.

  7. Spherical and ellipsoidal cavities in European sandstones: a product of sinking carbonate dissolution front

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří; Mikuláš, Radek; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 123-149 ISSN 0372-8854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806; GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : symmetrical cavities * solutional landforms * cavernous weathering * tafoni * sandstone * concretions * carbonate dissolution front Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  8. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  9. Rotationally symmetric structure in two extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Morison, I.

    1980-01-01

    The new multi-telescope radio-linked interferometer (MTRLI) at Jodrell Bank was used during January and February 1980 at a frequency of 408 MHz to map the extragalactic radio sources 3C196 and 3C305 with a resolution of approximately 1 arc s. It is shown here that both the markedly symmetric structures observed and the spectral index distributions inferred from comparisons with previously published 5 GHz maps provide evidence for the source axes having rotated during the lifetime of the emitting regions. (U.K.)

  10. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2017-06-15

    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν(r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations. (orig.)

  11. A parallel algorithm for the non-symmetric eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidani, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the solution of the non-symmetric eigenvalue problem. The algorithm is based on a divide-and-conquer procedure that provides initial approximations to the eigenpairs, which are then refined using Newton iterations. Since the smaller subproblems can be solved independently, and since Newton iterations with different initial guesses can be started simultaneously, the algorithm - unlike the standard QR method - is ideal for parallel computers. The author also reports on his investigation of deflation methods designed to obtain further eigenpairs if needed. Numerical results from implementations on a host of parallel machines (distributed and shared-memory) are presented

  12. Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José; Puerto, Gustavo; Capmany, José

    2007-12-10

    This paper presents a novel architecture for DWDM bidirectional access networks providing symmetric dynamic capacity allocation for both downlink and uplink signals. A foldback arrayed waveguide grating incorporating an optical switch enables the experimental demonstration of flexible assignment of multiservice capacity. Different analog and digital services, such as CATV, 10 GHz-tone, 155Mb/s PRBS and UMTS signals have been transmitted in order to successfully test the system performance under different scenarios of total capacity distribution from the Central Station to different Base Stations with two reconfigurable extra channels for each down and upstream direction.

  13. 2 × 2 random matrix ensembles with reduced symmetry: from Hermitian to PT -symmetric matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jiangbin; Wang Qinghai

    2012-01-01

    A possibly fruitful extension of conventional random matrix ensembles is proposed by imposing symmetry constraints on conventional Hermitian matrices or parity–time (PT)-symmetric matrices. To illustrate the main idea, we first study 2 × 2 complex Hermitian matrix ensembles with O(2)-invariant constraints, yielding novel level-spacing statistics such as singular distributions, the half-Gaussian distribution, distributions interpolating between the GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble) distribution and half-Gaussian distributions, as well as the gapped-GOE distribution. Such a symmetry-reduction strategy is then used to explore 2 × 2 PT-symmetric matrix ensembles with real eigenvalues. In particular, PT-symmetric random matrix ensembles with U(2) invariance can be constructed, with the conventional complex Hermitian random matrix ensemble being a special case. In two examples of PT-symmetric random matrix ensembles, the level-spacing distributions are found to be the standard GUE (Gaussian unitary ensemble) statistics or the ‘truncated-GUE’ statistics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  14. Crossing-symmetric solutions to low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Crossing symmetric models of the pion-nucleon interaction in which crossing symmetry is kept to lowest order in msub(π)/msub(N) are investigated. Two iterative techniques are developed to solve the crossing-symmetric Low equation. The techniques are used to solve the original Chew-Low equations and their generalizations to include the coupling to the pion-production channels. Small changes are found in comparison with earlier results which used an iterative technique proposed by Chew and Low and which did not produce crossing-symmetric results. The iterative technique of Chew and Low is shown to fail because of its inability to produce zeroes in the amplitude at complex energies while physical solutions to the model require such zeroes. We also prove that, within the class of solutions such that phase shifts approach zero for infinite energy, the solution to the Low equation is unique. (orig.)

  15. Revisiting the Optical PT-Symmetric Dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Delfino Huerta Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optics has proved a fertile ground for the experimental simulation of quantum mechanics. Most recently, optical realizations of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics have been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, opening the door to international efforts aiming at the design of practical optical devices exploiting this symmetry. Here, we focus on the optical PT -symmetric dimer, a two-waveguide coupler where the materials show symmetric effective gain and loss, and provide a review of the linear and nonlinear optical realizations from a symmetry-based point of view. We go beyond a simple review of the literature and show that the dimer is just the smallest of a class of planar N-waveguide couplers that are the optical realization of the Lorentz group in 2 + 1 dimensions. Furthermore, we provide a formulation to describe light propagation through waveguide couplers described by non-Hermitian mode coupling matrices based on a non-Hermitian generalization of the Ehrenfest theorem.

  16. PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuce, C.

    2014-01-01

    PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists

  17. PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuce, C., E-mail: cyuce@anadolu.edu.tr

    2014-06-13

    PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists.

  18. A UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR THE ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF BARS AND TRIAXIAL ELLIPSOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valluri, Monica; Abbott, Caleb [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Debattista, Victor P., E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu, E-mail: calebga@umich.edu, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: vpdebattista@uclan.ac.uk [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-20

    We examine a large random sample of orbits in two self-consistent simulations of N-body bars. Orbits in these bars are classified both visually and with a new automated orbit classification method based on frequency analysis. The well-known prograde x1 orbit family originates from the same parent orbit as the box orbits in stationary and rotating triaxial ellipsoids. However, only a small fraction of bar orbits (∼4%) have predominately prograde motion like their periodic parent orbit. Most bar orbits arising from the x1 orbit have little net angular momentum in the bar frame, making them equivalent to box orbits in rotating triaxial potentials. In these simulations a small fraction of bar orbits (∼7%) are long-axis tubes that behave exactly like those in triaxial ellipsoids: they are tipped about the intermediate axis owing to the Coriolis force, with the sense of tipping determined by the sign of their angular momentum about the long axis. No orbits parented by prograde periodic x2 orbits are found in the pure bar model, but a tiny population (∼2%) of short-axis tube orbits parented by retrograde x4 orbits are found. When a central point mass representing a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is grown adiabatically at the center of the bar, those orbits that lie in the immediate vicinity of the SMBH are transformed into precessing Keplerian orbits that belong to the same major families (short-axis tubes, long-axis tubes and boxes) occupying the bar at larger radii. During the growth of an SMBH, the inflow of mass and outward transport of angular momentum transform some x1 and long-axis tube orbits into prograde short-axis tubes. This study has important implications for future attempts to constrain the masses of SMBHs in barred galaxies using orbit-based methods like the Schwarzschild orbit superposition scheme and for understanding the observed features in barred galaxies.

  19. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  20. Symmetry theorems via the continuous steiner symmetrization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ragoub

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a new approach due to F. Brock called the Steiner symmetrization, we show first that if $u$ is a solution of an overdetermined problem in the divergence form satisfying the Neumann and non-constant Dirichlet boundary conditions, then $Omega$ is an N-ball. In addition, we show that we can relax the condition on the value of the Dirichlet boundary condition in the case of superharmonicity. Finally, we give an application to positive solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems in symmetric domains for the divergence case.

  1. The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy

    2009-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.

  2. Distributed interference alignment iterative algorithms in symmetric wireless network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jingwen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment is a novel interference alignment way,which is widely noted all of the world.Interference alignment overlaps interference in the same signal space at receiving terminal by precoding so as to thoroughly eliminate the influence of interference impacted on expected signals,thus making the desire user achieve the maximum degree of freedom.In this paper we research three typical algorithms for realizing interference alignment,including minimizing the leakage interference,maximizing Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR and minimizing mean square error(MSE.All of these algorithms utilize the reciprocity of wireless network,and iterate the precoders between original network and the reverse network so as to achieve interference alignment.We use the uplink transmit rate to analyze the performance of these three algorithms.Numerical simulation results show the advantages of these algorithms.which is the foundation for the further study in the future.The feasibility and future of interference alignment are also discussed at last.

  3. Two clusters of GABAergic ellipsoid body neurons modulate olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Jing; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2013-03-20

    In Drosophila, aversive olfactory memory is believed to be stored in a prominent brain structure, the mushroom body (MB), and two pairs of MB intrinsic neurons, the dorsal paired medial (DPM) and the anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons, are found to regulate the consolidation of middle-term memory (MTM). Here we report that another prominent brain structure, the ellipsoid body (EB), is also involved in the modulation of olfactory MTM. Activating EB R2/R4m neurons does not affect the learning index, but specifically eliminates anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM), the labile component of olfactory MTM. We further demonstrate that approximately two-thirds of these EB neurons are GABAergic and are responsible for the suppression of ASM. Using GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners), we reveal potential synaptic connections between the EB and MB in regions covering both the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of EB neurons, suggesting the presence of bidirectional connections between these two important brain structures. These findings suggest the existence of direct connections between the MB and EB, and provide new insights into the neural circuit basis for olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

  4. Correlation of Macular Focal Electroretinogram with Ellipsoid Zone Extension in Stargardt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Abed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stargardt disease (STGD1 is the most common cause of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. This disease is characterized by a progressive accumulation of lipofuscin in the outer retina and subsequent loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cone photoreceptor function and structure in STGD1. Macular function was assessed by visual acuity measurement and focal electroretinogram (FERG recording while spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT imaging was performed to evaluate the integrity of photoreceptors. FERG amplitude was significantly reduced in patients with Stargardt disease (p<0.0001. The amplitude of FERG showed a negative relationship with interruption of ellipsoid zone (EZ (R2=0.54, p<0.0001 and a positive correlation with average macular thickness (AMT. Conversely, visual acuity was only weakly correlated with central macular thickness (CMT (R2=0.12, p=0.04. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that FERG amplitude is a reliable indicator of macular cone function while visual acuity reflects the activity of the foveal region. A precise assessment of macular cone function by FERG recording may be useful to monitor the progression of STGD1 and to select the optimal candidates to include in future clinical trials to treat this disease.

  5. Detection of Methanol with Fast Response by Monodispersed Indium Tungsten Oxide Ellipsoidal Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Kou, Xueying; Xie, Ning; Guo, Lanlan; Sun, Yanfeng; Chuai, Xiaohong; Ma, Jian; Sun, Peng; Wang, Yue; Lu, Geyu

    2017-05-26

    Indium tungsten oxide ellipsoidal nanospheres were prepared with different In/W ratios by using a simple hydrothermal method without any surfactant for the first time. Sensors based on different In/W ratios samples were fabricated, and one of the samples exhibited better response to methanol compared with others. High content of defective oxygen (Ov) and proper output proportion of In to W might be the main reasons for the better gas sensing properties. The length of the nanosphere was about 150-200 nm, and the width was about 100 nm. Various techniques were applied to investigate the nanospheres. Sensing characteristics toward methanol were investigated. Significantly, the sensor exhibited ultrafast response to methanol. The response time to 400 ppm methanol was no more than 2 s and the recovery time was 9 s at 312 °C. Most importantly, the humidity almost had no effect on the response of the sensor fabricated here, which is hard to achieve in gas-sensing applications.

  6. Micro-macro-discrepancies in nonlinear microrheology: I. Quantifying mechanisms in a suspension of Brownian ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePuit, Ryan J; Squires, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    Active and nonlinear microrheology experiments involve a colloidal probe that is forced to move within a material, with the goal of recovering the nonlinear rheological response properties of the material. Various mechanisms cause discrepancies between the nonlinear rheology measured microrheologically and macroscopically, including direct probe-bath collisions, the Lagrangian unsteadiness experienced by the material elements, and the spatially inhomogeneous and rheologically mixed strain field set up around the probe. Here, we perform computational nonlinear microrheology experiments, in which a colloidal probe translates through a dilute suspension of Brownian ellipsoids, whose results we compare against analogous computational experiments on the macroscopic shear rheology of the same model material. The quantitative impact of each of the mechanisms for micro-macro-discrepancy can thus be computed directly, with additional computational experiments performed where the processes in question are ‘turned off’. We show that all three discrepancy mechanisms impact the microrheological measurement quantitatively, and that none can be neglected. This motivates a search for microrheological probes whose geometry or forcing is optimized to minimize these impacts, which we present in a companion article.

  7. Probabilistic homogenization of random composite with ellipsoidal particle reinforcement by the iterative stochastic finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Damian; Kamiński, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a framework for determination of basic probabilistic characteristics of the orthotropic homogenized elastic properties of the periodic composite reinforced with ellipsoidal particles and a high stiffness contrast between the reinforcement and the matrix. Homogenization problem, solved by the Iterative Stochastic Finite Element Method (ISFEM) is implemented according to the stochastic perturbation, Monte Carlo simulation and semi-analytical techniques with the use of cubic Representative Volume Element (RVE) of this composite containing single particle. The given input Gaussian random variable is Young modulus of the matrix, while 3D homogenization scheme is based on numerical determination of the strain energy of the RVE under uniform unit stretches carried out in the FEM system ABAQUS. The entire series of several deterministic solutions with varying Young modulus of the matrix serves for the Weighted Least Squares Method (WLSM) recovery of polynomial response functions finally used in stochastic Taylor expansions inherent for the ISFEM. A numerical example consists of the High Density Polyurethane (HDPU) reinforced with the Carbon Black particle. It is numerically investigated (1) if the resulting homogenized characteristics are also Gaussian and (2) how the uncertainty in matrix Young modulus affects the effective stiffness tensor components and their PDF (Probability Density Function).

  8. Numerical simulation of performance of heavy ion inertial confinement fusion target with ellipsoidal chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basin, A.A.; Vatulin, V.V.; Vakhlamova, L.L.; Vinokurov, P.A.; Dement'ev, Yu.A.; Eliseev, G.M.; Ermolovich, V.F.; Morenko, L.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Remizov, G.N.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Ryabikina, N.A.; Skrypnik, S.I.; Skidan, G.I.; Tikhomirov, B.P.; Shagaliev, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    To solve the design problem of an inertial thermonuclear fusion facility requires the united efforts of scientists in various countries. In the field of heavy ion fusion a collaboration between scientists in Germany and Russia is under successful development. VNIIEF possesses advanced software for numerical simulation of the processes in thermonuclear target operation. This paper describes a target design suggested and being studied by scientists of Frankfurt University and GSI which is based on 2D non-stationary calculation of the X-ray energy transport and capsule compression. The target consists of a spherical capsule with DT fuel and an ellipsoidal chamber containment. The ion beam energy is released in two fixed converters located on the chamber axis symmetricall with respect to the capsule. The X-ray field is formed on the capsule surface with a set of special shields. The basic aim of our research is to estimate the effect of gas dynamic expansion of the chamber walls, shields and capsule on the target operation. To increase the reliability of the obtained results and the assessment of probable errors in predicting radiation field parameters and the capsule state, the calculations were accomplished in a kinetic arrangement with various techniques. (orig.)

