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Sample records for elite female gymnasts

  1. The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts' anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i) a common physique and (ii) the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review. Most studies identified similar physiques based on: physical traits (small size and low body mass), a body type (predominance of ecto-mesomorphy), body composition (low fat mass), and maturity status (late skeletal maturity as well as late age-at-menarche). However, there was no consensus as to whether these features predicted competitive performance, or even differentiated between gymnasts within distinctive competitive levels. In conclusion, gymnasts, as a group, have unique pronounced characteristics. These characteristics are likely due to selection for naturally-occurring inherited traits. However, data available for world class competitions were mostly outdated and sample sizes were small. Thus, it was difficult to make any conclusions about whether physiques differed between particular competitive levels.

  2. The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacciotti Sarita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts’ anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i a common physique and (ii the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review. Most studies identified similar physiques based on: physical traits (small size and low body mass, a body type (predominance of ecto-mesomorphy, body composition (low fat mass, and maturity status (late skeletal maturity as well as late age-at-menarche. However, there was no consensus as to whether these features predicted competitive performance, or even differentiated between gymnasts within distinctive competitive levels. In conclusion, gymnasts, as a group, have unique pronounced characteristics. These characteristics are likely due to selection for naturally-occurring inherited traits. However, data available for world class competitions were mostly outdated and sample sizes were small. Thus, it was difficult to make any conclusions about whether physiques differed between particular competitive levels.

  3. Sleep, training load and performance in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, J; Mariman, A; Boone, J; Delesie, L; Tobback, E; Vogelaers, D; Bourgois, J G

    2018-03-01

    Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain. Performance of WC competitors was evaluated through coach and WC qualification ranking. For the entire group, TST (effect sizes (ES) = -1.12, confidence intervals (CI) = -60:-47, P performance. Optimizing sleep and TL may therefore represent strategies to enhance performance.

  4. Lumbar spine MRI in the elite-level female gymnast with low back pain

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    Bennett, D. Lee [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, Colleges of Human Medicine and Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI (United States); Nassar, Lawrence [Department of Sports Medicine and Kinesiology, Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI (United States); DeLano, Mark C. [Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, Colleges of Human Medicine and Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Previous studies have shown increased degenerative disk changes and spine injuries in the competitive female gymnast. However, it has also been shown that many of these findings are found in asymptomatic athletic people of the same age. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluating the gymnastic spine have not made a distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes. Our hypothesis is that MRI will demonstrate the same types of abnormalities in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic gymnasts. Olympic-level female gymnasts received prospectively an MRI exam of the lumbar spine. Each of the gymnasts underwent a physical exam by a sports medicine physician just prior to the MRI for documentation of low back pain. Each MRI exam was evaluated for anterior apophyseal ring avulsion injury, compression deformity of the vertebral body, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, degenerative disease, focal disk protrusion/extrusion, muscle strain, epidural mass, and bone-marrow edema. Nineteen Olympic-level female gymnasts (age 12-20 years) were evaluated prospectively in this study. All of these gymnasts were evaluated while attending a specific training camp. Anterior ring apophyseal injuries (9/19) and degenerative disk disease (12/19) were common. Spondylolysis (3/19) and spondylolisthesis (3/19) were found. Focal bone-marrow edema was found in both L3 pedicles in one gymnast. History and physical exam revealed four gymnasts with current low back pain at the time of imaging. There were findings confined to those athletes with current low back pain: spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, bilateral pedicle bone-marrow edema, and muscle strain. (orig.)

  5. Lumbar spine MRI in the elite-level female gymnast with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D. Lee; Nassar, Lawrence; DeLano, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown increased degenerative disk changes and spine injuries in the competitive female gymnast. However, it has also been shown that many of these findings are found in asymptomatic athletic people of the same age. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluating the gymnastic spine have not made a distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes. Our hypothesis is that MRI will demonstrate the same types of abnormalities in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic gymnasts. Olympic-level female gymnasts received prospectively an MRI exam of the lumbar spine. Each of the gymnasts underwent a physical exam by a sports medicine physician just prior to the MRI for documentation of low back pain. Each MRI exam was evaluated for anterior apophyseal ring avulsion injury, compression deformity of the vertebral body, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, degenerative disease, focal disk protrusion/extrusion, muscle strain, epidural mass, and bone-marrow edema. Nineteen Olympic-level female gymnasts (age 12-20 years) were evaluated prospectively in this study. All of these gymnasts were evaluated while attending a specific training camp. Anterior ring apophyseal injuries (9/19) and degenerative disk disease (12/19) were common. Spondylolysis (3/19) and spondylolisthesis (3/19) were found. Focal bone-marrow edema was found in both L3 pedicles in one gymnast. History and physical exam revealed four gymnasts with current low back pain at the time of imaging. There were findings confined to those athletes with current low back pain: spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, bilateral pedicle bone-marrow edema, and muscle strain. (orig.)

  6. Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Bodily Iron Status Among Japanese Collegiate Elite Female Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yuri; Kisara, Kumiko; Ohira, Yoshiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tada, Yuki; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and associations between dietary factors and incidence of ID in female rhythmic gymnasts during preseason periods. Participants were 60 elite collegiate rhythmic gymnasts (18.1 ± 0.3 years [M ± SD]) who were recruited every August over the course of 8 years. Participants were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of ID. Presence of ID was defined either by ferritin less than 12 μg/L or percentage of transferrin saturation less than 16%. Anthropometric and hematologic data, as well as dietary intake, which was estimated via a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, were compared. ID was noted in 48.3% of participants. No significant group-dependent differences were observed in physical characteristics, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, haptoglobin, or erythropoietin concentrations. The ID group had a significantly lower total iron-binding capacity; serum-free iron; percentage of transferrin saturation; ferritin; and intake of protein, fat, zinc, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, beans, and eggs but not iron or vitamin C. The recommended dietary allowance for intake of protein, iron, zinc, and various vitamins was not met by 30%, 90%, 70%, and 22%-87% of all participants, respectively. Multiple logistic analysis showed that protein intake was significantly associated with the incidence of ID (odds ratio = 0.814, 95% confidence interval [0.669, 0.990], p = .039). Participants in the preseason's weight-loss periods showed a tendency toward insufficient nutrient intake and were at a high risk for ID, particularly because of lower protein intake.

  7. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.; Dragoni, S.

    2005-01-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  8. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Dragoni, S. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Medicina dello Sport, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  9. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Panalysis showed a lower percentage of body fat in the gymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  10. Effects of menarcheal age on the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The post-menarche group showed a decrease in their maximum knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.

  11. Body physique and proportionality of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy. Non-elite and sub-elite gymnasts had similar values in anthropometric characteristics, however non-elite had higher fat folds in all age-categories (P < 0.01). In general, mesomorphy was the salient somatotype component in all age-categories, and an increase in endomorphy, followed by a decrease in ectomorphy across age was observed. Regarding proportionality, profile similarity was found between sub-elite and non-elite within age-categories. In conclusion results suggest the presence of a typical gymnast's physical prototype across age and competitive level, which can be useful to coaches during their selection processes in clubs and regional/national teams.

  12. Injuries prevalence in elite male artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista Albuquerque GOULART

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the injuries prevalence in men elite artistic gymnasts. Twenty Brazilian senior gymnasts, aged 23.1 ± 6.5 years, 13.9 ± 5.0 years of practice and 36.5 ± 4.7 hours per week training, participated in this study. The athletes answered a morbidity questionnaire, formulated according to studies from the literature, for information on the injuries’ characteristics and circumstances. Information about the injury circumstances (gymnastic apparatus, overload training and physical exercises, the anatomic site injured, the affect biological tissue and the return to training after injury treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies. The training overload, and floor, pommel horse and vault were the events that presented higher injuries frequency. In relation to anatomic site, ankle, hands/fingers and shoulder were the most cited regions. The ligament, bone and articular capsule were the most affected biological tissues. In relation to gymnasts’ return to their sports activities, 56% of them reported a better condition at return, 33% reported to have returned at the same fitness level and 10% indicated that they were in a worse condition when they returned to the sports activities. The men’s artistic gymnastics injuries are related to the mechanical demands of this sport. The analysis of risk factors helps in understanding the injuries mechanisms in gymnastics, and provides relevant information that can assist in effective prevention strategies.

  13. Morfhological assesment in elite argentineans male gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Berral de la Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on anthropometric variables of male gymnasts. Kineanthropometry investigates human body shape, composition and proportionality, related to function. It is a useful tool in sport medicine, as it allows for the understanding of morphological characteristics of subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric profi le of elite male gymnasts – members of the national Argentinean team. The sample included 25 gymnasts, older than 18 years and divided into two categories – junior and senior. They were measured in 43 anthropometric variables: body mass, stature, sitting height, arm span, lengths, breadths, girths and skinfolds. The procedures followed the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry guidelines. Based on the measures, Heath and Carter’s somatotype, Kerr´s mass-fractioning-method of body composition and proportionality applying Ross’ Phantom-strategy were computed. Body structure of Argentinean gymnasts was composed by 54 % of muscle mass and 17.5 % of fat mass. The results showed that Argentinean gymnasts have similar biotype characteristics to other international elite gymnasts. However, they tend to be smaller, heavier and with wider girths of chest, waist, thigh and calf. Therefore it is supposed that these gymnasts are in biomechanical disadvantage, which in turn interferes with performance in competitive events. RESUMO Atualmente existe uma informação limitada sobre as características antropométricas dos ginastas masculinos. A Cineantropometría que estuda a forma, composiçao corporal e a proporcionalidade do corpo humano em relação a sua função é uma ferramenta idonea para ser utilizada em medicina do esporte, permitindo conhecer as características morfológicas dos sujeitos. Este estudo tem como propósito descrever as variáveis antropométricas dos ginastas masculinos da seleção nacional da Argentina. A amostra foi de 25 ginastas masculinos

  14. Dieting and body image in aesthetic sports: A comparison of Dutch female gymnasts and non-aesthetic sport participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between dieting behavior and body image in female aesthetic athletes. Methods: Seventeen elite gymnasts, 51 non-elite gymnasts and a control group of 85 schoolgirls, participating in non-elite, merely recreational non-aesthetic sports, completed self-report

  15. Predictive models reduce talent development costs in female gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan; Hohmann, Andreas; Liu, Tianbiao; Lenoir, Matthieu; Segers, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study focuses on the comparison of different predictive models based on the results of a talent identification test battery for female gymnasts. We studied to what extent these models have the potential to optimise selection procedures, and at the same time reduce talent development costs in female artistic gymnastics. The dropout rate of 243 female elite gymnasts was investigated, 5 years past talent selection, using linear (discriminant analysis) and non-linear predictive models (Kohonen feature maps and multilayer perceptron). The coaches classified 51.9% of the participants correct. Discriminant analysis improved the correct classification to 71.6% while the non-linear technique of Kohonen feature maps reached 73.7% correctness. Application of the multilayer perceptron even classified 79.8% of the gymnasts correctly. The combination of different predictive models for talent selection can avoid deselection of high-potential female gymnasts. The selection procedure based upon the different statistical analyses results in decrease of 33.3% of cost because the pool of selected athletes can be reduced to 92 instead of 138 gymnasts (as selected by the coaches). Reduction of the costs allows the limited resources to be fully invested in the high-potential athletes.

  16. Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which whereas eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were...... gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition....

  17. The gymnasts' hip and groin: a magnetic resonance imaging study in asymptomatic elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavasiliou, A.; Sykaras, E. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Sport Injuries Lab.; Siatras, T. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Excercise Physiology-Ergometry; Bintoudi, A. [Papageorgiu NHS General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Milosis, D. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Physical Education and Sport Sciences; Lallas, V. [Euromedica Diagnostic Centre, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karantanas, A. [University Hospital Heraklion (Greece). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    2014-08-15

    Specific patterns of developmental adaptation of the proximal femur have been recognized in some sports. Gymnastics are characterized by repetitive axial loading and hip rotations in combination with extreme hip positions. It is unknown how and if these forces can affect an immature skeleton in the long term. We sought to evaluate this, by means of magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and groin of such elite asymptomatic athletes. We performed a case-control comparative MR imaging study of both hips and groin of 12 (7 male, 5 female) skeletally mature young (mean age 18.6 years) asymptomatic international level gymnasts with a minimum of 10 years' training with age-matched non-athletes. At the time of recruitment, none of the athletes had a recorded musculoskeletal complaint or injury in the anatomical area around the hip. The study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal and are considered to be the result of adaptational changes to the specific sport: high centre-column-diaphysis angle (coxa valga140 on average), ligamentum teres hypertrophy, friction of the iliotibial band with oedema surrounding the greater trochanter, and a high incidence (62.5 %) of radiological appearances of ischiofemoral impingement. Our study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal. These findings were in asymptomatic subjects; hence, radiologists and sports physicians should be aware of them in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. (orig.)

  18. The gymnasts' hip and groin: a magnetic resonance imaging study in asymptomatic elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, A.; Sykaras, E.; Milosis, D.; Karantanas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Specific patterns of developmental adaptation of the proximal femur have been recognized in some sports. Gymnastics are characterized by repetitive axial loading and hip rotations in combination with extreme hip positions. It is unknown how and if these forces can affect an immature skeleton in the long term. We sought to evaluate this, by means of magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and groin of such elite asymptomatic athletes. We performed a case-control comparative MR imaging study of both hips and groin of 12 (7 male, 5 female) skeletally mature young (mean age 18.6 years) asymptomatic international level gymnasts with a minimum of 10 years' training with age-matched non-athletes. At the time of recruitment, none of the athletes had a recorded musculoskeletal complaint or injury in the anatomical area around the hip. The study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal and are considered to be the result of adaptational changes to the specific sport: high centre-column-diaphysis angle (coxa valga140 on average), ligamentum teres hypertrophy, friction of the iliotibial band with oedema surrounding the greater trochanter, and a high incidence (62.5 %) of radiological appearances of ischiofemoral impingement. Our study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal. These findings were in asymptomatic subjects; hence, radiologists and sports physicians should be aware of them in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. (orig.)

  19. Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2013-01-01

    Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were quantified by video-analysis. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20 maximal trampoline jump (20-MTJ) performances were assessed. Heart rate (HR) and quadriceps muscle temperature (Tm) were recorded and venous blood was drawn. A total of 252 ± 16 jumps were performed during the STC. CMJ performance declined (P trampoline gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition.

  20. Physiological pattern changes in response to a simulated competition in elite women artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Ennequin, Gaël; Cassirame, Johan; Tordi, Nicolas

    2017-08-04

    The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate i) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and ii) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and a simulated four event competition. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded throughout the duration of the simulated competition. Blood lactate concentrations were assessed at rest, before the beginning and at 2, 4 and 10 min after completion of the routine on each apparatus. Isometric handgrip strength and anaerobic endurance and power were assessed during the simulated competition. The highest values of HR and blood lactate concentrations were reached during the floor and uneven bar exercises. Blood lactate concentrations and HR kinetics were apparatus dependent and values remained significantly increased at 10 min of recovery compared with resting data. Anaerobic endurance and power decreased significantly as the competition progressed (P <0.001). The present results show specifically cardiorespiratory and anaerobic apparatus- dependent responses throughout a simulated competition. Recovery approaches appear relevant to prevent and/or minimize fatigue and optimize performance in these athletes.

  1. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  2. MR imaging in the assessment of the thoracolumbar spine in elite male gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Svard, L.; Hellstrom, M.; Jakobsson, B.; Peterson, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gymnasts training on elite level from childhood to adulthood might do serious damage to the motion segments in the thoracolumbar spine. This paper reports on twenty-five elite gymnasts (age range, 18-29 years) investigated with 0.5-T MR imaging and compared with 17 aged-matched normal males. A significantly higher number of changes in configuration of the vertebrae, apophyseal changes, end plate nodes, degenerated disks, and disk bulging in the thoracolumbar spine were found among the gymnasts. The number of degenerated disks among the gymnasts were comparable to that found at the age group of 65. Disk degeneration and change of configuration of the vertebrae were also found to correlate significantly with symptoms of back pain

  3. Lumbar lordosis in female collegiate dancers and gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Amanda M; Kenworthy, Kristen L; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V

    2014-12-01

    Postural deviations can predispose an individual to increased injury risk. Specifically, lumbar deviations are related to increased low back pain and injury. Dancers and gymnasts are anecdotally suggested to have exaggerated lumbar lordosis and subsequently may be at increased risk of lumbar pathologies. Our objective was to examine lumbar lordosis levels in dancers and gymnasts. We examined lumbar lordosis in 47 healthy collegiate females (17 dancers, 29 gymnasts; mean age 20.2 ± 1.6 yrs) using 2-dimensional sagittal plane photographs and the Watson MacDonncha Posture Analysis instrument. Participants' lordosis levels were cross-tabulated and a Mann-Whitney U-test compared lumbar lordosis between groups (plordosis deviations. The distribution of lordosis was similar across groups (p=0.22). Most dancers and gymnasts had moderate or marked lumbar lordosis. The extreme ranges of motion required during dancing and gymnastics may contribute to the participants' high lumbar lordosis. Instructors should be aware that there may be links between repetitive hyperextension activities and lumbar lordosis levels in dancers and gymnasts. Thus, they should proactively examine lumbar lordosis in their dancers and gymnasts. How much age of training onset, regimens, survivor bias, or other factors influence lumbar lordosis requires study. Longitudinal studies are also needed to determine if lumbar lordosis levels influence lumbar injury incidence in dancers and gymnasts.

  4. Autonomy, Eating Disorders and Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Tan, Jacinta

    2017-01-01

    Participation in elite sport, and in particular those sports with special demands in terms of weight and shape, is associated with a higher risk for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa [Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Torstveit, M. K. (2010). Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high intensity sports. "Scandinavian Journal of…

  5. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  6. THE SCORE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ELITE EUROPEN JUNIOR AND SENIOR WOMEN GYMNASTS

    OpenAIRE

    Erceg, Tina; Delaš Kalinski, Sunčica; Milić, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Artistic gymnastics is generally determined by the rules of the gymnastics Code of Points and long-term processes of learning gymnastics skills. Though intensive, the career of women gymnasts is relatively short, so with the goal of prolonging it the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG-a) prescribes junior women gymnasts should apply easier dismounts than senior gymnasts. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of junior routines (N=88) and their differences in relatio...

  7. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Marian K J; van den Berg, Berber R; Denissen, Ad J M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha brain activity has been associated with neural inhibition during processes of selective attention, for improving efficiency in information processing. Here we hypothesised that eyes open alpha power training by music teaches athletes to (1) learn to self-regulate their brain activity, and (2) learn to increase their baseline alpha power, herewith improving mental capacities such as focusing the allocation of attention. The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Twelve elite gymnasts were either given eyes open alpha power training or random beta power training (controls). Results indicate small improvements in sleep quality, mental and physical shape. In our first attempt at getting a grip on mental capacities in athletes, we think this novel training method can be promising. Because gymnastics is one of the most mentally demanding sports, we value even small benefits for the athlete and consider them indicative for future research.

  8. Knowledge, Nutrition and Coaching Pedagogy: A Perspective from Female Brazilian Olympic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carly; Schiavon, Laurita Marconi; Bellotto, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    It is acknowledged that knowledge and knowledge bases are an important part of coach and athlete learning and that the coach-athlete relationship is crucial to knowledge created, shared and used. This said knowledge about nutrition as constructed by elite gymnasts would seem particularly important in a culture long associated with weight control…

  9. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

    2010-12-01

    Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport.

  10. The acute effects of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility in young female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Warcup, Caisa N; Seeley, Matthew K; Eggett, Dennis; Feland, Jeffery B

    2018-01-10

    While stretching with vibration has been shown to improve static flexibility; the effect of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of stretching with vibration on acute dynamic flexibility and jump height in novice and advanced competitive female gymnasts during a split jump. Female gymnast (n=27, age: 11.5 ± 1.7 years, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) participated in this cross-over study. Dynamic flexibility during gymnastic split jumps were video recorded and analyzed with Dartfish software. All participants completed both randomized stretching protocols with either the vibration platform turned on (VIB) (frequency of 30 Hz and 2 mm amplitude) or off (NoVIB) separated by 48 h. Participants performed 4 sets of three stretches on the vibration platform. Each stretch was held for 30 s with 5 s rest for a total of 7 min of stretch. Split jump flexibility decreased significantly from pre to post measurement in both VIB (-5.8°±5.9°) (p<0.001) and NoVIB (-2.6°±6.1°) (p=0.041) conditions (adjusted for gymnast level). This effect was greatest in lower skill level gymnasts (p=0.003), while the highest skill level gymnasts showed no significant decrease in the split jump (p=0.105). Jump height was not significantly different between conditions (p=0.892) or within groups (p=0.880). An acute session of static stretching with or without vibration immediately before performance does not alter jump height. Stretching with vibration immediately prior to gymnastics competition decreases split jump flexibility in lower level gymnasts more than upper level gymnasts.

  11. Training intensity and sagittal curvature of the spine in male and female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Mengibar, Jose M; Sainz-de-Baranda, Pilar; Santonja-Medina, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    Specific adaptations of the spine in the sagittal plane have been described according to different sports disciplines. The goal of this study was to describe the integrative diagnosis of the sagittal morphotype of the spine in male and female artistic gymnasts. Forty-eight gymnasts were measured with an inclinometer. Thoracic and lumbar curves were quantified in standing position, in Sit and Reach and Slump Sitting in order to assess the sagittal spine posture and analyze if adaptations were related to training intensity. Correlation values of the sagittal plane spine measurements showed significantly increased thoracic kyphosis in men (-0.445, Partistic gymnastics; however, this sport seems to cause specific adaptations in postural hypolordosis, functional thoracic kyphosis and lumbar kyphotic attitude during sitting and trunk flexion. The implications of the functional adaptations observed in our results may require a preventive intervention in male and female artistic gymnasts can be assessed with the integrative diagnosis of the sagittal morphotype of the spine.

  12. Gymnastics and politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    The first international biography of Niels Bukh (1880-1950), the charismatic founder of the special Danish school of modern gymnastics. His team of young elite gymnasts travelled around the world demonstrating his gymnastics, making Bukh reputably the most internationally well-known Dane during t...

  13. Talent in Female Gymnastics: a Survival Analysis Based upon Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, J; Lenoir, M; Vandorpe, B; Segers, V

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the link between the anthropometric, physical and motor characteristics assessed during talent identification and dropout in young female gymnasts. 3 cohorts of female gymnasts (n=243; 6-9 years) completed a test battery for talent identification. Performance-levels were monitored over 5 years of competition. Kaplan-Meier and Cox Proportional Hazards analyses were conducted to determine the survival rate and the characteristics that influence dropout respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that only 18% of the female gymnasts that passed the baseline talent identification test survived at the highest competition level 5 years later. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model indicated that gymnasts with a score in the best quartile for a specific characteristic significantly increased chances of survival by 45-129%. These characteristics being: basic motor skills (129%), shoulder strength (96%), leg strength (53%) and 3 gross motor coordination items (45-73%). These results suggest that tests batteries commonly used for talent identification in young female gymnasts may also provide valuable insights into future dropout. Therefore, multidimensional test batteries deserve a prominent place in the selection process. The individual test results should encourage trainers to invest in an early development of basic physical and motor characteristics to prevent attrition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Burke D.; Taylor, Patricia A.; Weiner, Jay

    2002-01-01

    During the women's all-around gymnastics final at the 2000 Olympics, the vault was inadvertently set 5 cm too low for a random half of the gymnasts. The error was widely viewed as undermining their confidence and subsequent performance. However, data from pretest and posttest scores on the vault, bars, beam, and floor indicated that the vault…

  15. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P  0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P  0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.

  16. Anaerobic power and muscle strength characteristics of 11 years old elite and non-elite boys and girls from gymnastics, team handball, tennis and swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencke, J; Damsgaard, R; Saekmose, A; Jørgensen, P; Jørgensen, K; Klausen, K

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible effects of specificity of training on muscle strength and anaerobic power in children from different sports and at different performance levels in relation to growth and maturation status. Hundred and eighty-four children of both gender participating either in swimming, tennis, team handball or gymnastics were recruited from the best clubs in Denmark. Within each sport, the coach had divided the children into an elite (E) and non-elite (NE) group according to performance level and talent. Tanner stage assessment and body weight and height measurements were performed by a physician. The anaerobic performances were assessed by Wingate tests and jumping performance in squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) from two heights. Most of the differences between groups in Wingate performance disappeared when the data were normalised to body mass. The gymnasts were the best jumpers and their superiority were increased in the more complex motor coordination tasks like DJ. The results may indicate some influence of training specificity, especially on the more complex motor tasks as DJ and there may be an effect of training before puberty. The performance in the less complex motor tasks like cycling and SJ and CMJ may also be influenced by specific training, but not to the same extent, and heritance may be an important factor for performance in these anaerobic tasks.

  17. The immediate effect of vibration therapy on flexibility in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immediate effect of vibration therapy on flexibility in female junior elite gymnasts. ... Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of vibration therapy on the flexibility of female gymnasts. A pre-test ... Keywords: Static stretching, vibration training, vibration therapy, acute effect, artistic gymnastics.

  18. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoli Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. Methods 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD. A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. Results No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p  Conclusions Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a

  19. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Grimaldi, Keith; D'Agostino, Dominic; Cenci, Lorenzo; Moro, Tatiana; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2012-07-26

    Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes' usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass. Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a relatively

  20. Projection of male fantasies: The creation of 'scientific' female gymnastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2012-01-01

    . Lindhard's importance in the history of gymnastics is mainly attributable to the fact that he had a huge influence in the ‘gendering’ of the behavioural codes of conduct and the formulation of a gender-specific movement programme aimed at the socialisation of boys and girls as well as men and women...... in accordance with the new gender roles of the emerging capitalist society with its strict division of education and labour between the two sexes. Lindhard clearly supported ‘difference-feminism’ in contrast to ‘resemblance-feminism’. These two concepts of femininity clashed in a fierce struggle in the inter...

  1. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  2. Kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Rathi, B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players. A total forty elite and non-elite level female softball players were selected from the different colleges affiliated to the Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, for the present study. The height of subjects was measured by using the standard anthropometric rod. Weight was measured with portable weighing machine. Widths and diameters of body parts were measured by using digital caliper. Girths and lengths were taken with steel tape. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using the Slimguide skinfold caliper. All subjects were also assessed for performance tests i.e. vertical jump, 50m sprint, medicine ball throw, 10×4m shuttle run and reaction time. Independent samples t-test reveals that elite female softball players were significantly taller (Psoftball players also had significantly greater biacromial (Psoftball players. The non-elite female softball players were found to have significantly greater thigh circumference (Psoftball players. The non-elite players were also found to have significantly higher percentage body fat (Psoftball players. The elite female softball players had significantly greater kinanthropometric characteristics, body composition and performance characteristics than the non-elite female softball players.

  3. Relations between female students' personality traits and reported handicaps to rhythmic gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Champely, Stephane; Brunel, Philippe C

    2005-04-01

    The present study evaluated the relative contributions of Self-esteem, Trait anxiety, and Public Self-consciousness to self-handicapping on a sex-typed task, within a specific academic sport context. Prior to the competitive examination used to recruit French Physical Education Teachers, female sport students (N = 74) were asked to list and rate on a 7-point scale handicaps which could be disruptive to their Rhythmic Gymnastics performance. Self-esteem did not account for significant variance in any category of handicaps. Trait Anxiety was negatively related to handicaps related to Rhythmic Gymnastics and to Social and Work Commitments. Public Self-consciousness was significantly related to endorsement of Friends and Family Commitments handicaps. These results were discussed in relation to the literature.

  4. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hall

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT on handspring vault (HV performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05 were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  5. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  6. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR, the rhythmic gymnastics (GRI and the synchronized swimming (NAS elite sportswomen. Thirty two female ballet dancers of the National Cuban Ballet School and sixty three elite sportswomen who practice aesthetic sports in Cuba have been studied for the purpose. An anthropometric protocol of sixteen measures has been applied to calculate the kinanthropometric indexes of the corporal mass composition’s component. The general percentage of the fat mass (PMG in the ballet dancers was found statistically different to the GAR and GRI groups, but this one was similar in comparison with NAS group. Mayor muscle mass general percentage (PMM was obtained in the GAR and GRI groups, in comparison with the dancers. The ballet group showed the minor differential PMM-PMG, and muscular percentage of the transverse areas of the segments of extremities than the elite athlete groups. The data classified the ballet group as the one of less potential efficiency of technical and transitive movement than the other ones.

  7. Risk factors for precompetitive sleep behavior in elite female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria-Raquel; Paiva, Teresa

    2018-06-07

    Sleep is of major importance for the athletes' short and long-term health, performance and recovery; however, published studies on athletes' sleep and even fewer before competition are scarce. This study evaluated the risk factors of sleep in young female gymnasts before an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (M=18.7,SD=2.9yrs.) of high performance (M=36.6,SD=7.6h/week) were evaluated regarding training and sport practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A, and detailed dietary intake just prior to a world competition. The majority of the participants (83.6%) presented reduced body fat levels (M=9.1,SD=2.1%) and low energy availability (M=31.5,SD=11.9kcal/kgFFM/day). They slept 8h10±1h30/night on weekdays and 8h40±00h40/night on weekends, 67% suffered from mild daytime sleepiness and 78% had a reduced sleep quality. Precompetitive anxiety was on average moderate (M=22.7,SD=3.2). The risk factors for short sleep duration were: 1.92 for a training volume>30hours/week (95%CI 0.84-4.39), 4.57 for menstruation (95%CI 1.17- 17.77), 6.62 for bedtime≥11:00PM (95%CI 1.74-25.10), 1.40 for BFsleep duration on weekdays and precompetitive stress were also predictors for a reduced sleep quality and/or abnormal daytime sleepiness. Age, training regime, menstruation, individual preferences for bedtime, body composition and energy were important predictors of gymnasts' precompetitive sleep with consequences upon their sleep duration, SQ and DS.

  8. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  9. INFLUENCE OF COMPETITIVE EXPERIENCE ON STATIC POSTURAL BALANCE IN A GROUP OF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS OF HIGH LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Scursatone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic gymnastics is the unique female sport which includes aspects of both artistic gymnastics and dance and is characterized by the use of small apparatuses (e.g., rope, clubs, ribbon, hoop and ball. Many studies compared the balance ability of athletes from different sports, underlying that gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability (Hrysomallis, 2011; Bressel, Yonker, Kras & Heath, 2007. No literature analysed the influence of  the competitive experience of rhytmic gymnasts on the static postural balance.Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of years of competitive experience, hours of physical training and competition level on static postural balance in elite rhythmic gymnastics female athletes.  

  10. Physical Performance in Elite Male and Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Patrick; Fusco, Andrea; Fuchs, Philip; Bell, W Jeffrey; Duvillard, Serge P

    2018-06-12

    Biological differences between men and women are well known; however, literature-addressing knowledge about the influence of sex to specific and general performance in team handball is almost nonexistent. Consequently, the aim of the study was to assess and compare specific and general physical performance in male and female elite team handball players, to determine if the differences are consequential for general compared to specific physical performance characteristics and the relationship between general and specific physical performance. Twelve male and ten female elite team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper- und lower-body strength and power tests, a sprinting test, and an incremental treadmill-running test. Significant differences (Phandball specific tests compared to the general tests. Our findings also suggest that female players should focus more on strength training.

  11. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Barbero-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET, until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR, VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b and running speeds (km • h -2 . During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1, 12.5±1.77 km • h -2 , 197±8 beats • min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km • h -2 , 199±8 beats • min-1 and 2.5±2.2 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p<0.0001 with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  12. Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poświata Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.

  13. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack Majgaard

    2010-01-01

    .06 +/- 0.06 seconds after the game, which was 4% slower (p game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both......Krustrup, P, Zebis, M, Jensen, JM, and Mohr, M. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res 24(2): 437-441, 2010-The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier...... League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood...

  14. Evaluation criteria of the individual motor predisposition of female sport gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczynski T.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper were presented the results of research, aimed to improve criteria for assessing the motor predisposition of girls in sports gymnastics at the initial stage of training. The studies included 24 gymnasts divided into two age groups: A 6,0-7,5 years of age and B (8,3-13,0. The level of physical fitness was assessed with the use of the EUROFIT battery tests. easurements of the maximum moment of muscle strength in the bending forearm in the elbow joint in terms of isometric contraction were also performed. Assessment f the level of individual strengthspeed and coordination abilities and physical fitness structure including the pace of biological development were the basis for the development of objective criteria for assessing the sports predispositions of young gymnasts at the initial stage of training. Our results provide the basis for improving the control system and optimization of assessment criteria in women gymnastics, including age, training experience and sports level. The results presented in this paper demonstrated the usefulness of the research methodology used to assess the physical fitness and predispositions of gymnasts at the initial stage of training, what enables individualization of training process.

  15. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2018-02-01

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  16. Women on board: female board membership as a form of elite democratization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Fennema, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate elites have been all-male bastions until the twenty-first century. The recent inclusion of women in the corporate elite needs explanation because it is an abrupt change in recruitment practices. We consider female presence in corporate boards as a sign of the democratization of elite

  17. The perfect gymnast: does he exist? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Visscher; Marije Elferink-Gemser; L. Louer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to create an all-round profile of the elite artistic gymnast. Therefore, an extended literature search was performed in PubMed and PsycINFO databases. The main inclusion criteria were that the content of the article was about artistic gymnastics and that the gymnasts were

  18. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. Methods: Fifteen top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data were digitized by the Simi motion software. The Hay and Reid method was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear and angular motions of the handspring and front somersault vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges' scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p < .05. Results: In the Akopian vaults, in five out of 24 variables arising from the deterministic model showed a significant relationship to the score. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body center of mass in the second flight phase, in the height of the body center of mass at the mat touchdown, in the change of the vertical velocity during the take-off from the vaulting table, and in the duration of the second flight phase. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Akopian vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to maximize the change in vertical velocity in the table contact phase and maximize vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to maximize the amplitude of the second flight phase, which is determined by the duration of the second flight phase, by the maximum

  19. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack M; Mohr, Magni

    2010-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood lactate was 5.1 +/- 0.5 mmol.L after the first half, which was higher (p game, which was 62% lower (p game, which was 4% slower (p game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both at rest (r = -0.76, p game (r = -0.66, p game does cause marked impairment in intense intermittent exercise and repeated sprint performance but does not affect vertical jump performance. These findings support the notion that decrements in distance covered by sprinting and high-speed running toward the end of elite female games are caused by fatigue.

  20. Periodization and physical performance in elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L; Ball, Nick B

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the variation in training demands, physical performance, and player well-being across a women's soccer season. Seventeen elite female players wore GPS tracking devices during every training session (N=90) throughout 1 national-league season. Intermittent high-speed-running capacity and 5-, 15-, and 25-m-sprint testing were conducted at the beginning of preseason, end of preseason, midseason, and end of season. In addition, subjective well-being measures were self-reported daily by players over the course of the season. Time over 5 m was lowest at the end of preseason (mean 1.148 s, SE 0.017 s) but then progressively deteriorated to the end of the season (Pperformance over 15 m improved by 2.8% (P=.013) after preseason training, while 25-m-sprint performance peaked at midseason, with a 3.1% (P=.05) improvement from the start of preseason, before declining at the end of season (P=.023). Training demands varied between phases, with total distance and high-speed distance greatest during preseason before decreasing (Pphysical performance in elite female soccer players allow coaches to ensure that training periodization goals are being met and related positive training adaptations are being elicited.

  1. Match Performance and Physiological Capacity of Female Elite Team Handball Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches...

  2. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  3. Nutrition status of junior elite Canadian female soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer C; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth; Martin, Steven; Gaul, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent female team-sport athletes are faced with the challenge of meeting nutrition requirements for growth and development, as well as sport performance. There is a paucity of evidence describing the dietary adequacy of this population in respect to these physiological demands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the nutrition status of junior elite female soccer athletes. A total of 33 athletes (15.7 ± 0.7 yr) completed anthropometric assessment, 4-day food records analyzed for macro- and micronutrient intake, and hematological analysis. Energy expenditure was estimated using predictive equations. Mean sum of 7 skinfolds was 103.1 ± 35.2 mm, and body-mass index was 22.7 ± 2.7. Mean energy intake was 2,079 ± 460 kcal/day, and estimated energy expenditure was 2,546 ± 190 kcal/day. Of the athletes, 51.5% consumed nutrition status may affect soccer performance and physiological growth and development. More research is needed to understand the unique nutrition needs of this population and inform sport nutrition practice and research.