  9. The velocity ellipsoid in the Galactic disc using Gaia DR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano, Borja; Majewski, Steven R.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Smith, Martin C.

    2018-02-01

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid of the solar neighbour (d Standard of Rest in Galactic rotation to be V⊙ = 13.9 ± 3.4 km s-1. A relation is found between the vertex deviation and the chemical abundances for the thin disc, ranging from -5 to +40° as iron abundance increases. For the thick disc we find a vertex deviation of luv ˜- 15°. The tilt angle (luw) in the U-W plane for the thin disc groups ranges from -10 to +15°, but there is no evident relation between luw and the mean abundances. However, we find a weak relation for luw as a function of iron abundances and α-elements for most of the groups in the thick disc, where the tilt angle decreases from -5 to -20° when [Fe/H] decreases and [α/Fe] increases. The velocity anisotropy parameter is independent of the chemical group abundances and its value is nearly constant for both discs (β ˜ 0.5), suggesting that the combined disc is dynamically relaxed.

  10. Gaze3DFix: Detecting 3D fixations with an ellipsoidal bounding volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sascha; Schubert, Rebekka S; Vogt, Stefan; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-10-26

    Nowadays, the use of eyetracking to determine 2-D gaze positions is common practice, and several approaches to the detection of 2-D fixations exist, but ready-to-use algorithms to determine eye movements in three dimensions are still missing. Here we present a dispersion-based algorithm with an ellipsoidal bounding volume that estimates 3D fixations. Therefore, 3D gaze points are obtained using a vector-based approach and are further processed with our algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of our method, we performed experimental studies with real and virtual stimuli. We obtained good congruence between stimulus position and both the 3D gaze points and the 3D fixation locations within the tested range of 200-600 mm. The mean deviation of the 3D fixations from the stimulus positions was 17 mm for the real as well as for the virtual stimuli, with larger variances at increasing stimulus distances. The described algorithms are implemented in two dynamic linked libraries (Gaze3D.dll and Fixation3D.dll), and we provide a graphical user interface (Gaze3DFixGUI.exe) that is designed for importing 2-D binocular eyetracking data and calculating both 3D gaze points and 3D fixations using the libraries. The Gaze3DFix toolkit, including both libraries and the graphical user interface, is available as open-source software at https://github.com/applied-cognition-research/Gaze3DFix .

  11. Conversion of Chord Length Data into Bubble Size Distribution: Generation of Chord Length Data and the Methodology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, Hoang Nhan; Euh, D. J.; Song, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, B. J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Bubble size and its distribution play an important role in thermal hydrodynamic processes in multiphase flow systems. By using the conductivity or optical probe techniques, the size and distribution of bubbles can only be inferred indirectly from a measured chord length data (CLD). Some methods are proposed to convert a CLD into the bubble size distribution (BSD), and they can be classified into parametric, semi-parametric and non-parametric. Most of methods are derived from the following relation of the conditional probability functions that are established under the geometric constraints: P(y) = {infinity}{integral}0 P(R) P(y|R) dR where P(R) is PDF of bubbles of all sizes R pierced by a probe, and P(y|R) is PDF of chord length y corresponding to bubbles of a specified size R. These methods are limited to flows of bubbles having symmetric shapes, i.e. spherical, ellipsoidal, or capspherical. Although the methods were developed from a common relation, there are no physical bases as well as the lack of experimental data to validate them. In this work, the CLD is generated for comparing different conversion methods. The range of bubble size is determined by the Hinze's theory. The CLDs are applied to numerical backward transforms (NBT), analytical backward transform (ABT), and analytical semi-parametric method using Parzen window estimator (ParzenES) to obtain the BSD. A comparison for the obtained results is performed

  12. Conversion of Chord Length Data into Bubble Size Distribution: Generation of Chord Length Data and the Methodology Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, Hoang Nhan; Euh, D. J.; Song, C. H.; Yun, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Bubble size and its distribution play an important role in thermal hydrodynamic processes in multiphase flow systems. By using the conductivity or optical probe techniques, the size and distribution of bubbles can only be inferred indirectly from a measured chord length data (CLD). Some methods are proposed to convert a CLD into the bubble size distribution (BSD), and they can be classified into parametric, semi-parametric and non-parametric. Most of methods are derived from the following relation of the conditional probability functions that are established under the geometric constraints: P(y) = ∞∫0 P(R) P(y|R) dR where P(R) is PDF of bubbles of all sizes R pierced by a probe, and P(y|R) is PDF of chord length y corresponding to bubbles of a specified size R. These methods are limited to flows of bubbles having symmetric shapes, i.e. spherical, ellipsoidal, or capspherical. Although the methods were developed from a common relation, there are no physical bases as well as the lack of experimental data to validate them. In this work, the CLD is generated for comparing different conversion methods. The range of bubble size is determined by the Hinze's theory. The CLDs are applied to numerical backward transforms (NBT), analytical backward transform (ABT), and analytical semi-parametric method using Parzen window estimator (ParzenES) to obtain the BSD. A comparison for the obtained results is performed

  13. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  14. Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910

  15. Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...

  16. Exact solutions of the spherically symmetric multidimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete orthonormalised energy eigenfunctions and the energy eigenvalues of the spherically symmetric isotropic harmonic oscillator in N dimensions, are obtained through the methods of separation of variables. Also, the degeneracy of the energy levels are examined. KEY WORDS: - Schrödinger Equation, Isotropic ...

  17. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Huangjun, E-mail: hzhu@pitp.ca

    2015-11-15

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg–Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg–Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  18. Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1994-06-01

    A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs

  19. On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, Brien C; Nolan, Louise V

    2004-01-01

    We attempt to match the most general cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetime with a Robertson-Walker interior. The matching conditions show that the interior must be dust filled and that the boundary must be comoving. Further, we show that the vacuum region must be polarized. Imposing the condition that there are no trapped cylinders on an initial time slice, we can apply a result of Thorne's and show that trapped cylinders never evolve. This results in a simplified line element which we prove to be incompatible with the dust interior. This result demonstrates the impossibility of the existence of an isotropic cylindrically symmetric star (or even a star which has a cylindrically symmetric portion). We investigate the problem from a different perspective by looking at the expansion scalars of invariant null geodesic congruences and, applying to the cylindrical case, the result that the product of the signs of the expansion scalars must be continuous across the boundary. The result may also be understood in relation to recent results about the impossibility of the static axially symmetric analogue of the Einstein-Straus model

  20. The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.

  1. Symmetric intersections of Rauzy fractals | Sellami | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study symmetric subsets of Rauzy fractals of unimodular irreducible Pisot substitutions. The symmetry considered is re ection through the origin. Given an unimodular irreducible Pisot substitution, we consider the intersection of its Rauzy fractal with the Rauzy fractal of the reverse substitution. This set is ...

  2. Fourier inversion on a reductive symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den

    1999-01-01

    Let X be a semisimple symmetric space. In previous papers, [8] and [9], we have dened an explicit Fourier transform for X and shown that this transform is injective on the space C 1 c (X) ofcompactly supported smooth functions on X. In the present paper, which is a continuation of these papers, we

  3. A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs

  4. Harmonic analysis on reductive symmetric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    2000-01-01

    We give a relatively non-technical survey of some recent advances in the Fourier theory for semisimple symmetric spaces. There are three major results: An inversion formula for the Fourier transform, a Palley-Wiener theorem, which describes the Fourier image of the space of completely supported

  5. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    1994-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  6. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.

    1997-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  7. Generalization of Eshelby close-quote s Formula for a Single Ellipsoidal Elastic Inclusion to Poroelasticity and Thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Eshelby close-quote s formula gives the response of a single ellipsoidal elastic inclusion in an elastic whole space to a uniform strain imposed at infinity. Using a linear combination of results from two simple thought experiments, we show how this formula may be generalized to both poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. The resulting new formulas are important for applications to analysis of poroelastic and thermoelastic composites, including but not restricted to rocks. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Outer Retinal Changes Including the Ellipsoid Zone Band in Usher Syndrome 1B due to MYO7A Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaroka, Alexander; Matsui, Rodrigo; Cideciyan, Artur V; McGuigan, David B; Sheplock, Rebecca; Schwartz, Sharon B; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2016-07-01

    To study transition zones from normal to abnormal retina in Usher syndrome IB (USH1B) caused by myosin 7A (MYO7A) mutations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scattering layers in outer retina were segmented in patients (n = 16, ages 2-42; eight patients had serial data, average interval 4.5 years) to quantify outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer segments (OS) as well as the locus of EZ (ellipsoid zone) edge and its extent from the fovea. Static perimetry was measured under dark-adapted (DA) and light-adapted (LA) conditions. Ellipsoid zone edge in USH1B-MYO7A could be located up to 23° from the fovea. Ellipsoid zone extent constricted at a rate of 0.51°/year with slower rates at smaller eccentricities. A well-defined EZ line could be associated with normal or abnormal ONL and/or OS thickness; detectable ONL extended well beyond EZ edge. At the EZ edge, the local slope of LA sensitivity loss was 2.6 (±1.7) dB/deg for central transition zones. At greater eccentricities, the local slope of cone sensitivity loss was shallower (1.1 ± 0.4 dB/deg for LA) than that of rod sensitivity loss (2.8 ± 1.2 dB/deg for DA). In USH1B-MYO7A, constriction rate of EZ extent depends on the initial eccentricity of the transition. Ellipsoid zone edges in the macula correspond to large local changes in cone vision, but extramacular EZ edges show more pronounced losses on rod-based vision tests. It is advisable to use not only the EZ line but also other structural and functional parameters for estimating natural history of disease and possible therapeutic effects in future clinical trials of USH1B-MYO7A.

  9. Scalable Distributed Architectures for Information Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhihong

    1999-01-01

    .... Our distributed architectures exploit parallelism in information retrieval on a cluster of parallel IR servers using symmetric multiprocessors, and use partial collection replication and selection...

  10. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2. (paper)

  11. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  12. Optimal grasp planning for a dexterous robotic hand using the volume of a generalized force ellipsoid during accepted flattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grasp planning method based on the volume and flattening of a generalized force ellipsoid is proposed to improve the grasping ability of a dexterous robotic hand. First, according to the general solution of joint torques for a dexterous robotic hand, a grasping indicator for the dexterous hand—the maximum volume of a generalized external force ellipsoid and the minimum volume of a generalized contact internal force ellipsoid during accepted flattening—is proposed. Second, an optimal grasp planning method based on a task is established using the grasping indicator as an objective function. Finally, a simulation analysis and grasping experiment are performed. Results show that when the grasping experiment is conducted with the grasping configuration and positions of contact points optimized using the proposed grasping indicator, the root-mean-square values of the joint torques and contact internal forces of the dexterous hand are at a minimum. The effectiveness of the proposed grasping planning method is thus demonstrated.

  13. Eccentricity samples: Implications on the potential and the velocity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubarsi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Planar and vertical epicycle frequencies and local angular velocity are related to the derivatives up to the second order of the local potential and can be used to test the shape of the potential from stellar disc samples. These samples show a more complex velocity distribution than halo stars and should provide a more realistic test. We assume an axisymmetric potential allowing a mixture of independent ellipsoidal velocity distributions, of separable or Staeckel form in cylindrical or spherical coordinates. We prove that values of local constants are not consistent with a potential separable in addition in cylindrical coordinates and with a spherically symmetric potential. The simplest potential that fits the local constants is used to show that the harmonical and non-harmonical terms of the potential are equally important. The same analysis is used to estimate the local constants. Two families of nested subsamples selected for decreasing planar and vertical eccentricities are used to borne out the relation between the mean squared planar and vertical eccentricities and the velocity dispersions of the subsamples. According to the first-order epicycle model, the radial and vertical velocity components provide accurate information on the planar and vertical epicycle frequencies. However, it is impossible to account for the asymmetric drift which introduces a systematic bias in estimation of the third constant. Under a more general model, when the asymmetric drift is taken into account, the rotation velocity dispersions together with their asymmetric drift provide the correct fit for the local angular velocity. The consistency of the results shows that this new method based on the distribution of eccentricities is worth using for kinematic stellar samples. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. No 176011: Dynamics and Kinematics of Celestial Bodies and Systems

  14. Weakly Interacting Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric States in the Bilayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Tomaka, G.; Ploch, D.

    We have studied the parallel magneto-transport in DQW-structures of two different potential shapes: quasi-rectangular and quasi-triangular. The quantum beats effect was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for both types of the DQW structures in perpendicular magnetic filed arrangement. We developed a special scheme for the Landau levels energies calculation by means of which we carried out the necessary simulations of beating effect. In order to obtain the agreement between our experimental data and the results of simulations, we introduced two different quasi-Fermi levels which characterize symmetric and anti-symmetric states in DQWs. The existence of two different quasi Fermi-Levels simply means, that one can treat two sub-systems (charge carriers characterized by symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions) as weakly interacting and having their own rate of establishing the equilibrium state.