  4. Impact of Gatorade Beverage on Elite Female Badminton Players’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Mehraein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports beverages assumed as one the principle factor on players' performance, and impact on their indicators, noticeably. Gatorade beverage is one of this primary beverages that in present study focused on its impact on elite female badminton players' performance in Iran. In the present survey has been considered in 2 groups of Gatorade and control that included 79 participants. The data has been got based on 24 hours’ recall questionnaire on three different days in every week. As well, skin folds’ brachial triceps index was applied for body fat percent assessment. To quantity VO2max, Shuttle runs sub-maximal test was used. Also, for controlling fluid intake in every two groups based on players’ body weight,150 ml per every 70 kg weight for every 15 minutes was recommended. Besides, for control of blood volume changes related to plasma blood glucose, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, and potassium was measured during three time periods of zero, 30 minutes after the start and 90 minutes after the start. To end, to measure performance, standardized tests measure the indicators: aerobic power, speed, flexibilityy, agility, muscular strength, and endurance were used. The results showed that supply adequate water and fluids in during of sport, play a critical role in gaining the high level of female badminton players’ performance. In truth, the players who supply enough water shown better performance as compared with those who provide Gatorade beverage.

  5. Personality of Elite Male and Female Chess Players and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstadt-Klein, Sabine; Grimm, Oliver; Kirsch, Peter; Bilalic, Merim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas a lot of studies examine cognitive processes in chess players, personality profiles of elite chess players are still not described well. The aim of this study was to examine personality of strong chess experts and its influence on chess skill. We tested elite male and female chess players with Freiburg Personality Inventory Revised…

  6. Initial years of recreational artistic gymnastics training improves lumbar spine bone mineral accrual in 4- to 8-year-old females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Emma M; Wilson, Alissa R; Modlesky, Christopher M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D

    2005-03-01

    Gymnasts' bone mineral characteristics are generally not known before starting their sport. Prepubertal females who enrolled in beginning artistic gymnastics (n = 65) had lower bone mineral than controls (n = 78). However, 2 years of gymnastics participation versus no participation led to a significantly greater accrual of forearm bone area and lumbar spine areal BMD. The skeletal response to exercise in children compared with adults is heightened because of the high bone turnover rate and the ability of bone to change its size and shape. Whereas child gymnasts generally have greater rates of bone mineral accrual compared with nongymnasts, it is unknown if some of these skeletal advantages are present before the onset of training or are caused entirely by training. Changes in bone area (BA; cm2), BMC (g), and areal BMD (aBMD; g/cm2) over 24 months were examined in prepubertal females, 4-8 years of age, who selected to perform recreational gymnastics (GYM; n = 65), nongymnastic activities, or no organized activity (CON; n = 78). Participants had essentially no lifetime history of organized athletic participation (spine, total proximal femur, and forearm BA, BMC, and aBMD were measured every 6 months using DXA (Hologic QDR-1000W). Independent samples t-tests determined baseline group differences. Nonlinear mixed effects models were used to model 24-month changes in bone data. In subset analyses, high-level gymnasts advancing to competition (HLG; n = 9) were compared with low-level nonadvancing gymnasts (LLG; n = 56). At baseline, GYM were shorter, lighter, and had lower BA, BMC, and aBMD compared with CON (p 0.05). Controlling for differences in race, baseline measures of body mass, height, and calcium intake, and change in breast development beyond stage II at 24 months, GYM had greater long-term (asymptotic) mean responses for total body aBMD and forearm BMC (p spine aBMD and forearm BA compared with CON over 24 months. Over time, forearm BA increased to a greater

  7. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  8. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS ON BALANCE DEVELOPMENT AT THE SCHOOL CLASES OF YOUNG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FEMALE PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Aleksić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Balance is, in this work, important to three different balances: elementary balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position at minimal lean area, visual difficult balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position without visual control, and dynamic difficult balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position with center of gravity above the lean area, in spite of external forces difficulties. The battery for the evaluation of balance consists of three following tests: MPSG, MHNG, MSJN. During the 2005/06 academic year, a research was conducted so as to determine the effects of rhythmic gymnastics` program of physical education teaching on balance of female pupils. The subjects (N=99 were classified in experimental and control groups. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. Research data was processed using the multi-variant procedures MANCOVA, MANOVA, and mono-variant procedures ANCOVA, ANOVA i interval of entrust in distinction declined mean. After the experimental treatment, it was concluded that there are significant differences between female pupils in experimental and control groups i interest of experimental group evaluation of balance. The basic conclusion is that the female pupils of experimental group achieved significantly higher teaching effects than the control group, in view of partly increased motor abilities, being the result of the effects of the experimental treatment, as well as other external and internal factors. The main conclusion was that experimental treatment contributed better results in balance estimation tests in female pupils experimental group.

  9. elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-05-01

    As usual, there are a lot of questions, much more than the answers. The questions are urgent and uneasy. Well, the greater the journal’s chances to become interesting, comprehensive and elite, in a good sense.

  10. Principles of macro-methodic of junior female gymnasts’ training to sport exercises for gymnastic all round competitions at specialized basic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: working out of principles of junior female gymnasts’ macro-methodic training to sport exercises for all round competitions at stage of specialized basic training. Material: in the research 19 girl-gymnasts from reserve of combined team of Romania participated. Measurements and assessment of technical fitness at training sessions and in conditions of competitions were conducted at 120 training sessions (10 sessions a week. Results: we worked out and realized experimentally and in training sessions principles of macro-methodic training to gymnastic exercises. Macro-methodic of training is presented in structure of long-term programs of training for all round competitions. Macro-methodic is presented as combination of elements of motor, technical, didactic and technological structures of sport exercises (in the present article it was described on material of vaults of Yurchenko’s type. Conclusions: macro-methodic permits to state optimal algorithm of mastering of theoretical and practical materials at training sessions. Besides, it permits to demonstrate steady growth of sport results at competitions. With it individual-age features of junior female gymnasts, tendencies and specialists’ requirements are considered.

  11. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous...... occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P ... 1490 ± 447, 1261 ± 449, and 994 ± 373 m). For elite senior female players, wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P 

  12. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  13. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  14. Comparison of the Dietary Habits of Elite Turkish Male and Female Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Orhan Ahmet; Güner, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional habits affect performance directly or indirectly in weight class included sports. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary habits of elite female and male weightlifters. After getting official records of athletes from Turkish Weightlifting Federation, a survey was conducted on several factors of the athletes such as weight…

  15. Overload and neovascularization of Achilles tendons in young artistic and rhythmic gymnasts compared with controls: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Di Leo, M; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is very high in young female gymnasts (17.5 %). According to literature, ecography screenings show the tendons thickening, but at the same time it does not reveal a direct link to the clinical picture. The neovessels are involved in the pathophysiological process of Achilles tendinopathy. For this reason, we wanted to verify there between perfusion tendon values and the type of sport activity. We performed a clinical observational study monitoring the oximetry of the Achilles tendon and the epidemiological data of 52 elite female (artistic and rhythmic) gymnasts versus 21 age-matched controls. Analyzing the main limb, we revealed statistically higher oximetry values in the artistic gymnasts group (69.5 %) compared to the rhythmic gymnasts group (67.1 %) (t = 2.13; p = 0.01) and the sedentary group (66.2 %) (t = 2.70; p = 0.004), but we did not find any differences between rhythmic gymnasts group and the sedentary group (t = 0.68; p = 0.24). The multiple logistic regression model highlighted that the oximetry value of the main limb is not influenced by age, knowledge of the main limb, years of general and gymnastic sports activity (p > 0.05). We discovered an increase of Achilles tendon perfusion in the main limb in the artistic gymnast group. We hypothesize that specific figures of artistic sports activity are responsible for muscle overload and gastrocnemius-soleus group and, at the same time, these figures cause hyperperfusion of the tendon. Prospective longitudinal studies could explain if this could become a predictive sign of the next Achilles tendinopathy onset.

  16. Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a 13-year-old female gymnast with hyperlaxity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3–6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820

  17. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Legg; David B. Pyne; Stuart Semple; Nick Ball

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height,...

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL DEMANDS OF YOUNG WOMEN’S COMPETITIVE GYMNASTIC ROUTINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological indices of competitive routines in women’s artistic gymnastics by characterizing post-exercise heart rate (HR, oxygen uptake (VO2 and peak blood lactate concentration (Lmax in a group of eight young elite-oriented female gymnasts. HR was continuously monitored with Polar RS400 monitors during the test event simulating a competition environment. Within 5 s of the end of each routine, the breath-by-breath gas analyser mask was placed on the face to record VO2. VO2max was calculated by the backward extrapolation method of the VO2 recovery curve. Lmax was obtained during recovery (min 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 subsequent to each event. One week later, HR, VO2 and Lmax were measured during an incremental continuous treadmill test. The treadmill test was confirmed as the assessment with the highest physiological demand. The gymnasts reached their highest values of HR (183-199 beats · min- 1, VO2/Bm (33-44 ml · kg-1 · min-1 and Lmax (7-9 mmol · l-1 in the floor and uneven bars exercises. The vault was the event with the lowest HR (154-166 beats · min-1 and Lmax (2.4-2.6 mmol · l-1, and the balance beam had the lowest VO2 (27-35 ml · kg-1 · min-1. The mean relative peak intensities attained in the different events, which ranged from 65 to 85% of the individual VO2max and HRmax recorded in the laboratory, suggest that cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands are higher than previously indicated. The high percentage of VO2 measured, particularly after the floor event, suggests that aerobic power training should not be neglected in women’s artistic gymnastics.

  19. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  20. Strength and Jump Biomechanics of Elite and Recreational Female Youth Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Tencer, Allan F.; Mack, Christopher D.; Levy, Marni R.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Most researchers investigating soccer injuries have studied elite athletes because they have greater athletic-exposure hours than other athletes, but most youth participate at the recreational level. If risk factors for injury vary by soccer level, then recommendations generated using research with elite youth soccer players might not generalize to recreational players. Objective To examine injury risk factors of strength and jump biomechanics by soccer level in female youth athletes and to determine whether research recommendations based on elite youth athletes could be generalized to recreational players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Seattle Youth Soccer Association. Patients or Other Participants Female soccer players (N = 92) aged 11 to 14 years were recruited from 4 randomly selected elite (n = 50; age = 12.5 years, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) = 12.3, 12.8 years; height = 157.8 cm, 95% CI = 155.2, 160.3 cm; mass = 49.9 kg, 95% CI = 47.3, 52.6 kg) and 4 randomly selected recreational (n = 42; age = 13.2 years, 95% CI = 13.0, 13.5 years; height = 161.1 cm, 95% CI = 159.2, 163.1 cm; mass = 50.6 kg, 95% CI = 48.3, 53.0 kg) soccer teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) Players completed a questionnaire about demographics, history of previous injury, and soccer experience. Physical therapists used dynamometry to measure hip strength (abduction, adduction, extension, flexion) and knee strength (flexion, extension) and Sportsmetrics to measure vertical jump height and jump biomechanics. We compared all measurements by soccer level using linear regression to adjust for age and mass. Results Elite players were similar to recreational players in all measures of hip and knee strength, vertical jump height, and normalized knee separation (a valgus estimate generated using Sportsmetrics). Conclusions Female elite youth players and recreational players had similar lower extremity strength and jump biomechanics. This suggests that recommendations generated from

  1. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings......, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  2. Assessing the Energy Expenditure of Elite Female Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total and exercise energy expenditure of elite female soccer players during a training week. Eight elite female soccer players wore SenseWear Mini Armbands (SWAs) for 7 consecutive days during the preseason phase of a national league competition. In addition, players wore 15-Hz GPSports tracking devices during 4 training sessions and a friendly game. Total energy expenditure, exercise energy expenditure, and training and game demands were collected from the SWA and GPSports devices. Mean daily energy expenditure for the game day, training days, and rest days were 12,242 kJ (SD = 603 kJ), 11,692 (SD = 274 kJ), and 9,516 (SD = 369 kJ), respectively, with significant differences shown between activities (p soccer players. Nutritional intake should be adjusted accordingly to avoid energy imbalances for optimal performance and recovery.

  3. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (Pvertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, Pvertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  4. Reference Values of Aortic Root in Male and Female White Elite Athletes According to Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraita, Araceli; Heras, Maria-Eugenia; Morales, Francisco; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Canda, Alicia; Rabadan, Manuel; Barriopedro, Maria-Isabel; Varela, Amai; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Tuñón, José

    2016-10-01

    There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m 2 and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Age, left ventricular mass, and body surface area were the main predictors of aortic dimensions. Raw values were greater in males than in females (Pvalues >40 mm and 34 mm, respectively. Raw and corrected aortic measures at all levels were significantly greater in sports, with a high dynamic component in both sexes, except for corrected values of the sinotubular junction in women. Aortic root dimensions in healthy elite athletes are within the established limits for the general population. This study describes the normal dimensions for healthy elite athletes classified according to sex and dynamic and static components of their sports. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaverova Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women’s Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8 or the Women’s National Handball Team (NT, n=9. The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric and 60°/s (eccentric. The Mann- Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02. However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  6. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverova, Zuzana; Dirnberger, Johannes; Lehnert, Michal; Belka, Jan; Wagner, Herbert; Orechovska, Karolina

    2015-12-22

    Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women's Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8) or the Women's National Handball Team (NT, n=9). The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric) and 60°/s (eccentric). The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD) for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02). However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  7. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  8. Speed and countermovement-jump characteristics of elite female soccer players, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among elite players over a 15-y period. 194 female elite players (22± 4.1 y, 63 ± 5.6 kg), including an Olympic winning squad, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic training center from 1995 to 2010. Moderate to large velocity differences across performance levels and positions were observed. National-team players were 2% faster than 1st-division players (P = .027, d = 0.5) and 5% faster than 2nd-division players (P players jumped 8-9% higher than 1st-division players (P = .001, d = 0.6) and junior elite players (P = .023, d = 0.5). Forwards were 3-4% faster than midfielders (P Players from 2006-2010 were 2% faster (P players from 1995-1999 over 20 m, whereas no differences in 20- to 40-m velocity or CMJ performance were observed. This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, age, and player position on sprint and CMJ performance in female soccer players. While 20- to 40-m velocity and CMJ performance have remained stable over the time, there has been a moderate but positive development in 0- to 20-m velocity among elite performers.

  9. The Influence of Match-Day Napping in Elite Female Netball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Shannon; Beaven, Christopher M; Driller, Matthew

    2018-03-15

    To assess the effect of match-day napping and duration of naps on perceptual and performance indices in elite female netball players over two consecutive netball seasons. Fourteen elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yr) participated in an observational study over 26 competition matches. On each match day, athletes provided information on their napping habits, perceived energy levels, and then performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) 3h30 prior to the start of the match. One hour following the match, subjective player performance ratings from the players and two members of the coaching staff were obtained. Naps were characterized into 3 conditions for analysis; No Nap (NN), Nap (SHORT), and ≥20 min Nap (LONG). A significant difference in peak jump velocity was observed between the SHORT and the NN condition in favor of the shorter nap (3.23 ± 0.26 and 3.07 ± 0.36 m.s -1 , respectively, d = 0.34, p nap (<20 min) on the day of competition can enhance jump velocity and improve subjective performance in elite netball players, as assessed by coaching staff.

  10. Skating start propulsion: three-dimensional kinematic analysis of elite male and female ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Jaymee R; Robbins, Shawn M K; Dixon, Philippe C; Renaud, Philippe J; Turcotte, René A; Wu, Tom; Pearsall, David J

    2017-09-01

    The forward skating start is a fundamental skill for male and female ice hockey players. However, performance differences by athlete's sex cannot be fully explained by physiological variables; hence, other factors such as skating technique warrant examination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the body movement kinematics of ice hockey skating starts between elite male and female ice hockey participants. Male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) elite ice hockey players performed five forward skating start accelerations. An 18-camera motion capture system placed on the arena ice surface captured full-body kinematics during the first seven skating start steps within 15 meters. Males' maximum skating speeds were greater than females. Skating technique sex differences were noted: in particular, females presented ~10° lower hip abduction throughout skating stance as well as ~10° greater knee extension at initial ice stance contact, conspicuously followed by a brief cessation in knee extension at the moment of ice contact, not evident in male skaters. Further study is warranted to explain why these skating technique differences exist in relation to factors such as differences in training, equipment, performance level, and anthropometrics.

  11. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vansteenkiste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5% compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7% and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05. Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions.

  12. Video modeling by experts with video feedback to enhance gymnastics skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eva; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Batsche, Catherine; Fogel, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The effects of combining video modeling by experts with video feedback were analyzed with 4 female competitive gymnasts (7 to 10 years old) in a multiple baseline design across behaviors. During the intervention, after the gymnast performed a specific gymnastics skill, she viewed a video segment showing an expert gymnast performing the same skill and then viewed a video replay of her own performance of the skill. The results showed that all gymnasts demonstrated improved performance across three gymnastics skills following exposure to the intervention.

  13. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-12-01

    There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pagility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.

  14. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16 and under-18 (U18 female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05 higher values in upper (+21.2% and lower (+27.11% limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005. These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.

  15. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pjump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421

  16. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; pvolleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  17. Graded shuttle run performance by playing positions in elite female basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane

    2015-03-01

    A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.

  18. Iron deficiency and anemia: a common problem in female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Göran; Adolfsson, Peter; Börjesson, Mats; Mannheimer, Clas; Rödjer, Stig

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women's World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.

  19. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Influence choreographic readiness to gymnasts final assessment of performance skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Omelichyk-Ziurkalova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to provide a quantitative assessment and expert choreographic preparedness gymnasts. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts competition finalists in the floor exercise - female members of the Ukrainian national team in gymnastics. Results : the quantitative indicators of acrobatic and dance elements to determine the baseline assessment. Defined methods complications composition on the floor exercise by reducing the number of acrobatic lines and diagonals and increase the number of gymnastic elements. The theoretical performance of the composite sequence is improved structure and increases the difficulty of the exercise. Conclusions : in the process of composition complications need to pay more attention to the technique of performing gymnastic elements. In improving exercise choreography element replace (in some cases acrobatic element. Based on the results is planned future direction of research in order to improve the training process in gymnastics.

  1. Precompetitive assessment of heart rate variability in elite female athletes during play offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Alvino, Federico; Natali, Benedetta M; Cameli, Matteo; Palmitesta, Paola; Boschetti, Giampaolo; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been rarely applied in elite athletes prior to competition. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in HRV in elite female volleyball players before a stressful match during play offs and to evaluate the impact on sport-specific performance. A short-term resting HRV analysis was applied right after the night sleep in ten female athletes 1 and 2 days prior to the match and the day of the competition. Approaching the decisive match, RR interval, resting heart rate (HR), pNN50, rMSDD and SD1 did not significantly vary. SD2 significantly increased in comparison with first-day measurement (Psports exhibit a slight change in HRV prior to a decisive competition, without a pronounced variation of the autonomic nervous system activity. A day-to-day HRV measurement could be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of a competition on the autonomic nervous system in athletes, also considering the relationship between sympathetic activity and athletic performance. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...... (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side...... on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER...

  4. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yukari; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Sasamoto, Shigeko; Katoh, Youko; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different timings of milk intake on body iron stores and improvement in the dietary habit of female collegiate rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects took iron tablets at both breakfast and dinner times during a weight-loss period. In addition, subjects ingested low-fat milk twice a day either at breakfast or dinner (group I; n = 7), or between meals (group II; n = 6) for 3 mo. Blood was collected four times. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and erythropoietin concentrations were measured. Subjects completed a dietary survey for three consecutive days before each blood sampling. The mean body fat in both groups I and II was significantly lower after 3 mo than at the start of the study (p meals. In conclusion, iron-supplemented meals via milk ingestion did not decrease body iron stores and maintained higher body iron stores compared to a diet that included milk intake between meals. Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency.

  5. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A; Mohr, M; Wilkie, A; Datson, N; Orntoft, C; Zebis, M; Gomez-Diaz, A; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P World Cup Finals (2049 ± 283 vs 1803 ± 342 m). The data demonstrate that the Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and is an indicator of the match-specific physical capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test illustrates sensitivity by differentiating intermittent exercise performance of female players in various competitive levels, stages of the season and playing positions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DHA- RICH FISH OIL IMPROVES COMPLEX REACTION TIME IN FEMALE ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Guzmán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12 or olive oil (OO = 12 over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post and experimental group (FO/OO on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004 and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003. It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players

  7. Female adolescent elite handball players are more susceptible to shoulder problems than their male counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Martin; Holm, Lena W; Källberg, Henrik; Waldén, Markus; Skillgate, Eva

    2018-02-10

    Shoulder problems are frequent among senior elite handball players. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of shoulder problems among adolescent elite handball players and to investigate potential differences in gender, school grade, playing position and playing level. During the 2014 and 2015 pre-season periods, 471 players (age 15-18 years, 54% female) completed a comprehensive baseline questionnaire regarding history of any shoulder pain and shoulder problems experienced during the past season. The players were monitored weekly for one competition season (September-April) regarding shoulder problems and the amount of match and training. Generalised linear models with a binomial link function were used to calculate a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare the subgroups of players. In total, 110 players (23%) reported having substantial shoulder problems (defined as moderate/severe reduction in training volume, or moderate/severe reduction in performance, or complete inability to participate) at some point during the follow-up season, of which almost half reported complete inability to participate. Of those players reporting substantial problems, 43% (95% CI 39-48) did so for at least 3 consecutive weeks during the season. The prevalence was significantly higher in female players (PR 1.46, 95% 1.04-2.06) and in backcourt players (PR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.32), but no differences were found for school grade (PR 1.21 95% CI 0.88-1.67) or playing level (PR 1.09 95% CI 0.76-1.56). The prevalence of substantial shoulder problems in adolescent elite handball players is high, especially among females, and this warrants further studies on risk factors for shoulder injury and the development of prevention strategies in handball players already before the age of 15. These findings also highlight the importance of introducing a clinical monitoring programme on a routine basis and improving the medical support, taking gender

  8. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  9. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  10. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  11. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  12. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  13. The match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Joshua; Meylan, César; Varley, Matthew C; Cronin, John

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer players utilising GPS, using full-match and rolling period analyses. Longitudinal study. Elite female soccer players (n=45) from the same national team were observed during 55 international fixtures across 5 years (2012-2016). Data was analysed using a custom built MS Excel spreadsheet as full-matches and using a rolling 5-min analysis period, for all players who played 90-min matches (files=172). Variation was examined using co-efficient of variation and 90% confidence limits, calculated following log transformation. Total distance per minute exhibited the smallest variation when both the full-match and peak 5-min running periods were examined (CV=6.8-7.2%). Sprint-efforts were the most variable during a full-match (CV=53%), whilst high-speed running per minute exhibited the greatest variation in the post-peak 5-min period (CV=143%). Peak running periods were observed as slightly more variable than full-match analyses, with the post-peak period very-highly variable. Variability of accelerations (CV=17%) and Player Load (CV=14%) was lower than that of high-speed actions. Positional differences were also present, with centre backs exhibiting the greatest variation in high-speed movements (CV=41-65%). Practitioners and researchers should account for within player variability when examining match performances. Identification of peak running periods should be used to assist worst case scenarios. Whilst micro-sensor technology should be further examined as to its viable use within match-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  15. Modeling parameters that characterize pacing of elite female 800-m freestyle swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Patrycja; Allen, Sian V; Hopkins, Will G

    2016-01-01

    Pacing offers a potential avenue for enhancement of endurance performance. We report here a novel method for characterizing pacing in 800-m freestyle swimming. Websites provided 50-m lap and race times for 192 swims of 20 elite female swimmers between 2000 and 2013. Pacing for each swim was characterized with five parameters derived from a linear model: linear and quadratic coefficients for effect of lap number, reductions from predicted time for first and last laps, and lap-time variability (standard error of the estimate). Race-to-race consistency of the parameters was expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The average swim was a shallow negative quadratic with slowest time in the eleventh lap. First and last laps were faster by 6.4% and 3.6%, and lap-time variability was ±0.64%. Consistency between swimmers ranged from low-moderate for the linear and quadratic parameters (ICC = 0.29 and 0.36) to high for the last-lap parameter (ICC = 0.62), while consistency for race time was very high (ICC = 0.80). Only ~15% of swimmers had enough swims (~15 or more) to provide reasonable evidence of optimum parameter values in plots of race time vs. each parameter. The modest consistency of most of the pacing parameters and lack of relationships between parameters and performance suggest that swimmers usually compensated for changes in one parameter with changes in another. In conclusion, pacing in 800-m elite female swimmers can be characterized with five parameters, but identifying an optimal pacing profile is generally impractical.

  16. Correlation between two-dimensional video analysis and subjective assessment in evaluating knee control among elite female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    . The present study investigated the correlation between a two-dimensional (2D) video analysis and subjective assessment performed by one physiotherapist in evaluating knee control. We also tested the correlation between three simple clinical tests using both methods. A cohort of 186 female elite team handball...

  17. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlet Betancout León; Oscar Salinas Flores; Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-01-01

    The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR), th...

  18. Analysis of Time-Motion and Heart Rate in Elite Male and Female Beach Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Jimenez-Olmedo, Jose M; Penichet-Tomas, Alfonso; Ortega Becerra, Manuel; Espina Agullo, Jose J

    2017-12-01

    Beach handball is a spectacular new team sport; however, scientific knowledge about the demands in beach handball is very low. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players by means of time-motion analysis with GPS technology and physiological response with Heart Rate (HR). Both male (n = 12) and female (n = 12) players from the Spanish Beach Handball National Team were recruited for this study. The sample consisted in four matches of two 10-min periods each. Time-motion analysis was performed through GPS devices (SPI Pro X, 15 Hz, GPSports) with synchronized HR monitoring (Polar Electro, Finland). All parameters were recorded for matches and halves to express overall and time-dependent physical and physiological responses. Total match distance covered by male and female players were 1234.7 ± 192 m and 1118.2 ± 221.8 m, respectively. Female players covered more total distance (p = 0.049, ES = 0.79) and distance walking (p handball is a demanding sport, with numerous moderate-to-high intensity displacements, distributed intermittently throughout the game: long periods of low intensity activity interspersed by short bursts of high intensity.

  19. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  20. Body composition of elite female players in five different sports games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Lucia; Maly, Tomas; Zahalka, František; Bunc, Vaclav; Kaplan, Ales; Jebavy, Radim; Tuma, Martin

    2015-03-29

    The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC) variables in elite female athletes (age ± years): volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1), softball (23.6 ± 4.9), basketball (25.9 ± 4.2), soccer (23.2 ± 4.2) and handball (24.0 ± 3.5) players. Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α), and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05). Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01). The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer). The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer). Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  1. Body Composition of Elite Female Players in Five Different Sports Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC variables in elite female athletes (age ± years: volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1, softball (23.6 ± 4.9, basketball (25.9 ± 4.2, soccer (23.2 ± 4.2 and handball (24.0 ± 3.5 players. Fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP, body cell mass (BCM, extracellular mass (ECM, their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α, and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05. Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01. The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer. The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer. Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  2. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Jan; Pyne, David B; Semple, Stuart; Ball, Nick

    2017-11-04

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players ( n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6⁻8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season), the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2⁻4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size) increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8⁻22%CV) in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.

  3. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Legg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10 aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post. Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6–8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season, the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2–4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8–22%CV in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.

  4. Radiological changes among artistic gymnasts in Gauteng Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 2 Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the .... One of the benefits .... Kolt G, Kirkby R. Injury in Australian female competitive gymnasts: A psychological.

  5. Analysis of Time-Motion and Heart Rate in Elite Male and Female Beach Handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Pueo, Jose M. Jimenez-Olmedo, Alfonso Penichet-Tomas, Manuel Ortega Becerra, Jose J. Espina Agullo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beach handball is a spectacular new team sport; however, scientific knowledge about the demands in beach handball is very low. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players by means of time-motion analysis with GPS technology and physiological response with Heart Rate (HR. Both male (n = 12 and female (n = 12 players from the Spanish Beach Handball National Team were recruited for this study. The sample consisted in four matches of two 10-min periods each. Time-motion analysis was performed through GPS devices (SPI Pro X, 15 Hz, GPSports with synchronized HR monitoring (Polar Electro, Finland. All parameters were recorded for matches and halves to express overall and time-dependent physical and physiological responses. Total match distance covered by male and female players were 1234.7 ± 192 m and 1118.2 ± 221.8 m, respectively. Female players covered more total distance (p = 0.049, ES = 0.79 and distance walking (p < 0.001, ES = 2.04 in the first half, whereas they covered more distance standing (p = 0.008, ES = 1.05 in the second half at a higher average speed (p < 0.001, ES = 2.28. The number of accelerations distributed over low-, moderate- and high-intensity categories were 43.2 ± 11.6, 9.4 ± 4.9; 0.8 ± 0.9 m/s2 for male players, and 40.3 ± 12.7, 4.3 ± 3.0; 0.1 ± 0.3 m/s2 for female players; equivalent to one body acceleration every 23 s and 27 s, respectively. Finally, male and female players obtained a maximum/mean HR of 173 ± 13 / 137 ± 12 bpm, and 177 ± 13 / 138 ± 18 bpm, with 20.3% and 29.2% of the total time in the anaerobic zone (81 – 90% HRmax, respectively. These results demonstrated that beach handball is a demanding sport, with numerous moderate-to-high intensity displacements, distributed intermittently throughout the game: long periods of low intensity activity interspersed by short bursts of high intensity.

  6. Redox balance in elite female athletes: differences based on sport types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija; Popovic, Tamara; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Cubrilo, Dejan; Ahmetovic, Zlatko; Peric, Dusan; Borozan, Suncica; Djuric, Dragan; Barudzic, Nevena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in redox balance throughout parameters of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in elite female water polo (N.=15) and football players (N.=19) aged between 20 and 23. Fourteen age-matched sedentary women were also included in the study. Blood sampling was performed to measure levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), nitrites, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase activity (GPx). Levels of MDA, TAS, GSSG and H2O2 were significantly higher in athletes than in the control women. Football players had higher levels of O2- than the other two groups. Activity of SOD was higher in water polo players when compared with the football and control groups, CAT was increased in all athletes, while GPx did not differ among groups. Therefore, prolonged intensive training markedly increases oxidative stress in women, which depends on the type of sport. Lower concentration of O2- and increased activity of SOD in water polo players compared to football players suggest that mechanisms of adaptation of antioxidative defense are related to the type of exercise.

  7. Neuromuscular training reduces lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, M; Benis, R; La Torre, A

    2018-04-01

    The study was a two-armed, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial in which 15 teams (160 players) were assigned to either an experimental group (EG, 8 teams n = 86), which warmed-up with bodyweight neuromuscular exercises, or a control group (CG, 7 teams, n = 74) that performed standard tactical-technical exercises before training. All injuries during the 2015-2016 regular season were counted. Epidemiologic incidence proportion and incidence rate were also calculated. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and composite Y-Excursion Balance test (YBT) were used to assess lower limb strength and postural control. A total of 111 injuries were recorded. Chi-square test detected statistically significant differences between EG and CG (32 vs 79, P = .006). Significant differences in the injuries sustained in the EG (21 vs 11, P = .024) and CG (52 vs 27, P = .0001) during training and matches, respectively, were observed. Significant differences in post-intervention injuries were observed between in EG and CG during training (21 vs 52, P training into warm-up routines reduced the incidence of serious lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes? A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach

    OpenAIRE

    Kenttä, G.; Mellalieu, S.D.; Roberts, Claire-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences prior to, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant’s experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event...

  9. Video Feedback and 2-Dimensional Landing Kinematics in Elite Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Postma, Wytze; Janssen, Ina; Otten, Egbert

    2017-11-01

      In team handball, an anterior cruciate ligament injury often occurs during landing after a jump shot. Many intervention programs try to reduce the injury rate by instructing athletes to land more safely. Video is an effective way to provide feedback, but little is known about its influence on landing technique in sport-specific situations.   To test the effectiveness of a video-overlay feedback method on landing technique in elite handball players.   Controlled laboratory study.   Laboratory.   A total of 16 elite female handball players assigned to a control group (n = 8; age = 17.61 ± 1.34 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.06 m, mass = 69.55 ± 4.29 kg) or video group (n = 8; age = 17.81 ± 0.86 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.03 m, mass = 64.28 ± 6.29 kg).   Both groups performed jump shots in a pretest, 2 training sessions, and a posttest. The video group received video feedback of an expert model with an overlay of their own jump shots in training sessions 1 and 2, whereas the control group did not.   We measured ankle, knee, and hip angles in the sagittal plane at initial contact and peak flexion; range of motion; and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores. One 2 × 4 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the group, time, and interaction effects of all kinematic outcome measures and the LESS score.   The video group improved knee and hip flexion at initial contact and peak flexion and range of motion. In addition, the group's average peak ankle flexion (12.0° at pretest to 21.8° at posttest) and LESS score (8.1 pretest to 4.0 posttest) improved. When we considered performance variables, no differences between groups were found in shot accuracy or vertical jump height, whereas horizontal jump distance in the video group increased over time.   Overlay visual feedback is an effective method for improving landing kinematics during a sport-specific jump shot. Further research is warranted to determine the long-term effects

  10. Game movement demands and physical profiles of junior, senior and elite male and female rugby sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    To inform recruitment, selection, training and testing of male and female rugby sevens players game running movement patterns and physical characteristics were quantified across junior, senior, and elite playing levels. Anthropometric and physical testing (40 m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo IR1) occurred prior to players' national championships or international tournaments (n = 110 players), while game movements were obtained via GPS (n = 499 game files). The game movements of male players were similar across playing levels except for number of impacts >10 g which were 2 to 4-fold higher in elite (25.0 ± 11.2 impacts · game - 1 ; mean ± SD), than junior (6.3 ± 3.5) and senior (11.8 ± 6.6) players. In men, there were fewer substantial correlations between on- and off-field measures which may reflect similar physical attributes across playing levels, and that other (strength, technical or tactical) factors may better differentiate these players. In females, elite players had more favourable on- and off-field performance measures than juniors and seniors, with moderate to strong correlations between on- and off-field variables. Female players should benefit from additional fitness training, while male players need to balance fitness with other technical and tactical factors.

  11. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  12. Energetic efficiency, menstrual irregularity, and bone mineral density in elite professional female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Akers, Jeremy D; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-01-01

    Sports that emphasize low body weight for optimal performance, such as ballet, are associated with an increased prevalence of the female athlete triad (FT). Previous research in this area that involves dancers has been limited; the majority of studies have been performed on adolescents training in classical ballet, and not professional adult dancers. The purpose of this study is to compare the physical and behavioral characteristics of female elite ballet dancers to sedentary, recreationally active non-dancing controls, with regard to characteristics of the FT and energetic efficiency. Women aged 18 to 35 years were recruited as participants. The dancers (N = 15) and non-dancing controls (N = 15) were pair-matched via age (dancers: 24.3 ± 1.3 years; controls: 23.7 ± 0.9 years), body mass index (dancers: 18.9 ± 0.2; controls: 19.4 ± 0.2 kg/m 2 ), and fat-free mass (dancers: 44.3 ± 0.8; controls: 44.1 ± 0.9 kg). Assessments included habitual dietary intake using 4-day food records, self-reported physical activity, psychometric measures of eating behaviors, health and menstrual history, body composition and bone density (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessed by indirect calorimetry. Characteristics of the FT, specifically menstrual irregularities (6 of 15 dancers reported irregular or no menses; 1 of 15 controls reported irregular menses) and low energy availability, were more prevalent in dancers than in pair-matched controls. Despite having a similar fat-free mass (FFM), dancers had a significantly lower absolute RMR (dancers: 1367 ± 27; controls: 1454 ± 34 kcal/d; p ≤ 0.05) and significantly lower RMR relative to FFM (dancers: 30.9 ± 0.6; controls: 33.1 ± 0.8 kcal/kg fat-free mass/d; p ≤ 0.05). Energy intake between dancers (1577 ± 89 kcal/d) and pair-matched controls (2075 ± 163 kcal/d) also differed significantly (p ≤ 0.01). Six of the 15 dancers met the criteria for the FT (including low bone mineral

  13. The impact of exercise-induced muscle damage on performance test outcomes in elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony; Sinclair, Wade; Schumann, Moritz; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean; Woods, Carl

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the impact exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on physical fitness qualities following a basketball-specific training session. Secondly, to determine the reproducibility of the sport-specific performance measures in elite female basketball players. Ten elite female basketball players (age 25.6 ± 4.5 years; height 1.8 ± 0.7m; body mass 76.7 ± 8.3kg) undertook a 90-minute training session involving repeated jumping, sprinting and game-simulated training. Indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], delayed-onset of muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase [CK]) and sport-specific performances (i.e., change of direction [COD] and suicide test [ST]) were measured prior to and 24 hours post training. These measures were also collected one week following training to determine the reproducibility of the basketball-specific performance measures. A significant reduction in lower-body power (-3.5±3.6%; P0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation for the COD and ST were 0.81 and 0.90, respectively, and 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate recovery should be considered the day following basketball-specific training sessions in elite basketball players. Furthermore, this study showed the usability of performance measures to detect changes during periods of EIMD, with acceptable reproducibility and minimal measurement error.