  15. The equilibrium of rubble-pile satellites: The Darwin and Roche ellipsoids for gravitationally held granular aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2009-04-01

    Many new small moons of the giant planets have been discovered recently. In parallel, satellites of several asteroids, e.g., Ida, have been found. Strikingly, a majority of these new-found planetary moons are estimated to have very low densities, which, along with their hypothesized accretionary origins, suggests a rubble internal structure. This, coupled to the fact that many asteroids are also thought to be particle aggregates held together principally by self-gravity, motivates the present investigation into the possible ellipsoidal shapes that a rubble-pile satellite may achieve as it orbits an aspherical primary. Conversely, knowledge of the shape will constrain the granular aggregate's orbit—the closer it gets to a primary, both primary's tidal effect and the satellite's spin are greater. We will assume that the primary body is sufficiently massive so as not to be influenced by the satellite. However, we will incorporate the primary's possible ellipsoidal shape, e.g., flattening at its poles in the case of a planet, and the proloidal shape of asteroids. In this, the present investigation is an extension of the first classical Darwin problem to granular aggregates. General equations defining an ellipsoidal rubble pile's equilibrium about an ellipsoidal primary are developed. They are then utilized to scrutinize the possible granular nature of small inner moons of the giant planets. It is found that most satellites satisfy constraints necessary to exist as equilibrated granular aggregates. Objects like Naiad, Metis and Adrastea appear to violate these limits, but in doing so, provide clues to their internal density and/or structure. We also recover the Roche limit for a granular satellite of a spherical primary, and employ it to study the martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos, as well as to make contact with earlier work of Davidsson [Davidsson, B., 2001. Icarus 149, 375-383]. The satellite's interior will be modeled as a rigid-plastic, cohesion-less material

  16. Fabrication of an 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror for a synchrotron x-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Takacs, P.Z.; Hastings, J.B.; Casstevens, J.M.; Pionke, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of an 8:1 demagnifying ellipsoidal mirror to be used for an x-ray microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 beam port is described. The design aim was to produce a mirror that could be used over the photon energy range from about 3 to 17 keV. The 300-mm long mirror was required to operate at a grazing angle of 5 mr. The semimajor axis was 4500 mm and the semiminor axis 14.142 mm. Surface roughness of 1 nm or less and slope errors of 1 arc second parallel to the long axis and 200 arc seconds parallel to the short direction were specified. Production of the first electroless nickel-coated aluminum mirror using a diamond-turning technique has been completed. The mirror meets the 1 arc sec surface figure specification except for areas near the ends of the mirror. The reasons for these deviations arise from subtle details of the diamond-turning process which have not been fully incorporated in to the computer program that controls the diamond-turning machines. Further work in computer correction of repeatable errors of the diamond-turning machine can eliminate the waviness at the ends of the mirror. The diamond-turned mirror surface was not fully polished under this effort and therefore does not meet the roughness specification; however, surface smoothness of a fully polished cylindrical mirror manufactured using the same techniques does not meet the specification. It can be concluded that it is now technically feasible to meet the required specifications for the mirror and that the x-ray microprobe based on its use can be achieved

  17. KIC 7599132: an ellipsoidal variable in a close SB1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A.; Giarrusso, M.; Ripepi, V.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the suspected ellipsoidal variable star KIC 7599132. New spectroscopic observations have been obtained with Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS). From the fit of Hα and Hβ we determined the effective temperature and gravity of the primary component, Teff = 10200 ± 150 K and log g = 4.1 ± 0.1, while from a number of metal lines we derive the rotational velocity, vesin i = 60 ± 2 km s-1. We found almost solar abundances with the exception of silicon (0.50 dex) overabundance. A Bayesian analysis, based on the comparison between observational data and theoretical predictions of PROSECCO evolutionary models, allows us to estimate the mass and the age of the primary. We obtained M1 = 2.4 ± 0.2 M⊙ and τs = 3.8 _{-0.7}^{+0.9} Myr. A new model for the system was obtained combining Kepler photometric time-series (Q0-Q17) and our radial velocities by using the code PHOEBE. As a result, the system appears to be a detached binary system with a mass ratio q = 0.30 ± 0.01, a semi-major axis a = 7.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and an inclination angle i = 35° ± 2°. This modelling allowed us to derive: M2 = 0.7 ± 0.1 M⊙, R1 = 3.0 ± 0.2 R⊙ and R2 = 1.5 ± 0.2 R⊙. Numerical simulations show that if the secondary star had been hotter than 4000 K we would have observed its spectral features in our spectra.

  18. Off-diagonal deformations of Kerr metrics and black ellipsoids in heterotic supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I. [Quantum Gravity Research, Topanga, CA (United States); University ' ' Al. I. Cuza' ' , Project IDEI, Iasi (Romania); Irwin, Klee [Quantum Gravity Research, Topanga, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Geometric methods for constructing exact solutions of equations of motion with first order α{sup '} corrections to the heterotic supergravity action implying a nontrivial Yang-Mills sector and six-dimensional, 6-d, almost-Kaehler internal spaces are studied. In 10-d spacetimes, general parametrizations for generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections, and matter sources, when the equations of motion decouple in very general forms are considered. This allows us to construct a variety of exact solutions when the coefficients of fundamental geometric/physical objects depend on all higher-dimensional spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generating and integration functions, generalized effective sources and integration constants. Such generalized solutions are determined by generic off-diagonal metrics and nonlinear and/or linear connections; in particular, as configurations which are warped/compactified to lower dimensions and for Levi-Civita connections. The corresponding metrics can have (non-) Killing and/or Lie algebra symmetries and/or describe (1+2)-d and/or (1+3)-d domain wall configurations, with possible warping nearly almost-Kaehler manifolds, with gravitational and gauge instantons for nonlinear vacuum configurations and effective polarizations of cosmological and interaction constants encoding string gravity effects. A series of examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal supergravity modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed. We prove that it is possible to reproduce the Kerr and other type black solutions in general relativity (with certain types of string corrections) in the 4-d case and to generalize the solutions to non-vacuum configurations in (super-) gravity/string theories. (orig.)

  19. Off-diagonal deformations of Kerr metrics and black ellipsoids in heterotic supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Irwin, Klee

    2017-01-01

    Geometric methods for constructing exact solutions of equations of motion with first order α ' corrections to the heterotic supergravity action implying a nontrivial Yang-Mills sector and six-dimensional, 6-d, almost-Kaehler internal spaces are studied. In 10-d spacetimes, general parametrizations for generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections, and matter sources, when the equations of motion decouple in very general forms are considered. This allows us to construct a variety of exact solutions when the coefficients of fundamental geometric/physical objects depend on all higher-dimensional spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generating and integration functions, generalized effective sources and integration constants. Such generalized solutions are determined by generic off-diagonal metrics and nonlinear and/or linear connections; in particular, as configurations which are warped/compactified to lower dimensions and for Levi-Civita connections. The corresponding metrics can have (non-) Killing and/or Lie algebra symmetries and/or describe (1+2)-d and/or (1+3)-d domain wall configurations, with possible warping nearly almost-Kaehler manifolds, with gravitational and gauge instantons for nonlinear vacuum configurations and effective polarizations of cosmological and interaction constants encoding string gravity effects. A series of examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal supergravity modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed. We prove that it is possible to reproduce the Kerr and other type black solutions in general relativity (with certain types of string corrections) in the 4-d case and to generalize the solutions to non-vacuum configurations in (super-) gravity/string theories. (orig.)

  20. KIC 7599132: an ellipsoidal variable in a close SB1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A.; Giarrusso, M.; Ripepi, V.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the suspected ellipsoidal variable star KIC 7599132. New spectroscopic observations have been obtained with Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter. From the fit of Hα and Hβ, we determined the effective temperature and gravity of the primary component, Teff = 10200 ± 150 K and log g = 4.1 ± 0.1, while from a number of metal lines, we derive the rotational velocity, v esin i = 60 ± 2 km s-1. We found almost solar abundances with the exception of silicon (0.50 dex) overabundance. A Bayesian analysis, based on the comparison between observational data and theoretical predictions of PROSECCO evolutionary models, allows us to estimate the mass and the age of the primary. We obtained M1 = 2.4 ± 0.2 M⊙ and τs = 3.8 _{-0.7}^{+0.9} Myr. A new model for the system was obtained combining Kepler photometric time series (Q0-Q17) and our radial velocities by using the code PHOEBE. As a result, the system appears to be a detached binary system with a mass ratio q = 0.30 ± 0.01, a semimajor axis a = 7.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and an inclination angle i = 35° ± 2°. This modelling allowed us to derive: M2 = 0.7 ± 0.1 M⊙, R1 = 3.0 ± 0.2 R⊙, and R2 = 1.5 ± 0.2 R⊙. Numerical simulations show that if the secondary star had been hotter than 4000 K, we would have observed its spectral features in our spectra.

  1. Simulation with Python on transverse modes of the symmetric confocal resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Qi, Jing; Ji, Yun Jing; Song, Yang; Li, Zhenhua

    2017-08-01

    Python is a popular open-source programming language that can be used to simulate various optical phenomena. We have developed a suite of programs to help teach the course of laser principle. The complicated transverse modes of the symmetric confocal resonator can be visualized in personal computers, which is significant to help the students understand the pattern distribution of laser resonator.

  2. Initial boundary-value problem for the spherically symmetric Einstein equations with fluids with tangential pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Irene; Mena, Filipe C

    2017-08-01

    We prove that, for a given spherically symmetric fluid distribution with tangential pressure on an initial space-like hypersurface with a time-like boundary, there exists a unique, local in time solution to the Einstein equations in a neighbourhood of the boundary. As an application, we consider a particular elastic fluid interior matched to a vacuum exterior.

  3. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the symmetric two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an exact method for solving the symmetric two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem, a transportation problem concerned with the distribution of goods from a depot to a set of customers through a set of satellite locations. The presented method is based on an edge flow...

  4. Representations of the infinite symmetric group

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.

  5. Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....

  6. Symmetric configurations highlighted by collective quantum coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obster, Dennis [Radboud University, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sasakura, Naoki [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Recent developments in quantum gravity have shown the Lorentzian treatment to be a fruitful approach towards the emergence of macroscopic space-times. In this paper, we discuss another related aspect of the Lorentzian treatment: we argue that collective quantum coherence may provide a simple mechanism for highlighting symmetric configurations over generic non-symmetric ones. After presenting the general framework of the mechanism, we show the phenomenon in some concrete simple examples in the randomly connected tensor network, which is tightly related to a certain model of quantum gravity, i.e., the canonical tensor model. We find large peaks at configurations invariant under Lie-group symmetries as well as a preference for charge quantization, even in the Abelian case. In future study, this simple mechanism may provide a way to analyze the emergence of macroscopic space-times with global symmetries as well as various other symmetries existing in nature, which are usually postulated. (orig.)

  7. Overlap-free symmetric D 0 Lwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frid

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A D0L word on an alphabet Σ={0,1,…,q-1} is called symmetric if it is a fixed point w=φ(w of a morphism φ:Σ * → Σ * defined by φ(i= t 1 + i t 2 + i … t m + i for some word t 1 t 2 … t m (equal to φ(0 and every i ∈ Σ; here a means a mod q. We prove a result conjectured by J. Shallit: if all the symbols in φ(0 are distinct (i.e., if t i ≠ t j for i ≠ j, then the symmetric D0L word w is overlap-free, i.e., contains no factor of the form axaxa for any x ∈ Σ * and a ∈ Σ.

  8. Young—Capelli symmetrizers in superalgebras†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Andrea; Teolis, Antonio G. B.

    1989-01-01

    Let Supern[U [unk] V] be the nth homogeneous subspace of the supersymmetric algebra of U [unk] V, where U and V are Z2-graded vector spaces over a field K of characteristic zero. The actions of the general linear Lie superalgebras pl(U) and pl(V) span two finite-dimensional K-subalgebras B and [unk] of EndK(Supern[U [unk] V]) that are the centralizers of each other. Young—Capelli symmetrizers and Young—Capelli *-symmetrizers give rise to K-linear bases of B and [unk] containing orthogonal systems of idempotents; thus they yield complete decompositions of B and [unk] into minimal left and right ideals, respectively. PMID:16594014

  9. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  10. Commutative curvature operators over four-dimensional generalized symmetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haji-Badali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Commutative properties of four-dimensional generalized symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds were considered. Specially, in this paper, we studied Skew-Tsankov and Jacobi-Tsankov conditions in 4-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian generalized symmetric manifolds.

  11. Absorbed dose calculation from beta and gamma rays of 131I in ellipsoidal thyroid and other organs of neck with MCNPX code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 131I radioisotope is used for diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. In optimized Iodine therapy, a specific dose must be reached to the thyroid gland with minimum radiation to the cervical spine, cervical vertebrae, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat and skin. Dose measurement inside the alive organ is difficult therefore the aim of this research was dose calculation in the organs by MCNPX code. Materials and Methods: First of all, the input file for MCNPX code has been prepared to calculate F6 and F8 tallies for ellipsoidal thyroid lobes with long axes is tow times of short axes which the 131I is distributed uniformly inside the lobes. Then the code has been run for F6 and F8 tallies for variation of lobe volume from 1 to 25 milliliters. From the output file of tally F6, the gamma absorbed dose in ellipsoidal thyroid, spinal neck, neck bone, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat layer and skin for the volume lobe variation from 1 ml to 25 ml have been derived and the graphs are drew. As well as, form the output of F8 tally the absorbed energy of beta in thyroid and soft tissue of neck is obtained and listed in the table and then absorbed dose of bate has been calculated. Results: The results of this research show that for constant activity in thyroid, the absorbed dose of gamma decreases about 88.3% in thyroid, 6.9% at soft tissue, 19.3% in adipose layer and 17.4% in skin, but it increases 32.1% in spinal of neck and 32.3% in neck bone when the lobe volume varied from 1 to 25 milliliters. For the same situation, the beta absorbed dose decreases 95.9% in thyroid and 64.2% in soft tissue. Conclusion: For the constant activity in thyroid by increasing the thyroid volume, absorbed dose of gamma in thyroid and soft tissue of neck, adipose layer under the skin and skin of neck decreased, but it increased at spinal of neck and neck bone. Also, by increasing of the lobe volume in constant activity, the beta absorbed dose

  12. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  13. A symmetric Roos bound for linear codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, I.M.; Pellikaan, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    The van Lint–Wilson AB-method yields a short proof of the Roos bound for the minimum distance of a cyclic code. We use the AB-method to obtain a different bound for the weights of a linear code. In contrast to the Roos bound, the role of the codes A and B in our bound is symmetric. We use the bound

  14. Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.

  15. Resistor Networks based on Symmetrical Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Moody

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a method developed by Van Steenwijk can be generalized to calculate the resistance between any two vertices of a symmetrical polytope all of whose edges are identical resistors. The method is applied to a number of cases that have not been studied earlier such as the Archimedean polyhedra and their duals in three dimensions, the regular polytopes in four dimensions and the hypercube in any number of dimensions.

  16. Symmetric vs. asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Yu, Gaoneng

    2012-01-01

    In major legal orders such as UK, the U.S., Germany, and France, bribers and recipients face equally severe criminal sanctions. In contrast, countries like China, Russia, and Japan treat the briber more mildly. Given these differences between symmetric and asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery, one may wonder which punishment strategy is more effective in curbing corruption. For this purpose, we designed and ran a lab experiment in Bonn (Germany) and Shanghai (China) with exactly the same...

  17. Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.