  14. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  15. Effect of Two Different Types of Olympic Rotation Order on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Variables in Men's Artistic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Chaabene, Helmi; Amara, Samiha; Njah, Ahmad; Chtara, Mokhtar

    2018-03-01

    The rotation sequence-order differs from a gymnast to another according to the draw at the time of the qualifying competitions in men's artistic gymnastics. Only the six best gymnasts start on the floor exercises, the others could start on any of the other five apparatuses. It has been demonstrated that some gymnastics events are physiologically less taxing than others; hence some gymnasts could experience lower and/or higher levels of cardiovascular and metabolic stress compared to others, depending on the apparatus they start with. In this regard, the objective of this investigation was to compare cardiovascular and metabolic variables between two different types of Olympic rotation-order; one began with the floor exercises and the other began with the pommel horse. Six elite male gymnasts took part in this investigation. Heart rates, synchronized with real-time video acquisition, as well as capillary lactate concentration following each apparatus routine were monitored. Cardiovascular and metabolic stresses were significantly higher when gymnasts started their rotation with the pommel horse in all apparatuses except the pommel horse. The floor exercises' score was significantly affected when gymnasts ended up their competition on this apparatus. As a conclusion, starting gymnastics' competition on the floor exercises implicates less cardiovascular and metabolic stress associated with better performance compared with the other rotation order. As a matter of fact, best gymnasts who start on this apparatus could have a slight advantage compared with the other athletes.

  16. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES,Sarah Maria Boldrini; CARRARA,Paulo; SERRÃO,Júlio Cerca; AMADIO,Alberto Carlos; MOCHIZUKI,Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases...

  17. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  18. Selection in artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study envisages the analysis of the specific aspects of the selection process in artistic gymnastics, focusing particularly onthe selection of Romania’s recent years. In our opinion, the shift to a cone of darkness of the artistic gymnastics, an extremelypopular sport in our country 20 years ago, is also based on and the orientation of children to other fields – unfortunately manyof them outside sports and physical activities in general. In the present study, we shall present the stages of the artisticgymnastics, as its importance in the subsequent performances has been proven a long time ago. The plethora of qualities andskills which are necessary to select a child for gymnastics and those that this sport develops when performed as a spare timeactivity. The case studied in this endeavour is the one of the main centers for gymnast recruitment in Romania; the attentionpaid by the trainers to the selection for this sport makes the data regarding the number of children involved to increase oncemore. This is a satisfactory fact as it is a well-known fact that a wide range primary selection sets a serious basis for thesecondary selection, and the third, respectively, envisaging the future performance and concurrently ensures the involvementof more children in a physical activity that will prepare them, both physically and mentally for a healthy life.

  19. Shoulder Dynamic Control Ratio and Rotation Range of Motion in Female Junior Elite Handball Players and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cingel, Robert; Habets, Bas; Willemsen, Linn; Staal, Bart

    2018-03-01

    To compare glenohumeral range of motion and shoulder rotator muscle strength in healthy female junior elite handball players and controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. Sports medical center. Forty elite female handball players and 30 controls active in nonoverhead sports participated in this study. Passive external rotator (ER), internal rotator (IR), and total range of motion (TROM) of the dominant and nondominant arm were examined with a goniometer. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to evaluate concentric and eccentric rotator muscle strength at 60 and 120 degrees/s with dynamic control ratio (DCR = ERecc:IRcon) as the main outcome parameter. Except for the ER range of motion in the nondominant arm, no significant differences were found between groups for IR, ER of the dominant arm, and the TROM. Within the handball group, the side-to-side difference for IR of the dominant arm was -1.4 degrees. The ER and the TROM of the dominant arm were significantly larger, 6.3 and 4.9 degrees, respectively. For both groups, the DCR values were above 1 and no significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant arm. The DCR values in the handball group were significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the adopted definitions for muscle imbalance, glenohumeral internal range of motion deficit and TROM deficit our elite female handball players seem not at risk for shoulder injuries. Prospective studies are needed to support the belief that a DCR below 1 places the shoulder at risk for injury.

  20. Analysis of classical time-trial performance and technique-specific physiological determinants in elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Sandbakk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP and diagonal (DIA techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r=0.98 and flat (r=0.91 sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p<0.05. Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p<0.001. Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r=0.66-0.78, with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p<0.05. Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  1. Effects of resistance training periodization on performance and salivary immune-endocrine responses of elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J A; Crewther, B T; Viveiros, L; De Rose, D; Aoki, M S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the effects of resistance training periodization on the performance and salivary hormone-immune responses of elite female basketball players. Twelve female athletes were monitored across a 50 day period of resistance training that emphasized strength, endurance and power. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, maximal repetitions at 50% 1RM and vertical jump performance was assessed pre- and post-training. Saliva samples were also collected at 0700, 0930, 1100 and 1730 hours and analyzed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and immunoglobulin A (IgA). Improvements in 1RM strength, maximal repetitions and vertical jump performance were identified post-training (PTraining had no effect on salivary T and C concentrations, but the T:C ratio increased at 0730 hours (Ptraining) in strength and T concentrations were positively correlated at 0730 hours (Ptraining increased muscle performance in elite female basketball players, but only minor changes in the salivary T:C ratio and IgA were noted. Correlational analysis identified a possible role for early morning changes in T as a regulator of individual strength changes.

  2. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena Å.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Heiner-Møller, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM...... no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus...

  3. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomas Carlsson, Michail Tonkonogi, Magnus Carlsson School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max and lean mass (LM. Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD] completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.00 2max and 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043 and 52% (P=0.019, respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with

  4. Body dissatisfaction and sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors among artistic gymnastics athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mockdece NEVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.

  5. Effect of Two Different Types of Olympic Rotation Order on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Variables in Men’s Artistic Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Chaabene, Helmi; Amara, Samiha; Njah, Ahmad; Chtara, Mokhtar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The rotation sequence-order differs from a gymnast to another according to the draw at the time of the qualifying competitions in men’s artistic gymnastics. Only the six best gymnasts start on the floor exercises, the others could start on any of the other five apparatuses. It has been demonstrated that some gymnastics events are physiologically less taxing than others; hence some gymnasts could experience lower and/or higher levels of cardiovascular and metabolic stress compared to others, depending on the apparatus they start with. In this regard, the objective of this investigation was to compare cardiovascular and metabolic variables between two different types of Olympic rotation-order; one began with the floor exercises and the other began with the pommel horse. Six elite male gymnasts took part in this investigation. Heart rates, synchronized with real-time video acquisition, as well as capillary lactate concentration following each apparatus routine were monitored. Cardiovascular and metabolic stresses were significantly higher when gymnasts started their rotation with the pommel horse in all apparatuses except the pommel horse. The floor exercises’ score was significantly affected when gymnasts ended up their competition on this apparatus. As a conclusion, starting gymnastics’ competition on the floor exercises implicates less cardiovascular and metabolic stress associated with better performance compared with the other rotation order. As a matter of fact, best gymnasts who start on this apparatus could have a slight advantage compared with the other athletes. PMID:29599870

  6. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helena A; Randers, Morten B; Heiner-Møller, Anja; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p game. The midfielders covered longer (p game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players.

  7. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Døssing, Simon; Alkjaer, Tine; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Aagaard, Per

    2008-07-01

    The project aimed to implement neuromuscular training during a full soccer and handball league season and to experimentally analyze the neuromuscular adaptation mechanisms elicited by this training during a standardized sidecutting maneuver known to be associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The players were tested before and after 1 season without implementation of the prophylactic training and subsequently before and after a full season with the implementation of prophylactic training. A total of 12 female elite soccer players and 8 female elite team handball players aged 26 +/- 3 years at the start of the study. The subjects participated in a specific neuromuscular training program previously shown to reduce non-contact ACL injury. Neuromuscular activity at the knee joint, joint angles at the hip and knee, and ground reaction forces were recorded during a sidecutting maneuver. Neuromuscular activity in the prelanding phase was obtained 10 and 50 ms before foot strike on a force plate and at 10 and 50 ms after foot strike on a force plate. Neuromuscular training markedly increased before activity and landing activity electromyography (EMG) of the semitendinosus (P Neuromuscular training increased EMG activity for the medial hamstring muscles, thereby decreasing the risk of dynamic valgus. This observed neuromuscular adaptation during sidecutting could potentially reduce the risk for non-contact ACL injury.

  8. Gymnastic Judges Benefit from Their Own Motor Experience as Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who…

  9. Gymnastics injury incidence during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games: analysis of prospectively collected surveillance data from 963 registered gymnasts during Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Steffen, Kathrin; Junge, Astrid; Leglise, Michel; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries in female and male gymnastics disciplines (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) during three Olympic Games with a view to ultimately improving injury prevention. The National Olympic Committee's head physicians and the medical teams of the Local Organising Committee of the Olympic Games reported daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries in artistic, rhythmic and trampoline gymnastics on a standardised report form during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games. During the three Olympic Games, 81 injuries were reported in a total of 963 registered gymnasts, corresponding to an incidence of 84 injuries (95% CI 67 to 102) per 1000 registered gymnasts, with no difference in injury incidence between female and male gymnasts. Thirty-eight per cent of injuries led to time-loss from sport. The most frequent injury location and injury type were the ankle (22%) and sprain (35%), respectively. The most common diagnosis was ankle sprain (14% of all injuries and 23% of time-loss injuries). The injury incidence was highest in female (107±35) and male artistic gymnastics (83±32), followed by female rhythmic gymnastics (73±30), and lower in male (63±69) and female (43±43) trampoline gymnastics. Research should focus on preventing injuries in artistic gymnastics and of the condition of ankle sprain. Injury surveillance studies should be continued during major championships and throughout the entire competitive season as the Olympic Games provides only a snapshot (although an important one). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Ansiedad estado y autoconfianza precompetitiva en gimnastas. (Precompetitive anxiety state and self-confidence in gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Fuentes García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe describen las diferencias en los niveles de ansiedad y sus interpretaciones en gimnastas de diferente edad, género y niveles competitivos ante una competición importante y se analizan las diferencias ante competiciones de diferente importancia en las gimnastas de bajo nivel. El grupo (G1 estuvo formado por 8 gimnastas de la Selección Nacional de Gimnasia Artística Masculina y el grupo (G2 por 8 gimnastas de nivel nacional de Gimnasia Artística Femenina. Se administró una versión reducida del Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 en tres competiciones, dos importantes para cada grupo (G1 y G2a y la tercera de menor importancia para el grupo 2 (G2b. Los gimnastas del G1 tuvieron mayores niveles de autoconfianza e interpretaron dichos síntomas como muy facilitadores para su rendimiento competitivo e interpretaron los síntomas de ansiedad cognitiva más intensamente que los del G2. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre niveles e interpretación de ansiedad y autoconfianza en G2 cuando se evalúan en dos competiciones de diferente importancia.AbstractThe purpose was to describe the intensity and directional interpretation of anxiety and self-confidence in gymnasts of different ages, gender and competitive level in a major competition and analyze their differences in two meeting of very different importance in minor-level gymnasts. Were evaluated eight elite men gymnasts (G1; International level and 8 national level female gymnasts (G2; National level. We administered a shortened version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in three competitions, among which two were most important in the season for each group (G1 and G2a and the minor third for the group minor-level (G2b. The G1 have higher levels of self-confidence that G2. Moreover their interpretation of symptoms of anxiety as facilitators for their competitive performance was very high. The G1 had interpretations of the cognitive symptoms of

  11. Who jumps the highest? Anthropometric and physiological correlations of vertical jump in youth elite female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Gkoudas, Konstantinos; Afonso, José; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Knechtle, Beat; Kasabalis, Stavros; Kasabalis, Athanasios; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of vertical jump (Abalakov jump [AJ]) with anthropometric and physiological parameters in youth elite female volleyball players. Seventy-two selected volleyball players from the region of Athens (age 13.3±0.7 years, body mass 62.0±7.2 kg, height 171.5±5.7 cm, body fat 21.2±4.5%), classified into quartiles according to AJ performance (group A, 21.4-26.5 cm; group B, 26.8-29.9 cm; group C, 30.5-33.7 cm; group D, 33.8-45.9 cm), performed a series of physical fitness tests. AJ was correlated with anthropometric (age at peak height velocity [APHV]: r=0.38, Pvolleyball players that jumped the highest were those who matured later than others.

  12. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...... out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P ...

  13. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  14. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, Olaf; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP) thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S) exercise vs. a strength only (S) exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players ( N = 12) aged 14-15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8-10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S), and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time) were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties ( p jump performance outputs ( p jump performance. It is concluded that PAP effects in the plantar flexors may not directly translate to improved jump performance in female elite young soccer players. Therefore, the observed gains in jump performance following B+S are most likely related to neuromuscular changes (e.g., intramuscular coordination) rather than improved contractile properties.

  15. Relationship of long-term macronutrients intake on anabolic-catabolic hormones in female elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Calleja González, Julio; Seco, Jesús; Córdova, Alfredo

    2017-10-24

    Specific macronutrient distribution and training can alter acute and chronic hormone behavior and, subsequently, sport performance. The main aim was to examine relationships between dietary intake and anabolic/catabolic hormone response in elite female volleyball players during a 29-week season. Twenty-two elite female volleyballers (26.4 ± 5.6 years; 178 ± 9 cm; 67.1 ± 7.5 kg) had dietary intake (seven-day dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire), blood concentration of anabolic/catabolic hormones concentration, physical performance, and body composition assessed at four time points: a) T1: baseline/pre-testing; b) T2: eleven weeks after T1; c) T3: ten weeks after T2; and d) T4: eight weeks after T3. Hormones evaluated were: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol (C), along with hormone ratios. Positive correlations were observed between carbohydrate/protein ratio with ΔFT (r = 0.955; p 0.05) in body mass or body mass index at any time point, and the sum of six skinfolds improved (p < 0.05) from T1 (86.5 ± 6.9 mm) to T4 (75.2 ± 5.6 mm) as did muscle mass (T1: 28.9 ± 0.7 kg vsT4: 30.1 ± 0.8 kg). Vertical jump, spike-jump and speed improved (p < 0.05) from T1 to T4. A high carbohydrate/protein ratio was associated with positive changes in anabolism, while high protein and low carbohydrates (CHO) were associated with an attenuated anabolic response.

  16. Effects of Two Different Training Periodization Models on Physical and Physiological Aspects of Elite Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, Carmen; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Manchado, C, Cortell-Tormo, JM, and Tortosa-Martínez, J. Effects of two different training periodization models on physical and physiological aspects of elite female team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 280-287, 2018-The aim of this study was to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological and physical team handball performance factors after 2 training periodization models: traditional periodization (TP) vs. block periodization (BP). Eleven female team handball players who played over 2 consecutive seasons for a Spanish first league team were assessed twice per season during a training cycle. On each occasion, participants completed anthropometric, maximal strength, and lower-body power assessments. In addition, incremental tests to determine maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), sprint- and sport-specific throwing velocity tests were performed. Block periodization group experienced significantly greater improvements than TP on squat jump (5.97%; p handball performance factors in high level female handball players.

  17. A comparison of injuries in elite male and female football players: A five-season prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruskain, J; Lekue, J A; Diaz, N; Odriozola, A; Gil, S M

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiology of injuries between elite male and female football players from the same club. Injuries and individual exposure time in a male team and a female team, both playing in the Spanish first division, were prospectively recorded by the club's medical staff for five seasons (2010-2015) following the FIFA consensus statement. Total, training, and match exposure hours per player-season were 20% higher for men compared to women (Ppubalgia cases were 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.20) and 11.10 (95% CI 1.48-83.44) times more frequent in men, respectively; whereas quadriceps strains, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and ankle syndesmosis injuries were 2.25 (95% CI 1.22-4.17), 4.59 (95% CI 0.93-22.76), and 5.36 (95% CI 1.11-25.79) times more common in women, respectively. In conclusion, prevention strategies should be tailored to the needs of male and female football players, with men more predisposed to hamstring strains and hip/groin injuries, and women to quadriceps strains and severe knee and ankle ligament injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  19. Monitoring levels of stress and overtraining in an elite brazilian female volleyball athlete: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Noce

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El sobreentrenamiento es el resultado de un desequilibrio entre el estrés y su recuperación, combinado con cortos períodos de recuperación y determinados factores psicosociales. En este estudio de caso se ha empleado un cuestionario de estrés y recuperación en el deporte para analizar los niveles de sobreentrenamiento en una jugadora brasileña de balonvolea de elite. Los resultados indican que las elevadas cargas físicas provocan cambios en el perfil de la deportista, mostrando un incremento en las escalas de fatiga. Los períodos de recuperación se han mostrado como fundamentales para el restablecimiento de las capacidades físicas y psicológicas de la deportista. Finalmente, nuestro método de análisis ha evidenciado la existencia de modificaciones en el perfil de la deportista después de acontecimientos puntuales, tal como el observado después de una derrota inesperada. Se concluye que los cambios en el perfil de la curva, obtenidas por nuestro cuestionario, reflejan los distintos períodos de recogida de datos, lo que configuraría un indicador de los cambios de la sobrecarga estresante. De esta manera, la posibilidad de detección o de la monitorización de los factores estresantes para ella deportista puede ser de gran valor para la mejora del rendimiento físico y psicológico de un equipo.

  20. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Prieske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S exercise vs. a strength only (S exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players (N = 12 aged 14–15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8–10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S, and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ and drop jump (DJ performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties (p < 0.05, d = 1.1 and jump performance outputs (p < 0.05, 1.1 ≤ d ≤ 1.2 were found. Post-hoc tests revealed that S compared to control produced larger PAP for twitch peak torques by trend (p = 0.07, d = 1.8, 33 vs. 21% and significantly larger PAP for twitch rate of torque development (p < 0.05, d = 2.4, 55 vs. 43%. Following B+S compared to control, significant improvements in CMJ height (p < 0.01, d = 1.9, 3% and DJ contact time were found (p < 0.01, d = 2.0, 10%. This study revealed protocol-specific acute performance improvements. While S resulted in significant increases in twitch contractile properties, B+S produced

  1. IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES FOR SPEED AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITY IN ELITE FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmonds, S; Nicholson, G; Beggs, CB; Jones, B; Bissas, A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women’s Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body ...

  2. Vertical and Horizontal Asymmetries are Related to Slower Sprinting and Jump Performance in Elite Youth Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Read, Paul; McCubbine, Jermaine; Turner, Anthony

    2018-02-27

    Inter-limb asymmetries have been shown to be greater during vertical jumping compared to horizontal jumping. Notable inter-limb differences have also been established at an early age in male youth soccer players. Furthermore, given the multi-planar nature of soccer, establishing between-limb differences from multiple jump tests is warranted. At present, a paucity of data exists regarding asymmetries in youth female soccer players and their effects on physical performance. The aims of this study were to quantify inter-limb asymmetries from unilateral jump tests and examine their effects on speed and jump performance. Nineteen elite youth female soccer players performed a single leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ), single, triple, and crossover hops for distance and a 20 m sprint test. Test reliability was good to excellent (ICC = 0.81-0.99) and variability acceptable (CV = 1.74-5.42%). A one-way ANOVA highlighted larger asymmetries from the SLCMJ compared to all other jump tests (p jump performance (r = -0.47 to -0.58) and vertical asymmetries during the SLCMJ and vertical jump performance (r = -0.47 to -0.53). The results from this study highlight that the SLCMJ appears to be the most appropriate jump test for identifying between-limb differences with values ∼12% showing negative associations with sprint times. Furthermore, larger asymmetries are associated with reduced jump performance and would appear to be direction-specific. Practitioners can use this information as normative data to be mindful of when quantifying inter-limb asymmetries and assessing their potential impact on physical performance in youth female soccer players.

  3. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga

    2011-01-01

    during the very initial phase of muscle contraction. Two female players-both with a markedly low RFD H/Q ratio, but a normal MVC H/Q ratio, compared with the group mean-sustained ACL rupture at a later occasion. The high reliability of the new RFD H/Q strength ratio indicates that the method...

  4. Mechanical Loading during Growth Is Associated with Plane-specific Differences in Vertebral Geometry: A Cross-sectional Analysis Comparing Artistic Gymnasts vs. Non-gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Scerpella, Tamara A.

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar spine geometry, density and indices of bone strength were assessed relative to menarche status, using artistic gymnastics exposure during growth as a model of mechanical loading. Paired posteroanterior (PA) and supine lateral (LAT) DXA scans of L3 for 114 females (60 ex/gymnasts and 54 non-gymnasts) yielded output for comparison of paired (PALAT) versus standard PA and LAT outcomes. BMC, areal BMD, vertebral body dimensions, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), axial compressive strength (IBS) and a fracture risk index were evaluated, modeling vertebral body geometry as an ellipsoid cylinder. Two-factor ANCOVA tested statistical effects of gymnastic exposure, menarche status and their interaction, adjusting for age and height as appropriate. Compared to non-gymnasts, ex/gymnasts exhibited greater PABMD, PABMC, PAWIDTH, PA CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (CSA), PAVOLUME, LATBMD, LATBMAD, PALATCSA and PALATIBS (p<0.05). Non-gymnasts exhibited greater LATDEPTH/PAWIDTH, LATBMC/PABMC, LATVHEIGHT, LATAREA and Fracture Risk Index. Using ellipsoid vertebral geometric models, no significant differences were detected for PA or PALAT BMAD. In contrast, cuboid model results (Carter 1992) suggested erroneous ex/gymnast PABMAD advantages, resulting from invalid assumptions of proportional variation in linear skeletal dimensions. Gymnastic exposure was associated with shorter, wider vertebral bodies, yielding greater axial compressive strength and lower fracture risk, despite no BMAD advantage. Our results suggest the importance of plane-specific vertebral geometric adaptation to mechanical loading during growth. Paired scan output provides a more accurate assessment of this adaptation than PA or LAT plane scans alone. PMID:21839871

  5. Role of intensive training in the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Armstrong, Neil; Beunen, Gaston P; Caine, Dennis; Daly, Robin M; Lewis, Richard D; Rogol, Alan D; Russell, Keith

    2013-09-01

    Short stature and later maturation of youth artistic gymnasts are often attributed to the effects of intensive training from a young age. Given limitations of available data, inadequate specification of training, failure to consider other factors affecting growth and maturation, and failure to address epidemiological criteria for causality, it has not been possible thus far to establish cause-effect relationships between training and the growth and maturation of young artistic gymnasts. In response to this ongoing debate, the Scientific Commission of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) convened a committee to review the current literature and address four questions: (1) Is there a negative effect of training on attained adult stature? (2) Is there a negative effect of training on growth of body segments? (3) Does training attenuate pubertal growth and maturation, specifically, the rate of growth and/or the timing and tempo of maturation? (4) Does training negatively influence the endocrine system, specifically hormones related to growth and pubertal maturation? The basic information for the review was derived from the active involvement of committee members in research on normal variation and clinical aspects of growth and maturation, and on the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts and other youth athletes. The committee was thus thoroughly familiar with the literature on growth and maturation in general and of gymnasts and young athletes. Relevant data were more available for females than males. Youth who persisted in the sport were a highly select sample, who tended to be shorter for chronological age but who had appropriate weight-for-height. Data for secondary sex characteristics, skeletal age and age at peak height velocity indicated later maturation, but the maturity status of gymnasts overlapped the normal range of variability observed in the general population. Gymnasts as a group demonstrated a pattern of growth and maturation similar to

  6. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, M; Fahlström, M; Bjordal, J M; Nielsen, D; Baun, M; Storgaard, M; Magnusson, S P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in both groups (P badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER strength. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Caught between passion for the game and the need for education: a study of elite-level female football players in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Hansen, Marianne; Ottesen, Laila

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the passion of Danish elite-level female football players for the game and the challenges they face. How do they manage to combine the tough demands of a football life with the need for education? A quantitative survey (2010) was sent out to female players in the Danish 3F...... by Victor Pestoff, we may be operating with a different form of elite in women’s football in Denmark. Future focal points for clubs and the Danish Football Association are to continue supporting the players’ passion for the game and Team Denmark’s focus on ‘the whole human being’ in athletes....... Ligaen and Danish national team players. The findings indicate challenges faced by players in pursuing their passion, as they struggle to combine everyday life, education and work with a football career, either as amateurs or on a playing contract. In the light of the Scandinavian sport model inspired...

  8. Importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction ability in elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmonds, Stacey; Nicholson, G; Beggs, C; Jones, B; Bissas, A

    2017-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women's Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body strength (bilateral knee extensions) and power (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], 30cm drop jump [DJ]) measures. The relationships between the variables were evaluated using eigenvector analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. Multiple linear regression revealed that the performance variables (10 and 20m speed, mean 505, and CoD deficit mean) can be predicted with almost 100% accuracy (i.e. adjusted R > 0.999) using various combinations of the predictor variables (DJ height, CMJ height, SJ height, lean body mass). An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in DJ height was associated with reductions of -5.636 and -9.082 SD in 10 m and 20 m sprint times. A one SD increase in CMJ also results in a reduction of -3.317 and -0.922 SD respectively in mean 505 and CoD deficit mean values. This study provides comparative data for professional English female soccer players that can be used by strength and conditioning coaches when monitoring player development and assessing the effectiveness of training programmes. Findings highlight the importance of developing reactive strength to improve speed and CoD ability in female soccer players.

  9. Correlation of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in hips of elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthon, Victoria B; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Kolo, Frank C; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Becker, Christophe D; Bouvet, Cindy; Coppens, Elia; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Menetrey, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    To understand why professional female ballet dancers often complain of inguinal pain and experience early hip osteoarthritis (OA). Goals were to examine clinical and advanced imaging findings in the hips of dancers compared with those in a matched cohort of nondancers and to assess the femoral head translation in the forward split position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty professional female ballet dancers and 14 active healthy female individuals matched for age (control group) completed a questionnaire on hip pain and underwent hip examination with impingement tests and measurement of passive hip range of motion (ROM). All had a pelvic 1.5 T MRI in the back-lying position to assess femoroacetabular morphologic features and lesions. For the dancers, additional MR images were acquired in the split position to evaluate femoroacetabular congruency. Twelve of 20 dancers complained of groin pain only while dancing; controls were asymptomatic. Dancers' passive hip ROM was normal. No differences in α neck angle, acetabular depth, acetabular version, and femoral neck anteversion were found between dancers and controls. MRI of dancers while performing splits showed a mean femoral head subluxation of 2.05 mm. MRI of dancers' hips showed labral tears, cartilage thinning, and herniation pits, located in superior and posterosuperior positions. Lesions were the same for symptomatic and asymptomatic dancers. Controls had proportionally the same number of labral lesions but in an anterosuperior position. They also had 2 to 3 times fewer cartilage lesions and pits than did dancers. The results of our study are consistent with our hypothesis that repetitive extreme movements can cause femoral head subluxations and femoroacetabular abutments in female ballet dancers with normal hip morphologic features, which could result in early OA. Pathologic changes seen on MRI were symptomatic in less than two thirds of the dancers. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright

  10. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  11. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaida, J; Cook, J; Bass, S; Austen, S; Kiss, Z

    2004-01-01

    Background: Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into ...

  12. Dietary intake habits and controlled training on body composition and strength in elite female volleyball players during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake of elite female volleyball players (EFVPs, n = 22) during the first 11 weeks of the competitive season. Further, we compared findings for total energy intake and specific macronutrient distribution with the established recommendations for high-intensity athletes. Subjects also engaged in periodized training and we assessed changes in body composition (BC) and strength. Twenty-two EFVPs had dietary intake (7-day dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire), BC (body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, fat mass, muscle mass), and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (bench press, military press, back squat, power clean, clean and jerk, pull-over) assessed at baseline (T0, before preseason) and 11 weeks later (T11). Athletes consumed less total kilocalories and carbohydrates (CHO) compared with established recommendations (total kilocalories: 40.7 ± 5.2 kcal/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 50-80 kcal/(kg · day)(-1); CHO: 4.3 ± 0.6 g/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 5-8 g/(kg · day)(-1)). Further, subjects consumed greater protein (2.1 ± 0.4 g/(kg · day)(-1)) compared with recommendations (1.6-1.8 g/(kg · day)(-1)) and greater fat (36.1 ± 4.6% of total kilocalories) than recommendations (20%-35% of total kilocalories). There were improvements (p 0.05) in BMI or military press and pull-over. Back squat (p = 0.054; +33.0% ± 83.7%) and power clean (p = 0.056; +26.2% ± 49.0%) increases approached significance. Our findings indicate that EFVPs improved BC and strength despite a dietary intake different from recommendations. This is possibly due to different substrate utilization during exercise in females versus males, thus new recommendations should be considered for high-intensity athletes, which are sex-specific.

  13. Association between coping skills, past injury and hip pain and function in adolescent elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Jessica L; Stracciolini, Andrea; Griffith, Kelsey L; D'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Owen, Michael; Sugimoto, Dai

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping skills and current hip pain and function scores in ballet dancers. Secondly, we examined the relationship between coping skills and past injuries. Thirdly, we investigated the association between past injuries and current pain and function scores. This was a cross-sectional observational study. Twenty-six young elite female dancers (mean age 15.9 years, range 14-17 years) participated. Participants completed surveys indicating past injury history, rating pain and function on the short International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12), and assessing coping skills on the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory Score (ACSI-28). Independent t-tests, Cohen's d, effect size, chi-square and correlation coefficient and determination analyses were conducted. There was no significant relationship between iHOT-12 scores and ACSI-28 scores (r = -0.250, p = 0.087). There was no significant difference (p = 0.289) in past injuries comparing those with ACSI-28 scores above and below the mean ACSI-28. A significant moderate negative correlation was detected between both iHOT-12 scores and total past injuries (r = -0.609, p < 0.001), and iHOT-12 scores and past non-hip injuries (r = -0.628, p < 0.001). Past injuries may influence current hip pain and function in young female dancers. Correlation determination (r 2 ) indicated that 37% of current pain and function scores were explained by total past injuries in a small group of young high-level ballet dancers. Further research should engage a prospective design to investigate the predictive ability of findings.

  14. Somatotype of top-level serbian rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purenović-Ivanović, Tijana; Popović, Ružena

    2014-03-27

    Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies.

  15. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Cook, J L; Bass, S L; Austen, S; Kiss, Z S

    2004-10-01

    Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180 degrees /s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (ppatellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not. This suggests that the aetiology of these conditions may be different. However, interpretation must respect the limitation of small subject numbers.

  16. Joint power contribution during jumping and sidecutting in young female elite handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne B.; Sørensen, Rikke S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One game-changing parameter in handball is explosive power during jumping or sidecutting. In order to improve game performance, more knowledge about the physical demands of the different joints and muscle groups during sports specific movements may help trainers to implement specific...... exercises for enhancing performance in these movements. The aim of the study was to describe the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle, knee and hip joint during jumping and sidecutting, and investigate their relation to optimal performance. Methods 54 young female handball players, aged 16.8 yrs (SD: 1......: 0.21, β=0.47, p=0.001). Conclusions The results show that different muscle groups may be performance dependant in different handball specific movements. While vertical jumping is mostly depending on high knee joint power, peak concentric ankle joint power is the most important parameter during...

  17. Therapeutic and prophylactic value of corrective gymnastics in children with impaired posture engaged in asymmetric sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirov A. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article provides the study that was conducted among young female athletes engaged in table tennis and having a violation of posture, with an assessment of metric and strength indicators. In the experimental group in parallel training a course of corrective gymnastics was conducted. The high efficiency of a combination of regular sports training and corrective gymnastics is established with a leveling of negative influence on the posture of asymmetrical sports.

  18. Gymnasts utilize visual and auditory information for behavioural synchronization in trampolining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, T; Koschnick, J; Schmidt-Maaß, D; Vinken, P M

    2014-08-01

    In synchronized trampolining, two gymnasts perform the same routine at the same time. While trained gymnasts are thought to coordinate their own movements with the movements of another gymnast by detecting relevant movement information, the question arises how visual and auditory information contribute to the emergence of synchronicity between both gymnasts. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the role of visual and auditory information in the emergence of coordinated behaviour in synchronized trampolining. Twenty female gymnasts were asked to synchronize their leaps with the leaps of a model gymnast, while visual and auditory information was manipulated. The results revealed that gymnasts needed more leaps to reach synchronicity when only either auditory (12.9 leaps) or visual information (10.8 leaps) was available, as compared to when both auditory and visual information was available (8.1 leaps). It is concluded that visual and auditory information play significant roles in synchronized trampolining, whilst visual information seems to be the dominant source for emerging behavioural synchronization, and auditory information supports this emergence.

  19. Elite Female Basketball Players' Body-Weight Neuromuscular Training and Performance on the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, Roberto; Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio La

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular training enhances unconscious motor responses by stimulating both the afferent signals and central mechanisms responsible for dynamic joint control. Dynamic joint-control training is a vital component of injury-prevention programs. To investigate the effects of body-weight neuromuscular training on Y-Balance Test (YBT) performance and postural control in female basketball players. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Basketball practice sessions. A total of 28 healthy elite female basketball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 14) or a control group (n = 14). Before their regular practice sessions, the experimental group warmed up with body-weight neuromuscular exercises and the control group with standard tactical-technical exercises twice weekly for 8 weeks. Anterior-, posteromedial-, and posterolateral-reach and composite YBT scores were measured before and after 8 weeks of training. Improvement over baseline scores was noted in the posteromedial (right = 86.5 ± 4.5 cm versus 89.6 ± 2.2 cm, +3.5%, P = .049; left = 85.5 ± 4.3 cm versus 90.2 ± 2.7 cm, +5.5%, P = .038)- and posterolateral (right = 90.7 ± 3.6 cm versus 94.0 ± 2.7 cm, +3.6%, P = .016; left = 90.9 ± 3.5 cm versus 94.2 ± 2.6 cm, +3.6%, P = .011)-reach directions and in the composite YBT scores (right = 88.6% ± 3.2% versus 94.0% ± 1.8%, +5.4%, P = .0004; left = 89.2% ± 3.2% versus 94.5% ± 3.0%, +5.8%, P = .001) of the experimental group. No differences in anterior reach were detected in either group. Differences were noted in postintervention scores for posteromedial reach (right = 89.6 ± 2.2 cm versus 84.3 ± 4.4 cm, +4.1%, P = .005; left = 94.2 ± 2.6 cm versus 84.8 ± 4.4 cm, +10%, P = .003) and composite scores (right = 94.0% ± 1.8% versus 87.3% ± 2.0%, +7.1%, P = .003; left = 94.8% ± 3.0% versus 87.9% ± 3.4%, +7.3%, P weight neuromuscular training improved postural control and lower limb stability in female basketball players as assessed with the

  20. An investigation into the relationship between pre-competition mood states, age, gender and a national ranking in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldizsár, Dóra; Soós, István; Whyte, Ian; Hamar, Pál

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pre-competition mood state factors in gymnastics by gender, age and a national ranking. Participant-gymnasts (total n=116, male n=49, female n=67) completed a Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) one day prior to their main competition of the year. Information was also gathered from gymnasts of gender, age and a national ranking. Consistent with theoretical predictions, results confirmed that a number of pre-competition mood states differed by age with both juniors and seniors having a higher level of anger than children (p<.05 respectively). Also, seniors demonstrated higher tension than children (p<.001). However, only anger showed significant differences by gender with male gymnasts demonstrating higher levels of anger than female gymnasts (p<.05), and with international gymnasts registering higher levels of anger compared with second class gymnasts (p<.05). Authors suggest that future research should investigate relationships between the pre-competition mood in other gymnastics-related disciplines and sports, as well as competitive performances.

  1. Brain anatomical networks in world class gymnasts: a DTI tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Fan, Yuanyuan; Lu, Min; Li, Shumei; Song, Zheng; Peng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ruibin; Lin, Qixiang; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-15

    The excellent motor skills of world class gymnasts amaze everyone. People marvel at the way they precisely control their movements and wonder how the brain structure and function of these elite athletes differ from those of non-athletes. In this study, we acquired diffusion images from thirteen world class gymnasts and fourteen matched controls, constructed their anatomical networks, and calculated the topological properties of each network based on graph theory. From a connectivity-based analysis, we found that most of the edges with increased connection density in the champions were linked to brain regions that are located in the sensorimotor, attentional, and default-mode systems. From graph-based metrics, we detected significantly greater global and local efficiency but shorter characteristic path length in the anatomical networks of the champions compared with the controls. Moreover, in the champions we found a significantly higher nodal degree and greater regional efficiency in several brain regions that correspond to motor and attention functions. These included the left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus and temporal lobes. In addition, we revealed an increase in the mean fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract in the champions, possibly in response to long-term gymnastic training. Our study indicates that neuroanatomical adaptations and plastic changes occur in gymnasts' brain anatomical networks either in response to long-term intensive gymnastic training or as an innate predisposition or both. Our findings may help to explain gymnastic skills at the highest levels of performance and aid in understanding the neural mechanisms that distinguish expert gymnasts from novices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperament and risk for exercise dependence: results of a pilot study in female patients with eating disorders compared to elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Wos, Katharina; Kerling, Arno; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Cook, Brian; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the relationship between temperament and the risk for exercise dependence (EXD). A total of 32 female patients with eating disorders (potentially at risk for secondary EXD) and 29 female elite athletes without eating disturbances (potentially at risk for primary EXD) answered the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Exercise Dependence Scale-German version (EDS-G), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, and the effortful control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ-EC). There were significant positive correlations of the EDS-G with the BIS in women with an eating disorder and with the BAS in elite athletes. No significant association was found between the EDS-G and effortful control. The results indicate that the risk for EXD is associated with avoidance tendencies in women with eating disorders and with approach tendencies in elite athletes. Implications for secondary and primary EXD are discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km, cycling (180 km, running (42 km, and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii.Methods: The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011.Results: The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05, while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years were significantly (P < 0.05 younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years. During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05, but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event.Keywords: gender difference, swimming, cycling, running

  4. Skeletal Geometry and Indices of Bone Strength in Artistic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Scerpella, Tamara A.

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses bone geometry and indices of skeletal strength associated with exposure to gymnastic loading during growth. A brief background characterizes artistic gymnastics as a mechanical loading model and outlines densitometric techniques, skeletal outcomes and challenges in assessment of skeletal adaptation. The literature on bone geometric adaptation to gymnastic loading is sparse and consists of results for disparate skeletal sites, maturity phases, gender compositions and assessment methods, complicating synthesis of an overriding view. Furthermore, most studies assess only females, with little information on males and adults. Nonetheless, gymnastic loading during growth appears to yield significant enlargement of total and cortical bone geometry (+10 to 30%) and elevation of trabecular density (+20%) in the forearm, yielding elevated indices of skeletal strength (+20 to +50%). Other sites exhibit more moderate geometric and densitometric adaptations (5 to 15%). Mode of adaptation appears to be site-specific; some sites demonstrate marked periosteal and endosteal expansion, whereas other sites exhibit negligible or moderate periosteal expansion coupled with endocortical contraction. Further research is necessary to address sex-, maturity- and bone tissue-specific adaptation, as well as maintenance of benefits beyond loading cessation. PMID:19949278

  5. THE COMPARISON OF THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS MUSCLES FUNCTION BETWEEN GYMNASTIC ATHLETES WITH SWAY-BACK POSTURE AND NORMAL POSTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavie, Elnaz; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Simorgh, Leila

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of sway back posture (SBP) is very high among elite gymnasts. This posture may be partly due to the improper function of lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) as lumbar stabilizers muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the thicknesses of LMM measured at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift between elite gymnasts with SBP and normal posture. Observational, descriptive, comparative. The participants consist of twenty gymnasts between the ages of 17 and 30 who had trained in gymnastics for more than ten years. They were assigned to two groups: SBP (n=10) and control (n=10). Posture analysis with grid paper and plumb line was performed for all subjects. The thickness of LMM on dominant side of spinal column was measured by a real-time ultrasound at five lumbar levels. The thickness of the LMM was measured both at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift. The variation between the LMM thickness between the muscle at rest and muscle at the peak of contraction was regarded as LMM muscle function. The thickness of LMM was less in SBP group than the control group at all lumbar segments. The variation in LMM thickness between the state of rest and muscle contraction was significantly less in athletes with SBP than controls when compared at all levels of the lumbar spine (p antigravity and stabilizing muscle group was decreased during arm raising in gymnasts with SBP. 3a.

  6. The Advanced Study of Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, John H., Ed.

    The sport of artistic gymnastics is viewed from a multidisciplinary point of view. The training, performance, and judgment of the sport undergo specialized study of interest to sport scientists, teachers, coaches, and athletes. Organized into five major sections, the book presents such themes as the psychological, physiological, biomechanical,…

  7. Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, pgender and different characteristics of sports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.

  8. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  9. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  10. Gaze Behavior of Gymnastics Judges: Where Do Experienced Judges and Gymnasts Look While Judging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra; Möller, Carsten; Plessner, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Gymnastics judges and former gymnasts have been shown to be quite accurate in detecting errors and accurately judging performance. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine if this superior judging performance is reflected in judges' gaze behavior. Method: Thirty-five judges were asked to judge 21 gymnasts who performed a skill on…

  11. The transitional period redefined as the early Lambayeque period : a study of elite female burials at San José de Moro

    OpenAIRE

    Wittholt Leigh, Corissa

    2015-01-01

    It is a common idea that men in Pre‐Colombian Peru held the socio‐political power.  Recently, many female elite burials from the Moche, Transitional and Lambayeque Periods are changing this idea.  At least in these cultures, there appears to be a continuity of burials of high status women (possibly priestesses) and the matter in which they were treated and interred. Based on this evidence, in this thesis, I explain that based on the recent available archaeological data, that I ...

  12. Extra-articular tenodesis combined with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in acute anterior cruciate ligament tear in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzini, Matteo; Mazza, Daniele; Fabbri, Mattia; Lanzetti, Riccardo; Redler, Andrea; Iorio, Carlo; Monaco, Edoardo; Ferretti, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The growing popularity of elite soccer among female participants has led to increased incidents of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Many authors underline a positive glide after ACL reconstruction (ACLR), especially in women. In fact, an isolated intra-articular ACLR may be inadequate to control rotational instability after a combined injury of the ACL and the peripheral structures of the knee. Extra-articular procedures are sometimes used in primary cases displaying excessive antero-lateral rotatory instability. The purpose of this case series was to report subjective and objective outcomes after combined ACL and lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) with a minimum 4-year follow-up in a selected high-risk population of elite female football players. Between January 2007 and December 2010, 16 elite Italian female football players were included in the study. All patients underwent the same surgical technique: anatomical ACLR with autogenous semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. After the intra-articular reconstruction was performed, an additional extra-articular MacIntosh modified Coker-Arnold procedure was carried out. Patients were assessed pre- and post-operatively with the subjective and objective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation form, Tegner activity scale (TAS) and Lysholm score. Joint laxity was assessed with KT-1000 by measuring the side-to-side (S/S) differences in displacement at manual maximum (mm) testing. At a mean follow-up of 72.6 ± 8.1 months, two independent examiners reviewed all players. All of the patients had a fully recovered range of motion. Lachman test was negative in all patients (100 %). The evaluation of joint laxity and clinical evaluation showed a statistically significant improvement. No patients experienced complication or a re-rupture. The rationale of combining extra-articular procedures with ACLR is to restrict the internal rotation of the reconstructed knee, taking advantage of its

  13. Impact of Energy Availability, Health and Sex on Hemoglobin Mass Responses Following LHTH Altitude Training in Elite Female and Male Distance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikura, Ida A; Burke, Louise M; Bergland, Dan; Uusitalo, Arja L T; Mero, Antti A; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2018-02-12

    We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-breathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs and Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and a general injury/illness questionnaire was completed. Hypoxic exposure (hours) was calculated with low (600h) groupings. Absolute and relative percentage ΔHbmass (%ΔHbmass) was significantly greater in females (6.2±4.0%, paltitude training, while emphasizing the importance of athlete health and indices of EA on an optimal baseline Hbmass and hematological response to hypoxia.

  14. Physical demands on young elite European female basketball players with special reference to speed, agility, explosive strength, and take-off power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erčulj, Frane; Blas, Mateja; Bračič, Mitja

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and analyze the level of certain motor abilities (acceleration and agility, the explosive strength of arms, and take-off power) of young elite European female basketball players. We also wanted to establish whether there were any differences between 3 groups of female basketball players who differed in terms of their playing performance. The sample of subjects consists of 65 female basketball players aged 14.49 (± 0.61) years who were divided into 3 groups (divisions A, B, and C of the European Championships). We compare the groups by using 8 motor tests. p Values training status, this is also 1 of the key reasons for these players' lower playing efficiency compared to those from divisions A and B. We hope the findings of this study will enable the generation of model values, which can assist basketball coaches for this age category in basketball clubs, high schools, national teams, and basketball camps.

  15. Effects of 6-week sling-based training of the external-rotator muscles on the shoulder profile in elite female high school handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, Cyril; Berthier, Philippe; Guidou, Vincent; Muller, Franck; Thiebault, Boris; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    In women's handball, the large numbers of throws and passes make the shoulder region vulnerable to overuse injuries. Repetitive throwing motions generate imbalance between shoulder internal- and external-rotator muscles. It has not yet been established whether sling-based training can improve shoulder external-rotator muscle strength. This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-wk strengthening program in improving shoulder functional profile in elite female high school handball players. Crossover study. National elite handball training center. 25 elite female high school handball players. The program, completed twice per week for 6 wk, included sling-based strengthening exercises using a suspension trainer for external rotation with scapular retraction and scapular retraction alone. Maximal shoulder external- and internal-rotation strength, shoulder external- and internal-rotation range of motion (ROM), and maximal throwing velocity were assessed preintervention and postintervention for dominant and nondominant sides. After sling training, external- and internal-rotation strength increased significantly for both sides (P ≤ .001, and P = .004, respectively), with the result that there was no significant change in external- and internal-rotation strength ratios for either the dominant or the nondominant shoulder. No significant differences were observed for external-rotation ROM, while internal-rotation ROM decreased moderately, in particular in the dominant shoulder (P = .005). Maximal throwing velocity remained constant for the dominant arm, whereas a significant increase was found for the nondominant arm (P = .017). This 6-wk strengthening program was effective in improving shoulder external-rotator muscle strength but resulted in a decrease in the ROM in shoulder internal rotation, while throwing velocity remained stable. Adding a stretching program to this type of sling-based training program might help avoid potential detrimental effects on shoulder ROM.

  16. Can psychological well-being scales and hormone levels be used to predict acute performance of anaerobic training tasks in elite female volleyball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J; Calleja-González, Julio; Shipherd, Amber M

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between pre-training psychological well-being assessment scales (General Health Questionnaire-28-GHQ-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2-CSAI-2, Sport Competition Anxiety Test-SCAT, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S-STAI-S, Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire-OSQ and Psychological Characteristics Related to Sport Performance-PCSP), and pre-training stress hormone concentrations (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT, adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratios), on acute neuromuscular performance (ANP) in female volleyballers. Forty elite female volleyballers (27±4yrs.; 178.3±8.5cm; 67.9±7.2kg) participated. Bivariate correlations were performed between psychological assessments and hormone levels with ANP. All psychological scales presented at least one significant (pvolleyballers than pre-training stress hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

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    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Tsaklis,1,2 Nikos Malliaropoulos,3–5,10 Jurdan Mendiguchia,6 Vasileios Korakakis,7–9 Kyriakos Tsapralis,11 Debasish Pyne,5 Peter Malliaras101Department of Physiotherapy, Laboratory of Biomechanics and Ergonomics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3National Track and Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of SEGAS, 4Thessaloniki Sports Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Rheumatology Department, Sports Medicine Clinic, Mile End Hospital, London, UK; 6Department of Physical Therapy, Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center, Pamplona, Spain; 7Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 8Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 9Hellenic Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy Diploma, Athens, Greece; 10Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK; 11K Tsapralis Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises.Methods: Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each

  18. RELATION CONATIVE CHARACSTERISTICS AND SUCCESS IN GYMNASTICS

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    Katarina Herodek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The young gymnasts from seven cities in the Republic of Serbia at the age of 8-12 years was covered with programmed gymnastic training 3-4 times a week for 90 minutes and the system of competition within the "C" program GSS. The case studies are examined relationships conative characteristics modified by Catel 16PF questionnaire with success in gymnastics, which is estimated to success in the competition in the "C" program of the Gymnastics Federation of Serbia. Using canonical correlation analysis of the data show that in the space of conative characteristics examined were found to be factors I-sensitivity-sharp temper, H- fearlessness and Q1- openness to change. Success in gymnastics was defined positive relations with disciplines Rings (.77, Pommel horse and Bar (.73 and Vault (.63. The hypothesis that says "conative characteristics have a positive relationship with success in gymnastics" can not be accepted because there is a statistically positive relationship that is explained with 83%. Young gymnasts who show a sharp temper and willingness to learn new cause the contents with strong courage, can successfully realizes "C" program GS Serbia in gymnastics.

  19. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver.

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    Landry, Scott C; McKean, Kelly A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2007-11-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during a non-contact athletic maneuver. Identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in female athletes may help with the development of preventive training programs aimed at reducing injury rates. Differences between genders in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular patterns will be identified in an adolescent soccer population during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two elite adolescent soccer players (21 male and 21 female) performed an unanticipated side-cut maneuver, with the 3-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic lower limb data being analyzed using principal component analysis. The female athletes had higher gastrocnemius activity, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and a mediolateral gastrocnemius activation imbalance that was not present in the male athletes during early stance to midstance of the side-cut. Female athletes demonstrated greater rectus femoris muscle activity throughout stance, and the only hamstring difference identified was a mediolateral activation imbalance in male athletes only. Female athletes performed the side-cut with less hip flexion and more hip external rotation and also generated a smaller hip flexion moment compared with the male athletes. This is the first study to identify gender-related differences in gastrocnemius muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting maneuver. The increased and imbalanced gastrocnemius muscle activity, combined with increased rectus femoris muscle activity and reduced hip flexion angles and moments in female subjects, may all have important contributing roles in the higher noncontact ACL injury rates observed in female athletes.

  20. Recovery in Level 7-10 Women's USA Artistic Gymnastics.

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    Buckner, Stephen B; Bacon, Nicholas T; Bishop, Phillip A

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed physical performance in women's artistic gymnastics following three variable recovery periods. Participants included fifteen female gymnasts (mean age = 13.5 ± 1.1) who had competed at USA Gymnastics (USAG) levels 7 - 10 within at least one year prior to the study. Each testing session consisted of a warm-up followed by four muscular endurance tests and one explosive maximal test. Assessments included pull-ups, leg lifts, handstand push-ups, vertical jump, and push-ups. After the performance assessments, the participants completed a typical practice session. The performance measures were reassessed at the beginning of each of the recovery periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours in a counterbalanced design. Performance assessments were converted into Z-scores and then averaged for a composite session Z-score. The composite session Z-scores were compared to evaluate the recovery duration. Composite Z's were significantly lower (p=0.000), after the 24 (z=-1.10) and the 48 hour (z=-0.71) recovery periods compared to baseline (z=0.00). However, there was no difference in scores (p=1.00) between the baseline and 72 hours (z=0.004) recovery. Full recovery required 72 hours under the conditions of this study.

  1. The Vertical Drop Jump Is a Poor Screening Test for ACL Injuries in Female Elite Soccer and Handball Players: A Prospective Cohort Study of 710 Athletes.

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    Krosshaug, Tron; Steffen, Kathrin; Kristianslund, Eirik; Nilstad, Agnethe; Mok, Kam-Ming; Myklebust, Grethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2016-04-01

    The evidence linking knee kinematics and kinetics during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is restricted to a single small sample. Still, the VDJ test continues to be advocated for clinical screening purposes. To test whether 5 selected kinematic and kinetic variables were associated with future ACL injuries in a large cohort of Norwegian female elite soccer and handball players. Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether the VDJ test can be recommended as a screening test to identify players with increased risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Elite female soccer and handball players participated in preseason screening tests from 2007 through 2014. The tests included marker-based 3-dimensional motion analysis of a drop-jump landing. We followed a predefined statistical protocol in which we included the following candidate risk factors in 5 separate logistic regression analyses, with new ACL injury as the outcome: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact, (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) peak knee flexion angle, (4) peak vertical ground-reaction force, and (5) medial knee displacement. A total of 782 players were tested (age, 21 ± 4 years; height, 170 ± 7 cm; body mass, 67 ± 8 kg), of which 710 were included in the analyses. We registered 42 new noncontact ACL injuries, including 12 in previously ACL-injured players. Previous ACL injury (relative risk, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1-7.1) and medial knee displacement (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74 per 1-SD change) were associated with increased risk for injury. However, among the 643 players without previous injury, we found no association with medial knee displacement. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of medial knee displacement showed an area under the curve of 0.6, indicating a poor-to-failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the test, even when including previously injured players. Of the 5 risk factors considered, medial knee displacement was the

  2. Las primeras profesoras de gimnástica en España. Profesión liberal y coartada durante el siglo XIX. [The first female gymnastics teachers in Spain. A private and banned practice in the 19th century].

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    Xavier Torrebadella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es una aproximación a la realidad de la profesión de profesora de gimnasia en los inicios de la configuración de dicha profesión. Por causa del aparente vacío doctrinal existente sobre esta temática durante el periodo estudiado, las fuentes de información empleadas proceden principalmente de fuentes archivísticas y hemerográficas de la época. Igualmente se ha recurrido a estudios actuales con el fin de centrar una posición desde la historia social de las prácticas gimnástico-deportivas. Las conclusiones del trabajo muestran que las primeras profesoras de gimnasia, a pesar de contar en un momento puntual con formación oficial, fueron vetadas para acceder a los institutos o incluso a escuelas normales, quedando relegadas a centros de educación infantil y primaria o al ejercicio de la profesión de forma privada o en gimnasios familiares. La moralidad de la época y el rol asignado a las mujeres actuaron como condicionantes claros para que su orientación profesional se vinculase a la gimnasia higiénica en el sistema educativo o a clases de gimnasia femenina en instituciones privadas. A pesar de esto, existieron mujeres que transgredieron dichos roles y que, precisamente por ello, se estudian aquí también. Abstract The aim of this article is to offer a glimpse of the reality of the practice of female gymnastics teachers in the beginnings of its inception as a professional practice. Due to the apparent lack of disciplinary work on the topic in the period that is the object of our study, the sources of information that we have used are mainly archival and periodical. Likewise, we have resorted to current studies aiming at a positioning of sports and gymnastic practices considering socio-historical arguments. The conclusions of the work show that the first female gymnastic teachers, despite having at some point some formal training, were banned from accessing secondary schools, or even regular schools

  3. No association between static and dynamic postural control and ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players: a prospective study of 838 players.

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    Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Krosshaug, Tron; Pasanen, Kati; Killingmo, Aleksander; Bahr, Roald

    2017-02-01

    Research on balance measures as potential risk factors for ACL injury is limited. To assess whether postural control was associated with an increased risk for ACL injuries in female elite handball and football players. Premier league players were tested in the preseason and followed prospectively for ACL injury risk from 2007 through 2015. At baseline, we recorded player demographics, playing experience, ACL and ankle injury history. We measured centre of pressure velocity in single-leg stabilisation tests and reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test. To examine the stability of postural control measures over time, we examined their short-term and long-term reproducibility. We generated logistic regression models, 1 for each of the proposed risk factors. A total of 55 (6.6%) out of 838 players (age 21±4 years; height 170±6 cm; body mass 66±8 kg) sustained a non-contact ACL injury after baseline testing (1.8±1.8 years). When comparing normalised balance measures between injured and uninjured players in univariate analyses, none of the variables were statistically associated with ACL injury risk. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of the selected variables was poor. Players with a previous ACL injury had a 3-fold higher risk of sustaining a new ACL injury compared with previously uninjured players (OR 2.9, CI 1.4 to 5.7). None of postural control measures examined were associated with increased ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players. Hence, as measured in the current investigation, the variables included cannot be used to predict ACL injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

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    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  5. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  6. Biomechanical analysis of skilled female gymnasts' motor actions in vaulting «rondat fllick» with the new table [Biomekhanicheskij analiz dvigatel'nykh dejstvij kvalificirovannykh gimnastok v opornom pryzhke tipa «rondat-fliak» na snariade «pryzhkovyj stol»

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    Khmelnitska I.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanics descriptions of technique of motive actions of gymnasts are presented. 20 gymnasts took part in an experiment. The analysis of 72 appearances of gymnasts and 144 supporting jumps is conducted. Errors are considered in the technique of motive actions of gymnasts at implementation of supporting jumps. It is marked that frequency of the use of supporting jump «Rondat Fllick» among all of supporting jumps is 40 %. It is set that the leading elements of motive structure of technique are biomechanics descriptions of the second phase of flight (duration, height of flight and landing distance.

  7. Unique or double standard to aging in sports? Case of retired gymnasts

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    Mara Stan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to capture a socially constructed analysis of gendered media representations on retired Romanian gymnasts. The theoretical input discusses gendered representations, body projects, discursive tactics applied to gender within the context of sports, kinetic performance and contributions extracted from feminist critical discourse analysis. The overall approach views desistance, resistance and conformity as inextricably intertwined concerning gendered representations of sports participation. Discursive cues from the 20 selected media articles anchor meaning as points of reference for connecting ideas to broader networks of significance within an integrative analytical framework. The analysis of empirical findings dwells on discursive strategies for conformity and othering, empowerment and victimization. Media portrays women gymnasts in the post-retirement phase as de-centring from competition and assuming supportive roles that are thought as more becoming, typically feminine practices, whereas men are represented as remaining strong and competitive. From a somatic culture perspective, male gymnasts act more as role models for successful aging, being portrayed as maintaining desirable body attributes such as grit, strength, energy and vitality. In exchange, female gymnasts remain ambassadors of sports and community participation to physical exercise, but are expected to display disturbing or debilitating somatic signs of aging as negative repercussion of high-performance gymnastics.

  8. Direction detection thresholds of passive self-motion in artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias; Haller, Katia; Moser, Ivan; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim; Mast, Fred W

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we compared direction detection thresholds of passive self-motion in the dark between artistic gymnasts and controls. Twenty-four professional female artistic gymnasts (ranging from 7 to 20 years) and age-matched controls were seated on a motion platform and asked to discriminate the direction of angular (yaw, pitch, roll) and linear (leftward-rightward) motion. Gymnasts showed lower thresholds for the linear leftward-rightward motion. Interestingly, there was no difference for the angular motions. These results show that the outstanding self-motion abilities in artistic gymnasts are not related to an overall higher sensitivity in self-motion perception. With respect to vestibular processing, our results suggest that gymnastic expertise is exclusively linked to superior interpretation of otolith signals when no change in canal signals is present. In addition, thresholds were overall lower for the older (14-20 years) than for the younger (7-13 years) participants, indicating the maturation of vestibular sensitivity from childhood to adolescence.

  9. Gender Differences on Attitudes and Participation in an Extracurricular Gymnastics Course among Greek University Students

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    Milosis, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.; Siatras, Theophanis A.; Proios, Miltiadis; Proios, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to test the effectiveness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict Greek university students' voluntary participation in an extracurricular gymnastics course, and (b) to evaluate gender differences. Two hundred sixty-three (127 female, 136 male) students participated in the study. Students' attitudes,…

  10. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05), while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05). Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01). In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05). In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors) significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01) over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05). Moreover, change

  11. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Melanie Lesinski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass, body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass, and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05, while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05. Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01. In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01 over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05. Moreover, change

  12. Anthropometric and physical differences of the gymnasts from the talent identification program of the artistic and rhythmic specialties

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    Leyton Román, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to describe the physical and anthropometric characteristics of 25 gymnasts from the talent identification program of the Extremeña Gymnastics Federation. Subjects were classified according to their specialty: women‘s artistic gymnastic (WAG and rhythmic gymnastics (RG. The dependent variables include body fat percentage through an electronic scale column with stadiometer (SECA 220cm; body circumferences through a plicometer (Holtain; body diameters and specific tests of flexibility through a tape (CM 3m; a heart rate through Ruffier test and a heart rate monitor (Polar F6; isometric strength of lower extremities through a load cell (SSMAJ 5000N; and jumping ability through a contact mat (Lafayette CVP A73. The results concluded that the WAG group got the best results in flexibility tests (p<.05. Also, the RG group had lower body fat percentage and greater SJ jump ability (r=-.774; p<.01 and CMJ (r=-.600; p<.05. However, the WAG group showed a negative relation between body mass index and flexibility (p<.01. We conclude that there are differences in body composition and physical tests between the specialties/styles of women’s artistic gymnastics and female rhythmic gymnastics; we also found relationships between the performance of such tests and anthropometric variables.

  13. Body dissatisfaction in women's artistic gymnastics: A longitudinal study of psychosocial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Berbert de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique; Schubring, Astrid; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is prevalent in women's artistic gymnastics (WAG). Cross-sectional research points to social and individual risk factors, however it does not account for potential changes in body dissatisfaction during an athletic season. This study aimed to determine how gymnasts' body dissatisfaction, risk factors for eating disorders, media internalisation, perfectionism and mood state change during pre-competition, competition and post-competition seasons and to identify how these psychosocial indicators impact on body dissatisfaction during the athletic year. The sample consisted of 20 Brazilian elite women's artistic gymnasts aged 10-16 years. Data were obtained from a 9-month study using: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Eating Attitude Test-26; Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3); Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS); Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Body dissatisfaction was higher during the competition season and disordered eating, perfectionism and vigour values were higher in the pre-competition season. Disordered eating has been found as the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction during all seasons, and mood state partly contributed to body dissatisfaction in the competitive season. Stakeholders should understand that body dissatisfaction and the prevalence of disordered eating may change over time.

  14. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  15. Positive pacing strategies are utilised by elite male and female para-cyclists in short time trials in the velodrome

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    Rachel Lindsey Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilise an all-out strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001s were obtained from the C1-C3 men’s 1-km TT (n=28 and women’s 500-m TT (n=9 from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men’s 1-km TT (n=19 and women’s 500-m TT (n=12 from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men’s 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women’s 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall’s Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars

  16. Relationship between Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, and Muscle Strength and the Impact of Gymnastic Training on Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Niespodziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS and force sense (FS and muscle strength (MS and (2 to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR and passive reproduction (PR task and a force reproduction (FR task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated. While there was no difference in AR or PR between groups, absolute error in the control group was higher during the PR task (7.15 ± 2.72° than during the AR task (3.1 ± 1.93°. Mean relative error in the control group was 61% higher in the elbow extensors than in the elbow flexors during 50% FR, while the gymnast group had similar results in both reciprocal muscles. There was no linear correlation between JPS and FS in either group; however, FR was negatively correlated with antagonist MS. In conclusion, this study found no evidence for a relationship between the accuracy of FS and JPS at the elbow joint. Long-term gymnastic training improves the JPS and FS of the elbow extensors.

  17. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Maria Boldrini FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases. Vault kinematic variables could be diversifying according to the approach or position of the vaulting, but little has been studied about the biomechanical differences, comparing and describing behaviours at different stages. The aim of this study was to organize critical, objective and to systematize the most relevant kinematic variables to performance on vaulting. A Meta analysis over the basis Pubmed, Sport Discus and Web of Science were performed about this issue. From the selected references, we described and analyzed the kinematics of the table vault. Vault can be characterized in seven phases of analysis. Most of the studies are descriptive, and some do not descript all phases. Differences among vault variables according to group vaults, technical level and gender were analysed only in recent studies. There still gaps of knowledge about kinematic variables of table vault, in order to provide comprehensive information about all possibilities of vaults in this gymnastic event. It is concluded that kinematic variables of table vault depends upon vault group and may be considered to the improvement of technical performance. More researches are needed to approach the coaching interface with biomechanics applicable knowledge.

  18. DEVELOPING MUSHROOM GYMNASTIC INSTRUMENT PROTOTYPE FOR MEN’S ARTISTIC GYMNASTIC SPORT IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Soenyoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop mushroom gymnastic instrument for men’s artistic gymnastic athletes of junior and senior levels. The instrument is aimed at improving movement skills on horse saddle. Aside from its use as an exercise instrument for beginner, junior and senior levels of men’s artistic gymnastic athletes, this instrument can also be used for beginners’ level competition. This study used qualitative approach in which the data are collected from the initial step to the trial. The main procedure involved five steps: (1 the analysis of product development; (2 the development of initial product; (3 the expert validation; (4 the trial; and (5 the product revision. This study found that the mushroom gymnastic instrument can be used for men’s artistic gymnastic sport, particularly (1 for improving movement skill development on horse saddle for junior and senior athletes; (2 as an exercise instrument for beginner, junior and senior level of men’s artistic gymnastic athletes; (3 as an instrument used in competition for men’s artistic gymnastic for beginners’ level.

  19. Dynamic load indicators for take-off-landing sequence in blocks and attacks of elite female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaciński, Jarosław; Dworak, Lechosław Bogdan; Murawa, Michał; Rzepnicka, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic loads during landings determined by the ground reaction forces (GRFs) may elaborate internal loads and increase the risk of overload knee injuries as a result of performing volleyball jumps many times. The study dealt with a biomechanical assessment of dynamic load indicators in female volleyball players for the motion sequence of take-off-landing in blocks and attacks. Twelve professional female volleyball players participated in the study. Blocks and attacks were filmed by two cameras. GRFs vs. time graphs were recorded with the use of a force platform. Values of dynamic load indicators in terms of the relations of peak of vertical component of GRF, build-up index of this force (BIF), and power output (P) during landing to the vGRF, BIF and P during take-off (L/T) were calculated. The statistically significant ( p volleyball players.

  20. Iron supplementation prevents a decline in iron stores and enhances strength performance in elite female volleyball players during the competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 11 weeks of iron supplementation on hematological and strength markers in elite female volleyball players. Twenty-two volleyball players (aged 27.0 ± 5.6 years) from 2 Spanish First National League teams participated and were counterbalanced into 1 of 2 groups based upon iron status: (i) control group (CG, n = 11); or (ii) iron treatment group (ITG, n = 11), which received 325 mg/day of ferrous sulphate daily. Subjects performed their team's regimen of training or match play every day. Both groups were tested for hematological and strength levels at 2 points: (i) baseline (T0, before preseason) and (ii) 11 weeks later (T11, post-testing). Hematological parameters were serum iron (sFe), serum ferritin (FER), transferrin saturation index (TSI), and hemoglobin (Hb); strength assessments were bench press, military press, half-squat, power clean, clean and jerk, and pull-over. CG experienced a significant decrease (p 0.05). Consequently, in ITG all hematological parameters were significantly greater (p volleyball players during the competitive season.

  1. Neuromuscular asymmetries in the lower limbs of elite female youth basketball players and the application of the skillful limb model of comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Montalvo, Alicia M; Sitjà-Rabert, Mercè; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-11-01

    Compare the ability of commonly used comparison models to detect neuromuscular asymmetries. A secondary purpose was to determine which neuromuscular task(s) has the greatest sensitivity to identify asymmetries based on the ASI (asymmetry index) calculation. Elite female youth basketball players (N = 29, age = 15.7 ± 1.34 y) performed the single leg countermovement jump in vertical, horizontal, and lateral directions, the star excursion balance test in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions, and the sprint test with change of direction. Paired t-tests compared right and left limbs, the dominant (DL) and non-dominant (NDL) limbs, and the more/less skillful limbs. The coincident identification between the more skillful leg and the leg subjectively described as the DL was low for all of the tasks performed (35%-52%). There were significant differences between the more and less skillful legs for all tasks, while performances between the right and left limbs and DL and NDL differed significantly for only one task each. The largest ASI detected in this study was found in the vertical single leg countermovement jump (14.11%). The skillful limb model of comparison may be more useful than other models to detect neuromuscular asymmetries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.

  3. "Gymnasts Are Like Wine, They Get Better with Age": Becoming and Developing Adult Women's Artistic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Kerr, Roslyn; Schubring, Astrid; Cervin, Georgia; Nunomura, Myrian

    2017-01-01

    Women's artistic gymnastics is commonly understood to require early entrance and intense training during childhood. Most gymnasts retire before reaching adulthood. In recent years, the gymnast population at the highest level has "aged." In this article, we adopt a socio-pedagogical perspective to explore the training contexts, pubertal…

  4. Judging the judges' performance in rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessas, Konstantinos; Mylonas, Dimitris; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Tsopani, Despina; Korda, Alexandrea; Siettos, Constantinos; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is an aesthetic event balancing between art and sport that also has a performance rating system (Code of Points) given by the International Gymnastics Federation. It is one of the sports in which competition results greatly depend on the judges' evaluation. In the current study, we explored the judges' performance in a five-gymnast ensemble routine. An expert-novice paradigm (10 international-level, 10 national-level, and 10 novice-level judges) was implemented under a fully simulated procedure of judgment in a five-gymnast ensemble routine of RG using two videos of routines performed by the Greek national team of RG. Simultaneous recordings of two-dimensional eye movements were taken during the judgment procedure to assess the percentage of time spent by each judge viewing the videos and fixation performance of each judge when an error in gymnast performance had occurred. All judge level groups had very modest performance of error recognition on gymnasts' routines, and the best international judges reported approximately 40% of true errors. Novice judges spent significantly more time viewing the videos compared with national and international judges and spent significantly more time fixating detected errors than the other two groups. National judges were the only group that made efficient use of fixation to detect errors. The fact that international-level judges outperformed both other groups, while not relying on visual fixation to detect errors, suggests that these experienced judges probably make use of other cognitive strategies, increasing their overall error detection efficiency, which was, however, still far below optimum.

  5. Foot and Ankle Deformity in Young Acrobatic and Artistic Gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobera Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of feet and ankle deformities in trampoline and artistic gymnasts. Methods. Ten acrobatic gymnasts (trampolinists and 10 artistic gymnasts aged 6-14 years were recruited. The calcaneal-tibial (rearfoot angle was determined as the angle of the upper calcaneal tendon and the longitudinal heel axis while Clarke angles were determined by podoscopy. Results. The trampolinists showed significantly greater medial angulation (calcaneal valgus than the group of gymnasts. Right and left foot Clark’s angles in both the trampoline and artistic gymnasts were above 55°. Conclusions. Trampolinists exhibit significantly more pronounced calcaneal valgus than artistic gymnasts. The prevalence of foot and ankle deformities in both populations should be addressed by coaches in the gymnastics training of young children.