  18. Is the Universe matter-antimatter symmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-09-01

    According to the symmetric cosmology there should be antimatter regions in space which are equally as large as the matter regions. The regions of different kind are separated by Leidenfrost layers, which may be very thin and not observable from a distance. This view has met resistance which in part is based on the old view that the dilute interstellar and intergalactic medium is more or less homogeneous. However, through space research in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space we know that thin layers, dividing space into regions of different magnetisation, exist and based on this it is concluded that space in general has a cellular structure. This result may break down the psychological resistance to the symmetric theory. The possibility that every second star in our galaxy consists of antimatter is discussed, and it is shown that this view is not in conflict with any observations. As most stars are likely to be surrounded by solar systems of a structure like our own, it is concluded that collisions between comets and antistars (or anticomets and stars) would be rather frequent. Such collisions would result in phenomena of the same type as the observed cosmic γ-ray bursts. Another support for the symmetric cosmology is the continuous X-ray background radiation. Also many of the observed large energy releases in cosmos are likely to be due to annihilation

  19. Sirius-T, a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sawan, M.E.; Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Engelstad, R.L.; Larsen, E.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Peterson, R.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A scoping study of a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility utilizing a KrF laser is presented. A single shell ICF target is illuminated by 92 beams symmetrically distributed around a spherical cavity filled with xenon gas at 1.0 torr. The driver energy and target gain are taken to be 2 MJ and 50 for the optimistic case and 1 MJ and 100 for the conservative case. Based on a graphite dry wall evaporation rate of 0.1 cm/y for a 100 MJ yield, the authors estimate a cavity radius of 3.5 m for a rep-rate of 10 Hz and 3.0 m for 5 Hz. A spherical structural frame has been scoped out capable of supporting 92 blanket modules, each with a beam port in the center. They have selected liquid lithium in vanadium structure as the primary breeding concept utilizing beryllium as a neutron multiplier. A tritium breeding ratio of 1.83 can be achieved in the 3 m radius cavity which at 10 Hz and an availability of 75% provides an annual tritium surplus of 32.6 kg. Assuming 100% debt financing over a 30 year reactor lifetime, the production cost of T 2 for the 2 MJ driver case is $7,325/g for a 5% interest rate and $12,370/g for a 10% interest rate. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Markov Jump Processes Approximating a Non-Symmetric Generalized Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limić, Nedžad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a non-symmetric generalized diffusion X(⋅) in ℝ d determined by the differential operator A(x) = -Σ ij ∂ i a ij (x)∂ j + Σ i b i (x)∂ i . In this paper the diffusion process is approximated by Markov jump processes X n (⋅), in homogeneous and isotropic grids G n ⊂ℝ d , which converge in distribution in the Skorokhod space D([0,∞),ℝ d ) to the diffusion X(⋅). The generators of X n (⋅) are constructed explicitly. Due to the homogeneity and isotropy of grids, the proposed method for d≥3 can be applied to processes for which the diffusion tensor {a ij (x)} 11 dd fulfills an additional condition. The proposed construction offers a simple method for simulation of sample paths of non-symmetric generalized diffusion. Simulations are carried out in terms of jump processes X n (⋅). For piece-wise constant functions a ij on ℝ d and piece-wise continuous functions a ij on ℝ 2 the construction and principal algorithm are described enabling an easy implementation into a computer code.

  1. Gout on CT of the feet: A symmetric arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Anthony J.; Boyer, Lucinda; Dong, Jing; Dalbeth, Nicola; McQueen, Fiona; Rome, Keith; Frecklington, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of bone erosions in the feet of patients with gout using CT and thereby to test the hypothesis that gout is an asymmetric arthropathy. CT scans of both feet were obtained from 25 patients with chronic gout. CT scans were scored for bone erosion using a semi-quantitative method based on the rheumatoid arthritis MRI scoring system (RAMRIS). CT bone erosion was assessed at 22 bones in each foot (total 1,100 bones) by two independent radiologists. Symmetry was assessed by two methods: (i) comparing right and left foot scores for each patient; and (ii) calculating the proportion of paired joints with or without erosions. Observer agreement was excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.92). In the group overall, the difference in scores between the feet was not significant (Student's t-test P = 0.8). In 17 of 25 patients, the difference in erosion scores between the two feet was less than the inter-observer difference. In 24 of 25 patients, the proportion of paired joints was greater than 0.5, indicating symmetric disease. Erosive disease from gout is, in fact, a symmetric process in our patient group. This finding is contrary to the established view of gout as an asymmetric arthritis and lends new insight into the behaviour of this common disease.

  2. Distributed Knowledge Management in Extranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kühn; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge management exchange schemes based on symmetric incentives are rarely found in the literature. The distributed knowledge model relies upon a double loop knowledge conversion decision support system with symmetric incentives in an extranet. The model merges specific knowledge with knowledge...... chains and networks like replacement, maintenance and services industries....

  3. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies.

  4. Symmetric co-movement between Malaysia and Japan stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2017-04-01

    The copula approach is a flexible tool known to capture linear, nonlinear, symmetric and asymmetric dependence between two or more random variables. It is often used as a co-movement measure between stock market returns. The information obtained from copulas such as the level of association of financial market during normal and bullish and bearish markets phases are useful for investment strategies and risk management. However, the study of co-movement between Malaysia and Japan markets are limited, especially using copulas. Hence, we aim to investigate the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan capital markets for the period spanning from 2000 to 2012. In this study, we showed that the bivariate normal distribution is not suitable as the bivariate distribution or to present the dependence between Malaysia and Japan markets. Instead, Gaussian or normal copula was found a good fit to represent the dependence. From our findings, it can be concluded that simple distribution fitting such as bivariate normal distribution does not suit financial time series data, whose characteristics are often leptokurtic. The nature of the data is treated by ARMA-GARCH with heavy tail distributions and these can be associated with copula functions. Regarding the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan markets, the findings suggest that both markets co-move concurrently during normal periods.

  5. Quantum evolutionary stable strategies of 2-player, 2-strategy symmetric games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.W.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum evolutionary stable strategies (ESSs) of games are considered as stable solutions to population games on molecular level. The distributive diagram of 2-player, 2-strategy (2 x 2) symmetric games is brought out to get a convenient way of looking for their quantum ESSs. It is found that transpositions, related to the parameters in classical payoff and those of initial quantum states, may occur when games are quantized. Conditions for transpositions are given in two tables. One can easily find quantum ESSs of a 2 x 2 symmetric game according to its transposition. This paper also draws an overall outline of NEs and ESSs of this kind of game.

  6. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  7. Effects of translation-rotation coupling on the displacement probability distribution functions of boomerang colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Ayan; Wang, Feng; Sun, Kai; Wei, Qi-Huo

    Prior studies have shown that low symmetry particles such as micro-boomerangs exhibit behaviour of Brownian motion rather different from that of high symmetry particles because convenient tracking points (TPs) are usually inconsistent with the center of hydrodynamic stress (CoH) where the translational and rotational motions are decoupled. In this paper we study the effects of the translation-rotation coupling on the displacement probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the boomerang colloid particles with symmetric arms. By tracking the motions of different points on the particle symmetry axis, we show that as the distance between the TP and the CoH is increased, the effects of translation-rotation coupling becomes pronounced, making the short-time 2D PDF for fixed initial orientation to change from elliptical to crescent shape and the angle averaged PDFs from ellipsoidal-particle-like PDF to a shape with a Gaussian top and long displacement tails. We also observed that at long times the PDFs revert to Gaussian. This crescent shape of 2D PDF provides a clear physical picture of the non-zero mean displacements observed in boomerangs particles.

  8. Cylinder Symmetric Measures with the Tail Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A Pareto distribution has the property that any tail of the distribution has the same shape as the original distribution. The exponential distribution and the uniform distribution have the tail property too. The tail property characterizes the univariate generalized Pareto distributions.

  9. Dual formulation of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric action of kappa-symmetric D3-brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet

    2018-02-01

    We study the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation. Essentially, the construction is the PST-covariantisation and nonlinearisation of Zwanziger action. The covariantisation made use of three auxiliary scalar fields. Apart from these, the construction proceed in a similar way to that of the standard formulation. For example, the theories can be extended to include interactions with external fields, and that the theories possess two local PST symmetries. We then explicitly demonstrate the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation of DBI theory, and D3-brane. For each of these theories, the twisted selfduality condition obtained from duality-symmetric actions are explicitly shown to match with the duality relation between field strength and its dual from the one-potential actions. Their on-shell actions between the duality-symmetric and the one-potential versions are also shown to match. We also explicitly prove kappa-symmetry of the covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric D3-brane action in dual formulation.

  10. An experimental study of symmetric and asymmetric peak-fitting parameters for alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Caceres Marzal, D.; Bland, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    A pulse-height spectrum of alpha-particle emissions at discrete energies can be fitted by the peak-shape functions generated by combining asymmetric truncated exponential functions with a symmetric Gaussian distribution. These functions have been applied successfully by several workers. A correlation was previously found between the variance of the symmetric Gaussian portion of the fitting function, and the parameter characterising the principal exponential tailing function. The results of a more detailed experimental study are reported, which involve varying the angle and the distance between the source and the detector. This analysis shows that the parameters of the symmetric and asymmetric parts of the fitted functions seem to depend on either the detector or the source. These parameters are influenced by the energy loss suffered by the alpha-particles as well as by the efficiency of charge collection in the solid-state detector. (orig.)

  11. A differential equation for Lerch's transcendent and associated symmetric operators in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplitskii, V M

    2014-01-01

    The function Ψ(x,y,s)=e iy Φ(−e iy ,s,x), where Φ(z,s,v) is Lerch's transcendent, satisfies the following two-dimensional formally self-adjoint second-order hyperbolic differential equation, where s=1/2+iλ. The corresponding differential expression determines a densely defined symmetric operator (the minimal operator) on the Hilbert space L 2 (Π), where Π=(0,1)×(0,2π). We obtain a description of the domains of definition of some symmetric extensions of the minimal operator. We show that formal solutions of the eigenvalue problem for these symmetric extensions are represented by functional series whose structure resembles that of the Fourier series of Ψ(x,y,s). We discuss sufficient conditions for these formal solutions to be eigenfunctions of the resulting symmetric differential operators. We also demonstrate a close relationship between the spectral properties of these symmetric differential operators and the distribution of the zeros of some special analytic functions analogous to the Riemann zeta function. Bibliography: 15 titles

  12. Ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection in PT-symmetric Thue-Morse optical waveguide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaye; Yang, Xiangbo

    2017-10-30

    In this paper, we construct a 1D PT-symmetric Thue-Morse aperiodic optical waveguide network (PTSTMAOWN) and mainly investigate the ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection. We propose an approach to study the photonic modes and solve the problem of calculating photonic modes distributions in aperiodic networks due to the lack of dispersion functions and find that in a PTSTMAOWN there exist more photonic modes and more spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking points, which are quite different from other reported PT-symmetric optical systems. Additionally, we develop a method to sort spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking point zones to seek the strongest extraordinary point and obtain that at this point the strongest extraordinary transmission and reflection arrive at 2.96316 × 10 5 and 1.32761 × 10 5 , respectively, due to the PT-symmetric coupling resonance and the special symmetry pattern of TM networks. These enormous gains are several orders of magnitude larger than the previous results. This optical system may possess potential in designing optical amplifier, optical logic elements in photon computers and ultrasensitive optical switches with ultrahigh monochromatity.

  13. In silico Interrogation of Insect Central Complex Suggests Computational Roles for the Ellipsoid Body in Spatial Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo G. Fiore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The central complex in the insect brain is a composite of midline neuropils involved in processing sensory cues and mediating behavioral outputs to orchestrate spatial navigation. Despite recent advances, however, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory integration and motor action selections have remained largely elusive. In particular, it is not yet understood how the central complex exploits sensory inputs to realize motor functions associated with spatial navigation. Here we report an in silico interrogation of central complex-mediated spatial navigation with a special emphasis on the ellipsoid body. Based on known connectivity and function, we developed a computational model to test how the local connectome of the central complex can mediate sensorimotor integration to guide different forms of behavioral outputs. Our simulations show integration of multiple sensory sources can be effectively performed in the ellipsoid body. This processed information is used to trigger continuous sequences of action selections resulting in self-motion, obstacle avoidance and the navigation of simulated environments of varying complexity. The motor responses to perceived sensory stimuli can be stored in the neural structure of the central complex to simulate navigation relying on a collective of guidance cues, akin to sensory-driven innate or habitual behaviors. By comparing behaviors under different conditions of accessible sources of input information, we show the simulated insect computes visual inputs and body posture to estimate its position in space. Finally, we tested whether the local connectome of the central complex might also allow the flexibility required to recall an intentional behavioral sequence, among different courses of actions. Our simulations suggest that the central complex can encode combined representations of motor and spatial information to pursue a goal and thus successfully guide orientation behavior. Together, the observed

  14. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  15. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  16. In silico Interrogation of Insect Central Complex Suggests Computational Roles for the Ellipsoid Body in Spatial Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Vincenzo G; Kottler, Benjamin; Gu, Xiaosi; Hirth, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The central complex in the insect brain is a composite of midline neuropils involved in processing sensory cues and mediating behavioral outputs to orchestrate spatial navigation. Despite recent advances, however, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory integration and motor action selections have remained largely elusive. In particular, it is not yet understood how the central complex exploits sensory inputs to realize motor functions associated with spatial navigation. Here we report an in silico interrogation of central complex-mediated spatial navigation with a special emphasis on the ellipsoid body. Based on known connectivity and function, we developed a computational model to test how the local connectome of the central complex can mediate sensorimotor integration to guide different forms of behavioral outputs. Our simulations show integration of multiple sensory sources can be effectively performed in the ellipsoid body. This processed information is used to trigger continuous sequences of action selections resulting in self-motion, obstacle avoidance and the navigation of simulated environments of varying complexity. The motor responses to perceived sensory stimuli can be stored in the neural structure of the central complex to simulate navigation relying on a collective of guidance cues, akin to sensory-driven innate or habitual behaviors. By comparing behaviors under different conditions of accessible sources of input information, we show the simulated insect computes visual inputs and body posture to estimate its position in space. Finally, we tested whether the local connectome of the central complex might also allow the flexibility required to recall an intentional behavioral sequence, among different courses of actions. Our simulations suggest that the central complex can encode combined representations of motor and spatial information to pursue a goal and thus successfully guide orientation behavior. Together, the observed computational features

  17. Symmetric and Asymmetric Tendencies in Stable Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James P L

    2016-08-22

    A commonly used approach to study stability in a complex system is by analyzing the Jacobian matrix at an equilibrium point of a dynamical system. The equilibrium point is stable if all eigenvalues have negative real parts. Here, by obtaining eigenvalue bounds of the Jacobian, we show that stable complex systems will favor mutualistic and competitive relationships that are asymmetrical (non-reciprocative) and trophic relationships that are symmetrical (reciprocative). Additionally, we define a measure called the interdependence diversity that quantifies how distributed the dependencies are between the dynamical variables in the system. We find that increasing interdependence diversity has a destabilizing effect on the equilibrium point, and the effect is greater for trophic relationships than for mutualistic and competitive relationships. These predictions are consistent with empirical observations in ecology. More importantly, our findings suggest stabilization algorithms that can apply very generally to a variety of complex systems.

  18. System of end-to-end symmetric database encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushka, V. V.; Aydinyan, A. R.; Tsvetkova, O. L.; Fathi, V. A.; Fathi, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem of protecting databases from information leakage, which is performed while bypassing access control mechanisms. To solve this problem, it is proposed to use end-to-end data encryption, implemented at the end nodes of an interaction of the information system components using one of the symmetric cryptographic algorithms. For this purpose, a key management method designed for use in a multi-user system based on the distributed key representation model, part of which is stored in the database, and the other part is obtained by converting the user's password, has been developed and described. In this case, the key is calculated immediately before the cryptographic transformations and is not stored in the memory after the completion of these transformations. Algorithms for registering and authorizing a user, as well as changing his password, have been described, and the methods for calculating parts of a key when performing these operations have been provided.

  19. A MIT-Based Nonlinear Adaptive Set-Membership Filter for the Ellipsoidal Estimation of Mobile Robots' States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Song

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive extended set-membership filter (AESMF for nonlinear ellipsoidal estimation suffers a mismatch between real process noise and its set boundaries, which may result in unstable estimation. In this paper, a MIT method-based adaptive set-membership filter, for the optimization of the set boundaries of process noise, is developed and applied to the nonlinear joint estimation of both time-varying states and parameters. As a result of using the proposed MIT-AESMF, the estimation effectiveness and boundary accuracy of traditional AESMF are substantially improved. Simulation results have shown the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  20. An elementary treatise on Fourier's series and spherical, cylindrical, and ellipsoidal harmonics, with applications to problems in mathematical

    CERN Document Server

    Byerly, William Elwood

    2003-01-01

    Originally published over a century ago, this work remains among the most useful and practical expositions of Fourier's series, and spherical, cylindrical, and ellipsoidal harmonics. The subsequent growth of science into a diverse range of specialties has enhanced the value of this classic, whose thorough, basic treatment presents material that is assumed in many other studies but seldom available in such concise form. The development of functions, series, and their differential equations receives detailed explanations, and throughout the text, theory is applied to practical problems, with the

  1. Dijet rates with symmetric Et cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Andrea; Dasgupta, Mrinal

    2004-01-01

    We consider dijet production in the region where symmetric cuts on the transverse energy, E t , are applied to the jets. In this region next-to-leading order calculations are unreliable and an all-order resummation of soft gluon effects is needed, which we carry out. Although, for illustrative purposes, we choose dijets produced in deep inelastic scattering, our general ideas apply additionally to dijets produced in photoproduction or gamma-gamma processes and should be relevant also to the study of prompt di-photon E t spectra in association with a recoiling jet, in hadron-hadron processes. (author)

  2. Covariant, chirally symmetric, confining model of mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Milana, J.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce a new model of mesons as quark-antiquark bound states. The model is covariant, confining, and chirally symmetric. Our equations give an analytic solution for a zero-mass pseudoscalar bound state in the case of exact chiral symmetry, and also reduce to the familiar, highly successful nonrelativistic linear potential models in the limit of heavy-quark mass and lightly bound systems. In this fashion we are constructing a unified description of all the mesons from the π through the Υ. Numerical solutions for other cases are also presented

  3. Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Benschop, N. F.

    2001-01-01

    Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...

  4. Elastic energy for reflection-symmetric topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, A; Robbins, J M; Zyskin, M

    2006-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals in a polyhedral domain, a prototype for bistable displays, may be described by a unit-vector field subject to tangent boundary conditions. Here we consider the case of a rectangular prism. For configurations with reflection-symmetric topologies, we derive a new lower bound for the one-constant elastic energy. For certain topologies, called conformal and anticonformal, the lower bound agrees with a previous result. For the remaining topologies, called nonconformal, the new bound is an improvement. For nonconformal topologies we derive an upper bound, which differs from the lower bound by a factor depending only on the aspect ratios of the prism

  5. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  6. Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 796 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 18th... International Workshop on Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems, 5 - 8 July 2016, Bucharest, Romania Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata Laurette Marais1,2 and Lynette van Zijl1(B) 1 Department of Computer Science, Stellenbosch...

  7. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M.R.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A 137 Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented

  8. How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    We develop the case for symmetrical assumptions in strategic management theory. Assumptional symmetry obtains when assumptions made about certain actors and their interactions in one of the application domains of a theory are also made about this set of actors and their interactions in other...... application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...

  9. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ln@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mrd@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajb@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)

    2007-04-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A {sup 137}Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.

  10. Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca

    2018-03-01

    We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.

  11. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)

  12. Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-04-01

    The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation.

  13. Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-04-01

    The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation

  14. Geometrodynamics of spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Taves, Tim; Maeda, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    We derive the Hamiltonian for spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity using the geometrodynamics approach pioneered by Kuchar (1994 Phys. Rev. D 50 3961) in the context of four-dimensional general relativity. When written in terms of the areal radius, the generalized Misner-Sharp mass and their conjugate momenta, the generic Lovelock action and Hamiltonian take on precisely the same simple forms as in general relativity. This result supports the interpretation of Lovelock gravity as the natural higher dimensional extension of general relativity. It also provides an important first step towards the study of the quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian thermodynamics and formation of generic Lovelock black holes. (fast track communication)

  15. Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.

  16. An exact solution for orbit view-periods from a station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the concise exact solution for predicting view-periods to be observed from a masked or unmasked tracking station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal surface. The new exact approach expresses the azimuth and elevation angles of a spacecraft in terms of the station-centered geodetic topocentric coordinates in an elegantly concise manner. A simple and efficient algorithm is developed to avoid costly repetitive computations in searching for neighborhoods near the rise and set times of each satellite orbit for each station. Only one search for each orbit is necessary for each station. Sample results indicate that the use of an assumed spherical earth instead of an 'actual' tri-axial ellipsoidal earth could introduce an error up to a few minutes in a view-period prediction for circular orbits of low or medium altitude. For an elliptical orbit of high eccentricity and long period, the maximum error could be even larger. The analytic treatment and the efficient algorithm are designed for geocentric orbits, but they should be applicable to interplanetary trajectories by an appropriate coordinates transformation at each view-period calculation. This analysis can be accomplished only by not using the classical orbital elements.

  17. An exact solution for orbit view-periods from a station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents the concise exact solution for predicting view-periods to be observed from a masked or unmasked tracking station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal surface. The new exact approach expresses the azimuth and elevation angles of a spacecraft in terms of the station-centered geodetic topocentric coordinates in an elegantly concise manner. A simple and efficient algorithm is developed to avoid costly repetitive computations in searching for neighborhoods near the rise and set times of each satellite orbit for each station. Only one search for each orbit is necessary for each station. Sample results indicate that the use of an assumed spherical earth instead of an 'actual' tri-axial ellipsoidal earth could introduce an error up to a few minutes in a view-period prediction for circular orbits of low or medium altitude. For an elliptical orbit of high eccentricity and long period, the maximum error could be even larger. The analytic treatment and the efficient algorithm are designed for geocentric orbits, but they should be applicable to interplanetary trajectories by an appropriate coordinates transformation at each view-period calculation. This analysis can be accomplished only by not using the classical orbital elements.

  18. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Wavefront error measurement of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph on ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the alignment technique developed for the wavefront error measurement of ellipsoidal mirrors presenting a central hole. The achievement of a good alignment with a classic setup at the finite conjugates when mirrors are uncoated cannot be based on the identification and materialization at naked eye of the retro-reflected spot by the mirror under test as the intensity of the retro-reflected spot results to be ≈1E-3 of the intensity of the injected laser beam of the interferometer. We present the technique developed for the achievement of an accurate alignment in the setup at the finite conjugate even in condition of low intensity based on the use of an autocollimator adjustable in focus position and a small polished flat surface on the rear side of the mirror. The technique for the alignment has successfully been used for the optical test of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. The presented method results to be advantageous in terms of precision and of time saving also when the mirrors are reflective coated and integrated into their mechanical hardware.

  20. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  1. Study by the Prandtl-Glauert method of compressibility effects and critical Mach number for ellipsoids of various aspect ratios and thickness ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S

    1947-01-01

    By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.

  2. Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)

  3. A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, P G; Lloyd, J P

    2007-04-13

    We report regular and symmetric structure around dust-enshrouded Be star MWC 922 obtained with infrared imaging. Biconical lobes that appear nearly square in aspect, forming this "Red Square" nebula, are crossed by a series of rungs that terminate in bright knots or "vortices," and an equatorial dark band crossing the core delimits twin hyperbolic arcs. The intricate yet cleanly constructed forms that comprise the skeleton of the object argue for minimal perturbation from global turbulent or chaotic effects. We also report the presence of a linear comb structure, which may arise from optically projected shadows of a periodic feature in the inner regions, such as corrugations in the rim of a circumstellar disk. The sequence of nested polar rings draws comparison with the triple-ring system seen around the only naked-eye supernova in recent history: SN1987A.

  4. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  5. Design and Analysis of Symmetric Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl

    . In the second part, we delve into the matter of the various aspects of designing a symmetric cryptographic primitive. We start by considering generalizations of the widely acclaimed Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher. In particular, our focus is on a component operation in the cipher which permutes...... analyze and implement modes recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as well as authenticated encryption modes from the CAESAR competition, when instantiated with the AES. The data processed in our benchmarking has sizes representative to that of typical Internet traffic...... linear cryptanalysis. We apply this model to the standardized block cipher PRESENT. Finally, we present very generic attacks on two authenticated encryption schemes, AVALANCHE and RBS, by pointing out severe design flaws that can be leveraged to fully recover the secret key with very low complexity...

  6. Quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, P.; Ku, L.

    1999-01-01

    Compact hybrid configurations with two field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This project has led us to the discovery of a family of quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods that have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit will be at least as high as 4% if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  8. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  9. Polyhomogeneous expansions from time symmetric initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperín, E.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We make use of Friedrich’s construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity to relate the logarithmic terms appearing in asymptotic expansions of components of the Weyl tensor to the freely specifiable parts of time symmetric initial data sets for the Einstein field equations. Our analysis is based on the assumption that a particular type of formal expansions near the cylinder at spatial infinity corresponds to the leading terms of actual solutions to the Einstein field equations. In particular, we show that if the Bach tensor of the initial conformal metric does not vanish at the point at infinity then the most singular component of the Weyl tensor decays near null infinity as O(\\tilde{r}-3\\ln \\tilde{r}) so that spacetime will not peel. We also provide necessary conditions on the initial data which should lead to a peeling spacetime. Finally, we show how to construct global spacetimes which are candidates for non-peeling (polyhomogeneous) asymptotics.

  10. From Symmetric Glycerol Derivatives to Dissymmetric Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Villorbina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated worldwide increase in biodiesel production will result in an accumulation of glycerol for which there are insufficient conventional uses. The surplus of this by-product has increased rapidly during the last decade, prompting a search for new glycerol applications. We describe here the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters from symmetric 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl esters obtained from glycerol. We studied the influence of two solvents: 1,4-dioxane and 1-butanol and two bases: sodium carbonate and 1-butylimidazole, on the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters. In addition, we studied the influence of other bases (potassium and lithium carbonates in the reaction using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent. The highest yield was obtained using 1,4-dioxane and sodium carbonate.

  11. Bidding behavior in a symmetric Chinese auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Benegas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purposes a symmetric all-pay auction where the bidders compete neither for an object nor the object itself but for a lottery on receive. That lottery is determined endogenously through the bids. This auction is known as chance auction or more popularly as Chinese auction. The model considers the possibility that for some bidders the optimal strategy is to bid zero and to rely on luck. It showed that bidders become less aggressive when the lottery satisfies a variational condition. It was also shown that luck factor is decisive to determine if the expected payoff in Chinese auction is bigger or smaller than expected payoff in standard all-pay auction.

  12. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  13. Cryptanalysis of Some Lightweight Symmetric Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed Awadelkareem Mohamed Ahmed

    In recent years, the need for lightweight encryption systems has been increasing as many applications use RFID and sensor networks which have a very low computational power and thus incapable of performing standard cryptographic operations. In response to this problem, the cryptographic community...... on a variant of PRESENT with identical round keys. We propose a new attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack that was specifically mounted against the lightweight block cipher PRINTcipher. Furthermore, we mount several attacks on a recently proposed stream cipher called A2U2....... of the international standards in lightweight cryptography. This thesis aims at analyzing and evaluating the security of some the recently proposed lightweight symmetric ciphers with a focus on PRESENT-like ciphers, namely, the block cipher PRESENT and the block cipher PRINTcipher. We provide an approach to estimate...

  14. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  15. Symmetric Topological Phases and Tensor Network States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shenghan

    Classification and simulation of quantum phases are one of main themes in condensed matter physics. Quantum phases can be distinguished by their symmetrical and topological properties. The interplay between symmetry and topology in condensed matter physics often leads to exotic quantum phases and rich phase diagrams. Famous examples include quantum Hall phases, spin liquids and topological insulators. In this thesis, I present our works toward a more systematically understanding of symmetric topological quantum phases in bosonic systems. In the absence of global symmetries, gapped quantum phases are characterized by topological orders. Topological orders in 2+1D are well studied, while a systematically understanding of topological orders in 3+1D is still lacking. By studying a family of exact solvable models, we find at least some topological orders in 3+1D can be distinguished by braiding phases of loop excitations. In the presence of both global symmetries and topological orders, the interplay between them leads to new phases termed as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We develop a framework to classify a large class of SET phases using tensor networks. For each tensor class, we can write down generic variational wavefunctions. We apply our method to study gapped spin liquids on the kagome lattice, which can be viewed as SET phases of on-site symmetries as well as lattice symmetries. In the absence of topological order, symmetry could protect different topological phases, which are often referred to as symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We present systematic constructions of tensor network wavefunctions for bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases respecting both onsite and spatial symmetries.

  16. The radiation chemistry of symmetric aliphatic polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanalbandi, A.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring, symmetric polyesters, including polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate, have found biomedical applications in areas as diverse as the controlled release of pharmaceuticals and the manufacture of surgical sutures. As biomedical products, the materials require sterilization by high energy radiation. This has provided the motivation for the present work. D'Alelio et al. have reported that linear, asymmetric polyesters undergo scission on irradiation, but that branched polyesters containing a methyl group in the diol segments undergo crosslinking. However, for the symmetric polyhydroxybutyrate, Carswell-Pomerantz et al. have reported that only scission occurs on radiolysis, with the evolution of CO and CO 2 as a result of the loss of ester linkages. These workers also found that G(CO + CO 2 ) was approximately equal to G(S) for this polyester. By contrast, Collett et al. have reported that G(S) = 1.26 and G(X) = 0.53 for polylactic acid, which indicates that the polymer undergoes nett crosslinking on radiolysis to form a gel. They have also reported that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) should form a gel on radiolysis, since G(S) = 1.66 and G(X) = 0.65 for a 1:1 copolymer composition. In the present work the radiolysis of polylactic acid and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been reinvestigated in order to resolve the differences between the work of Collett et al. and that of Carswell-Pomerantz et al. In these studies, ESR has been used to study the radicals formed, GPC has been used to investigate scission and crosslinking, GC has been used to study the small molecule volatile products and NMR spectroscopy has been used to identify and measure the new chemical structures formed in the polymers

  17. FFLP problem with symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshrad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most popular approach for solving fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP problems is to convert them into the corresponding deterministic linear programs. Khan et al. (2013 [Khan, I. U., Ahmad, T., & Maan, N. (2013. A simplified novel technique for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 159(2, 536-546.] claimed that there had been no method in the literature to find the fuzzy optimal solution of a FFLP problem without converting it into crisp linear programming problem, and proposed a technique for the same. Others showed that the fuzzy arithmetic operation used by Khan et al. (2013 had some problems in subtraction and division operations, which could lead to misleading results. Recently, Ezzati et al. (2014 [Ezzati, R., Khorram, E., & Enayati, R. (2014. A particular simplex algorithm to solve fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problems and their sensitivity analysis on the priority of the fuzzy objective functions. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 26(5, 2333-2358.] defined a new operation on symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and proposed a new algorithm to find directly a lexicographic/preemptive fuzzy optimal solution of a fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problem by using new fuzzy arithmetic operations, but their model was not fully fuzzy optimization. In this paper, a new method, by using Ezzati et al. (2014’s fuzzy arithmetic operation and a fuzzy version of simplex algorithm, is proposed for solving FFLP problem whose parameters are represented by symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy number without converting the given problem into crisp equivalent problem. By using the proposed method, the fuzzy optimal solution of FFLP problem can be easily obtained. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.