  6. Rates of insufficiency and deficiency of vitamin D levels in elite professional male and female skiers: A chronobiologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Lombardi, Giovanni; Cavaleri, Luca; Graziani, Rosa; Schoenhuber, Herbert; Torre, Antonio La; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter. To confirm this, the existence of a circannual rhythm of vitamin D in professional soccer players, highlighting a peak in summer and lowest values in winter regardless the period of the season, has been documented. Nonetheless, from what we are aware of, no other study adopted a chronobiologic approach to better understand and describe the circannual variations of serum 25(OH)D in other sport disciplines. Therefore, we studied serum vitamin D in a cohort of top-level professional skiers, during a period of three consecutive competitive seasons (2015, 2016 and 2017), in order to evaluate, with a rhythmometric approach, the vitamin D behavior along the year. The study population was composed by 152 professional Italian alpine skiers of FISI (Winter Sport Italian Federation), 63 females and 89 males (mean age: 24.1 ± 3.2 years) and a total of 298 blood drawings were carried out to determine plasma 25(OH)D. Vitamin D data were compared between genders and then processed with the population mean cosinor tests to evaluate the presence of a circannual rhythm, both for female and male athletes. In total, 77 skiers (50.7%) showed, at least once during the three competitive seasons, an insufficient level of 25(OH)D and

  7. Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare two internationally renowned Danish Gymnastics teachers, Jørgen Peter Muller and Niels Bukh. Whereas Muller’s home gymnastics had a cosmopolitan agenda that appealed to everyone regardless of ethnic origin, including many Jews, Bukh’s gymnastics...... increasingly became embedded in a right-wing nationalist frame of reference. Muller created an individual system of home gymnastics with a focus on health by means of exercises and the cleansing of the body that included a cold shower. In contrast, Bukh’s system was a collective form of gymnastics...

  8. Behavior of physiological variables during a water gymnastics class in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Micheline Olkoski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of physiological variables and rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the different phases of a water gymnastics class. Seventeen female university students (age: 23 ± 3.5 years were evaluated in two steps: 1 incremental treadmill test (peak VO2 and HRmax; 2 assessment of body composition and achievement in the water gymnastics class (HR, VO2, [lac], and RPE. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA with the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls were used (p< 0.05. The results showed that both HR and VO2 differed significantly (p=0.000 between the three phases of the class. Blood lactate only differed significantly (p=0.001 between the early (1.55 mM and the main phase (3.58 mM. The mean RPE was 11 and total calorie expenditure was 262.10 kcal. In conclusion, the physiological variables studied and RPE vary significantly according to the phase of the water gymnastics class. In addition, the intensity of effort (HR, VO2 and [lac] obtained for the main phase is within the parameters established in the literature for aerobic exercise. Thus, regular water gymnastics classes with this structure may improve the physical condition of young adult women.

  9. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in an Elite Female Soccer Player; What Sports Medicine Clinicians Should Know about This?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoorani, Hooman; Haratian, Zohreh; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-09-01

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of congenital conditions characterized by disordered cortisol synthesis. The correlation between CAH and sports performance has been less studied before and there is very limited information regarding the impacts of this congenital disease on sports performance. Probably, there are some limitations for patients who suffer from CAH in sports, but at the same time, they may enjoy some advantage due to the probable effect of endogenous hyperandrogenism on their exercise performance. The case is a 14 - year old girl with male phenotype who is a known case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She plays in the women's national soccer team of under 16. She has been in the first division league of indoor soccer for 4 years and was also selected in the preparation training camp of women's football team for Singapore's youth Olympic Games. Her illness and dependence on corticosteroid have caused some concerns for her participation in the international competitions of women. However, following consultations with the Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) Committee of games organization, she received TUE to use corticosteroid only within the games period. Despite all her problems, she is now playing in the Second Division League of indoor soccer. A female adolescent with CAH may compete at the high level of outdoor and indoor soccer. However, there are many questions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this congenital disorder and its treatment on sports related issues.

  10. Profile of isokinetic eccentric-to-concentric strength ratios of shoulder rotator muscles in elite female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; Fleury, Anna Maria; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosia; Dubas, Joao Paulo; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscles strength in female handball players. Twenty-seven handball players performed concentric and eccentric strength tests of both dominant and non-dominant upper limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer. Internal and external rotator muscles peak torque was assessed at 1.05, 3.14, and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in concentric mode and at 3.14 and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in eccentric mode. Concentric balance ratio and functional ratio were obtained. Bi-lateral deficiency was compared. Concentric strength for internal and external rotation was significantly greater for the dominant than for the non-dominant limb for all speeds (P muscles were stronger in the dominant than the non-dominant limb (P stronger than the non-dominant side, balance concentric ratios remained the same, with only the functional strength ratio different at 5.23 rad . s(-1). Our results suggest that concentric strength exercises be used for internal and external rotators on the non-dominant side, and functional exercise that improves eccentric rotation strength for prevention programmes.

  11. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Desenvolvimento e validação de um novo sistema de seleção de talentos para a ginástica olímpica feminina: a Bateria PDGO Development and validation of a new system for talent selection in female artistic gymnastics: the PDGO Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arruda de Albuquerque

    2007-06-01

    longitudinal para estabelecimento da validade preditiva do método.The artistic gymnastics (AG is based on a wide range of motor activities that require specific capacities. However, tests to detect the potential for its excellence in early ages are still lacking. The purpose of the present study was to develop a test for talent selection in female artistic gymnastics. The activities used by Brazilian specialists were investigated by questionnaire and the international literature was reviewed. The 30 mentioned activities were compiled in a 22-test battery that was applied in 55 children of 5 to 9 years-old. Results obtained were treated by principal component factor analysis. Individual factor scores were extracted from the first factor, which were adopted as an indicator of the performance potential in artistic gymnastics (PPAG. At last, a stepwise multiple regression was calculated, using the factor scores as independent variable, producing an equation with eight activities to estimate PPAG. Construct validity, cross validity and reliability of the equation were tested. Sixteen experienced gymnasts and 19 apprentices were tested for cross validation. Mean PPAG found for the gymnasts (85.11 was significantly higher than data for the apprentices (54.80, indicating that the battery can discriminate the performance potential. Construct validity was confirmed by exploratory factor analysis, suggesting that the activities were related to a similar dimension of motor performance. Inter- and intra-observers reliability was tested by linear correlation and Student t test. The correlation values ranged between 0.83 and 1.00 (p < 0.05. No differences were detected between the means in all test situations. In conclusion, the application of the proposed battery revealed to be fast and simple, as well associated with low cost and easy understanding. Furthermore, data suggested that it has good validity and reproducibility, authorizing its application in initial talent selection for AG

  13. ACL injury risk in elite female youth soccer: Changes in neuromuscular control of the knee following soccer-specific fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ste Croix, M B A; Priestley, A M; Lloyd, R S; Oliver, J L

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. Thirty-six youth soccer players performed eccentric actions of the hamstrings in a prone position at 60, 120, and 180°/s before and after a soccer-specific fatigue trial. Surface electromyography was used to determine EMD from the semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. A time × age × muscle × velocity repeated measures analysis of variance was used to explore the influence of fatigue on EMD. A significant main effect for time (P = 0.001) indicated that EMD was significantly longer post- compared with pre-fatigue (58.4% increase). A significant time × group interaction effect (P = 0.046) indicated EMD was significantly longer in the U13 age group compared with the U15 (P = 0.011) and U17 (P = 0.021) groups and greater post-fatigue. Soccer-specific fatigue compromised neuromuscular feedback mechanisms and the age-related effects may represent a more compliant muscle-tendon system in younger compared with older girls, increasing risk of injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Introducing Aesthetic Features in Gymnastic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Savrami, Katia; Karadimou, Konstanding

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on an aesthetic approach that takes the simplest functional skill, such as walking, and develops it into an artistic skill. The aim then is to identify aesthetic characteristics and examine ways to apply them in gymnastic classes. Because walking is the child's first experience with bipedal locomotion, the initial walking action…

  15. Fitness profile of elite junior South African badminton players | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the fitness profile of the elite junior badminton players in South Africa through the measurement and description of their body composition, aerobic power, muscular characteristics, speed, flexibility and agility. Eight elite male and seven elite female badminton players between the ...

  16. [Medical interests in gymnastics and athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, H

    2001-01-01

    Since time immemorial authors have noticed the usefulness of physical activity. In the 18th century C von Linné was a spokesman for bodily exercise, and in the beginning of the 19th century P. H . Ling shaped the Swedish gymnastics and founded the Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet in 1813. He aimed at harmonious bodies according to the models of the classic antiquity. Many physicians, I. and F. Holmgren saw the value of the gymnastics. Completing the Ling gymnastics, there was a growing interest in physical performance, i.e., athletics. Above all, the contributions of the officer V. Balck, culminating at the olympic games in Stockholm 1912, made athletics a national movement. Since 1913 it receives an annual economic support from the state. Some physicians feared from overexertion in athletics but they appreciated physical performance. However, they demanded that you should be wholly full-grown prior to great exortions. An important part of the Ling program was remedial gymnastics which was more and more estimated after P. Haglund had asserted its value. T. Sjöstrand's studies became a good basis for evaluating the effect of physical training in both healthy and sick persons. It was not until the 1950s that the first studies, later confirmed, gave holds for the view that physical training was good for public health. But the average life span does not seem to be influenced by physical activities. Now and then training had earlier been used as therapy for disparate sorts of diseases but most rationally for disturbed functions of the locomotor system. Training became an important part of medical rehabilitation only after the second world war. Gymnastics and athletics at school have always had a solid support by physicians. The subject has nowadays so few hours that it cannot result in safe training habits for the future.

  17. Fragile Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    China's One Child Policy and its rigorous national focus on educational testing are well known. But what happens to those "lucky" few at the very top of the pyramid? Fragile Elite explores the contradictions of being an elite student through ethnographic research conducted at two top universities...... in China. It uncovers the intimate psychological strains students suffer under the pressure imposed on them by parents and state, where the state acts as a parent, and the parents sometimes reinforce the state. The book offers insights into the intergenerational tensions as work in relation to the ongoing...... shifts in educational policy and definition of what a "quality" student, child, and citizen is in contemporary China....

  18. Ar Rahman-Based Dysmenorrhea Gymnastic to Reduce Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaryani, Sri; Puspita Sari, Praditiana Indah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: More than 50% dysmenorrhea are caused by excessive amounts of prostaglandin hormone during menstruation.  The combination of dysmenorrhea gymnastics and Qur'an Surah Ar-Rahman relaxation techniques is a new innovation in non-pharmacological therapy to overcome dysmenorrhoea. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of pain differences on respondents who were given dysmenorrhea gymnastics treatment, Al Quran Surah Ar-Rahman recitation, and dysmenorrhea gymnastics comb...

  19. The Prevalence of Painful Incidents among Young Recreational Gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Chrystal; McMurtry, C Meghan; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although children experience pain during their daily life, research has generally focused on medical pain. Sport-related pain has not been widely studied in children and research has not examined the occurrence of painful incidents in gymnastics. The prevalence of painful incidents among children in recreational gymnastics classes and accompanying coach responses were recorded.METHODS: Sixty-one children between five and 10 years of age were observed at a gymnastics club. A checkl...

  20. Niels Bukh's gymnastics school in Denmark, 1912–1933

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Around 1916–1917 the Danish gymnastics pedagogue Niels Bukh (1880–1950) created, in an international sense, a revolutionary men's gymnastics, and in 1920 he established Denmark's and the world's first folk high school of physical education and sport. During the 1930s, Niels Bukh and his team...... of gymnasts first became a symbol for the dynamic Danish farming community, and then for the face of Denmark both at home and abroad. Bukh changed the stereotypical male expression of bodily dynamics, which in Danish rural gymnastics had been almost military. He made it legitimate for the young lads to get...

  1. Correlation between hypermobility score and injury rate in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukva, Bojan; Vrgoč, Goran; Madić, Dejan; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša

    2018-01-10

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is suggested as a contributing factor for injuries in young athletes and adults. It is presumed that GJH causes decreased joint stability, thereby increasing the risk of joint and soft tissue injuries during sports activities. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the hypermobility rate (using the Beighton`s modification of the Carter-Wilkinson criteria of hypermobility) in gymnasts and injury rate, during the period of one year. This study observed 24 artistic gymnasts (11-26 years old), members of Qatar National Team in artistic gymnastics. We examined the Beighton joint hypermobility screen and a seasonal injury survey. The gymnasts characteristics (age, gender) and gymnastics characteristics (training per day and number of years in training artistic gymnastics) and its' relations to injury rate were also included. The most common injury was the lower back pain injury, followed by knee, shoulder, hip and ankle injuries. We found strong correlation of number of years gymnastics training and injury rate (p0.05). According to this study there is no correlation between GJH rate and injury rate in artistic gymnasts in Qatar. Total training period in gymnastics have greater contribution in injury rate.

  2. Superior short-term learning effect of visual and sensory organisation ability when sensory information is unreliable in adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ya; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Tsao, Hung-Ting

    2017-06-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts specialise in dynamic balance under sensory conditions of numerous somatosensory, visual, and vestibular stimulations. This study investigated whether adolescent rhythmic gymnasts are superior to peers in Sensory Organisation test (SOT) performance, which quantifies the ability to maintain standing balance in six sensory conditions, and explored whether they plateaued faster during familiarisation with the SOT. Three and six sessions of SOTs were administered to 15 female rhythmic gymnasts (15.0 ± 1.8 years) and matched peers (15.1 ± 2.1 years), respectively. The gymnasts were superior to their peers in terms of fitness measures, and their performance was better in the SOT equilibrium score when visual information was unreliable. The SOT learning effects were shown in more challenging sensory conditions between Sessions 1 and 2 and were equivalent in both groups; however, over time, the gymnasts gained marginally significant better visual ability and relied less on visual sense when unreliable. In conclusion, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts have generally the same sensory organisation ability and learning rates as their peers. However, when visual information is unreliable, they have superior sensory organisation ability and learn faster to rely less on visual sense.

  3. LABOR GYMNASTICS: STRETCHING EXERCISE X FLEXIONAMENT

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    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  4. MEASURING SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES IN MALE GYMNASTS: THE MEN'S GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Background Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts’ USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects’ current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). Conclusions The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27999723

  5. Let's Get Physical: Teaching Physics Through Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojourner, Elena J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Weise, Eric D.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of embodied learning—that we can learn with our bodies and with our minds—is a well-established concept in physics and math education research, and includes symbolic understanding (e.g., gestures that track how students think or facilitate learning to model complex systems of energy flow) as well as the literal experience of exploring physical phenomena through body movements. Sport has long served as a guide for both illustrating and experiencing physical concepts and phenomena, with a particularly relevant example being the sport of gymnastics. Here, the practitioner is subjected to a wide range of forces and torques, and experiences translational and rotational motions, all guided by control of body positioning, shape, strength, and leverage. Smith provides a comprehensive study of the mechanics used to analyze gymnastic movements, which includes core concepts such as force balance, leverage and torque, center of mass and stability, moment of inertia, ballistic motion, pendulum motion, and circular motion. For life science majors, gymnastics also provides relevant physical examples of biomechanics and the physical limits of biological materials (skin, bones, ligaments). The popularity of gymnastics—consider the phenomenon of Simone Biles—makes it broadly accessible and engaging, particularly across genders.

  6. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast's Talent Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz's battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p talent identification and selection procedures it is better to include the evaluation of coordination and motor learning ability.Motor learning assessment concerns performance improvement and the ability to develop it, rather than evaluating the athlete's current performance.In this manner talent identification processes should be focused on the future performance capabilities of athletes.

  7. Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Variables of Elite Athletes

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    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10 in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11 and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10 between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH, weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, and % body fat (% BF. The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and maximum heart rate (HRmax were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02. Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02 and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00, and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01, BMI (p = .01 and the % BF (p = .00. These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.

  8. Goal orientations and sport motivation, differences between the athletes of competitive and non-competitive rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpoula, M; Tsopani, D; Flessas, K; Chairopoulou, C

    2011-09-01

    The present study examines the sport motivation and the goal orientations in the competitive and non-competitive structure of rhythmic gymnastics. Participation of individuals in one or the other structure of the sport differs in line with the goals they want to achieve and possibly also with respect to the factors that impulse them to take part in one or the other. The purpose of this study is to examine how individuals who participate in different structures of the sport of rhythmic gymnastics differentiate with regard to the type of motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation) and goal orientations. The study involved 98 young female rhythmic gymnastics athletes (aged 14 years and up), out of which 40 were athletes of competitive clubs or members of national teams, and 58 were athletes of non-competitive clubs. For the evaluation of motivation and goal orientations the following tools were used: the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Descriptive and inductive statistical data analysis was conducted. The results showed that the athletes of the non-competitive structure presented higher levels of introjected regulation (extrinsic motivation), amotivation and lower levels of ego orientation (PRhythmic gymnastics athletes' (regardless of the structure of the sport) presented high level in task orientation while the high levels of task orientation is positively associated with high levels of intrinsic motivation regardless of the levels of ego orientation. The intrinsic motivation of athletes participating in rhythmic gymnastics runs at high levels. The amotivation of rhythmic gymnastics athletes' is a phenomenon which is also presented in the the non-competitive sport structure. It is important that the two different structures of sports be determined with accurate criteria.

  9. Differences between the sexes in technical mastery of rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine possible differences between the sexes in specific rhythmic gymnastics techniques, and to examine the influence of various aspects of technique on rhythmic composition performance. Seventy-five students aged 21 ± 2 years (45 males, 30 female) undertook four test sessions to determine: coefficients of asymmetry, stability, versatility, and the two rhythmic compositions (without apparatus and with rope). An independent-sample t-test revealed sex-based differences in technique acquisition: stability for ball (P rhythmic composition without apparatus (P analysis revealed that the variables for assessing stability (beta = 0.44; P rhythmic composition performance of females, and the variables for assessing asymmetry (beta = -0.38; P rhythmic composition performance of males. The results suggest that female students dominate in body skill technique, while male students have the advantage with apparatus. There was a lack of an expressive aesthetic component in performance for males. The need for ambidexterity should be considered in the planning of training programmes.

  10. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gymnastics and Child Abuse: An Analysis of Former International Portuguese Female Artistic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Maria Claudia; Pimenta, Nuno; Resende, Rui; Malcolm, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The growing competitiveness of modern sport means that children, from very early ages, are increasingly submitted to intensive training programmes. These programmes are problematic for young athletes not only because their developing bodies are particularly susceptible to different kinds of injuries, but because athletes are also particularly…

  12. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings.

  13. AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH OF YOUNG GYMNASTS

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    G. Dallas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n=15, whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17. Flexibility (sit and reach test and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ, and single leg squat (right leg (RL and left leg (LL] were performed initially (pre-test, immediately after the intervention (post-test 1, and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15. Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG and time (pre, post 1, and post 15 with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p 0.05. Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme.

  14. Artistic versus rhythmic gymnastics: effects on bone and muscle mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Dorado, C; Ara, I; Perez-Gomez, J; Olmedillas, H; Delgado-Guerra, S; Calbet, J A L

    2007-05-01

    We compared 35 prepubertal girls, 9 artistic gymnasts and 13 rhythmic gymnasts with 13 nonphysically active controls to study the effect of gymnastics on bone and muscle mass. Lean mass, bone mineral content and areal density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical fitness was also assessed. The artistic gymnasts showed a delay in pubertal development compared to the other groups (partistic gymnasts had a 16 and 17 % higher aerobic power and anaerobic capacity, while the rhythmic group had a 14 % higher anaerobic capacity than the controls, respectively (all partistic gymnasts had higher lean mass (partistic and the rhythmic gymnasts (partistic group compared to the other groups. Lean mass strongly correlated with bone mineral content (r=0.84, partistic gymnastic participation is associated with delayed pubertal development, enhanced physical fitness, muscle mass, and bone density in prepubertal girls, eliciting a higher osteogenic stimulus than rhythmic gymnastic.

  15. 'Elites'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Johanna L.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews three books: (1) "Elite Education: International Perspectives" (edited by C. Maxwell and P. Aggleton); (2) "Class Choreographies: Elite Schools and Globalisation" (J. Kenway, J. Fahey, D. Epstein, A. Koh, C. McCarthy, and F. Rizvi); and (3) "Corporate Elite and the Reform of Public Education"…

  16. The problem of the quality of judging in rhythmic gymnastics

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    V.V. Perederij

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop a classification of factors influencing the quality of judging in rhythmic gymnastics. As a result of consolidation of theoretical information and practical experience was a list of the factors that negatively affect the behavior of judges in gymnastics, which were divided into two groups: the objective and non-objective (subjective. Objective factors include intense competition schedule, fatigue, especially memory, attention, competition rules, to the subjective: the ratio of judges to their gymnast (team or to the opposing team, the lack of interest in the performance, composition of the judging panel, the influence of authority and popularity sportswomen dependence on its management. Respondents were unanimous in that independent professional judges are needed in a rhythmic gymnastics. It is set that 64% respondent mark the presence of pressure on judges from the side of competitors.

  17. Gymnastics in Brazil: absence at school x rise at gym

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    Cintia de la Rocha Freitas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a manifestation of physical culture and essential content of physical education courses, Gymnastics has been extinguished from lessons of Physical Education in Brazil, and has been ascending in the gyms. This study aims to reflect about Gymnastics in schools and gyms, seeking explanations for these unwanted directions taken Brazil. It is worrying the fact that Physical Education in Brazilian schools have its lessons based mainly in sports, leaving aside other issues of body culture. It is also uncomfortable the bond of fitness center with the characteristic of the current consumption society. We realize the urgency of expanding the content of gymnastics in Physical Education undergraduate courses, enabling the incorporation of knowledge necessary to develop gymnastics content, regardless its place where it is developed.

  18. Stress Fracture and Nonunion of Coronoid Process in a Gymnast

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    T. Hetling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gymnasts have high mechanical loading forces of up to 14 times body weight. Overuse lesions are typical in wrists and stress fractures in the olecranon, while isolated fractures of the coronoid process are uncommon. We present a case of retraumatized nonunion stress fracture of the ulnar coronoid process. Case Description. A 19-year-old gymnast presented with elbow pain after training. Imaging confirmed an old fracture of the coronoid process. We describe a 6-month multiphase return to competition rehabilitation program, which allowed him to compete pain-freely. Literature Review. Acute and overuse injuries in gymnasts are known but no nonunion of the coronoid process has been described before. Only one case of stress fracture of coronoid process in a gymnast was reported. Purpose and Clinical Relevance. We could successfully and conservatively return to sport a reactivated nonunion of a stress fracture of the coronoid process.

  19. Condition of esthetic component of motive activity in aerobic gymnastics

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    Valentina Todorova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove condition of esthetic component of motive activity of sportsmen in aerobic gymnastics at various stages of sports preparation. Material & Methods: analysis of video records, method of expert assessment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the level of criteria of esthetic component ("musicality", "dancing", "illustrative expressiveness", and "emotional expressiveness" with use of the offered rating scale is determined. Conclusions: indicators of motive activities of sportsmen for aerobic gymnastics are defined at various stages of sports preparation.

  20. Landing quality in artistics gymnastics is related to landing symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Čuk, Ivan; Marinšek, Miha

    2017-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted f...

  1. Physical demands in elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the physical demands imposed on male vs. female adult elite team handball players during match--play. METHODS: Male and female elite team handball players were monitored over a six and five season time span, respectively. Each player.......4±6.1 cm, 69.5±6.5 kg, phandball were observed, with MP performing more high--intense, strength--related playing actions and high--intensity running than FP. Conversely, FP covered a greater total distance...... and demonstrated a higher relative workload than MP. The physical training of male and female elite team handball players should be designed to reflect these contrasting needs....

  2. Predictors of disordered eating in a sample of elite Division I college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Johnson, Craig; Powers, Pauline S; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Steve A; Wittrock, David A; Mitchell, James E

    2003-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between a number of areas of elite student-athletes' lives and disordered eating. We surveyed 1445 elite Division I athletes at 11 different institutions and in 11 different sports. Hierarchical regression was used to indicate specific areas of the participants' collegiate experience that may be associated with disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology. Results demonstrate that the variables entered into each model predicted between 40.5% and 46.4% of the variance for the restriction of food, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Categories of variables that generally predicted the most variance for each dependent measure were demographics, athletic involvement, and personality. Of the 11 sports included in the analysis, wrestling and gymnastics demonstrated elevated levels of drive for thinness, food restriction, and purging behavior compared to other athletes. Findings suggest that in elite athletes gender, ethnicity, sport, and self-esteem are associated with several behaviors and attitudes indicative of disordered eating.

  3. Análisis comparativo de la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles. (Comparative analysis of the jumping capacity in Spanish trampoline gymnasts.

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    Mercedes Vernetta Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio para analizar la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles y comparar distintas categorías entre sí, mediante un diseño descriptivo y transversal.La muestra estuvo compuesta por 60 gimnastas de trampolín pertenecientes a la élite nacional, agrupados según su grupo de edad y categoría competitiva, diferenciando en total 4 grupos: grupo de edad Sub-15 masculino (GM1, n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 años y femenino (GF1, n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 años; grupo de edad Absoluto masculino (GM2, n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 años y femenino (GF2, n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 años. Para evaluar la capacidad de salto se midió la altura en el SJ y CMJ, mediante plataforma de contacto; además se estimó la potencia mecánica según la fórmula de Sayers et al. (1991.Las diferencias significativas (pAbstractA study was conducted to analyze the jump capacity jump in Spanish trampoline gymnasts and compare different categories with each other, through a descriptive cross-sectional design.The sample consisted of 60 trampoline gymnasts belonging to the national elite, grouped by age and sex in different competitive categories, differentiating finally 4 groups: age group male Under-15 (GM1 n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 years and female (GF1 n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 years; age group male Absolute (GM2 n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 years and female (GF2 n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 years.To assess the jump capacity was measured height in the SJ and CMJ, through contact platform; additionally mechanical power was estimated according to the formula of Sayers et al. (1991.Significant differences were found (p

  4. Biomechanical indicators of key elements of sports equipment gymnastic exercises

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    Potop V.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the biomechanical performance of the kinematic and dynamic structures of key elements of sports techniques of basic exercises performed gymnasts aged 12 - 14 years to the vaulting and on the bars of different heights, on the basis of the method of postural orientation movements. The study involved 11 gymnasts doing exercises on the vaulting and 9 gymnasts - on the boards of various heights. It is shown that the method of video - computer analysis of the type Yurchenko vault and dismount from the bars of varying heights, in conjunction with the method of postural orientation movements possible to isolate and identify the node elements. The indicators characterizing the node elements of sports equipment movements gymnasts in the phase structure of the vault and dismount from the bars of different heights have specific features and characteristics. Learned node elements sports equipment is the basis for the measurement, analysis and evaluation of the kinematic and dynamic structures and other types of exercises all-around gymnastics.

  5. Civil gymnastics associations and sports in the Kingdom of Serbia

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    Vukašinović Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enable insight and systemization of data relevant for the appearance of sports in the Kingdom of Serbia through reviews of adequate monographs and series of publications. Primary assumption was founded on the expectation to determine a direct link between gymnastics and the falcon system of exercising with sports that was rising. The historic method has been used for the research. Work results indicate a significant role of civil gymnastics associations - falcons (the falcon and knight (Dusan the Mighty as a phenomenon in popularization and development of modern sports at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Serbia. All these associations, no matter what their name was, had intentions to maintain their existing and attract new membership, and they foresaw with their rules and statutes acceptance and the introduction of other sports activities and forming of clubs, apart from gymnastics which was the skeleton of exercising curriculum. Newly founded gymnastics - sports departments in fighting, marksmanship, skating, riding, swimming, rowing, velocipede, football developed and grew into sports clubs. Their separation from core gymnastics associations enabled faster development of individual sports branches, which stood for the first modern sports in Serbia.

  6. LANDING QUALITY IN ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS IS RELATED TO LANDING SYMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinšek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  7. Interpretation Of Biomechanical Data To A Gymnastics Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierman, Gail

    1982-02-01

    Several trials of many different gymnastics skills on various pieces of apparatus were filmed and the results were studied with the coach. The time to accomplish the entire skill as well as the time for each segment of the skill was important to the coach. He was also interested in angle of release or push-off and the path of the center of gravity. Lastly, graphs of velocities and accelerations of limb segments were revealing to the coach. Biomechanical analysis has helped him see why the performances were good; he is more interested in working with the investigator in all the events in gymnastics through the medium of cinematography.

  8. A lower extremity strength-based profile of NCAA Division I women's basketball and gymnastics athletes: implications for knee joint injury risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Cazier, Curtis S; Bressel, Eadric; Dolny, Dennis G

    2018-08-01

    This study aimed to provide a comprehensive strength-based physiological profile of women's NCAA Division I basketball and gymnastic athletes; and to make sport-specific comparisons for various strength characteristics of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. A focus on antagonist muscle balance (hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios, H:Q) was used to elucidate vulnerabilities in these at-risk female athletes. Fourteen NCAA Division I women's basketball and 13 gymnastics athletes performed strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors. Outcome measures included absolute and relative (body mass normalised) peak torque (PT), rate of torque development at 50, 100, 200 ms (RTD50 etc.) and H:Q ratios of all variables. The basketball athletes had greater absolute strength for all variables except for isokinetic PT at 240°s -1 and isometric RTD50 for the knee extensors. Gymnasts showed ~20% weaker body mass relative concentric PT for the knee flexors at 60 and 120°·s -1 , and decreased conventional H:Q ratios at 60 and 240°·s -1 (~15%). These findings suggest that collegiate level gymnastics athletes may be prone to increased ACL injury risk due to deficient knee flexor strength and H:Q strength imbalance. Coaches may use these findings when implementing injury prevention screening and/or for individualised strength training programming centered around an athletes strength-related deficits.

  9. Behavior of physiological variables during a water gymnastics class in women DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n1p43

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    Mabel Micheline Olkoski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of physiological variables and rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the different phases of a water gymnastics class. Seventeen female university students (age: 23 ± 3.5 years were evaluated in two steps: 1 incremental treadmill test (peak VO2 and HRmax; 2 assessment of body composition and achievement in the water gymnastics class (HR, VO2, [lac], and RPE. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA with the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls were used (p< 0.05. The results showed that both HR and VO2 differed significantly (p=0.000 between the three phases of the class. Blood lactate only differed significantly (p=0.001 between the early (1.55 mM and the main phase (3.58 mM. The mean RPE was 11 and total calorie expenditure was 262.10 kcal. In conclusion, the physiological variables studied and RPE vary significantly according to the phase of the water gymnastics class. In addition, the intensity of effort (HR, VO2 and [lac] obtained for the main phase is within the parameters established in the literature for aerobic exercise. Thus, regular water gymnastics classes with this structure may improve the physical condition of young adult women.

  10. Judging in Rhythmic Gymnastics at Different Levels of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Catarina; Ávila-Carvalho, Lurdes; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena; Bobo-Arce, Marta

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to analyse the quality of difficulty judging in rhythmic gymnastics, at different levels of performance. The sample consisted of 1152 difficulty scores concerning 288 individual routines, performed in the World Championships in 2013. The data were analysed using the mean absolute judge deviation from the final difficulty score, a Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intra-class correlations, for consistency and reliability assessment. For validity assessment, mean deviations of judges' difficulty scores, the Kendall's coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were calculated. Overall, the results in terms of consistency (Cronbach's alpha mostly above 0.90) and reliability (intra-class correlations for single and average measures above 0.70 and 0.90, respectively) were satisfactory, in the first and third parts of the ranking on all apparatus. The medium level gymnasts, those in the second part of the ranking, had inferior reliability indices and highest score dispersion. In this part, the minimum of corrected item-total correlation of individual judges was 0.55, with most values well below, and the matrix for between-judge correlations identified remarkable inferior correlations. These findings suggest that the quality of difficulty judging in rhythmic gymnastics may be compromised at certain levels of performance. In future, special attention should be paid to the judging analysis of the medium level gymnasts, as well as the Code of Points applicability at this level.

  11. Gymnastic Formation-related Injury to Children in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takashi; Miyauchi, Masato; Suzaki, Makoto; Wakakuri, Taro; Kirinoki, Sonoko; Onodera, Naoko; Saigusa, Taro; Takana, Akihiro; Hyodo, Hideya; Ohara, Toshihiko; Kawai, Makoto; Yasutake, Masahiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Current data indicate that the rate of trauma in children during gymnastic formation is increasing, especially while creating a structure with a certain height, such as the human pyramid. The goal of the present study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of these injuries. In this single-institution review, all children treated for a gymnastic formation-related injury at Nippon Medical School Hospital from 2013 through 2015 were identified through the institution's registry. The injury mechanism was classified, and injury severity, interventions, and outcome were examined. Eight children were treated for a gymnastic formation-related injury. They were 7 boys and 1 girl aged 10 to 15 years (mean age, 13.1±1.8 years). Neurotrauma ranging from concussion to spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality occurred in 6 patients (75%). No intracranial hemorrhagic lesions were detected. The Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival was 15 in all 8 patients, and neurological deficits were present in 1 patient. No patient required surgical intervention. All patients made a full recovery after discharge from the hospital. No patients died. The average follow-up period was 2.1±0.9 weeks. Neurotrauma is a frequent result of gymnastic formation accidents in children. Healthcare workers and teachers should recognize this type of injury, and public education that targets parents should be introduced.

  12. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.K.J.; van den Berg, B.R.; Denissen, A.J.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography

  13. Observation of Elite Gymnastic Performance: Processes and Perceived Functions of Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Hars , Magaly; Calmels , Claire

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Objectives: The purpose of the study was firstly to examine the nature of the information individuals extract from observations of their own performance and the reasons they give for choosing this information. Second, we aimed to investigate how individuals treat observed information and the strategies they use. Identification of the reasons for the use of each of the strategies was also discerned. Design: A protocol inspired by Ericsson and Simon's (1993) Think-Aloud-...

  14. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikura, Ida A; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n = 27) and male (n = 21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and posttraining meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between subgroups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x 2 when p nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  15. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  16. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  17. Gymnastics - an emerging national university discipline - Johannes Lindhard's struggle to institutionalise gymnastics as a subject at the University of Copenhagen 1909-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Frøslev; Bonde, Hans

    2011-01-01

    matters was transferred to the university in a way that did not undermine the political support that had made it possible to add gymnastics to the subjects taught there; and that gymnastics gained scientific authority within the university. In striving to meet these demands, he managed to write five...

  18. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  19. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  20. Achievement Goal Theory and disordered eating: Relationships between female gymnasts’ goal orientations, perceived motivational climate and disordered eating correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress

  1. INITIATIVES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF GYMNASTICS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF THE PRINCIPALITY OF SERBIA (elementary schools, gymnastics, initiatives, suggestions, introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Mijatović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Upon gaining its autonomy in 1830, the Principality of Serbia also creates the conditions for faster development of education, since the Sultan’s edict granted it the right to open schools. The first Law on schools was passed at the suggestion of the Head of the Ministry of Education Jovan Sterija Popovic in 1844 (Ustrojenije javnog učilištnog nastavlenija, and predicted a complete organization of all schools: elementary, commercial, high and lycees. The Law also prescribed three years of elementary education in villages and four years in towns. For the first time education of female children is predicted“Law on structure of elementary schools” was passed in September 1863 and it predicted the introduction of the fourth grade in village schools. Thirty-eight years (1830-1868 passed from obtaining autonomy, i.e. the right in Serbia to open its schools, to the official introduction of the physical activity instruction in elementary schools. It was a period in which it was attempted to organize structure and work of elementary schools. However physical education used to appear in pedagogic literature, drafts of laws on schools and proposals of officials and schools commissions of the Ministry of Education of the Principality of Serbia: 1. Milovan Spasic had hold an office of the main school principal since 1845 and he wrote three books, as the main reference books for elementary school teachers. One of them is “Pedagogično metodično nastavlenije ya učitelje osnovnih škola” (1855 where he wrote about physical education of children. Although physical education was not present in the Curriculum, he treated it as the most important task of both teachers and parents. 2. In the “Projekt zakona o školama za Knjažestvo Srbije” (1859 where you can find the subjects to be taught in elementary schools, it was stated that “as on of the subjects for boys ‘physical practice’ and ‘gymnastics’ for girls should be taught.” 3

  2. Features of selection of children for occupations by artistic gymnastics in modern Kurdistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulvahid Dlshad Nihad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to study the organizational and pedagogical conditions of selection of children for occupations existing in the republic Kurdistan artistic gymnastics Material and Methods: questioning of 24 trainers on artistic gymnastics and experts in physical culture of the republic Kurdistan was carried out. The general questions of selection and methodical features of selection of children for occupations by artistic gymnastics in Kurdistan were studied. Results: questioning revealed absence of...

  3. Sports gymnastics as a part of curriculum of Sports Management university studies in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hruša, Petr; Hrušová, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches to systemize gymnastics differ in understanding the content of this concept; however, the authors agree that gymnastics is an open system of human conscious motion activities that contribute to the physical, aesthetic and social development. In our study we focused on studies of sports management, as a young field of study that appeared at Czech universities in the past two decades. The aim was to analyze sports gymnastics as a subject with practical applications in the fie...