  18. Axially symmetric Lorentzian wormholes in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, F.

    1997-11-01

    The field equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity, being local, do not fix the global structure of space-time. They admit topologically non-trivial solutions, including spatially closed universes and the amazing possibility of shortcuts for travel between distant regions in space and time - so-called Lorentzian wormholes. The aim of this thesis is to (mathematically) construct space-times which contain traversal wormholes connecting arbitrary distant regions of an asymptotically flat or asymptotically de Sitter universe. Since the wormhole mouths appear as two separate masses in the exterior space, space-time can at best be axially symmetric. We eliminate the non-staticity caused by the gravitational attraction of the mouths by anchoring them by strings held at infinity or, alternatively, by electric repulsion. The space-times are obtained by surgically grafting together well-known solutions of Einstein's equations along timelike hypersurfaces. This surgery naturally concentrates a non-zero stress-energy tensor on the boundary between the two space-times which can be investigated by using the standard thin shell formalism. It turns out that, when using charged black holes, the provided constructions are possible without violation of any of the energy conditions. In general, observers living in the axially symmetric, asymptotically flat (respectively asymptotically de Sitter) region axe able to send causal signals through the topologically non-trivial region. However, the wormhole space-times contain closed timelike curves. Because of this explicit violation of global hyperbolicity these models do not serve as counterexamples to known topological censorship theorems. (author)

  19. Analysis of interlaminar stresses in symmetric and unsymmetric laminates under various loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, C. A.; Chan, W. S.

    1993-04-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional finite-element model is developed to investigate the interlaminar stresses in a composite laminate under combined loadings. An isoparametric quadrilateral element with eight nodes and three degrees of freedom per node is the finite element used in this study. The element is used to model a composite laminate cross section loaded by tension, torsion, transverse shear, and both beam and chord bending which are representative of loading in a helicopter rotor system. Symmetric and unsymmetric laminates are examined with comparisons made between the interlaminar stress distributions and magnitudes for each laminate. Unsymmetric results are compared favorably to limited results found in literature. The unsymmetric interlaminar normal stress distribution in a symmetric laminate containing a free edge delamination is also examined.

  20. Magnetospectroscopy of symmetric and anti-symmetric states in double quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Ploch, D.; Tomaka, G.; Furdak, M.; Kolek, A.; Stadler, A.; Mleczko, K.; Zak, D.; Strupinski, W.; Jasik, A.; Jakiela, R.

    2008-02-01

    The experimental results obtained for magnetotransport in the InGaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures of two different shapes of wells are reported. A beating effect occurring in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations was observed for both types of structures at low temperatures in the parallel transport when the magnetic field was perpendicular to the layers. An approach for the calculation of the Landau level energies for DQW structures was developed and then applied to the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data related to the beating effect. We also argue that in order to account for the observed magnetotransport phenomena (SdH and integer quantum Hall effect), one should introduce two different quasi-Fermi levels characterizing two electron subsystems regarding the symmetry properties of their states, symmetric and anti-symmetric ones, which are not mixed by electron-electron interaction.

  1. Expansions of Fermi and symmetrized Fermi integrals and applications in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grypeos, M.; Koutroulos, C.; Luk'yanov, V.; Shebeko, A.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study is undertaken, using various techniques, in deriving expansions of integrals containing the Fermi or the symmetrized Fermi distributions. The results are presented in a mathematically compact form and consist of generalizations and extensions of previously known expansions. The relevance of the results to quantities of interest in nuclear physics is recalled and particular attention is paid to the so-called exponentially small terms which may play an essential role in certain cases

  2. Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Com- putational investigation of entanglement of such ensembles is therefore impractical for ... the computational complexity. Pairs of spin-1 ... tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- ... that five of the eight, two-qubit symmetric quantum gates expressed in terms of our newly.

  3. SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique. Keywords. SUSY; moving boundary condition; exactly solvable; symmetric double well; NH3 molecule. PACS Nos 02.30.Ik; 03.50.

  4. A New Formulation for Symmetric Implicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we derive symmetric stable Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method for the Integration of General Second Order ODEs by using the collocation approach.The block hybrid method obtained by the evaluation of the continuous interpolant at different nodes of the polynomial is symmetric and suitable for stiff intial ...

  5. Crossing symmetric solution of the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An N/D dispersion theory is developed which solves crossing symmetric Low equations. The method is used to generate crossing symmetric solutions to the Chew-Low model. We show why the technique originally proposed by Chew and Low was incapable of producing solutions. (orig.)

  6. Sparse symmetric preconditioners for dense linear systems in electromagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Duff, Iain S.; Giraud, Luc; Monga Made, M. Magolu

    2004-01-01

    We consider symmetric preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of dense complex symmetric non-Hermitian systems arising in computational electromagnetics. In particular, we report on the numerical behaviour of the classical incomplete Cholesky factorization as well as some of its recent

  7. Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll

    2002-01-01

    The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations

  8. Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dilaton black hole solutions have attracted considerable attention for the ... theory and study the corresponding cylindrically symmetric spacetime, where .... where Йm and Йe are integration constants to be interpreted later as the ..... feature is apparent for the cylindrically symmetric spacetime in the presence of the dila-.

  9. Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces: support theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313872589

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and study some of their properties. In particular we obtain a generalization of Helgason's support theorem for the horospherical transform on a Riemannian symmetric space.

  10. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefficient matrix. The symmetric coefficient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.

  11. Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral Diimido-di-L-alanine Diesters and Chiral Phthaloyl-L-alanine Ester of Tripropoxy p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene and Study of Their Hosting Ability for Alanine and Na+. Bis-symmetrical tripropoxy p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene esters were ...

  12. FACES WITH LARGE DIAMETER ON THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIERKSMA, G; TIJSSEN, GA

    This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.

  13. An oblate ellipsoidal approach to update a high-resolution geopotential model over the oceans: Study case of EGM2008 and DTU10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš; Kostelecký, J.; Pešek, I.; Shum, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2016), s. 2-18 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth's gravitational field * oblate ellipsoidal harmonics * harmonic analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016

  14. Symmetric metamaterials based on flower-shaped structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuong, P.V.; Park, J.W.; Rhee, J.Y.; Kim, K.W.; Cheong, H.; Jang, W.H.; Lee, Y.P.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed new models of metamaterials (MMs) based on a flower-shaped structure (FSS), whose “meta-atoms” consist of two flower-shaped metallic parts separated by a dielectric layer. Like the non-symmetric MMs based on cut-wire-pairs or electric ring resonators, the symmetrical FSS demonstrates the negative permeability at GHz frequencies. Employing the results, we designed a symmetric negative-refractive-index MM [a symmetric combined structure (SCS)], which is composed of FSSs and cross continuous wires. The MM properties of the FSS and the SCS are presented numerically and experimentally. - Highlights: • A new designed of sub-wavelength metamaterial, flower-shaped structure was proposed. • Flower-shaped meta-atom illustrated effective negative permeability. • Based on the meta-atom, negative refractive index was conventionally gained. • Negative refractive index was demonstrated with symmetric properties for electromagnetic wave. • Dimensional parameters were studied under normal electromagnetic wave

  15. Skyrmions and vector mesons: a symmetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    We propose an extension of the effective, low-energy chiral Lagrangian known as the Skyrme model, to one formulated by a non-linear sigma model generalized to include vector mesons in a symmetric way. The model is based on chiral SU(6) x SU(6) symmetry spontaneously broken to static SU(6). The rho and other vector mesons are dormant Goldstone bosons since they are in the same SU(6) multiplet as the pion and other pseudoscalars. Hence the manifold of our generalized non-linear sigma model is the coset space (SU(6) x SU(6))/Su(6). Relativistic effects, via a spin-dependent mass term, break the static SU(6) and give the vectors a mass. The model can then be fully relativistic and covariant. The lowest-lying Skyrmion in this model is the whole baryonic 56-plet, which splits into the octet and decuplet in the presence of relativistic SU(6)-breaking. Due to the built-in SU(6) and the presence of vector mesons, the model is expected to have better phenomenological results, as well as providing a conceptually more unified picture of mesons and baryons. 29 references

  16. Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganographic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Perumal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The image fusion steganographic system embeds encrypted messages in decomposed multimedia carriers using a pseudorandom generator but it fails to evaluate the contents of the cover image. This results in the secret data being embedded in smooth regions, which leads to visible distortion that affects the imperceptibility and confidentiality. To solve this issue, as well as to improve the quality and robustness of the system, the Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganography System is proposed in this study. It comprises three-subsystem bitwise encryption, spatial fusion, and bitwise embedding. First, bitwise encryption encrypts the message using bitwise operation to improve the confidentiality. Then, spatial fusion decomposes and evaluates the region of embedding on the basis of sharp intensity and capacity. This restricts the visibility of distortion and provides a high embedding capacity. Finally, the bitwise embedding system embeds the encrypted message through differencing the pixels in the region by 1, checking even or odd options and not equal to zero constraints. This reduces the modification rate to avoid distortion. The proposed heuristic algorithm is implemented in the blue channel, to which the human visual system is less sensitive. It was tested using standard IST natural images with steganalysis algorithms and resulted in better quality, imperceptibility, embedding capacity and invulnerability to various attacks compared to other steganographic systems.

  17. Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.

  18. Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)

  19. Left-right symmetric superstring supergravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burova, M.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A left-right (L-R) symmetric model of four-dimensional supergravitation with a SO(10) gauge group obtained as the low-energy limit is superstring theory is considered. The spectrum of the gauge fields and their interactions are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam theory. In addition, the model includes heavy W R ± and Z μ ' bosons. Beside the N g =3 generations of the 16-plets the SO(10) model includes the fragments of such generations which play the role of Higgs particles and also scalar chiral filds, the number of which exceeds by one the number of generations. As a result the neutrinos of each generation obtain a stable small Majorana mass. It is shown that the scalar field potential leads to spontaneous violation of the SU(2) R group and L-R symmetry and at low energies the standard Weinberg-Salam theory appears. However, reasonable values of X bosons masses M x and sun 2 Θ W (Θ W is the Weinberg angle) can be obtained in the model only in the case of high mass scale M R ∼10 10 -10 12 GeV of the right group SU(2) R violation

  20. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  1. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  2. Modulation of precipitation by conditional symmetric instability release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinton, Michael R.; Gray, Suzanne L.; Chagnon, Jeffrey M.; Morcrette, Cyril J.

    2017-03-01

    Although many theoretical and observational studies have investigated the mechanism of conditional symmetric instability (CSI) release and associated it with mesoscale atmospheric phenomena such as frontal precipitation bands, cloud heads in rapidly developing extratropical cyclones and sting jets, its climatology and contribution to precipitation have not been extensively documented. The aim of this paper is to quantify the contribution of CSI release, yielding slantwise convection, to climatological precipitation accumulations for the North Atlantic and western Europe. Case studies reveal that CSI release could be common along cold fronts of mature extratropical cyclones and the North Atlantic storm track is found to be a region with large CSI according to two independent CSI metrics. Correlations of CSI with accumulated precipitation are also large in this region and CSI release is inferred to be occurring about 20% of the total time over depths of over 1 km. We conclude that the inability of current global weather forecast and climate prediction models to represent CSI release (due to insufficient resolution yet lack of subgrid parametrization schemes) may lead to errors in precipitation distributions, particularly in the region of the North Atlantic storm track.

  3. How axi-symmetric is the inner HI disc of the Milky Way?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marasco A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We modelled the distribution and the kinematics of HI in the inner Milky Way (R < R☉ at latitude b = 0∘ assuming axi-symmetry. We fitted the line profiles of the LAB 21-cm survey using an iterative approach based on the tangent-point method. The resulting model reproduces the H I data remarkably well, with significant differences arising only for R ≲ 2 kpc. This suggests that, despite the presence of a barred potential, the neutral gas in the inner Milky Way is distributed in a fairly axi-symmetric disc.

  4. Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N

    2014-09-15

    We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.

  5. Survival and transmission of symmetrical chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction between the lesions to produce chromosomal structural changes may be either asymmetrical (A) or symmetrical (S). In A, one or more acentric fragments are always produced, and there may also be the mechanical separation problems resulting from bridges at anaphase, while S-changes never produce fragment, and pose no mechanical problem in cell division. If A and S events occur with equal frequency, it might be an indication that they are truly the alternative modes of lesion interaction. Unstimulated lymphocytes were irradiated with 2.68 Gy 250 kV X-ray, and metaphases were sampled at 50 h after the stimulation. Preparations were complete diploid cells, and any obvious second division cells were rejected. So far as dermal repair and fibroblast functions are concerned, aberration burden seems to have little consequence from the view-point of the long-term survival in vivo. Large numbers of aberrations (mainly S translocation and terminal deletion) were found in the samples taken up to 60 years after therapy. Skin biopsies were removed 1 day and 6 months after irradiation and cultured. In irradiated cells, reciprocal translocations dominated, followed by terminal deletions, then inversions, while no chromosome-type aberration was seen in the control cells. a) The relative occurrence of A : S changes, b) long-term survival in vivo, c) the possibility of in vivo repair, and d) some unusual features of translocation found in Syrian hamsters are reviewed. The relevance or importance of major S events is clearly dependent upon the cells, the tissues or the organisms in which they occur. (Yamashita, S.)

  6. Propagation dynamics of off-axis symmetrical and asymmetrical vortices embedded in flat-topped beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, propagation dynamics of off-axis symmetrical and asymmetrical optical vortices(OVs) embedded in flat-topped beams have been explored numerically based on rigorous scalar diffraction theory. The distribution properties of phase and intensity play an important role in driving the propagation dynamics of OVs. Numerical results show that the single off-axis vortex moves in a straight line. The displacement of the single off-axis vortex becomes smaller, when either the order of flatness N and the beam size ω0are increased or the off-axis displacement d is decreased. In addition, the phase singularities of high order vortex beams can be split after propagating a certain distance. It is also demonstrated that the movement of OVs are closely related with the spatial symmetrical or asymmetrical distribution of vortex singularities field. Multiple symmetrical and asymmetrical optical vortices(OVs) embedded in flat-topped beams can interact and rotate. The investment of the propagation dynamics of OVs may have many applications in optical micro-manipulation and optical tweezers.

  7. Bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in lipid-symmetric erythrocytes assessed by a photoactivable phospholipid analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, D.; Schlegel, R.A.; Williamson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed for maintenance of transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, one involving specific interactions between the aminophospholipids of the inner leaflet of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton, particularly spectrin, and the other involving the aminophospholipid translocase. If the former mechanism is correct, then erythrocytes which have lost their asymmetric distribution of phospholipids should display altered bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions. To test this possibility, normal erythrocytes, erythrocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or sickle disease, and lipid-symmetric and -asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with the radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho[ 14 C] ethanolamine ([ 14 C]AzPE), previously shown to label cytoskeletal proteins from the bilayer. The labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in pathologic erythrocytes and lipid-asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts was indistinguishable from normal erythrocytes, indicating that the probe detects no differences in bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in these cells. In contrast, in lipid-symmetric erythrocyte ghosts, labeling of bands 4.1 and 4.2 and actin, and to a lesser extent ankyrin, by [ 14 C]AzPE was considerably reduced. Significantly, however, labeling of spectrin was unaltered in the lipid-symmetric cells. These results do not support a model in which spectrin is involved in the maintenance of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in erythrocytes

  8. The effect of axial loads on free vibration of symmetric frame structures using continuous system method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration of frame structures has been usually studied in literature without considering the effect of axial loads. In this paper, the continuous system method is employed to investigate this effect on the free flexural and torsional vibration of two and three dimensional symmetric frames. In the continuous system method, in approximate analysis of buildings, commonly, the structure is replaced by an equivalent beam which matches the dominant characteristics of the structure. Accordingly, the natural frequencies of the symmetric frame structures are obtained through solving the governing differential equation of the equivalent beam whose stiffness and mass are supposed to be uniformly distributed along the length. The corresponding axial load applied to the replaced beam is calculated based on the total weight and the number of stories of the building. A numerical example is presented to show the simplicity and efficiency of the proposed solution.

  9. Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces:Support theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuit, Job Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and derive support theorems for these transforms. A reductive symmetric space is a homogeneous space G/H for a reductive Lie group G of the Harish-Chandra class, where H is an open sub...... is based on the relation between the Radon transform and the Fourier transform on G/H, and a Paley–Wiener-shift type argument. Our results generalize the support theorem of Helgason for the Radon transform on a Riemannian symmetric space....

  10. Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Heiko; De Graaf, Willem A.; Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario

    2017-01-01

    In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL 2 (R)) 4 acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL 2 (R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Color symmetrical superconductivity in a schematic nuclear quark model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, C.; da Providencia, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, a novel BCS-type formalism is constructed in the framework of a schematic QCD inspired quark model, having in mind the description of color symmetrical superconducting states. In the usual approach to color superconductivity, the pairing correlations affect only the quasi-particle...... states of two colors, the single-particle states of the third color remaining unaffected by the pairing correlations. In the theory of color symmetrical superconductivity here proposed, the pairing correlations affect symmetrically the quasi-particle states of the three colors and vanishing net color...

  12. Improved Extreme-Scenario Extraction Method For The Economic Dispatch Of Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yipu; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    ) of active distribution network with renewables. The extreme scenarios are selected from the historical data using the improved minimum volume enclosing ellipsoid (MVEE) algorithm to guarantee the security of system operation while avoid frequently switching the transformer tap. It is theoretically proved...

  13. Computing symmetrical strength of N-grams: a two pass filtering approach in automatic classification of text documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Verma, Kesari; Tripathi, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The contiguous sequences of the terms (N-grams) in the documents are symmetrically distributed among different classes. The symmetrical distribution of the N-Grams raises uncertainty in the belongings of the N-Grams towards the class. In this paper, we focused on the selection of most discriminating N-Grams by reducing the effects of symmetrical distribution. In this context, a new text feature selection method named as the symmetrical strength of the N-Grams (SSNG) is proposed using a two pass filtering based feature selection (TPF) approach. Initially, in the first pass of the TPF, the SSNG method chooses various informative N-Grams from the entire extracted N-Grams of the corpus. Subsequently, in the second pass the well-known Chi Square (χ(2)) method is being used to select few most informative N-Grams. Further, to classify the documents the two standard classifiers Multinomial Naive Bayes and Linear Support Vector Machine have been applied on the ten standard text data sets. In most of the datasets, the experimental results state the performance and success rate of SSNG method using TPF approach is superior to the state-of-the-art methods viz. Mutual Information, Information Gain, Odds Ratio, Discriminating Feature Selection and χ(2).

  14. Path integral representation of the symmetric Rosen-Morse potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duru, I.H.

    1983-09-01

    An integral formula for the Green's function of symmetric Rosen-Morse potential is obtained by solving path integrals. The correctly normalized wave functions and bound state energy spectrum are derived. (author)

  15. The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...

  16. Filtering microfluidic bubble trains at a symmetric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Pravien; Khan, Saif A

    2012-02-07

    We report how a nominally symmetric microfluidic junction can be used to sort all bubbles of an incoming train exclusively into one of its arms. The existence of this "filter" regime is unexpected, given that the junction is symmetric. We analyze this behavior by quantifying how bubbles modulate the hydrodynamic resistance in microchannels and show how speeding up a bubble train whilst preserving its spatial periodicity can lead to filtering at a nominally symmetric junction. We further show how such an asymmetric traffic of bubble trains can be triggered in symmetric geometries by identifying conditions wherein the resistance to flow decreases with an increase in the number of bubbles in the microchannel and derive an exact criterion to predict the same.

  17. Symmetric Pin Diversion Detection using a Partial Defect Detector (PDET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitaraman, S.; Ham, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the signature from the Partial Defect Detector (PDET) is principally dependent on the geometric layout of the guide tube locations, the capability of the technique in detecting symmetric diversion of pins needs to be determined. The Monte Carlo simulation study consisted of cases where pins were removed in a symmetric manner and the resulting signatures were examined. In addition to the normalized gamma-to-neutron ratios, the neutron and gamma signatures normalized to their maximum values, were also examined. Examination of the shape of the three curves as well as of the peak-to-valley differences in excess of the maximum expected in intact assemblies, indicated pin diversion. A set of simulations with various symmetric patterns of diversion were examined. The results from these studies indicated that symmetric diversions as low as twelve percent could be detected by this methodology

  18. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  19. A Paley-Wiener theorem for reductive symmetric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    2006-01-01

    Let X = G/H be a reductive symmetric space and K a maximal compact subgroup of G. The image under the Fourier transform of the space of K-finite compactly supported smooth functions on X is characterized.

  20. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    retical arguments together with some numerical evidence. The evolution of the orbits is studied, as mass is transported from the disk to the nucleus. ... galaxies and non-axially symmetric quasar models (see Papadopoulos & Caranicolas.

  1. first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.

  2. Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Blokhin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.

  3. An algebraic approach to the non-symmetric Macdonald polynomial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Akinori; Ujino, Hideaki; Wadati, Miki

    1999-01-01

    In terms of the raising and lowering operators, we algebraically construct the non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials which are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the commuting Cherednik operators. We also calculate Cherednik's scalar product of them

  4. Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations

  5. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models, a Symmetrical Air Pollution. Model ... process is in compliance with air pollution regula- ..... Ground simulation is achieved through MATLAB package which is based on least-.

  6. Hardware Realization of Chaos-based Symmetric Video Encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports original work on hardware realization of symmetric video encryption using chaos-based continuous systems as pseudo-random number generators. The thesis also presents some of the serious degradations caused by digitally

  7. Invariant subspaces in some function spaces on symmetric spaces. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Let G be a semisimple connected Lie group with finite centre, K a maximal compact subgroup of G, and M=G/K a Riemannian symmetric space of non-compact type. We study the problem of describing the structure of closed linear subspaces in various function spaces on M that are invariant under the quasiregular representation of the group G. We consider the case when M is a symplectic symmetric space of rank 1

  8. Symmetric coupling of four spin-1/2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2012-06-01

    We address the non-binary coupling of identical angular momenta based upon the representation theory for the symmetric group. A correspondence is pointed out between the complete set of commuting operators and the reference-frame-free subsystems. We provide a detailed analysis of the coupling of three and four spin-1/2 systems and discuss a symmetric coupling of four spin-1/2 systems.

  9. Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (Madelung's disease) - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Abreu, Marcelo de; Furtado, Claudia Dietz; Silveira, Marcio Fleck da; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre; Genro, Carlos Horacio; Grazziotin, Rossano Ughini

    2001-01-01

    Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (Madelung's disease) is a rare disorder characterized by deep accumulation of fat tissue, involving mainly the neck, shoulders and chest. This disease is associated with heavy alcohol intake and it is more common in men of Mediterranean origin. This disease can cause severe aesthetic deformities and progressive respiratory dysfunction. We report a case of a patient with multiple symmetrical lipomatosis and describe the clinical and radiological features of this disorder. (author)

  10. Symmetrized neutron transport equation and the fast Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinh, N.Q.; Kisynski, J.; Mika, J.

    1978-01-01

    The differential equation obtained from the neutron transport equation by the application of the source iteration method in two-dimensional rectangular geometry is transformed into a symmetrized form with respect to one of the angular variables. The discretization of the symmetrized equation leads to finite difference equations based on the five-point scheme and solved by use of the fast Fourier transform method. Possible advantages of the approach are shown on test calculations

  11. A Stepwise "Micellization-Crystallization" Route to Oblate Ellipsoidal, Cylindrical, and Bilayer Micelles with Polyethylene Cores in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ligeng; Lodge, Timothy P; Hillmyer, Marc A [UMM

    2012-11-26

    Micellar polymorphism from block copolymers has been well documented, but most attention has focused on noncrystalline hydrophobic systems. We have investigated the micellization in water of model diblock copolymers with semicrystalline polyethylene (PE) as the core-forming component. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)–polyethylene (AE) diblock copolymers were synthesized by a combination of anionic and RAFT polymerizations. The bulk nanostructures were probed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and AE diblock copolymers were found to be moderately segregated at 140 °C. Dispersions of AE amphiphiles in water were prepared by direct dissolution at 120 °C (i.e., above the melting transition of PE) followed by cooling to 25 °C. By manipulating the composition of AE diblock copolymers, discrete structures with oblate ellipsoidal, cylindrical, and bilayer morphologies were produced, as evidenced in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The self-assembled aggregates were also studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dilute solution rheology. The semicrystalline nature of the nanostructures was further revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A stepwise “micellization–crystallization” process was proposed as the micelle formation mechanism, as supported by the existence of similar nanostructures at 120 °C using SANS. This strategy holds promise for a general protocol toward the production of giant wormlike micelles and vesicles with semicrystalline polymeric cores.

  12. Analysis of the symmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two identical servers, each with exponentially distributed service times. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream. On· arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins either queue with probability ½. By using

  13. Analysis of the symmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two identical servers, each with exponentially distributed service times. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins either queue with probability 1/2. By

  14. Forward calculation of gravity and its gradient using polyhedral representation of density interfaces: an application of spherical or ellipsoidal topographic gravity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Chao

    2018-02-01

    A density interface modeling method using polyhedral representation is proposed to construct 3-D models of spherical or ellipsoidal interfaces such as the terrain surface of the Earth and applied to forward calculating gravity effect of topography and bathymetry for regional or global applications. The method utilizes triangular facets to fit undulation of the target interface. The model maintains almost equal accuracy and resolution at different locations of the globe. Meanwhile, the exterior gravitational field of the model, including its gravity and gravity gradients, is obtained simultaneously using analytic solutions. Additionally, considering the effect of distant relief, an adaptive computation process is introduced to reduce the computational burden. Then features and errors of the method are analyzed. Subsequently, the method is applied to an area for the ellipsoidal Bouguer shell correction as an example and the result is compared to existing methods, which shows our method provides high accuracy and great computational efficiency. Suggestions for further developments and conclusions are drawn at last.

  15. Formation and acceleration of uniformly filled ellipsoidal electron bunches obtained via space-charge-driven expansion from a cesium-telluride photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental generation, acceleration, and characterization of a uniformly filled electron bunch obtained via space-charge-driven expansion (often referred to as “blow-out regime” in an L-band (1.3-GHz radiofrequency photoinjector. The beam is photoemitted from a cesium-telluride semiconductor photocathode using a short (<200  fs ultraviolet laser pulse. The produced electron bunches are characterized with conventional diagnostics and the signatures of their ellipsoidal character are observed. We especially demonstrate the production of ellipsoidal bunches with charges up to ∼0.5  nC corresponding to a ∼20-fold increase compared to previous experiments with metallic photocathodes.

  16. THE EVIL-MC MODEL FOR ELLIPSOIDAL VARIATIONS OF PLANET-HOSTING STARS AND APPLICATIONS TO THE HAT-P-7 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Brian K. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnes, Jason W. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Engineering-Physics Building, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Deming, L. Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: bjackson@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model for Ellipsoidal Variations Induced by a Low-Mass Companion, the EVIL-MC model. We employ several approximations appropriate for planetary systems to substantially increase the computational efficiency of our model relative to more general ellipsoidal variation models and improve upon the accuracy of simpler models. This new approach gives us a unique ability to rapidly and accurately determine planetary system parameters. We use the EVIL-MC model to analyze Kepler Quarter 0-2 (Q0-2) observations of the HAT-P-7 system, an F-type star orbited by a {approx} Jupiter-mass companion. Our analysis corroborates previous estimates of the planet-star mass ratio q = (1.10 {+-} 0.06) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, and we have revised the planet's dayside brightness temperature to 2680{sup +10}{sub -20} K. We also find a large difference between the day- and nightside planetary flux, with little nightside emission. Preliminary dynamical+radiative modeling of the atmosphere indicates that this result is qualitatively consistent with high altitude absorption of stellar heating. Similar analyses of Kepler and CoRoT photometry of other planets using EVIL-MC will play a key role in providing constraints on the properties of many extrasolar systems, especially given the limited resources for follow-up and characterization of these systems. However, as we highlight, there are important degeneracies between the contributions from ellipsoidal variations and planetary emission and reflection. Consequently, for many of the hottest and brightest Kepler and CoRoT planets, accurate estimates of the planetary emission and reflection, diagnostic of atmospheric heat budgets, will require accurate modeling of the photometric contribution from the stellar ellipsoidal variation.

  17. Infrared photometry of cataclysmic variables. II - Evidence for ellipsoidal variations in CW MoN, X Leo, IP Peg, and AF CaM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.

    1986-08-01

    Broadband H or K light curves of the dwarf novae CM Mon, X Leo, IP Peg, and AF Cam reveal variations that can be attributed to ellipsoidal modulation of the secondaries in these systems. The present data imply orbital periods of 4.23 + or - 0.01 hr for CW Mon and 5.0 + or - 0.1 hr for X Leo. The high-amplitude ellipsoidal modulation of the secondary of CW Mon implies a large orbital inclination. The interpretation of the low-amplitude variability seen in X Leo is complicated by details in its light curve and a recent determination of its orbital period by Shafter and Harkness (1986) which differs significantly from the period inferred from the present observations. The light variations of the eclipsing system IP Peg are interpreted as showing a 0.2 mag ellipsoidal variation from the secondary superposed on a deep eclipse of the IR light of the white dwarf and hotspot. AF Cam shows marginal evidence for a low-amplitude variation implying a very short orbital period of 76 min. IR colors of SS Aur, AH Eri, and IR Gem as well as the above four objects are used to place limits on the properties of the secondaries and the distances to these systems.