  4. The influence of gymnastic exercises to correct posture for girls of primary school age.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMOLÍKOVÁ, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    This work is adicted to observation of younger school age girls posture. Respondents are divided anto two groups. One group consists of girls who are practising sport´s gymnastic and the other group are girls practising different or any sports. Disparity of these two groups is examined by means of a questionnaire In the theoretical part there are all information and continuity which are important for this subject, questions concerning gymnastic exercises respectively sports gymnastics. Such a...

  5. Evaluation of somatotype in artistic gymnastics competitors: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycien, Katarzyna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2018-04-04

    Studies on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes have a long history, but there are no published reviews on the somatotype of artistic gymnasts. Practitioners and professional coaches can gain guidance from improved understanding of the ideal body constitution and the impact of high-intensity training since preadolescence on body build. The present review is designed to provide this information. Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Medline, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate were searched in January 2017. All studies on the body composition of male artistic gymnasts were included. We identified 19 studies assessing somatotype in male gymnasts. We found high heterogeneity of somatotype components between younger gymnasts (≤ 18 years) and older gymnasts (> 18 years) (1.6±0.3 -5.4±0.8 - 3.0±0.6 vs. 1.8±0.4 -5.9±0.6 -2.2±0.4). Four different somatotypes resulted from the literature analysis, and ectomorphic mesomorph was the prevalent somatotype in both younger and older athletes. The main result showed a significant difference in ectomorphy (lower in older gymnasts than in younger gymnasts). Proper interpretation of the literature data may inform future research and enable professional coaches to longitudinally monitor gymnasts' somatotype components during growth and in talent identification. More research is needed to better understand the most suitable somatotype variations related to the different apparatuses used in artistic gymnastics.

  6. From elite reproduction to elite adaptation: the dynamics of change in personal networks of Slovenian elites

    OpenAIRE

    Iglič, Hajdeja; Rus, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the process of elite adaptation in Slovenia in the period between 1988 and 1995. While negotiated settlement between the old and new elites in Slovenia contributed to high reproduction rates of Slovenian old elites, there was significant change going on within the new and old elites. By looking at their ego networks, we show that the debate on elite reproduction is overlooking an important aspect of change, i.e. the adaptation of elites. We analyze changes in the compo...

  7. Students' motivation to study Chinese recreational gymnastics classes wushu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Maksimuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify students' motivation to improving gymnastics lessons Chinese Wushu. Material : this survey was attended by 30 students from different countries enrolled in a language course at the Shanghai University of Sport. The methodology SAN (health, activity and mood. Results : the positive changes identified psycho-emotional state students. There is an increase students' motivation to sports activity. Students observed increase differentiated assessment of health (from 3.7 to 6.7 points, activity (from 3.9 points to 6.5 points and mood (from 4.0 points to 6.9 points. 97 % of students were in favor of the use of functional music lessons on differentiated specialized Wushu. Conclusions : presented the program and practical advice on the organization and conduct physical education classes with students using the means of improving gymnastics Chinese Wushu.

  8. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Espondilólise e espondilolistese em ginastas jovens Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in young gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mohriak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a presença de espondilólise e espondilolistese em atletas de ginástica artística feminina e correlacionar com dor lombar, história de trauma e carga de treinamento. MÉTODO: Avaliação voluntária de 18 atletas de ginástica olímpica em nível competitivo de oito a 17 anos, com média de 11,3 anos. As ginastas responderam a um questionário em relação às suas atividades esportivas e foram submetidas a exame clínico e radiográfico da coluna lombar. RESULTADOS: A análise das radiografias foi realizada por ortopedistas especialistas em cirurgia de coluna vertebral, obtendo prevalência de 5,56% para espondilólise e não havendo casos de espondilolistese. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência das alterações radiográficas identificadas é semelhante à relatada na literatura para indivíduos não atletas e a lombalgia apontada pelas atletas não apresentou relação direta com a espondilólise ou espondilolistese.OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in young, female gymnasts, and to correlate these with lumbar pain, history of trauma and training load. METHOD: A total of 18 would-be Olympic gymnasts, aged 8-17, with an average age of 11.3, were voluntarily evaluated. The Gymnasts were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sports activities, and were submitted to a clinical examination and lumbar spine radiography. RESULTS: The radiographies were analyzed by experienced specialists in surgery of the vertebral column, who found a 5.56% incidence of spondylolysis and no cases of spondylolisthesis. CONCLUSION: The incidence of radiographic alterations identified remained close to those reported in the literature for non-athletic individuals, and the lumbalgia indicated by the athletes showed no direct relation with spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.

  10. Robot performing heavy gymnastics. Kikai taiso wo suru robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, S. (Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-11-01

    Methods of simulation of the motion of human bodies and the control of the motion of bobots are sdudied in order to realize robots to perform gymnastics on a horizontal bar. A model of the human body structure is presented by dividing the human body into 8 parts: right and left arms, the head, the trunk, the right and left thighs, and the right and left foot, and a system is constructed by combination of the links of the rigid partswith an assumption on each link for simplification. A method to enhance the swing motion is devised in order to produce a suspension motionaas a basic movement of horizontal bar gymnastics. The basic condition to control the horizontal bar gynnastics and the control system of an articulation angle are considered. Two algorithms are presented in order to enhance the swing motion and to maintain suspension swing: excitation of the swing by a vertical motion of the center of gravity and excitation by the use of natural frequency. Computer simulation of suspension swing is executed and the results are shown in a figure. A prototype robot to perform horizontal bar gymnastics is manufactured and performs suspension swing, starting of swing, kip motion and giant swing. The concept of optimization is not included concretely in the prototype. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Physiological characteristics of elite and sub-elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheong Hwa; Tan, Albert; Ahmad, Azwari; Kwong, Kien Weng; Sompong, Ruji; Ghazali, Khairul Aswadi Mohd; Liew, Swee Lee; Chai, Wen Jin; Thompson, Martin William

    2009-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish the physical and physiological attributes of elite and sub-elite Malaysian male badminton players and to determine whether these attributes discriminate elite players from sub-elite players. Measurements and tests of basic anthropometry, explosive power, anaerobic recovery capacity, badminton-specific movement agility, maximum strength, and aerobic capacity were conducted on two occasions, separated by at least one day. The elite (n = 12) and sub-elite (n = 12) players' characteristics were, respectively: mean age 24.6 years (s = 3.7) and 20.5 years (s = 0.7); mass 73.2 kg (s = 7.6) and 62.7 kg (s = 4.2); stature 1.76 m (s = 0.07) and 1.71 m (s = 0.05); body fat 12.5% (s = 4.8) and 9.5% (s = 3.4); estimated VO(2max) 56.9 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (s = 3.7) and 59.5 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (s = 5.2). The elite players had greater maximum absolute strength in one-repetition maximum bench press (P = 0.015) compared with the sub-elite players. There were significant differences in instantaneous lower body power estimated from vertical jump height between the elite and sub-elite groups (P badminton-specific movement agility tests. Our results show that elite Malaysian male badminton players are taller, heavier, and stronger than their sub-elite counterparts. The test battery, however, did not allow us to discriminate between the elite and sub-elite players, suggesting that at the elite level tactical knowledge, technical skills, and psychological readiness could be of greater importance.

  12. Identifying Power Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau Larsen, Anton; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman

    2017-01-01

    Specifying network boundaries is fundamental in the study of social structures of elite networks. However, traditional methods do not offer clear criteria on either size or composition of the elite, and rely on numerous ad hoc decisions. A methodological framework that is inductive, reproducible...... and suitable for comparative research is proposed. First, a comprehensive dataset of the 5079 affiliation networks of all potentially powerful sectors in Denmark was assembled. Second, these heterogeneous affiliation networks were weighted to account for potential level of social integration. Third, a weighted...

  13. Immersion Ethnography of Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines an innovative form of data-gathering that brings together two of the greatest methodological challenges social scientists face: conducting classical immersion ethnography and gaining access to elites. The difficulties of accessing elites for research purposes have been well......-documented (Conti and O’Neill 2007; Gilding 2010; Harrington 2003). There has been less scholarly discussion of the challenges posed by traditional ethnography, a method whose claim to scientific status is based on the length and depth of the investigator’s immersion in an organization or culture....

  14. Den bureaukratiske elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kortlægger ved korrespondanceanalyse karriereveje for 122 topembedsmænd i centraladministrationen. Artiklen har tre anliggender: 1) at opdatere og nuancere billedet af den bureaukratiske elite i Danmark, som det kendes fra tidligere politologiske studier; 2) at positionere analysen i et...... europæisk perspektiv og i forhold til en anden dansk elite, topdirektører; og 3) at eksemplificere visse teoretiske og metodiske fordele ved felt- og korrespondanceanalyser uden så nær anknytning til Bourdieus sociologi, som det almindeligvist ses i magtstudier, bl.a. ved at introducere brug af idealtyper...

  15. Hvem bliver morgendagens elite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Bare fordi du er født med en guldske i munden, er du ikke sikret en plads blandt morgendagens elite. Vidensamfundet kræver mangfoldighed og krøllede hjerner, og det udfordrer de gængse vinder- og taberetiketter. Eller gør det?......Bare fordi du er født med en guldske i munden, er du ikke sikret en plads blandt morgendagens elite. Vidensamfundet kræver mangfoldighed og krøllede hjerner, og det udfordrer de gængse vinder- og taberetiketter. Eller gør det?...

  16. Sternal stress fracture in a gymnast: A case report and literature review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a high incidence of injuries among gymnasts.1 This is not surprising given the ... stress fracture. A common example of poor posture in gymnasts is excessive ... Dimakatso Althea Ramagole (MB ChB, MSc (Sports Med)). Dina Christina ...

  17. Changing the Corporate Elite? Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Oxelheim, Lars; Randøy, Trond

    Scholars have previously investigated country and organizational-level factors associated with the incidence of female directors on boards. These studies, however, cannot explain why, in countries with strong gender equality and pressure for female directorships, firms are still hesitant to promote...... new women to their boards. To address this issue we – in this study – introduce the cognitive and affective processes related to directors’ identification with the traditional corporate elite as an explanation for the slow organizational response to pressure for gender diversity on boards. We bridge...

  18. Features of selection of children for occupations by artistic gymnastics in modern Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulvahid Dlshad Nihad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the organizational and pedagogical conditions of selection of children for occupations existing in the republic Kurdistan artistic gymnastics Material and Methods: questioning of 24 trainers on artistic gymnastics and experts in physical culture of the republic Kurdistan was carried out. The general questions of selection and methodical features of selection of children for occupations by artistic gymnastics in Kurdistan were studied. Results: questioning revealed absence of the general approved tests and scientific recommendations concerning their use, dependence of quality of selection on experience of the trainer. Conclusions: experts in the field of physical culture and sport consider inefficient the existing system of selection of children for occupations artistic gymnastics in Kurdistan; gymnastics coaches consider necessary testing’s at children of a level of development of flexibility, dexterity, abilities to manifestation of dynamic force and preservation of dynamic balance

  19. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics and handspring kinematics that relate directly to the position of the springboard. Therefore, kinematics of N = 14 female expert gymnasts’ handsprings on vault and their approach runs were examined while manipulating the position of the springboard. The results revealed that expert gymnasts placed their feet on average in the same position on the springboard and adapted to the springboard position during the last three steps of the approach run. A smaller springboard distance to the front edge of the vaulting table resulted in a different hand placement on the vaulting table, a shorter first flight phase, a take-off angle closer to 90° and a longer second flight phase. Findings suggest that the position of the springboard is a relevant informational source in gymnastics vaulting. We state that knowledge about relationships between informational sources in the environment and the resulting regulatory processes in athletes may help coaches to develop specific training programmes in order to optimize performance in complex skills.

  20. Skaber elite bredde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    2012-01-01

    Dette arbejdspapir gennemgår eksisterende studier og forskning med henblik på at afdække om der kan findes dokumentation for det ofte fremsatte argument om, at elite skaber bredde. Gennemgangen viser, at der ikke kan siges eksistere nogen automatik mellem de to størrelser. Faktisk viser nogle af de...... gennemgåede undersøgelser det modsatte: for stort fokus på elite kan skabe mindre breddedeltagelse i idræt og sport. Samtidig kan det dog også argumenteres, at fokus på elitesport eller afholdelse af store internationale slutrunder i enkelte tilfælde kan øge interessen for specifikke sportsgrene og indirekte...

  1. Elitism and Stochastic Dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Bazen, Stephen; Moyes, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic dominance has typically been used with a special emphasis on risk and inequality reduction something captured by the concavity of the utility function in the expected utility model. We claim that the applicability of the stochastic dominance approach goes far beyond risk and inequality measurement provided suitable adpations be made. We apply in the paper the stochastic dominance approach to the measurment of elitism which may be considered the opposite of egalitarianism. While the...

  2. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BADAU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, performed in different environments: terrestrial and aquatic, using adapted exercises and innovative materials, that require various and specific efforts. The study was conducted during the academic year 2012-2013, with the female students in the first year of the non-profile faculties and comprised two experimental groups of 24 subjects each, from UMF Tg. Mures, who carried out specific water gymnastics activities, during physical education classes and a control group composed of 47 female students from Transilvania University of Brasov, who carried out the following: entertaining and recreational activities, application exercises, overall physical development free exercises or with portable objects. During the research, the Ruffier test was applied with target on the body aerobic resistance level. Following the research performance, the Ruffier index recorded the biggest difference of the averages of 1.75, after practicing aqua-pullpush-gym activities.

  3. The Sociology of Elite Education

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zanten, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    Research on elites (that is, on status groups that occupy dominant positions) is characterized by the lack of connection between studies that focus on elite recruitment and those that focus on the exercise of power by elites. As underlined by Giddens (1974), both types of approach are important and should complement each other in the analysis of mediations between the class structure, the organizational structure and the power structure in a given society. Giddens also insists on the need for...

  4. Eating disorders, energy intake, training volume, and menstrual function in high-level modern rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1996-06-01

    This study examined clinical and subclinical eating disorders (EDs) in young Norwegian modern rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects were 12 members of the national team, age 13-20 years, and individually matched nonathletic controls. All subjects participated in a structured clinical interview for EDs, medical examination, and dietary analysis. Two of the gymnasts met the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa, and 2 met the criteria for anorexia athletica (a subclinical ED). All the gymnasts were dieting in spite of the fact that they were all extremely lean. The avoidance of maturity, menstrual irregularities, energy deficit, high training volume, and high frequency of injuries were common features among the gymnasts. Ther is a need to learn more about risk factors and the etiology of EDs in different sports. Coaches, parents, and athletes need more information about principles of proper nutrition and methods to achieve ideal body composition for optional health and athletic performance.

  5. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... there is no shortage of research on the changing nature of politics due to the increasing influence of the media, the relations between the key elites in the age of ‘mediated politics’ have yet to be analyzed thoroughly. Theoretically, the dissertation provides a new bridge between elite theory and political...

  6. Myositis ossificans circumscripta of the psoas muscle due to overuse in an adolescent gymnast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquijo, Julio Javier; Sartori, Federico

    2014-11-01

    Myositis ossificans is a pseudoinflammatory tumour that originates from skeletal muscle and corresponds to a heterotopic, metaplastic, nonmalignant bone tumour. The purpose of this article is to report the case of myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) of the psoas muscle due to overuse in an adolescent gymnast. A 16-year-old female athlete presented at our outpatient orthopaedic clinic for evaluation of a 1-month history of low back pain. Initial plain radiographs were initially interpreted as negative, and laboratory values were normal. MRI imaging demonstrated a circumscribed mass with associated oedema in the psoas muscle. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed and histology confirmed the diagnosis of MOC. Conservative treatment was initiated with rest and anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin). The patient had a resolution of pain and function after 3 months of conservative treatment. At 6 months' follow-up, MRI demonstrated complete resolution of the lesion and she gradually returned to her sports activity. At last follow-up she was asymptomatic. MOC is a rare lesion in the paediatric-adolescent population. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MOC in the psoas muscle produced by overuse. MRI is very sensitive in detecting oedema during the acute phase of the lesion. Conservative treatment should be considered, especially at the early stage of the disease. Spontaneous resolution can be expected in most cases.

  7. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Hume, Patria A

    2012-09-01

    Targeted injury prevention strategies, based on biomechanical analyses, have the potential to help reduce the incidence and severity of gymnastics injuries. This review outlines the potential benefits of biomechanics research to contribute to injury prevention strategies for women's artistic gymnastics by identification of mechanisms of injury and quantification of the effects of injury risk factors. One hundred and twenty-three articles were retained for review after searching electronic databases using key words, including 'gymnastic', 'biomech*', and 'inj*', and delimiting by language and relevance to the paper aim. Impact load can be measured biomechanically by the use of instrumented equipment (e.g. beatboard), instrumentation on the gymnast (accelerometers), or by landings on force plates. We need further information on injury mechanisms and risk factors in gymnastics and practical methods of monitoring training loads. We have not yet shown, beyond a theoretical approach, how biomechanical analysis of gymnastics can help reduce injury risk through injury prevention interventions. Given the high magnitude of impact load, both acute and accumulative, coaches should monitor impact loads per training session, taking into consideration training quality and quantity such as the control of rotation and the height from which the landings are executed.

  8. Study on Quality Indicator System of Rhythmic Gymnasts in Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is a sport item with the direct aim of winning as well as a good ornamental value. The scientific selection by the rhythmic gymnasts is necessary for the success, and also the beginning for the scientific training of the gymnasts in their special training stage. According to RG characteristics and the physical characteristics of the gymnasts, also in combination with the investigations & interviews to the coaches who have years of training experience in RG, the experts & scholars on RG study & teaching in universities, and by referring to relevant documents, this paper established the quality indicator system in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We summarized and selected several indicators obviously influencing the RG training and divided them into the three types of factors: physical factors, flexibility & strength factors, and speed & dexterity factors, according to which 12 specific indicators, their weights and comprehensive evaluation coefficients. Based on these indicators, we established the quality indicator system of the gymnasts, and developed corresponding software system, providing scientific theoretical basis & practical application basis for the selection & evaluation of the gymnasts.

  9. Dynamics of comprehensive physical fitness in artistic gymnasts aged 7-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Boraczyńska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the somatic development and comprehensive physical fitness of artistic gymnasts aged 7-10 years. Materials and methods: Gymnasts (n = 307, split up into four age groups performed eight Eurofit tests. The results were evaluated in points according to the development standards prepared in scale T for the Polish girls population. Results : The gymnasts obtained the highest growth rate in balance test - FLB (13 points, arm and shoulder muscular endurance test - BAH (7 points and speed of the upper limb movement test - PLT (4 points out of eight physical fitness tests. Conclusions. High and very high level of performance in the six Eurofit tests and increased total number of points in the subsequent age groups of artistic gymnasts proved high effectiveness of training in shaping the key components of a comprehensive physical fitness in artistic gymnastics - balance, strength, endurance, speed and flexibility. Relatively little progress in isometric hand strength (HGR and standing broad jump (SBJ suggests a significant influence of genetic factors on the level of these abilities. The results provide an objective information useful in optimizing control system of training effects in comprehensive physical fitness and optimization of artistic gymnasts training at the comprehensive stage of sports training.

  10. Efficacy of hypopressive abdominal gymnastics in rehabilitating the pelvic floor of women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, R

    2017-12-13

    Hypopressive abdominal gymnastics has been proposed as a new paradigm in rehabilitating the pelvic floor. Its claims contraindicate the recommendation for pelvic floor muscle training during the postpartum period. To determine whether hypopressive abdominal gymnastics is more effective than pelvic floor muscle training or other alternative conservative treatments for rehabilitating the pelvic floor. We consulted the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), PubMed, Scopus, Trip Database and Web of Science. We selected systematic reviews, clinical trials and analytical studies that assessed the efficacy of hypopressive abdominal gymnastics in women. The measured outcomes were the strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles, the incidence of urine incontinence or prolapse and symptom remission. We included 4 clinical trials, whose quality was measured with the PEDro scale. Hypopressive gymnastics is less effective than pelvic floor muscle training for activating pelvic floor muscles, achieving closure of the levator hiatus of the anus and increasing pelvic floor muscle thickness, strength and resistance. The evidence reviewed does not support the recommendation for hypopressive abdominal gymnastics for strengthening the pelvic floor either during the postpartum period or outside that period. Pelvic floor muscle training remains the first-line treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction. There is a lack of quality clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of hypopressive abdominal gymnastics. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Muscle Coactivation during Stability Exercises in Rhythmic Gymnastics: A Two-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance exercises in rhythmic gymnastics are performed on tiptoes, which causes overload of foot joints. This study aimed to evaluate the engagement of muscles stabilizing ankle and knee joints in balance exercises and determine exercises which may lead to ankle and knee joint injuries. It was hypothesized that long-term training has an influence on balance control and efficient use of muscles in their stabilizing function. Two rhythmic gymnasts (8 and 21 years old performed balances on tiptoes (side split with hand support, ring with hand support and on a flat foot (back split without hand support exercise. Surface electromyography, ground reaction forces, and kinematic parameters of movement were measured. The measuring systems applied were synchronized with the BTS SMART system. The results show the necessity to limit balance exercises on tiptoes in children because gastrocnemius medialis (GM and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL activity significantly exceeds their activity. Ankle joint stabilizing activity of GM and GL muscles in the younger gymnast was more important than in the older one. Performing this exercise, the younger gymnast distributed load on the anterior side of the foot while the older one did so on its posterior. Gymnastics coaches should be advised to exclude ring with hand support exercise from the training of young gymnasts.

  12. Dinamika Elit Lokal Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Zamroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The priyayi played a vital role in leading the Indonesian community during the colonial era. The same applies to Madura society. During the colonial era, power wielded by the priyayi was constricted on the basis of Madura culture and was strengthened by the bureaucratic power structure at both the village and district/ city level. This was manifested in such ways as serving as a klébun or bupati. However, the pattern of priyayi power, which was underpinned by feudalism waned, being replaced by Islamic religious leaders known as kiai. During the New Order regime, kiai in Madura played a very dominant role which was not only limited to the realm of religion, but also all aspects of life ranging from social, politics, economic, to culture. Nevertheless, with the dawn of the reformation era, economic elites have catapulted themselves to prominence, and there are growing signs that they are replacing the role which religious leaders used to play in Madura society in general and in the political domain in particular through forming shadow state as a tool used to exert control over Madura Political dynamics. This concise paper presents as discussion of ‘political fights’ among cultural, religious, bureaucratic, and economic elites in Madura.

  13. KIAI: FIGUR ELITE PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Takdir Ilahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a pesantren (Islamic boarding school, kiai is an strategic element. Javanese kiai mainly believe that a pesantren is a small palace where he becomes the ultimate source of power and authority. Even though he lives in a rural village, he becomes a member of elite group in social, politic and economic sides in the society. Kiai who leads big pesantren has successfully enlarged their power in term of nation so kiai could be accepted in national elite. The position of kiai is higher among all pesantren elements. The degree as an Islamic scholar is exactly a sacred degree in pesantren culture and tradition. Without his figure, it is impossible for a pesantren to develop and survive. Kiai holds an ultimate position on educate the behavior and morality of the santri (students to be qualified and compatible Muslims generation. Kiai is not only a leader but he is also the man behind the leadership itself in supporting the progress of Islamic education institution for Muslims generations.

  14. Evaluation of freshmen coordination abilities on practical training in gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Tereschenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measured coordination abilities (baseline to the static and dynamic equilibrium of the body, the space-time orientation on the support and in unsupported position, proprioception sense, vestibular stability, vestibular sensitivity, coordination limbs symmetrical and asymmetrical. Coordination abilities were also measured under difficult conditions. The study involved 238 students aged 17 - 18 years. Registered a positive trend of improving performance motor tests, development of educational material. Students who specialize in difficult to coordinate sports had significantly better performance. Found that the content of the material work programs of sports and educational disciplines helps improve sensorimotor coordination tasks students. It is noted that the content of the training material is the basis for efficient formation of motor skills and motor skills development of gymnastic exercises. Recommended ways to increase sports and technical and professional skills of students.

  15. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Media portrayal of elite athletes with disability - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla; Shields, Nora

    2017-11-10

    The media plays an important role in shaping society's beliefs about disability and sport. The aim of this systematic review is to identify how elite athletes with disability are portrayed in the media. Six electronic databases were searched from 2001 to March 2017 for quantitative or qualitative content analysis of media coverage of elite athletes with disability: SportsDiscus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline 1996-, Embase, and Proquest. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors. Seventeen moderate quality articles were included. Six themes emerged from the data such as frequency of articles and photos about elite athletes with disability; athlete gender; athlete nationality; disability; athleticism; and Olympic Games versus Paralympic Games. Our results show that elite athletes with disability are less visible in the media than their nondisabled counterparts; female athletes received less coverage than male; the media favored domestic athletes and certain types of disability; and, although there was a focus on athleticism, this was underpinned by a "supercrip" narrative and a medicalised description of disability. Although there has been a positive shift in the narrative around elite athletes with disability in media, relative absence and differing portrayal is present. Considering the power of media shaping society's perceptions of disability, further investigation is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Media has a role in how elite athletes with disability are portrayed and consequently perceived by the public. Elite athletes with disability rarely feature in media. Images of disability are minimized, and certain types of disabilities are favored. An athletic narrative is emerging; however, a medicalised description of athletes remains, shifting the focus from athleticism. "Supercrip" and "Superhuman" terms are commonly used, but may negatively impact the broader disability community.

  17. UNA MODALIDAD SALUDABLE DE GIMNASIA EN EDAD ESCOLAR: LA GIMNASIA ESTÉTICA DE GRUPO [A method healthy gymnastics school age: the aesthetic group gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Conesa Ros

    2017-06-01

    The postural habits are consolidated during childhood and adolescence. It has been recorded in the last decades a significant increase of the back pain and spinal misalignments increasingly at younger ages, possibly due to muscle imbalances. In this context, the Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (GEG, sport that born during the early nineteenth century in northern Europe, to whom recent studies attribute significant health and postural benefits. In addition to the educational values that are associated with different gymnastic sports, this artistic, expressive and group sport is based on a especially careful regulation that promote the acquisition of beneficial postural and hygiene habits.

  18. CORRELATIONS OF MOTOR DIMENSIONS OF STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION WITH TEACHING CONTENTS OF SPORTS GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sports gymnastics, as a basic sport discipline, has been largely neglected through the work with young people in primary and secondary school. This is one of the key reasons for the multitude of problems, with which students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education face, when it comes to mastering the content of sports gymnastics. Development of strength, speed, coordination, balance and flexibility are very important and dominant factor in mastering gymnastic skills and program contents, especially when it comes to gymnastics parterre, where a greater degree of motor preparedness also affects the breaking of fear as the disruptive factor in the training process.

  19. Dynamic ankle stability and ankle sprain occurrence in elite ball team athletes : a one season prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chris Visscher; Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; Msc Henrike van der Does; Michel Brink; Joan Dallinga

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dynamic stability index (DSI) measured at baseline between elite ball team athletes with and without an ankle sprain during the season. Methods Forty-four elite male (age:22.5±3.6yr,height:193.7±8.0cm,mass:87.1±10.9kg) and eighteen female

  20. STRENGTH PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN A SIMULATED MEN'S GYMNASTICS STILL RINGS CROSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Dunlavy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes in sports such as the gymnastics who perform the still rings cross position are disadvantaged due to a lack of objective and convenient measurement methods. The gymnastics "cross" is a held isometric strength position considered fundamental to all still rings athletes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if two small force platforms (FPs placed on supports to simulate a cross position could demonstrate the fidelity necessary to differentiate between athletes who could perform a cross from those who could not. Ten gymnasts (5 USA Gymnastics, Senior National Team, and 5 Age Group Level Gymnasts agreed to participate. The five Senior National Team athletes were grouped as cross Performers; the Age Group Gymnasts could not successfully perform the cross position and were grouped as cross Non- Performers. The two small FPs were first tested for reliability and validity and were then used to obtain a force-time record of a simulated cross position. The simulated cross test consisted of standing between two small force platforms placed on top of large solid gymnastics spotting blocks. The gymnasts attempted to perform a cross position by placing their hands at the center of the FPs and pressing downward with sufficient force that they could remove the support of their feet from the floor. Force-time curves (100 Hz were obtained and analyzed for the sum of peak and mean arm ground reaction forces. The summed arm forces, mean and peak, were compared to body weight to determine how close the gymnasts came to achieving forces equal to body weight and thus the ability to perform the cross. The mean and peak summed arm forces were able to statistically differentiate between athletes who could perform the cross from those who could not (p < 0.05. The force-time curves and small FPs showed sufficient fidelity to differentiate between Performer and Non- Performer groups. This experiment showed that small and inexpensive force platforms

  1. Tropa: debate de elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hamilton

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o ator Paulo Hamilton, que interpreta o soldado Paulo no filme Tropa de elite, defende o trabalho de José Padilha das acusações de comprometimento com um discurso ideológico fascista. Sua estratégia consiste em desvincular o ponto de vista sob o qual o filme é narrado – aquele do Capitão Nascimento – daquele que a obra como um todo pretenderia comunicar. Mais ainda, argumenta ele, regimes totalitários procuram combater posturas de questionamento. A polêmica que Tropa fomentou seria um indício adicional contra a sua associação ao fascismo.

  2. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  3. Fundamental Movement Skills Development under the Influence of a Gymnastics Program and Everyday Physical Activity in Seven-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjak, Zoran; Miletic, Durdica; Kalinski, Suncica Delas; Kezic, Ana; Zuvela, Frane

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the influence of an 18-week basic artistic gymnastics program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) development in seven-year-old children; b) to determine correlations between children's daily activities and successful performance of FMS and basic artistic gymnastics skills. Seventy five first grade primary school children took part in this study. A physical education teacher specialized in artistic gymnastics conducted a gymnastics program for 18 weeks, three times a week. The level of gymnastics skills and FMS were identified at the beginning and at the end of the program. The level of gymnastics skills was evaluated by performance of eight artistic gymnastics skills, while FMS were evaluated by the use of FMS-polygon. Physical activity and inactivity was evaluated by using a proxy-questionnaire "Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire˝ (NPAQ). According to the dependent samples t test, significant differences were found in the FMS-polygon and all gymnastics skills before and after the 18-week gymnastics program. Increasing correlations were established over time between gymnastics skills and the FMS-polygon. Unorganized daily activity of children significantly correlated with their mastering of gymnastics skills and FMS. The presented findings confirm: (1) the thesis that basic artistic gymnastics skills and FMS could be developed simultaneously, (2) the theory of positive transfer of similar skills between FMS and artistic gymnastic skills. Mastering basic artistic gymnastics skills will provoke improvement of FMS and finally become a prerequisite for successful introduction of learning more complex gymnastics skills. The obtained results imply that an increase of children's unorganized daily activities can improve the mastering of basic gymnastics skills and simultaneously the development of FMS.

  4. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, Sara Amalie; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained...... an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances....... in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men...

  5. TENDENCIES OF REGIONAL ELITE GOODS MARKET DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of planned economy only a limited section of society with high social status had an access to elite goods in our country. At present an access to these goods is not regulated, and elite goods trade market in Russia is developing rapidly. In the article the essence of "elite good" and "regional elite goods market" concepts is defined, the classification of elite goods markets is given, also the main factors and tendencies of elite goods market development in the Ural Region is analyzed.

  6. Effectiveness of aerobic gymnastic exercise on stress, fatigue, and sleep quality during postpartum: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chiu-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-01-01

    Gymnastics is a preferable safe exercise for postnatal women performing regularly. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine whether the aerobic gymnastic exercise improves stress, fatigue, sleep quality and depression in postpartum women. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial held from December 2014 until September 2015. Postnatal clinic of a medical center in southern Taiwan. 140 eligible postnatal women were systematically assigned, with a random start to experimental (n=70) or a control (n=70) group. Engage in aerobic gymnastic exercise at least three times (15min per section) a week for three months using compact disc in the home. Perceived Stress Scale, Postpartum Fatigue Scale, Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, the aerobic gymnastic exercise group showed significant decrease in fatigue after practicing exercise 4 weeks and the positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. Paired t-tests revealed that aerobic gymnastic exercise participants had improved significantly in perceived stress and fatigue after 4 weeks gymnastic exercise; these positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. In addition, the changes in physical symptoms-related sleep inefficiency after 12 weeks gymnastic exercise were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. The findings can be used to encourage postnatal women to perform moderate-intensity gymnastic exercise in their daily life to reduce their stress, fatigue and improve sleep quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Gymnastics on Children's Physical Self-Concept and Movement Skill Development in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J. R.; Barnett, L. M.; Farrow, D.; Berry, J.; Borkoles, E.; Polman, Remco

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week gymnastics curriculum on children's movement competence and their physical self-concept. There were 113 children (46% girls, 49% intervention) with a mean age of 9.4 years (SD = 1.8) that participated. Intervention children underwent 8 weeks of gymnastics and the comparison group continued with…

  8. Specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Philip X; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2018-01-01

    Team handball is a dynamic sport game that is played professionally in numerous countries. However, knowledge about training and competition is based mostly on practical experience due to limited scientific studies. Consequently, the aims of our study were to compare specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players. Thirty-six elite, sub-elite and non-elite male team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper-body and lower-body strength tests, 30-m sprint test, counter movement jump test and an incremental treadmill running test. Significant differences (Phandball specific oxygen uptake and higher leg strength compared to sub-elite and non-elite players. Based on these results we recommend that training in team handball should focus on game based training methods to improve performance in specific agility, endurance and technique.

  9. Method of development force at the young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.

  10. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clothing interference in performance, articular range of motion and comfort in labor gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Renato Pereira Moro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive case study was to analyze the interference of clothing with exercise performance, joint range of motion (ROM, and comfort during a session of labor gymnastics wearing a uniform (UNI and specific exercise clothes (SEC. Twenty female workers (28.9±10.2 years from a company in Florianópolis were studied. A photo camera, Wells bench, a questionnaire, and interview were used for data collection. The subjects were submitted to seven types of exercise wearing UNI and SEC: hip flexion, shoulder flexion, trunk flexion-hips and ankle angles, shoulder extension, modified trunk flexion-hips and ankle angles, horizontal shoulder adduction, and a sit-and-reach test. The results were analyzed using the paired t-test, chi-square test, and Fisher’s exact test (p≤0.05. Seven women wearing UNI tended not to show the body, 17 removed some part of UNI, and 13 noted movement limitation. Discomfort was lower in the upper body part during hip flexion and horizontal shoulder adduction and in the lower part during shoulder flexion, extension and horizontal shoulder adduction. Lower ROM values were observed for subjects wearing UNI compared to those wearing SEC during hip flexion (p=0.017, shoulder flexion (p=0.0075, trunk flexion (hips and ankle angles, modified trunk flexion (ankle angles, and the sit-and-reach test (linear and angular values (p<0.001. Trunk flexion performance (ankle angles was better in the UNI condition (p=0.001, probably because the subjects were wearing shoes. In conclusion, clothing tends to interfere with ROM and comfort, but not with exercise performance.

  12. Motivation and elite performance : an exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal, Yves; Guay, Frédéric; Dobreva-Martinova, Tzvetanka; Vallerand, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 98 Bulgarian top athletes (35 females and 63 males): canoeists, biathletes, figure skaters, boxers, tennis players and skiers, were investigated to explore the motivation of elite sport athletes and to determine the effects of motivation on performance. Participants' athletic performances in national and international events over 2 years (September 1990 to November 1992) was documented. Participants also completed the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (Brière, Valler...

  13. Analysis of experience of feet functions perfection in rhythmic gymnastic exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova T.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Trainers and gymnasts take the problem of the special preparation feet and developments of method of its perfection to the number of the actual. The results of the pedagogical testing are shown that basic (basic, pushed, amortisation and specific (aesthetic, manipulation, integral functions feet have a different degree of display. They will be realized in exercises on all of the stages of long-term preparation of sportswomen. Most dynamic perfection of functions feet gymnasts take place on the stages of initial and preliminary base preparation.