  18. Weyl geometry and the nonlinear mechanics of distributed point defects

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.; Goriely, A.

    2012-01-01

    The residual stress field of a nonlinear elastic solid with a spherically symmetric distribution of point defects is obtained explicitly using methods from differential geometry. The material manifold of a solid with distributed point defects

  19. Multivariate Non-Symmetric Stochastic Models for Spatial Dependence Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslauer, C. P.; Bárdossy, A.

    2017-12-01

    A copula based multivariate framework allows more flexibility to describe different kind of dependences than what is possible using models relying on the confining assumption of symmetric Gaussian models: different quantiles can be modelled with a different degree of dependence; it will be demonstrated how this can be expected given process understanding. maximum likelihood based multivariate quantitative parameter estimation yields stable and reliable results; not only improved results in cross-validation based measures of uncertainty are obtained but also a more realistic spatial structure of uncertainty compared to second order models of dependence; as much information as is available is included in the parameter estimation: incorporation of censored measurements (e.g., below detection limit, or ones that are above the sensitive range of the measurement device) yield to more realistic spatial models; the proportion of true zeros can be jointly estimated with and distinguished from censored measurements which allow estimates about the age of a contaminant in the system; secondary information (categorical and on the rational scale) has been used to improve the estimation of the primary variable; These copula based multivariate statistical techniques are demonstrated based on hydraulic conductivity observations at the Borden (Canada) site, the MADE site (USA), and a large regional groundwater quality data-set in south-west Germany. Fields of spatially distributed K were simulated with identical marginal simulation, identical second order spatial moments, yet substantially differing solute transport characteristics when numerical tracer tests were performed. A statistical methodology is shown that allows the delineation of a boundary layer separating homogenous parts of a spatial data-set. The effects of this boundary layer (macro structure) and the spatial dependence of K (micro structure) on solute transport behaviour is shown.

  20. Cotangent bundles over all the Hermitian symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masato; Baba, Kurando

    2016-01-01

    We construct the N = 2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models on the cotangent bundles over all the compact and non-compact Hermitian symmetric spaces. In order to construct them we use the projective superspace formalism which is an N = 2 off-shell superfield formulation in four-dimensional space-time. This formalism allows us to obtain the explicit expression of N = 2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models on the cotangent bundles over any Hermitian symmetric spaces in terms of the N =1 superfields, once the Kähler potentials of the base manifolds are obtained. Starting with N = 1 supersymmetric Kähler nonlinear sigma models on the Hermitian symmetric spaces, we extend them into the N = 2 supersymmetric models by using the projective superspace formalism and derive the general formula for the cotangent bundles over all the compact and non-compact Hermitian symmetric spaces. We apply to the formula for the non-compact Hermitian symmetric space E 7 /E 6 × U(1) 1 . (paper)

  1. Optomechanically induced absorption in parity-time-symmetric optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. Q.; Pei, P.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) in a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric optomechanical system (OMS). By numerically calculating the Lyapunov exponents, we find out the stability border of the PT -symmetric OMS. The results show that in the PT -symmetric phase the system can be either stable or unstable depending on the coupling constant and the decay rate. In the PT -symmetric broken phase the system can have a stable state only for small gain rates. By calculating the transmission rate of the probe field, we find that there is an inverted optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) at δ =-ωM and an OMIA at δ =ωM for the PT -symmetric optomechanical system. At each side of δ =-ωM there is an absorption window due to the resonance absorption of the two generated supermodes. Comparing with the case of optomechanics coupled to a passive cavity, we find that the active cavity can enhance the resonance absorption. The absorption rate at δ =ωM increases as the coupling strength between the two cavities increases. Our work provides us with a promising platform for controlling light propagation and light manipulation in terms of PT symmetry, which might have potential applications in quantum information processing and quantum optical devices.

  2. A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Singh, G K; Besar, R; Muhammad, G

    2006-01-01

    A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM

  3. Bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster in an immunocompetent patient (herpes zoster duplex symmetricus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfan-ul-bari; Iftikhar, N.; Rahman, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common disease of adulthood. Its incidence is low in childhood and adolescence. Certain risk factors like hematological malignancies or immunosuppression due to any cause may lead to onset at an early age. There is a unilateral appearance of grouped vesicular eruption on an erythematous background which may involve contiguous dermatomes. Rarely the lesions may occur bilaterally in an otherwise healthy individual. We present a case of herpes zoster, with lesions having atypical distribution involving bilaterally symmetrical dermatomes over the lower chest.(author)

  4. Decomposition of a symmetric second-order tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, José A.

    2018-05-01

    In the three-dimensional space there are different definitions for the dot and cross products of a vector with a second-order tensor. In this paper we show how these products can uniquely be defined for the case of symmetric tensors. We then decompose a symmetric second-order tensor into its ‘dot’ part, which involves the dot product, and the ‘cross’ part, which involves the cross product. For some physical applications, this decomposition can be interpreted as one in which the dot part identifies with the ‘parallel’ part of the tensor and the cross part identifies with the ‘perpendicular’ part. This decomposition of a symmetric second-order tensor may be suitable for undergraduate courses of vector calculus, mechanics and electrodynamics.

  5. Solitons in PT-symmetric potential with competing nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Avinash; Al-Marzoug, S.M.; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effect of competing nonlinearities on beam dynamics in PT-symmetric potentials. In particular, we consider the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) in one dimension with competing cubic and generalized nonlinearity in the presence of a PT-symmetric potential. Closed form solutions for localized states are obtained. These solitons are shown to be stable over a wide range of potential parameters. The transverse power flow associated with these complex solitons is also examined. -- Highlights: ► Effect of competing nonlinearities on beam dynamics in PT-symmetric potentials. ► Closed form solutions for localized states are. ► The transverse power flow associated with these complex solitons is also examined.

  6. Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Heiko [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia); De Graaf, Willem A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Povo (Italy); Ruggeri, Daniele [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Trigiante, Mario [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL{sub 2}(R)){sup 4} acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL{sub 2}(R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Tourist Demand Reactions: Symmetric or Asymmetric across the Business Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Economizing and spending priorities on different types of vacations are investigated during two periods: an economic downturn and returning prosperity. Two nation-wide samples of vacationers are used: one during a downturn, the other one at the start of the recovery period. Through comparing the results, conclusions can be drawn about symmetric or asymmetric tourist demand across the business cycle. The main summer holiday has an asymmetric profile: being fairly crisis-resistant during a recession and showing considerable growth during an expansion. This does not apply to short vacations and day trips, each having a symmetric profile: during a recession they experience substantial reductions and during expansion comparable growth. So when talking about tourist demand in general , one cannot say that it is symmetric or asymmetric across the business cycle: it depends on the type of vacation. Differences in tourist demand are best explained by the role of Quality-of-Life for vacationers.

  8. Symmetric spaces and the Kashiwara-Vergne method

    CERN Document Server

    Rouvière, François

    2014-01-01

    Gathering and updating results scattered in journal articles over thirty years, this self-contained monograph gives a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Its goal is to: - motivate and explain the method for general Lie groups, reducing the proof of deep results in invariant analysis to the verification of two formal Lie bracket identities related to the Campbell-Hausdorff formula (the "Kashiwara-Vergne conjecture"); - give a detailed proof of the conjecture for quadratic and solvable Lie algebras, which is relatively elementary; - extend the method to symmetric spaces; here an obstruction appears, embodied in a single remarkable object called an "e-function"; - explain the role of this function in invariant analysis on symmetric spaces, its relation to invariant differential operators, mean value operators and spherical functions; - give an explicit e-function for rank one spaces (the hyperbolic spaces); - construct an e-function for general symmetric spaces, in the spirit of Kashiwara and Vergne's or...

  9. Rings with involution whose symmetric elements are central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taw Pin Lim

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available In a ring R with involution whose symmetric elements S are central, the skew-symmetric elements K form a Lie algebra over the commutative ring S. The classification of such rings which are 2-torsion free is equivalent to the classification of Lie algebras K over S equipped with a bilinear form f that is symmetric, invariant and satisfies [[x,y],z]=f(y,zx−f(z,xy. If S is a field of char ≠2, f≠0 and dimK>1 then K is a semisimple Lie algebra if and only if f is nondegenerate. Moreover, the derived algebra K′ is either the pure quaternions over S or a direct sum of mutually orthogonal abelian Lie ideals of dim≤2.

  10. The discrete dynamics of symmetric competition in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Rogers, T D

    1987-01-01

    We consider the generalized Lotka-Volterra two-species system xn + 1 = xn exp(r1(1 - xn) - s1yn) yn + 1 = yn exp(r2(1 - yn) - s2xn) originally proposed by R. M. May as a model for competitive interaction. In the symmetric case that r1 = r2 and s1 = s2, a region of ultimate confinement is found and the dynamics therein are described in some detail. The bifurcations of periodic points of low period are studied, and a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations is indicated. Within the confinement region, a parameter region is determined for the stable Hopf bifurcation of a pair of symmetrically placed period-two points, which imposes a second component of oscillation near the stable cycles. It is suggested that the symmetric competitive model contains much of the dynamical complexity to be expected in any discrete two-dimensional competitive model.

  11. Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotalco, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)). E-mail: ccg@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2001-09-14

    We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D{sup 2}+ k{sup 2}){phi}=u{phi}, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution {phi}, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)

  12. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  13. Parallel coupling of symmetric and asymmetric exclusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekouras, K; Kolomeisky, A B

    2008-01-01

    A system consisting of two parallel coupled channels where particles in one of them follow the rules of totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) and in another one move as in symmetric simple exclusion processes (SSEP) is investigated theoretically. Particles interact with each other via hard-core exclusion potential, and in the asymmetric channel they can only hop in one direction, while on the symmetric lattice particles jump in both directions with equal probabilities. Inter-channel transitions are also allowed at every site of both lattices. Stationary state properties of the system are solved exactly in the limit of strong couplings between the channels. It is shown that strong symmetric couplings between totally asymmetric and symmetric channels lead to an effective partially asymmetric simple exclusion process (PASEP) and properties of both channels become almost identical. However, strong asymmetric couplings between symmetric and asymmetric channels yield an effective TASEP with nonzero particle flux in the asymmetric channel and zero flux on the symmetric lattice. For intermediate strength of couplings between the lattices a vertical-cluster mean-field method is developed. This approximate approach treats exactly particle dynamics during the vertical transitions between the channels and it neglects the correlations along the channels. Our calculations show that in all cases there are three stationary phases defined by particle dynamics at entrances, at exits or in the bulk of the system, while phase boundaries depend on the strength and symmetry of couplings between the channels. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations strongly support our theoretical predictions. Theoretical calculations and computer simulations predict that inter-channel couplings have a strong effect on stationary properties. It is also argued that our results might be relevant for understanding multi-particle dynamics of motor proteins

  14. Symmetric vs. asymmetric stem cell divisions: an adaptation against cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Shahriyari

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been held that a central characteristic of stem cells is their ability to divide asymmetrically. Recent advances in inducible genetic labeling provided ample evidence that symmetric stem cell divisions play an important role in adult mammalian homeostasis. It is well understood that the two types of cell divisions differ in terms of the stem cells' flexibility to expand when needed. On the contrary, the implications of symmetric and asymmetric divisions for mutation accumulation are still poorly understood. In this paper we study a stochastic model of a renewing tissue, and address the optimization problem of tissue architecture in the context of mutant production. Specifically, we study the process of tumor suppressor gene inactivation which usually takes place as a consequence of two "hits", and which is one of the most common patterns in carcinogenesis. We compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric (and mixed stem cell divisions, and focus on the rate at which double-hit mutants are generated. It turns out that symmetrically-dividing cells generate such mutants at a rate which is significantly lower than that of asymmetrically-dividing cells. This result holds whether single-hit (intermediate mutants are disadvantageous, neutral, or advantageous. It is also independent on whether the carcinogenic double-hit mutants are produced only among the stem cells or also among more specialized cells. We argue that symmetric stem cell divisions in mammals could be an adaptation which helps delay the onset of cancers. We further investigate the question of the optimal fraction of stem cells in the tissue, and quantify the contribution of non-stem cells in mutant production. Our work provides a hypothesis to explain the observation that in mammalian cells, symmetric patterns of stem cell division seem to be very common.

  15. Some curvature properties of quarter symmetric metric connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.C.

    1986-08-01

    A linear connection Γ ji h with torsion tensor T j h P i -T i h P j , where T j h is an arbitrary (1,1) tensor field and P i is a 1-form, has been called a quarter-symmetric connection by Golab. Some properties of such connections have been studied by Rastogi, Mishra and Pandey, and Yano and Imai. In this paper based on the curvature tensor of quarter-symmetric metric connection we define a tensor analogous to conformal curvature tensor and study some properties of such a tensor. (author)

  16. Symmetric bends how to join two lengths of cord

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Roger E

    1995-01-01

    A bend is a knot securely joining together two lengths of cord (or string or rope), thereby yielding a single longer length. There are many possible different bends, and a natural question that has probably occurred to many is: "Is there a 'best' bend and, if so, what is it?"Most of the well-known bends happen to be symmetric - that is, the two constituent cords within the bend have the same geometric shape and size, and interrelationship with the other. Such 'symmetric bends' have great beauty, especially when the two cords bear different colours. Moreover, they have the practical advantage o

  17. Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil; Garcia, Stephan R; Putinar, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    This paper communicates recent results in the theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schroedinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schroedinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schroedinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances

  18. Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)

    2016-02-15

    The modified theories of gravity, especially the f(R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f(R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f(R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f(R) models.

  19. Characterization of Generalized Young Measures Generated by Symmetric Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Philippis, Guido; Rindler, Filip

    2017-06-01

    This work establishes a characterization theorem for (generalized) Young measures generated by symmetric derivatives of functions of bounded deformation (BD) in the spirit of the classical Kinderlehrer-Pedregal theorem. Our result places such Young measures in duality with symmetric-quasiconvex functions with linear growth. The "local" proof strategy combines blow-up arguments with the singular structure theorem in BD (the analogue of Alberti's rank-one theorem in BV), which was recently proved by the authors. As an application of our characterization theorem we show how an atomic part in a BD-Young measure can be split off in generating sequences.

  20. Integrability and symmetric spaces. II- The coset spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    It shown that a sufficient condition for a model describing the motion of a particle on a coset space to possess a fundamental Poisson bracket relation, and consequently charges involution, is that it must be a symmetric space. The conditions a hamiltonian, or any function of the canonical variables, has to satisfy in order to commute with these charges are studied. It is shown that, for the case of non compact symmetric space, these conditions lead to an algebraic structure which plays an important role in the construction of conserved quantities. (author) [pt