  14. The Research on the High-Protein Low-Calorie Food Recipe for Teenager Gymnastics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent teenager gymnastics athletes getting fat deposition, weight gain, they should supply a rational food. This paper considers the normal growth and development of athletes, body fat deposition proteins and hunger feel, configured high-protein low-calorie food recipe. Then analysis the composition and the essential amino acids of the recipe. In the final choiced 18 adolescent gymnastics athletes as subjects, to verify the validity of the formula. And analysis the experimental results. The experimental results analysis shows that this recipe basically meets the design requirements.

  15. The New Elite Prefers Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, the quality of construction has been constantly declining in light of the ideology of fast updating of the whole sphere of consumption. As a result, the houses built in the 1950s remain elite, despite their respectable age. Bulgakov House (the object of the issue is built in the historical center of Moscow. The high quality of its design and construction and careful and attentive treatment of the historic environment make this house an example of true elitism.

  16. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency. Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls

  17. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  18. Disciplinary Elites and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Odette; And Others

    Key aspects of the academic socialization of doctoral students in Britain are described by comparing and contrasting supervisors of Ph.D. candidates in a natural science and a social science discipline. The role of the supervisor in the production of academic elites is highlighted in the two very different academic research traditions. A total of…

  19. Performance Analysis in Elite Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Bertus Gatze

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation concerns the development of techniques for analyzing and comparing performances of elite sportsmen. When performances are delivered under varying circumstances, or are influenced by other factors than the athletes' abilities, a fair comparison, for instance

  20. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  1. Processes of change in the organisation of gymnastics in Denmark - from community to commercialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    on marketisation, consumerism, and being able to compete economically (Pedersen, 2011). Research question: How is Danish gymnastics developing in the sphere of state, market, and civil society, and what consequences does this have for the different forms of community? Methodically this question is examined...... consequences that affect the figuration especially in terms of the sense of community....

  2. Effectiveness of a 16 week gymnastics curriculum at developing movement competence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James R; Barnett, Lisa M; Farrow, Damian; Berry, Jason; Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco

    2017-02-01

    Internationally, children's movement competence levels are low. This study's aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 week gymnastics curriculum on stability, locomotive and object control skills and general body coordination. It was hypothesised that the gymnastics intervention group would demonstrate significant improvements beyond a PE comparison group. This study used a non-randomised control design. The intervention and comparison groups were drawn from three primary schools. The study followed the transparent reporting of evaluations with nonrandomized designs (TREND) statement for reporting. A total of 333 children (51% girls, 41% intervention) with a mean age of 8.1 years (SD=1.1) participated. Intervention children (16 weeks×2h of gymnastics) were compared to children who received (16×2h) standard PE curriculum. Children's movement competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, Stability Skills Assessment and the Körper-Koordinationstest für Kinder. Multilevel linear mixed models, accounting for variation at the class level and adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess intervention relative to comparison differences in all aspects of movement competence. Stability and object control skills showed a significant (pskills or general coordination. Gymnastics is effective at developing stability skills and object control skills without hindering the development of locomotor skills or general coordination. Accelerated learning of stability skills may support the development of more complex movement skills. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effectiviness of Dysmenorrhea Gymnastics as an Alternative Therapy in Reducing Menstrual Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lina Fitri Kumalasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual pain occurs due to the imbalance of the hormones which will cause the uterine muscles to contract and lead to colic pain. Approximately 50 % of women worldwide  and  90 % of Indonesian women  suffer from menstrual pain. Pharmacological therapy is the most popular treatment used to relieve menstrual pain. Unfortunately, it leads to indisputable side effects on health. Therefore, safety alternative treatments such as dysmenorrhea gymnastics are signifficantly needed to improve bloodstream in the uterus and produce endorphins which can relieve menstrual pain. The aim of the study wasto determine the effectiveness of dysmenorrhea gymnastics to relieve the level of menstrual pain. The method of study is systematic review on 14 studies of the efectiveness of exercise dysmenorrhea gymnastics to relieve menstrual pain. The results obtained are dysmenorrhea gymnastcs can relieve menstrual pain with a mean value of 4.006. Conclusion: dysmenorrhea gymnastics can relieve menstrual pain and better  done in the afternoon.

  4. Men’s artistic gymnastics: is the use of elastic surfaces systematic in the training process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Coelho BORTOLETO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Artistic Gymnastics, the area (the apparatus represents the most relevant systemic component. Thus, when one strives to comprehend the internal logic of this sport, the gymnast-apparatus relationship warrants special attention. A change in the training paradigm was observed, showing that the use of Elastic Surfaces (ES is an essential resource, due to the contemporary features of this sport, such as the hyper-valorisation of acrobatics and a greater presence of flight elements. Through a case study developed in a men’s artistic gymnastics high-performance gymnasium, this study analysed the use of different ES in the training process. Although coaches recognize the importance of ES in training programs, the record of daily activities showed that this use is still limited to select equipment and is not systematic. Such difficulties are due mainly to the lack of educational programs to the development of certain specific methodologies and the non-existence of national equipment suppliers certified by International Gymnastics Federation.

  5. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  6. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a 'Female Health Questionnaire' was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females.

  7. Regularity of Center of Pressure Trajectories in Expert Gymnasts during Bipedal Closed-Eyes Quiet Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Isableu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G to that of non-gymnasts (NG during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories. Three dependent variables were computed to describe the subject’s postural behavior: the variability of COP displacements (ACoP, the variability of the COP velocities (VCoP and the sample entropy of COP (SEnCoP to quantify COP regularity (i.e., predictability. Conventional analysis of COP trajectories showed that NG and G exhibited similar amount and control of postural sway, as indicated by similar ACoP and VCoP values observed in NG and G, respectively. These results suggest that the specialized balance training received by G may not transfer to less challenging balance conditions such as the bipedal eyes-closed stance condition used in the present experiment. Interestingly, nonlinear dynamical analysis of COP trajectories regarding COP regularity showed that G exhibited more irregular COP fluctuations relative to NG, as indicated by the higher SEnCoP values observed for the G than for the NG. The present results showed that a finer-grained analysis of the dynamic patterns of the COP displacements is required to uncover an effect of gymnastic expertise on postural control in nondemanding postural stance. The present findings shed light on the surplus value in the nonlinear dynamical analysis of COP trajectories to gain further insight into the mechanisms involved in the control of bipedal posture.

  8. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in elderly women performing aquatic exercise and gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated static and dynamic balance and related motor valences in elderly women who had been undergone gymnastics or aquatic exercise training for at least 6 months, three times a week. Thirty-one women performed water gymnastics (mean age: 69.32 ± 6.57 years and 28 gymnastics (65.57 ± 7.67 years. Height (cm, weight (kg and waist, hip and abdominal circumference (cm were measured and the body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Physical fitness was measured using the “sit and get up in 30 seconds” test (leg endurance and “8-foot up-and-go” test (dynamic balance, both proposed by Rikli and Jones (1999, and the “sit and reach” (flexibility and static balance tests described by Caromano (1998. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test and Pearson’s correlation, with a level of significance of 0.05. No significant difference in the anthropometric measures (BMI and WHR was observed between groups. In the physical fitness tests, significant differences were only found in the “8-foot up-and-go” and “sit and get up” tests, with the gymnastics group presenting better results. No correlations within or between groups were observed regarding static and dynamic balance or motor valences. In conclusion, neither type of exercise was superior but the gymnastics group tended to show better results in terms of parameters such as agility, balance and flexibility.

  9. Biomechanical approaches to understanding the potentially injurious demands of gymnastic-style impact landings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gittoes Marianne JR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gymnasts are exposed to a high incidence of impact landings due to the execution of repeated dismount performances. Biomechanical research can help inform recent discussions surrounding a proposed rule change in potentially injurious gymnastic dismounting. The review examines existing understanding of the mechanisms influencing the impact loads incurred in gymnastic-style landings achieved using biomechanical approaches. Laboratory-based and theoretical modelling research of inherent and regulatory mechanisms is appraised. The integration of the existing insights into injury prevention interventions studies is further considered in the appraisals. While laboratory-based studies have traditionally been favoured, the difficulty in controlling and isolating mechanisms of interest has partially restricted the understanding gained. An increase in the use of theoretical approaches has been evident over the past two decades, which has successfully enhanced insight into less readily modified mechanisms. For example, the important contribution of mass compositions and 'tuned' mass coupling responses to impact loading has been evidenced. While theoretical studies have advanced knowledge in impact landing mechanics, restrictions in the availability of laboratory-based input data have suppressed the benefits gained. The advantages of integrating laboratory-based and theoretical approaches in furthering scientific understanding of loading mechanisms have been recognised in the literature. Since a multi-mechanism contribution to impact loading has been evident, a deviation away from studies examining isolated mechanisms may be supported for the future. A further scientific understanding of the use of regulatory mechanisms in alleviating a performer's inherent injury predisposition may subsequently be gained and used to inform potential rule changes in gymnastics. While the use of controlled studies for providing scientific evidence for the

  10. Improvement of technical training of sportswomen in rhythmic gymnastics by means of acrobatics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove experimentally the technique of improvement of technical training of sportswomen in rhythmic gymnastics by means of acrobatics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: analysis and synthesis of references, pedagogical observations, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, method of expert assessment (qualimetry, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the level of technical skill of performance of pre-acrobatic elements by sportswomen of rhythmic gymnastics before carrying out the pedagogical experiment is determined. The dynamics of indicators of the level of technical preparedness of sportswomen of rhythmic gymnastics is defined. Conclusions: it is established that additional resources of acrobatics influence significantly the level of technical preparedness of sportswomen of rhythmic gymnastics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation.

  11. The performance effect of centralizing a nation's elite swim program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sian V; Vandenbogaerde, Tom J; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-03-01

    Many national sporting organizations recruit talented athletes to well-resourced centralized training squads to improve their performance. To develop a method to monitor performance progression of swimming squads and to use this method to assess the progression of New Zealand's centralized elite swimming squad. Best annual long-course competition times of all New Zealand swimmers with at least 3 y of performances in an event between 2002 and 2013 were downloaded from takeyourmarks.com (~281,000 times from ~8500 swimmers). A mixed linear model accounting for event, age, club, year, and elite-squad membership produced estimates of mean annual performance for 175 swim clubs and mean estimates of the deviation of swimmers' performances from their individual quadratic trajectories after they joined the elite squad. Effects were evaluated using magnitude-based inferences, with a smallest important improvement in swim time of -0.24%. Before 2009, effects of elite-squad membership were mostly unclear and trivial to small in magnitude. Thereafter, both sexes showed clear additional performance enhancements, increasing from large in 2009 (males -1.4%±0.8%, females -1.5%±0.8%; mean±90% confidence limits) to extremely large in 2013 (males -6.8%±1.7%, females -9.8%±2.9%). Some clubs also showed clear performance trends during the 11-y period. Our method of quantifying deviations from individual trends in competition performance with a mixed model showed that Swimming New Zealand's centralization strategy took several years to produce substantial performance effects. The method may also be useful for evaluating performance-enhancement strategies introduced at national or club level in other sports.

  12. Elite Education Abroad and Social Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu; Foged, Mette

    Previous research has shown that family background still plays a role in educational choices, especially when it comes to elite education. We examine how family background affects the likelihood of graduating in an elite or non-elite university abroad. We use two unique surveys of Danish emigrants...... international elite education have considerable cosmopolitan capital and a mindset for operating abroad. Father’s education plays a bigger role for men while mother’s education plays a bigger role for women, especially among women going for elite ducation. When we asked respondents why they studied abroad...... and register data on full population. Overall, we find that children with highly educated and positioned parents are more likely to seek distinctive educational capital. Also, around half of those pursuing elite education abroad have parents who have studied or worked abroad. Hence, people pursuing...

  13. Value of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Andreeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : assess the significance of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills. Material : two groups of coaches with different qualifications (n = 40. The first group of coaches -, experience from 1 to 10 years (n = 20; the second group - work experience from 11 to 25 years (n = 20. Gymnasts preliminary stage of basic training. Coaches are asked to answer 15 questions. Results : the content of questioning coaches gymnastics shows the relevance of the basic problems of technical training of young gymnasts (throwing and catching objects. The most difficult exercises in the training and improvement are throws and catches the ball (coefficient of concordance W = 0,814. The necessity of the development and use of new techniques for analyzing sports equipment exercises with the ball, learning and improving them. Conclusions : basic technical training and preparedness of gymnasts to perform exercises with objects represent a problem that is solved enough in theory and practice gymnastics.

  14. Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005) these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, marrie...

  15. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF 3TH & 4TH GRADE PUPILS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesko Milenković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the subject of the research is only one segment of the anthropological area, which refers to the appearance of appropriate morphological characteristic. Assessment of the examinees’ morphological characteristics was conducted by the help of 13 anthropometrical measures, chosen according to the International Biologic Program (IBP, in order to cover the four dimensional area defined as longitudinal dimensionality, transversal dimensionality, volume and mass of the body and the subcutaneous fat tissue.During the 2005/06 academic year, a research was conducted so as to determine the effects of current program of physical education teaching on motor abilities flexibility of female pupils. The research involved a total sample of 107 girls from the 3th and 4th grade of elementary school. The subjects were classified in experimental and control groups. The experimental group was made of 59 students and they were practicing according to planning instruction where the artistic gymnastics had the primary part. The control group of 48 students was practicing according to official instructional plan and program for P.E. of the Republic of Serbia. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. The multi-variant procedures were used in this research ant those were: MANOVA, MANOCOVA and the discriminative analysis. After the experimental treatment, i.e. at the final testing, significant differences were found with female pupils in experimental and control groups concerning the 8 tests for the evaluation of morphological characteristic. The basic conclusion is that the female pupils of experimental group achieved significantly higher teaching effects than the control group, in view of partly increased morphological characteristics, being the result of the effects of the experimental treatment, as well as other external and internal

  16. Characteristics of Plantar Pressures and Related Pain Profiles in Elite Sprinters and Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tong-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Wang, Jia-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system. Elite sprinters' pain profiles were examined to evaluate their most common pain areas. In recreational runners, AI values in males were in the normal range and in females were high arch type. The AI values were significantly lower in elite sprinters than in recreational runners. In elite sprinters, particularly males, the static PPD of both feet was higher at the medial metatarsal bone and the lateral heel and lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches. Elite male sprinters' PPD of both feet was mainly transferred to the medial metatarsal bone and decreased at the lateral longitudinal arch and the medial heel during the midstance phase of walking. The lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common sites of musculoskeletal pain in elite sprinters. Elite sprinters' AI values could be classified as high arches, and their PPD tended to parallel the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings correspond to the profile of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles seemed to resonate with the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. A possible link between high-arched runners and PFPS warrants further study.

  17. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  18. Hippocrates' counselling with regard to physical exercise, gymnastics, dietetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikos, A; Bekiari, A; Nikitaras, N; Famissis, K; Sakellariou, K

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is the investigation of Hippocrates' consultative theory with regard to man's physical exercise, gymnastics, diet and health, on the basis of his work "Regimen" and his other works. The aforementioned issues are thematised in the works in question. By means of this thematisation, a medical counselling is formed, according to which exercise, gymnastics and diet aim at the maintenance and restoration of man's health; dietetics, maintenance of well-being, recovery and amelioration of man's health are involved in this thematisation. Hippocrates' views on the aforementioned issues constitute a basis for the discussion and pedagogical exploitation of them in contemporary education and, particularly, in sports education and physical exercise.

  19. Supra maximal bicycle tests do not detect seasonable progress in groups of elite speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Bakker, F.C.; de Groot, G.; de Koning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seven female and eight male elite junior skaters performed cycle ergometer tests at four different times during the 1987/1988 season. The tests consisted of a Wingate-type 30-s sprint test and a 2.5-min supramaximal test. The subjects were tested in February, May and September 1987 and in January

  20. Mothers of the Race: The Elite Schools for German Girls under the Nazi Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gregory Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a seeming contradiction of earlier education policy and ideology, the Nazi regime opened three elite schools for girls beginning in 1938. These relatively short-lived and little known institutions symbolized a Nazi penchant for the schooling of females as a preparation for motherhood and a means of preserving racial bloodlines. Drawing from…

  1. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Olyvia; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, panalysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  2. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donti Olyvia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22 based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0, shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8, straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9, sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9 and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7, but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05, sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01, push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05 and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01, while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05 for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9% of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers, physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  3. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise physiology and nutritional perspectives of elite soccer refereeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, K; Bizzini, M; Gatterer, H

    2018-03-01

    Referees are an integral part of soccer, and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players, most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity, and training load. Thus, referees' caloric needs and recommended daily carbohydrate intake may generally be lower compared to active soccer players, with higher intakes limited to periods of increased training load and match days or for referees engaged in physical demanding occupations. With respect to fluid intake, pre-match and in-match hydration strategies generally valid in sports are recommended also for referees to avoid cognitive and physical performance loss, especially when officiating in extreme climates and altitude. In contrast to elite soccer, professional assistance concerning nutrition and training is rarely available for national elite referees of most countries. Therefore, special attention on education about adequate nutrition and fluid intake, about the dietary prevention of deficiencies (iron in female referees, vitamin D irrespective of sex and age), and basic precautions for travels abroad is warranted. In conclusion, the simple adoption of nutritional considerations from active soccer for referees may not be appropriate. Recommendations should respect gender differences, population-specific physical characteristics, and demands just as well as individual characteristics and special needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Promoting artistic quality in rhythmic gymnastics: a didactic analysis from high performance to school practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique LOQUET

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In France, the curricula for physical education (PE place gymnastic activities in a set of competences named “Achieving a corporal performance for artistic and acrobatic aims”, alongside dance and circus arts. What place does Artistic occupy in gymnastic activities? Is an aesthetic gesture sufficient to be considered as part of an artistic activity? Defining the term «Artistic» is difficult in the field of sports, as descriptions usually come from the technique/Artistic dichotomy. Our analysis focuses on rhythmic gymnastics (RG, which is precisely seen as emblematic of this technique/Artistic division: on the one hand, technical rigor, prescriptions and rules; on the other hand, grace, creation and self-expression. We believe such compartmentalized categories are too schematic to define gymnasts’ and students’ activities, so we will examine their articulation points. We first present an overview of RG as a school practice in ordinary forms of teaching, then an historical analysis of RG as a sports practice, to highlight the unbridgeable gap between both school and sports practices, regarding technique/Artistic connections. We then propose three significant points of articulation (called games closely combining technical requirements and artistic commitment. We consider that the variation of the three games played in GR (creating, making beautiful, representing is the product of historical dynamics of this sport we call artistic. Finally, on this basis, we propose a learning game for novice students promoting the artistic quality of RG practice.

  6. RESPIRATORY GYMNASTICS AS A REHABILITATION MEANS FOR THE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH THE RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Shemyakina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers analyzed the efficacy of the new medical technology aimed at rehabilitation of the preschool children with the respiratory pathology. 177 children aged between 2 and 7 with recurrent respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma or chronic pathology of the end organs have been examined for 9 months. It was uncovered that among children (n = 90, who performed the sets of the therapeutic physical training and respiratory gymnastics according to the methods developed by the authors, the recurrence of the acute respiratory diseases and exacerbations of bronchial asthma was lower by 1,83 and 1,86 timers respectively. Besides, among children of this group the researchers noted the significant improvement of the physical qualities, spirometric indices and cytological picture of the substance removed from the nasal cavity if compared with the children from the screening group (n = 87, who performed the sets of the conventional gymnastics at the physical training lessons. Thus, the researchers proved the high efficacy of the proposed technology for the rehabilitation of the children, suffering from the chronic respiratory pathology.Key words: acute respiratory diseases, asthma, therapeutic physical training, respiratory gymnastics, children.

  7. Propensity score matching of the gymnastics for diabetes mellitus using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Bambang Widjanarko; Aisyah, Amalia; Purhadi, Andari, Shofi

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases with characteristics shows an abnormal blood glucose level occurring due to pancreatic insulin deficiency, decreased insulin effectiveness or both. The report from the ministry of health shows that DMs prevalence data of East Java province is 2.1%, while the DMs prevalence of Indonesia is only 1,5%. Given the high cases of DM in East Java, it needs the preventive action to control factors causing the complication of DM. This study aims to determine the combination factors causing the complication of DM to reduce the bias by confounding variables using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) with the method of propensity score estimation is binary logistic regression. The data used in this study is the medical record from As-Shafa clinic consisting of 6 covariates and health complication as response variable. The result of PSM analysis showed that there are 22 of 126 DMs patients attending gymnastics paired with patients who didnt attend to diabetes gymnastics. The Average Treatment of Treated (ATT) estimation results showed that the more patients who didnt attend to gymnastics, the more likely the risk for the patients having DMs complications.

  8. Proposal of analytical records for choreographic compositions in gymnastics for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Abud SCARABELIM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gymnastics for All (GfA is a practice found in the wide world of gymnastics and its greatest form of expression is through choreographic compositions (CC due to historical and pedagogical reasons, among other factors. In addition, in the international arena, gymnastics festivals have become a privileged forum to perform CC as they take place in different contexts of social intervention, such as schools, clubs, associations, NGOs, and universities. In this context, our objective is to provide a tool to register and analyze GfA choreographic compositions by means of analytical record system. Based on bibliographical and documentary research, we propose a set of eight aspects that address general and specific aspects of CC in GfA. We conclude that the proposed tool displays a didactic and very detailed structure that is based on the theoretical prerogatives of the area. Not only it is useful to professionals and practitioners with different profiles, but it also holds the power of being of great value to all those involved in the processes of CC in GfA as a tool for recording data (including historical data, which is a catalyst for processes of reflection and changes (whenever they are required.

  9. Conditioning Methodologies for DanceSport: Lessons from Gymnastics, Figure Skating, and Concert Dance Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outevsky, David; Martin, Blake Cw

    2015-12-01

    Dancesport, the competitive branch of ballroom dancing, places high physiological and psychological demands on its practitioners, but pedagogical resources in these areas for this dance form are limited. Dancesport competitors could benefit from strategies used in other aesthetic sports. In this review, we identify conditioning methodologies from gymnastics, figure skating, and contemporary, modern, and ballet dance forms that could have relevance and suitability for dancesport training, and propose several strategies for inclusion in the current dancesport curriculum. We reviewed articles derived from Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Taylor & Francis Online, and Web of Science search engines and databases, with publication dates from 1979 to 2013. The keywords included MeSH terms: dancing, gymnastics, physiology, energy metabolism, physical endurance, and range of motion. Out of 47 papers examined, 41 papers met the inclusion criteria (validity of scientific methods, topic relevance, transferability to dancesport, publication date). Quality and validity of the data were assessed by examining the methodologies in each study and comparing studies on similar populations as well as across time using the PRISMA 2009 checklist and flowchart. The relevant research suggests that macro-cycle periodization planning, aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, range of motion and muscular endurance training, and performance psychology methods have potential for adaptation for dancesport training. Dancesport coaches may help their students fulfill their ambitions as competitive athletes and dance artists by adapting the relevant performance enhancement strategies from gymnastics, figure skating, and concert dance forms presented in this paper.

  10. Specific injuries induced by the practice of trampoline, tumbling and acrobatic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapton, Xavier; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome C; Barrault, Denys; Perrin, Philippe P

    2013-02-01

    The recreational and competitive practice of acrobatic sports, that is, trampoline, tumbling and acrobatic gymnastics (ACRO), is growing rapidly around the world. Many studies described the injuries affecting young artistic gymnasts, but only few concerned acrobatic sports. During a 5-year period, 357 traumatic events were collected in young acrobats practicing trampoline, tumbling or ACRO. Accident characteristics, level of expertise and training, injury location (upper limb, spine and lower limb), type of tissue injured (bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament and tendon) and provoking factors (intrinsic/behavioural and extrinsic) were investigated. Acrobats of national and international levels were mostly injured. Injuries occurring in acrobatic sports concerned predominantly the lower limbs and concerned in this body part mainly damages to ligaments. Forearm and knee injuries were preferentially related to trampoline. Ankle injuries were preferentially related to tumbling. Wrist injuries were preferentially related to ACRO. Upper limb bone damage and upper limb tendon damage were preferentially related to trampoline and ACRO, respectively. Intrinsic/behavioural factors were the main injury determinant in the three acrobatic sports. The main injuries in acrobatic sports (i.e. lower limbs) are similar to those observed in artistic gymnastics. Specific injuries may result from falls and incomplete and/or erroneous figure's landing and may also depend to the type of the landing surface. II.

  11. Acute effect of different stretching methods on flexibility and jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Smirniotou, A; Tsiganos, G; Tsopani, D; Di Cagno, A; Tsolakis, Ch

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 3 different warm up methods of stretching (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform) on flexibility and legs power-jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts. Eighteen competitive artistic gymnasts were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were exposed to each of 3 experimental stretching conditions: static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF), and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform (S+V). Flexibility assessed with sit and reach test (S & R) and jumping performance with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) and were measured before, immediately after and 15 min after the interventions. Significant differences were observed for flexibility after all stretching conditions for S+V (+1.1%), SS (+5.7%) and PNF (+6.8%) (P=0.000), which remained higher 15 min after interventions (S+V (1.1%), SS (5.3%) and PNF (5.5%), respectively (P=0.000). PNF stretching increased flexibility in competitive gymnasts, while S+V maintained jumping performance when both methods were used as part of a warm-up procedure.

  12. How Elite Universities Fail Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavans, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    The US Census Bureau reveals that although there are more than 41.3 million Latinos in the US as on 2004--about 14 percent of the population, only a very small percentage of them attend the country's elite colleges. A large part of the problem is that, like most of the nation, elite colleges and universities have little awareness of the…

  13. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  14. Elite Cricket Coach Education: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert C.; Cushion, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The social structures within coach education have been largely unexplored, undiscussed, and treated as unproblematic in contributing to coach learning, both in research and practice. The study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 11 elite cricket coaches to gather their perceptions of an elite coach education programme. In particular,…

  15. Elite Education Abroad and Social Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu; Foged, Mette

    2012-01-01

    a bigger role for women, especially among women going for elite education. When we asked respondents why they studied abroad, especially men highlighted academic level and prestige. For one third of women, partner was an important consideration. Together, the United Kingdom and the United States attract 60......We study how social origin affects the likelihood of obtaining university education, with focus on foreign elite and non-elite education. Having highly educated parents increases the likelihood of obtaining university education both at home and abroad. Our survey data on Danes who have emigrated...... for at least five years indicates that the parental background plays the biggest role in the choice to obtain elite education abroad. The distribution of parental education among those who obtain non-elite education abroad does not differ much from the distribution among those obtaining university education...

  16. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  17. Isokinetic profile of elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Roetert, E Paul

    2003-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine whether bilateral differences exist in concentric elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players. The repetitive nature of tennis frequently produces upper extremity overuse injuries. Prior research has identified tennis-specific strength adaptation in the dominant shoulder and distal upper extremity musculature of elite players. No previous study has addressed elbow flexion and extension strength. Thirty-eight elite junior tennis players were bilaterally tested for concentric elbow flexion and extension muscle performance on a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to test for differences between extremities, muscle groups, and speed. Significantly greater (Pelbow extension peak torque values were measured at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s for males. Significantly greater (Pelbow flexion muscular performance in males and for elbow flexion or extension peak torque and single-repetition work values in females. No significant difference between extremities was measured in elbow flexion/extension strength ratios in females and significant differences between extremities in this ratio were only present at 210 degrees/s in males (Pelbow in male elite junior tennis players but not females. These data have ramifications for clinicians rehabilitating upper extremity injuries in patients from this population.

  18. Elite y naturaleza. ¿Naturaleza de elite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Luz Jaramillo Giraldo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da cuenta de las actitudes y representaciones de una colectividad particular con respecto a la naturaleza, su origen y consecuencias sobre el paisaje, la tierra, la estructura agraria, en la primera mitad del siglo XX –partiendo del XIX–. Ideas y representaciones de la elite que se encarga de “dirigir” el destino del país y que repercuten en todos los estratos, creando no sólo políticas y técnicas; también actitudes profundas y sus efectos visibles en los paisajes reales y en las mediaciones complejas de las representaciones fantásticas que los conforman.

  19. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  20. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Health in elite sports from a salutogenetic perspective: athletes' sense of coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Mayer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. METHOD: In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. RESULTS: Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. CONCLUSION: The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively

  2. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D.; Halson, Shona L.; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2) = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4)=15.9, p = 0.04) was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition. PMID:28031772

  3. Comparison of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE gene polymorphisms elite basketball players and volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Süel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to research the differences of genotype polymorphism between the elite male and elite female basketball player, volleyball player and control group. Material and Methods: 58 basketball players (ages 24.25±4.99 years, height 188.22±12.31 cm and weight 80.62±16.34 kg, 64 volleyball players (ages 22.82±5.40 years, height 188.67±9.69 cm and weight 77.82±12.14 kg and 122 sedentary subjects (control group were participated randomly in the study. 5cc blood was taken control and control groups for measuring the ACE gene polymorphism. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA, Levene’s Tests, and frequencies of allele were used for statistical evaluation at significance level p0.05, basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, male basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, female basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05 and male and female athletes (p>0.05 respectively. There were no significance differences in male athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=1.31, vertical jump (F=0.22, and 20m sprint test (F=0.44. There were also no significance differences in female athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=2.03, vertical jump (F=0.10, and 20m sprint test (F=1.17. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism genotype distribution in terms of elite female and male volleyball players with elite female and male basketball players are the same.

  4. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r = 0.032, P = 0.91). CONCLUSION: AHR in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol and methacholine...

  5. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  6. Influence of code of points in training systematization of mens artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D.S. Carrara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the 2006 Code of Points (CP on the systematization of high level men’s artistic gymnastics training. To understand these alterations, eight senior coaches of national teams - Portugal and Brazil - were questioned about the changes in the CP rules and their respective influence on training. For the interviews, a comparative analysis between the rules of the 2001 and 2006 CP was performed, whose results were used to construct and validate the questionnaires.Two questionnaires of 12 items each, as well as four complementary questions, were answered and commented upon. Descriptive (mean and standard deviation and inferential (Mann-Whitney test statistics was used for analysis of the items. Content analysis was used for evaluation of the comments. No significant differences were observedbetween the answers to the items of the two questionnaires given by the coaches of either country. However, regarding comments, the coaches expressed some tendencies toward training changes. In this respect, an increase in training volume and intensity was introduced into Physical Preparation; in Technical Preparation a wider element variety and element difficulty of the different groups were necessary; in Tactical Preparation routines involving a larger number of more difficult elements, including dismount, wereobserved. The main results permit to conclude that the 2006 CP led to changes in routine composition, with the use of a more varied number of elements on the apparatuses. Gymnast performances on the different apparatuses is not only conditioned by trainingcharacteristics, but also by the gymnast’s individual potential, inferring that the process of technical development of the gymnast should be more diversified.

  7. Business and corporate elites in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković-Njegovan Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of new business and corporate elites in Serbian society as one of the neglected aspects of two-decades-long social and economic transition away from the eyes of the general public. These elites haven't reached their status through typical channels of social mobility, such as education and achievements in professional work. In the struggle for capital allocation most of the business elites took advantage of the accelerated privatization of public property which took place in a climate of illegal business. The political establishment was in favor of the new business tycoons since they themselves also took advantage of the moment to convert their political power into the economic one. By devaluing public enterprises, selling them for a pittance and deceiving small shareholders massively, new corporate owners eroded the social capital. The society was impoverished and instead of developing it followed the path of antimodernization and peripheralization of the economy. That was a clear case of obstructing the democratic development of society by its elites. The majority of the new economic elite have originated from those social layers of the socialist era who had already possessed significant resources, economic, organizational and cultural capital, as well as political power. It can be argued that it was a transition without transformation, i.e. a process of 'remaking' the old establishment into a new elite. However, since the mid-nineties, the business and corporate elites have been penetrated by a new generation of business people, generally not related to the previous establishment. They accept the rules of doing business in a responsible manner. On the other hand, the state has found enough strength to start sanctioning transitional financial frauds and fraudsters from the closed circles of the current financial (pseudo elite.

  8. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  9. Addendum to the study of gymnastics and combat association foundation in the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the results of research whose goal was to consider particulars on the start and chronology of gymnastics and combat civil association foundation in the Kingdom of Serbia in a critical manner. That was possible thanks to the fact that one unpublished document in the legacy of Jovan Vanja Petrovic was found in the Museum of Physical Culture within Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Belgrade. The contents of a few found letters created one new perspective on the former knowledge about the first attempts of sports initiation in Serbia, outside Belgrade.

  10. Scaphoid Stress Fracture in High-Level Gymnast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Nakamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 18-year-old high-level gymnast who sustained a stress fracture of the scaphoid associated with a distal radial epiphysiolysis. Clinical evaluation demonstrated decreased range of motion of the affected wrist and insidious pain on the snuffbox and tenderness on the distal radial physis. He was submitted to surgical treatment with scaphoid percutaneous fixation and radial styloid process in situ fixation. Clinical features improved, and he got back to competition 6 months after surgery without symptoms and with complete range of motion.

  11. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2017-08-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Injuries in elite Korean fencers: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Jun; Brian Byung, Song

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to assess the risk of injury associated with training activities in a population of elite Korean fencers training for the Olympic games. We analysed the incidence of sports injuries, based on data prospectively collected over an 8-year period (January 2008 to December 2015) at the National Training Center in Seoul, Korea. The population of elite fencing athletes was stratified according to fencing category (sabre, epee and foil), sex, injury location (body region and site) and injury severity (mild or level I injury, requiring treatment for 1-3 days; moderate or level II injury, requiring treatment for 4-7 days; and severe or level III injury, requiring treatment for ≥8 days). A total of 1176 injuries were recorded during the study period, with an average of 3.3 injuries per athlete annually. Of these, over half (52.6%) were mild injuries, with most injuries occurring in the lower extremity (47.2%), followed by injuries to the upper extremity (26.4%), trunk (21.4%), and head and neck area (5.0%). For all weapon categories, there was a significant difference between male and female athletes in terms of injury location and severity (p≤0.005). We hope that our data describing injury location and severity according to weapon category and sex can help one understand the circumstances that lead to injuries in elite Korean fencers and can be used in the development of programmes to reduce the incidence of sports injuries and enhance athletic performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Pperformance data showed no consistent congruence with athletes' anxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Determinants of the effectiveness of fast break actions in elite and sub-elite Italian men’s basketball games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Conte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1st-division (elite and fifteen 3rd-division (sub-elite Italian men’s championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases, typology (primary and secondary break and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05. Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.

  15. Determinants of the effectiveness of fast break actions in elite and sub-elite Italian men's basketball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, D; Favero, T G; Niederhausen, M; Capranica, L; Tessitore, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB) actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1 st -division (elite) and fifteen 3 rd -division (sub-elite) Italian men's championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014). A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful) was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases), typology (primary and secondary break) and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority) were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05). Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.

  16. [Relationship between anthropometric variables and muscle dysmorphia in gymnasts in the province of Alicante].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Segura, Asier; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Sánchez Ferrer, Marina; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2014-11-01

    It shows a new study that examines if the anthropometric measurements can be used to classify the muscle dysmorphia (MD), in gymnasts who attend fitness room. Gymnasts were analyzed several weights rooms of Alicante (urban area of southeastern Spain), where the measurements were 141 males aged between 18-45 years, aiming to enhance their muscle mass. We had in mind the calculation of BMI (kg/m2), the somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy) and have been classified potential cases of muscle dysmorphia, using the Muscle appareance satisfaction escale. The sample was composed of 68 normoweight; 66 overweight and 7 obese, classified as MD in a 25.0% the normoweight, 33.3% overweight and 85.7% of the obese (p=0.004 ). On the somatotype, the only component that presents differences between non-MD and MD is mesomorphy (p=0.024). Muscle dysmorphia is a concept clearly difficult psychological diagnosable using anthropometric measures. Mesomorphy is the only measure that is increased in the MD, and may be a parameter to aid in the diagnosis and follow-up to the MD. In addition, the risk of developing MD is increase with the degree of obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of mini trampoline exercise on male gymnasts' physiological parameters: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakollukçu, M; Aslan, C S; Paoli, A; Bianco, A; Sahin, F N

    2015-01-01

    There are limited studies that indicate the effects of trampoline exercise on strength and other physiological parameters. This study aims to determine whether twelve weeks of trampoline exercise would have any effects on the physical and physiological parameters of male gymnasts. A number of 20 intercollegiate competitive male gymnasts (as experimental group) and 20 non-athlete male (as control group) participated voluntarily. Their anthropometric characteristics and the anaerobic power were measured and their back strength, vertical jump, standing long jump and 20 meter sprint performances were measured. As a result; whereas 12 weeks of trampoline exercise improved standing long jump (before 242.35±3.40 cm; after 251.70±2.95 cm) and also vertical jump, 20 meter sprint speed and anaerobic power of subjects. We did not observe significant changes on back strength performances (before 148.32±5.73 kg; after 148.10±5.71). The trampoline exercise protocol improved significantly speed, jump and anaerobic performances of the experimental group, while did not induced any changes on back strength performances. More studies are necessary to confirm the interesting results coming from this pilot intervention.

  18. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C H Huijgen

    Full Text Available Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9 and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2 performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span, inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task, cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test, and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test. "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05. In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  19. motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BT Crewther

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T and/or cortisol (C concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12 and non-elites (n = 12 completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF, after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05. No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033, but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  20. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  1. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  2. Researching the Pieces of a Puzzle: The Use of a Jigsaw Learning Approach in the Delivery of Undergraduate Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nicholas; Griggs, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    There have been strengthening recommendations that physical education (PE) should make a wider contribution to learning beyond that of psychomotor development. Cooperative learning models show considerable potential for study in PE but as yet these remain unexplored. This article reports upon an undergraduate gymnastics programme delivered using a…

  3. Injury risk in Danish youth and senior elite handball using a new SMS text messages approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Merete; Attermann, Jørn; Myklebust, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the injury incidence in elite handball, and if gender and previous injuries are risk factors for new injuries.MethodsCohort study of 517 male and female elite handball players (age groups under (u)16, u-18 and senior). Participants completed a web survey establishing injury.......8 to 30.4), 15.1 (95% CI 9.7 to 22.2), 11.1 (95% CI 7.0 to 16.6) injuries per 1000 match hours among senior, u-18 and u-16 players, respectively. U-18 male players had an overall 1.76 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.80) times higher risk of injury compared to females. Having had two or more previous injuries causing...

  4. Comparison Between Elite and Subelite Swimmers on Dry Land and Tumble Turn Leg Extensor Force-Time Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julian V; Pyne, David B; Haff, G Greg; Newton, Robert U

    2018-06-01

    Jones, JV, Pyne, DB, Haff, GG, and Newton, RU. Comparison between elite and subelite swimmers on dry land and tumble turn leg extensor force-time characteristics. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1762-1769, 2018-Elite swimmers demonstrate faster swimming turn times that are potentially a result of having better strength-power characteristics than subelite swimmers. We quantified differences between dry-land and swimming turn force-time characteristics in elite swimmers and subelite swimmers. Subelite (11 males: 17.4 ± 0.6 years; 10 females: 17.1 ± 0.6 years) and elite swimmers (15 male: 23.2 ± 2.3 years; 7 female: 21.6 ± 2.5 years) were tested in a cross-sectional design. All swimmers performed a body weight and loaded (20 kg females, 30 kg males) squat jump (SJ) on a portable force platform. On the same day, all swimmers completed swimming turn analyses using a force platform fixed within the pool wall. The magnitude of difference between groups was estimated using a standardized mean difference (effect size statistic). Elite male and female swimmers had superior swimming turn and dry-land force-time characteristics to subelite swimmers in all tests. The standardized mean differences between groups ranged from small to very large. The largest differences were SJ peak velocity unloaded (3.07 ± 1.0 m·s males, 3.49 ± 2.29 m·s females; standardized mean difference ± 90% confidence limits) and SJ peak power unloaded (2.59 ± 0.79 w male, 2.80 ± 1.64 w female) with elite male and female swimmers having a ∼25-50% higher performance than the subelites in both characteristics. Elite swimmers exhibit superior strength and power characteristics for the swimming turn compared with younger and less experienced swimmers. A well-planned and executed strength and conditioning program is needed for emerging swimmers to develop these qualities, as they transition to senior levels.

  5. Does Elite Sport Degrade Sleep Quality? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Luke; Morgan, Kevin; Gilchrist, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology. Methods Studies...

  6. Elite Circulation and the Convertibility of Knowledge: Comparing Different Types and Forms of Knowledge and Degrees of Elite Circulation in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangset, Marte

    2017-01-01

    According to classical elite theory, increased circulation is related to increased integration which is thought to increase elites' power. Based on a comparative analysis of some European countries' elite education systems, recruitment to elite positions and degrees of circulation--with a specific focus on administrative elites--this article…

  7. Tapering strategies in elite British endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Kate L; Fudge, Barry W; Ingham, Stephen A; Faulkner, Steve H; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore pre-competition training practices of elite endurance runners. Training details from elite British middle distance (MD; 800 m and 1500 m), long distance (LD; 3000 m steeplechase to 10,000 m) and marathon (MAR) runners were collected by survey for 7 days in a regular training (RT) phase and throughout a pre-competition taper. Taper duration was [median (interquartile range)] 6 (3) days in MD, 6 (1) days in LD and 14 (8) days in MAR runners. Continuous running volume was reduced to 70 (16)%, 71 (24)% and 53 (12)% of regular levels in MD, LD and MAR runners, respectively (P training (MD; 53 (45)%, LD; 67 (23)%, MAR; 64 (34)%, P training intensity was above race speed in LD and MAR runners (112 (27)% and 114 (3)%, respectively, P training undertaken prior to the taper in elite endurance runners is predictive of the tapering strategy implemented before competition.

  8. Global Elite as Transnational Capitalist Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kantor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the burgeoning field of multidisciplinary globalization studies, this article evaluates how IR grand theories can conceptualize the phenomenon of global elite. It compares and synthesizes (neoliberalism, constructivism, feminism and neo-Marxism. Liberal approaches use the analytical tool of transnational actors or transnational networks. In constructivist’s perspective, part of global elite falls into the category of epistemic community. Feminists offer the term Davos Men. Neo-Marxist conceptualization revolves around the notion of transnational capitalist class. The paper concludes that neo-Marxist IR theory best accounts for the global elite and therefore, the debates on the transnational capitalist class are thoroughly and critically reviewed.

  9. Strength and energetics of elite rugby union players | Lombard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater absolute strength spectrum (p < 0.05) measured on an isokinetic dynamometer for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of elite backs and forwards, confirmed the acquisition of strength for elite performance. The elite backs and forwards did not possess greater quadriceps and hamstring endurance (p < 0.05) than ...

  10. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  11. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  12. Clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in elite swimmers’ shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Celliers

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinically relevant MRI findings in the shoulders of symptomatic and asymptomatic elite swimmers. Method: Twenty (aged 16–23 years elite swimmers completed questionnaires on their swimming training, pain and shoulder function. MRI of both shoulders (n = 40 were performed and all swimmers were given a standardised clinical shoulder examination. Results: Both shoulders of 11 male and 9 female elite swimmers (n = 40 were examined. Eleven of the 40 shoulders were clinically symptomatic and 29 were asymptomatic. The most common clinical finding in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders was impingement during internal rotation, with impingement in 54.5% of the symptomatic shoulders and in 31.0% of the asymptomatic shoulders. The most common MRI findings in the symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders were supraspinatus tendinosis (45.5% vs. 20.7%, subacromial subdeltoid fluid (45.5% vs. 34.5%, increased signal in the AC Joint (45.5% vs. 37.9% and AC joint arthrosis (36.4% vs. 34.5%. Thirty-nine (97.5% of the shoulders showed abnormal MRI features. Conclusion: MRI findings in the symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders of young elite swimmers are similar and care should be taken when reporting shoulder MRIs in these athletes. Asymptomatic shoulders demonstrate manifold MRI abnormalities that may be radiologically significant but appear not to be clinically significant.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING MATCHES AND PROFILE OF ELITE PENCAK SILAT EXPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Tan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study describing the physiological responses during competitive matches and profile of elite exponents of an emerging martial art sport, pencak silat. Thirty exponents (21 males and 9 females were involved in the study. Match responses (i.e. heart rate (HR throughout match and capillary blood lactate concentration, [La], at pre-match and at the end of every round were obtained during actual competitive duels. Elite silat exponents' physiological attributes were assessed via anthropometry, vertical jump, isometric grip strength, maximal oxygen uptake, and the Wingate 30 s anaerobic test of the upper and lower body, in the laboratory. The match response data showed that silat competitors' mean HR was > 84% of estimated HR maximum and levels of [La] ranged from 6.7 - 18.7 mMol-1 during matches. This suggests that competitive silat matches are characterised by high aerobic and anaerobic responses. In comparison to elite taekwondo and judo athletes' physiological characteristics, elite silat exponents have lower aerobic fitness and grip strength, but greater explosive leg power (vertical jump. Generally, they also possessed a similar anaerobic capability in the lower but markedly inferior anaerobic capability in the upper body

  14. Haematological status in elite long-distance runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Kanstrup, I L; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    In 10 female and eight male Danish elite middle- and long-distance runners, haematological status, including blood volume, was examined. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum (s)-ferritin concentrations were all within the normal range. In both men and women, blood volume, plasma volume...... and erythrocyte volume were increased in relation to various reference values. However, the runners had a low body weight due to a reduced fat level, 9.5% (7.3-15.1%) fat for the women, 5.9% (5.0-8.8%) fat (median and ranges) for the men, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning. When...... the runners' body weights were 'normalized' to a reference population (25% fat for women, 15% fat for men), only plasma volume remained increased in relation to body weight for the women, whereas all the volumes remained increased for the men. This confirms that endurance training induces a true increased...

  15. The Cistercians as a Scandinavian Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Brian Patrick

    2007-01-01

    En redegørelse for hvordan cisterciensermunke gav udtryk for deres identitet i de danske middelalderkilder og hvordan denne identitet udviklede sig i løbet af middelalderen, således at munkene kom til at deltage i den danske elite.......En redegørelse for hvordan cisterciensermunke gav udtryk for deres identitet i de danske middelalderkilder og hvordan denne identitet udviklede sig i løbet af middelalderen, således at munkene kom til at deltage i den danske elite....

  16. Lesões desportivas na ginástica artística: estudo a partir de morbidade referida Sports injuries in artistic gymnastics: a study from referred morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Akemi Hoshi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os níveis de exigência biomecânica devidos ao alto grau de dificuldade na realização de gestos fazem da ginástica artística (GA uma modalidade com elevado risco de lesões. Assim, é necessário que os aspectos a elas relacionados sejam controlados. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ocorrência de lesões na Ginástica Artística, associando-as a fatores de risco específicos da modalidade e do atleta, a partir de inquérito de morbidade referida. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 54 ginastas, recrutados ao acaso, classificados segundo o nível competitivo em duas categorias: regional e nacional. Utilizou-se o inquérito de morbidade referida (IMR com a finalidade de reunir dados sobre a natureza da lesão, região corporal e aparelho ginástico. Os dados foram organizados e apresentados sob a forma de distribuição de freqüências e as variáveis, analisadas segundo nível de associação a partir do teste de Goodman para contrastes entre populações multinomiais, considerando significante o valor P INTRODUCTION: The levels of biomechanical demands due to the high level of difficulty in the gestures accomplishment make Artistic Gymnastics (AG a modality with high risk of injuries. Thus, it is necessary that the aspects concerned with them are controlled. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of injuries in artistic gymnastics, associating them with specific risk factors of the modality and of the athlete from reported morbidity survey. METHODS: 54 gymnasts randomly recruited have been interviewed and classified according to their competitive level into two categories: regional and national. The reported morbidity questionnaire (RMQ was used with the purpose to collect data on the injury's nature, body region and gymnastic apparatus. Data were organized and presented under frequency distribution and analyzed variables. The variables were analyzed according to their level of association from the Goodmann's test for contrasts between

  17. Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Assessment of Elite US Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher K; Dyar, Dan A; Vargas, Lisa A; Grossfeld, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of elite volleyball players, including aortic dimensions. Previous studies have shown that the upper limit of normal aortic sinus diameter for male and female athletes is 4 and 3.4 cm, respectively. Cross-sectional analysis. United States Olympic Volleyball Training Facility and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Seventy (37 male) members of the US national volleyball team. Athletes underwent evaluation that included medical and family histories, targeted physical examinations specifically focusing on abnormalities present in Marfan syndrome (MFS), and transthoracic echocardiograms. Cardiac chamber and great artery size, valve function, and coronary artery origins were assessed. Three male athletes (8%) had an aortic sinus diameter ≥4 cm, one of whom also had an ascending aorta >4 cm. Two female athletes (6%) had aortic sinus diameter ≥3.4 cm, and another had an ascending aorta of 3.4 cm. There were no other intracardiac or arterial abnormalities. Individual musculoskeletal characteristics of MFS were common among the athletes but not more frequent or numerous in those with aortic dilation. The prevalence of aortic root dilation in this population of athletes was higher than what has previously been reported in other similar populations. Further study is needed to determine whether these represent pathological changes or normal variations in tall athletes. This study adds to the existing knowledge base of athlete's heart, with specific attention to aortic dimensions in elite volleyball players. The data are relevant to similar athletes' medical care and to preparticipation cardiac screening in general.

  18. Applied physiology of female soccer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datson, Naomi; Hulton, Andrew; Andersson, Helena; Lewis, Tracy; Weston, Matthew; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2014-09-01

    The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high speed (>15 kmh(-1)) [corrected].Elite players complete 28% more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4-57.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2-6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player.

  19. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, Jerry R.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [Department of Radiology, Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Elites in Switzerland: the rise and fall of a model of elite coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bühlmann

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this article is to understand the recent transformations of Swiss elites. Based on a database of political, economic and administrative elites covering the whole twentieth century, we investigate the social background, education and coordination mechanisms of Swiss elites. We find that for a long time, they maintained their power through a combination of a socially narrow recruitment and a coordination model including the army as meeting place, a corporatist organisation of the economy and multipositionality between political and economic fields. As a result of the increasing internationalisation of managers of Swiss firms, this model of elite coordination has eroded since the 1990s and led to a (relatively unpredictable transition phase.

  2. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  3. Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO(2)max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2...

  4. Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 3: Decision making under mental performance pressure in junior elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Beth L; Walsh, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under uncertainty via the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., 2002), and fast reactive responses to perceptual stimuli via the Visual Search Task (Treisman, 1982). Mental pressure was induced with the addition of a concurrent verbal memory task, used to increase cognitive load and mimic the distracting effects of anxiety-related rumination. In junior elite athletes, fast reactive responses to perceptual stimuli (on the Visual Search Task) were slower under conditions of mental pressure. For decision making under risk there was an interaction of mental pressure and gender on the amount of points gambled, under pressure there was a higher level of risk taking in male athletes compared to females. There was no influence of mental pressure on decision making under uncertainity. There were no significant correlations in the degree to which individual's responses changed under pressure across the three measures of decision making. When assessing the applicability of results based on group averages there were no junior elite athletes who showed an "average" response (within 1SD of the mean) to mental pressure across all the three decision-making tasks. Mental pressure affects decision making in a sample of junior elite athletes, with a slowing of response times, and modulations to performance of decision making under risk that have a high requirement for working memory. In relation to sport, these findings suggest that novel situations that place high cognitive demands on the athlete may be particularly influenced by mental pressure. The application of this work in junior elite athletes included the feedback of individual results and the implementation of a decision-making taxonomy. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What Is an Elite Boarding School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    This article brings attention to the rarefied world of elite boarding schools. Despite their reputation for excellence, these unique educational institutions remain largely outside the gaze of educational researchers and the scope of public debates about education. One reason for this absence is a lack of knowledge about what exactly defines an…

  6. Changes in blood values in elite cyclist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J S; Belhage, B; Damsgaard, R

    2009-01-01

    samples were obtained from 28 elite, male cyclists. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and % reticulocytes. Seventy-six percent of all samples were collected out-of-competition (OOC). From December 2006 to September 2007, the average Hct and [Hb] decreased by 4...

  7. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  8. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  9. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  10. Technicolor gymnastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, S. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Georgi, H. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Lyman Lab. of Physics); Raby, S. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-07-21

    We propose a Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism for extended technicolor theories and illustrate it in an explicit model. We find that flavor changing neutral current effects are adequately suppressed if msub(t)<<50 GeV.

  11. Quantitative estimation of the state of vault feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Makarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the vaults given about the state is conducted feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training. 93 sportswomen of different qualification took part in research. The system of Big foot was used. It is set that on the early stages of the long-term training for gymnasts observed flattening heights of unevenness of navicular bone above the floor. With growth of qualification of sportswomen to avoid development of pathological changes of vaults feet actually not possibly. It is conditioned the rules of competitions to complication of competition compositions and technique of execution of elements of calisthenics. It is marked that appearance of flattening feet requires: corrections in the system of training; introduction of the specially developed methods on the removal of existent deformations; prophylaxis of flat-footedness; strengthening of musculoskeletal system feet.

  12. Anti-doping education and dietary supplementation practice in Korean elite university athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kim, Eung-Joon; Ki, Sun-kyung; Yoon, Jaeryang; Lee, Mi-sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships and gender differences in dietary supplement (DS) and oriental supplement (OS) prevalence as well as anti-doping awareness during training and the game period. Korea National Sport University athletes (343 male and 136 female) participated in this study and completed DS and OS practice and anti-doping awareness questionnaires. Forty-six percent of athletes used DS during the training period, and there was significantly higher DS use in females (53%) compared to males (43%) (P game period was 2.38 (1.50-3.80) and 3.99 (1.20-13.28), respectively. Elite athletes' anti-doping education was highly related to increased DS use during the training period and immediately before the game. Although elite athletes use various DS and OS during the training period and before the game period, doping education for elite athletes is related with DS and OS use during the training period and before the game. PMID:21994530

  13. The effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture after undergoing intramedullary nail fixation surgery. We collected medical records of elderly patients aged???60 years with femoral shaft fracture between 03/2010 and 03/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. Totally, 160 patients were identified and divided into the intervention group (n = 80) and the control group (n ...

  14. Long-term intensive gymnastic training induced changes in intra- and inter-network functional connectivity: an independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junjing; Seger, Carol; Lu, Min; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Yuan; Niu, Chen; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2018-01-01

    Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). R-fMRI data were acquired from 13 WCGs and 14 non-athlete controls. Group-independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to decompose the R-fMRI data into spatial independent components and associated time courses. An automatic component identification method was used to identify components of interest associated with resting-state networks (RSNs). We identified nine RSNs, the basal ganglia network (BG), sensorimotor network (SMN), cerebellum (CB), anterior and posterior default mode networks (aDMN/pDMN), left and right fronto-parietal networks (lFPN/rFPN), primary visual network (PVN), and extrastriate visual network (EVN). Statistical analyses revealed that the intra-network functional connectivity was significantly decreased within the BG, aDMN, lFPN, and rFPN, but increased within the EVN in the WCGs compared to the controls. In addition, the WCGs showed uniformly decreased inter-network functional connectivity between SMN and BG, CB, and PVN, BG and PVN, and pDMN and rFPN compared to the controls. We interpret this generally weaker intra- and inter-network functional connectivity in WCGs during the resting state as a result of greater efficiency in the WCGs' brain associated with long-term motor skill training.

  15. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.

  16. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  17. Improved Genetic Algorithm Based on the Cooperation of Elite and Inverse-elite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakubo, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose an improved genetic algorithm based on the combination of Bee system and Inverse-elitism, both are effective strategies for the improvement of GA. In the Bee system, in the beginning, each chromosome tries to find good solution individually as global search. When some chromosome is regarded as superior one, the other chromosomes try to find solution around there. However, since chromosomes for global search are generated randomly, Bee system lacks global search ability. On the other hand, in the Inverse-elitism, an inverse-elite whose gene values are reversed from the corresponding elite is produced. This strategy greatly contributes to diversification of chromosomes, but it lacks local search ability. In the proposed method, the Inverse-elitism with Pseudo-simplex method is employed for global search of Bee system in order to strengthen global search ability. In addition, it also has strong local search ability. The proposed method has synergistic effects of the three strategies. We confirmed validity and superior performance of the proposed method by computer simulations.

  18. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...... is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite...

  19. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitch Lomax Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. Keywords: exercise, aquatic athletes, bronchoconstriction

  20. Epidemiology of injuries in elite football

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the injury characteristics in elite football, and risk factors for injury with special emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury. All five papers followed a prospective design using a standardised methodology. Individual training and match exposure was recorded for all players participating as well as all injuries resulting in time loss. Severe injury was defined as absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In Paper I, all 14 teams in the Swedish men’s...

  1. Whither Elite Cohesion in Mexico: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    the problem of elite cohesion, including the mechanisms-- especially the camarilla system--whereby balance and equilibrium, control and cooptation...Generacicnes: Los Protagonistas de Ia Reforma y la Revoluci(n Mexicana, Secretaria de Educacion Pblica, Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educat ivo, Mexico City...loyalty and discipline toward the system as a whole, and especially its apex, the president, and its key institution, the PRI. All this looks different

  2. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  3. Thermoregulation of competitive artistic gymnastic athletes and non-athlete girls exercising in the heat

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    Gabriela Tomedi Leites

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p143   It’s unclear whether the combination of intense, chronic training and heat exposure during prepubescence improves thermoregulatory responses to exercise in artistic gymnastics athletes. The objective of this study was to compare thermoregulatory and perceptual responses between artistic gymnastics athletes and non-athlete girls while exercising both in heat and thermoneutral conditions. Seven athletes (8.7 ± 1.3 yrs and 7 nonathletes (9.4 ± 1.5 yrs cycled for 30 min at load (W of ~55% VO2peak, on two separate occasions in a randomized order: heat (35˚C, 40% relative humidity and thermoneutral conditions (24˚C, 50% relative humidity. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, thermal sensation, thermal comfort and irritability were measured throughout the exercise. Initial rectal temperature was similar between athletes and non-athletes in both heat (37.2 ± 0.4 vs. 37.4 ± 0.2˚C, respectively and thermoneutral conditions (37.3 ± 0.2 vs. 37.3 ± 0.3˚C. Final rectal temperature was similar between groups (38.0 ± 0.2 vs. 38.2 ± 0.2˚C in heat and 37.8 ± 0.2 vs. 37.9 ± 0.2˚C in thermoneutral conditions. Initial heart rate was lower in athletes in the heat (76 ± 7 vs. 91 ± 11 bpm, P = 0.01; however, throughout cycling, it became similar between groups. Athletes reported similar perceptual responses compared to non-athletes, with the exception of higher thermal comfort in the 10th minute of exercise in thermoneutral conditions (P = 0.003. It was concluded that athletes were similar to non-athletes with respect to thermoregulatory and perceptual responses during 30 min of cycling at similar relative intensities.

  4. Influence of water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming on cardiac output in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Jean-Paul; Noveanu, Markus; Morger, Cyrill; Gaillet, Raymond; Capoferri, Mauro; Anderegg, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

    2007-06-01

    Whole-body water immersion leads to a significant shift of blood from the periphery to the intrathoracic circulation, followed by an increase in central venous pressure and heart volume. In patients with severely reduced left ventricular function, this hydrostatically induced volume shift might overstrain the cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and lead to cardiac decompensation. To assess the haemodynamic response to water immersion, gymnastics and swimming in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). 10 patients with compensated CHF (62.9 (6.3) years, ejection fraction 31.5% (4.1%), peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) 19.4 (2.8) ml/kg/min), 10 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) but preserved left ventricular function (57.2 (5.6) years, ejection fraction 63.9% (5.5%), peak Vo(2) 28 (6.3) ml/kg/min), and 10 healthy controls (32.8 (7.2) years, peak Vo(2) 45.6 (6) ml/kg/min) were examined. Haemodynamic response to thermoneutral (32 degrees C) water immersion and exercise was measured using a non-invasive foreign gas rebreathing method during stepwise water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming. Water immersion up to the chest increased cardiac index by 19% in controls, by 21% in patients with CAD and by 16% in patients with CHF. Although some patients with CHF showed a decrease of stroke volume during immersion, all subjects were able to increase cardiac index (by 87% in healthy subjects, by 77% in patients with CAD and by 53% in patients with CHF). Vo(2) during swimming was 9.7 (3.3) ml/kg/min in patients with CHF, 12.4 (3.5) ml/kg/min in patients with CAD and 13.9 (4) ml/kg/min in controls. Patients with severely reduced left ventricular function but stable clinical conditions and a minimal peak Vo(2) of at least 15 ml/kg/min during a symptom-limited exercise stress test tolerate water immersion and swimming in thermoneutral water well. Although cardiac index and Vo(2) are lower than in patients with CAD with preserved left ventricular function and controls

  5. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  6. Interviewing Ghanaian Educational Elites: Strategies for Access, Commitment, and Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Pius Nudzor

    2013-01-01

    A review of the research methodology literature suggests that owing to the difficulty of gaining access to and obtaining commitments from elites, social scientists less frequently use them as research respondents, opting instead to investigate those over whom power is exercised. This article provides insights into some intricacies of elite interviewing. It recounts the experience of a novice researcher in his quest to gain access to and interview elite individuals within the Ghanaian educatio...

  7. Avaliação do estado nutricional de atletas de ginástica olímpica do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo Nutritional status evaluation of olympic gymnastics athletes from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil

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    Beatriz Gonçalves RIBEIRO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional de atletas de ginástica olímpica, do sexo feminino, foram estudadas 46 ginastas, de 11 a 14 anos, pertencentes a clubes e academias das cidades do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. O estudo antropométrico envolveu medidas de massa corporal, estatura, dobras cutâneas e perímetros. Observou-se diferença significativa para as dobras cutâneas tricipital, suprailíaca, da coxa e da panturrilha e para o percentual de gordura (pThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of 46 female olympic gymnastics athletes, aged 11 to 14 years old, attending private gymnastics clubs of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The anthropometric assessment involved measurements of height, body mass, skinfold thickness and circumferences. Significant difference was observed for the triceps, suprailiac, mid thigh and medial calf skinfolds and for the percentage of body fat (p<0.05. For the assessment of dietary intake a 24-hour recall and a 3-day self-register were used. The energy consumption and the percentage of carbohydrates (50% to 58% in the diet were low and the protein ingestion (1.5 to 1.7 g/kg of body weight was appropriate, according to values proposed for athletes. Vitamin intake was satisfactory, except for folic acid of gymnasts from Rio de Janeiro. From the minerals assessed, the intake of calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron was inadequate. No clinical signs of iron deficiency were observed.

  8. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The…

  9. Analysis of the influence of plyometric training in improving the performance of athletes in rhythmic gymnastics

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    Barbara Raquel Agostini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic gymnastics (RG athletes need high-performance training since a high degree of precision is required in their exercises. Plyometric training (PT has been used to improve athletes' neuromuscular function, explosive performance and strength in competition. The object of this study was to assess the efficiency of PT in improving the performance of RG athletes in the juvenile and adult categories over 12 months, by incorporating PT into two training macrocycles. Thirty athletes were selected; they were divided randomly into a control group (CG and an experimental group (EG of 15 athletes each. Two 6-month training macrocycles were drawn up for the EG in which they maintained normal training with the addition of PT. The CG maintained its normal training. Three tests were used for the assessment: vertical jump, horizontal jump and agility, assessed at 5 different moments. After 12 months it was observed an improvement in test performance in both groups, with a more significant improvement in the EG when compared to the CG. The addition of PT to normal training improved the performance of athletes by developing greater power in the lower limbs, increasing their capacity in vertical jump, horizontal jump and agility.

  10. Perfection of primary children’s selection for sport gymnastic training in Kurdistan

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    Dlshad Nihad Abdulvahid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find ways of perfection of primary children’s selection for sport gymnastic training in Kurdistan. Material: questioning of specialized physical culture HEEs’ students in Ukraine and Kurdistan (n=120, n=120. Physical condition and physical qualities of 7 years’ age boys of Ukraine and Kurdistan (n=56, n=52 were assessed. Results: only 10 Kurdistan students had opportunity to start specialized sport trainings by recommendations of professional coach. Ineffective influence of mass media in involvement of youth in sport trainings was noted. Physical condition level of children corresponds to standards. In most of motor tests Ukrainian children showed better results that their peers from Kurdistan. Conclusions: in Ukraine 42% of children join sports practicing owing to parents’ wish. In Kurdistan 25% of children join sports practicing by recommendations of physical culture teachers. The next by importance factor is example of peers (21% and 33%. In nine from twelve motor tests Kurdistan children yield to their Ukrainian peers. In 20 meters’ run and in shuttle run results of Kurdistan children are better. Confident distinctions were found in quantity of chin ups in lying position.

  11. Gymnasts and non-athletes muscle activation and torque production at the ankle joint

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    Natália Batista Albuquerque Goulart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n5p555  Artistic Gymnasts (AG execute specific movements that require substantial movement control and force production at the ankle joint. This high demand might change the neuromechanical properties of the ankle joint muscles in these athletes compared to non-athlete girls (NAG. The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation and torque production at the ankle joint between AG and NAG. Ten AG (11.70 ± 1.06 years of age and 10 NAG (11.70 ± 1.49 years of age participated in the study. Electromyographic  (EMG signals of medial gastrocnemius (MG, soleus (SO and tibialis anterior (TA were obtained simultaneously to the maximal isometric plantarflexion (PFT and dorsiflexion (DFT torques of the dominant limb during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC at five different joint angles (20°, 10°, 0°, -10° e -20°. Neuromuscular efficiency was also calculated by the Torque/EMG ratio. AG presented higher PFT (p0.05. In addition, AG showed higher values for plantar flexion neuromuscular efficiency and smaller values of dorsiflexion neuromuscular efficiency compared to the NAG (p<0.01. Higher sports demands of AG determined higher PFT, higher plantar flexor efficiency, smaller DFT but similar activation of MG, SO and TA compared to NAG.

  12. Pedagogical Conditions for Coordination Development in Girls of Primary School Age through Rhythmic Gymnastics

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    С. І. Марченко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to experimentally verify the effectiveness of the use of rhythmic gymnastics means that have been systematized to develop coordination abilities in girls of primary school age. Research methods: method of theoretical analysis and generalization of literary sources, method of control studies, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The coordination readiness level evaluation demonstrated that at the beginning of the pedagogical experiment the level of the majority of the second-grade girls was low (22.85%, below average (39.97%, and average (11.42%; that of the third-grade girls was below average (57.1%, average (34.26%; and that of the fourth-grade — below average (29.3%, and average (62.06%. After the pedagogical experiment the number of the second-, third- and fourth-grade girls with the low level decreased by 19%, 13.4%, 10.4% in the experimental groups and by 16.3%, 11.8%, 9.8% in the control groups respectively; the number of the girls with the below-average level decreased by 14.7%, 32.7%, 23.1% in the experimental groups and by 12.4%, 21%, 19.1% in the control groups. The positive changes in the level of coordination abilities occurred both in the control and the experimental groups, with the results improved in favor of the experimental groups.

  13. The influence of gymnastics in motor coordination and reaction time in urban public bus drivers

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    Stela Paula Mezzomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of labour gymnastics (LG on bus drivers' basic skills such as reaction time and gross motor coordination. Sixty male bus drivers (37.06 ± 7.66 years old from two bus lines in the city of Santa Maria (RS took part of this study. The participants were split into two groups, experimental group (EG and control group (CG. Subjects that were part of the EG took part in a LG intervention program, 2-3 times a week, over a year. Gross motor coordination was assessed by BURPEE Protocol (Johnson & Nelson, 1979, whereas reaction time by software providing a visual stimulus. Data normality was checked through Shapiro-Wilk test, which pointed to normal distribution only for the variables simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT in the EG. Therefore the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was selected to compare differences between groups. A statistically significant difference for gross motor coordination was found (z= −2.525, p= 0.012, suggesting the effectiveness of LG to improve motor skills. As regards SRT and CRT, no significant difference was found, in spite of better outcomes having been recorded after the LG program.

  14. The speed of progress in the apparatus handling technique in rhythmic gymnastics

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    Moskovljević Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity of rhythmic gymnastics as a sport and as a teaching device are apparatus routines. Considering lack of researches, the aim of our study was to determine ages of maturity when the development in apparatus routines performance is greater. Development in essential rope, hoop and ball routine performance was examined two times per year, through four years experimental period. The evaluation is carried out three-member RG-expert committee on a scale of 1 to 10. A total of twenty-seven competitors, examined at ages seven to fourteen, participate in this study. Based on data, we can notice that speed of progress in apparatus handling technique was not equal during observing maturity period. There was not significant development in most of examined routines between seven to nine years of ages. Significant development in this period has been achieved only in two rope routines (Vij1 i Vij2R and one ball routine to (Lop2R. From eleven to twelve years of ages, significant development has been achieved for most of routines, except basic running with rope (Vij1 and hoop routine performed with weaker arm (Obr2L. At 12 to 13 years of ages, development of routines performance has not been statistically significant.

  15. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.

  16. QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCES IN ASSESSMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL FEMALE STUDENTS

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    Georgi Georgiev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available he research was carried out on 89 female students at first-year who regularly attended the course sport and sport activities. The aim was to see whether there are differences between the grades gained during the teaching and assessments received during the survey. As indicators in the evaluation of assessment during the research into account were taken techniques of performance of several sport disciplines: athletics (high start and gymnastics (rolling forward, from the sport games , basketball (leading the ball with a jump shot towards the basket and test - polygon for checking of the motor skills and habits of the female pupils. The determination of the significance of the differences was performed by t-test. After receiving the survey results, were identified statistically significant differences in the assessment of pupils.

  17. The relationship between reproduction of the jump’s rhythm and technical score of their execution by gymnasts at the stage of initial training

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    Oksana Zaplatynska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the interconnection between quality of performance of the jumps and reproduction of the rhythm of jumps by gymnasts at the stage of initial training. Material & Methods: to determine the relationship between reproduction of rhythm and evaluation by the quality of technique of the jumps we used expert assessment, check the accuracy of the reproduction of rhythm with the help of computer program "rhythmic", methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the study found the correlation between reproduction of rhythm and summing-up of quality the technique of jumps by the gymnasts at the stage of initial training. Conclusions: the ability to reproduce a predetermined rhythm influences the level of technical readiness of gymnasts at the stage of initial training.

  18. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF ARTHYSRIC GYMNASTICS TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON FUNCTIONALL ABYLITIES OF 3RD & 4TH GRADE PUPILS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

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    Dragana Aleksić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the subject of the research is only one segment of the anthropological area, which refers to the appearance of appropriate morphological characteristic. The research involved a total sample of 107 girls from the 3th and 4th grade of elementary school. The subjects were classified in experimental and control groups. The experimental group was made of 59 students and they were practicing according to planning instruction where the arthystic gymnastics had the primary part. The control group of 48 students was practicing according to official instructional plan and program for P.E. of the Republic of Serbia. The battery for the evaluation of functional abilities consists of the following tests: vital capacity by spirometer, Lorenc`s test and heart puls in peace. Research data was processed using SPSS standard statistics procedure. There were calculated: Basic statistics parameters (mean, standard deviation, Min/Max numeric score, interval of confidence, coefficient of variation, Descriptive statistic parameters, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the evaluation of normality of test result distribution of applied variables. The multi-variant procedures were used in this research ant those were: the multi-variant analysis of the variable (MANOVA and the discriminative analysis. Also, the mono-variant procedures were used and those were: the variable analysis (ANOVA and the interval of entrust. After the experimental treatment, i.e. at the final testing, significant differences were found with female pupils in experimental and control groups concerning the two of four tests for the evaluation of functional abilities.

  19. Body mass index, nutritional knowledge, and eating behaviors in elite student and professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Hutchings, Kate M; Wells, Abigail; Nevill, Alan M

    2014-09-01

    It is recognized that there is a high esthetic demand in ballet, and this has implications on dancers' body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between BMI, eating attitudes, and nutritional knowledge of elite student and professional ballet dancers. Observational design. Institutional. One hundred eighty-nine participants from an elite full-time dance school (M = 53, F = 86) and from an elite ballet company (M = 16, F = 25) volunteered for the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data (height and mass), General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were collected from each participant. Univariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences in gender and group for BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Regression analyses were applied to examine interactions between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Professional dancers had significantly greater BMI than student dancers (P < 0.001), and males had significantly higher BMI scores than females (P < 0.05). Food knowledge increased with age (P < 0.001) with no gender difference. Student dancers had a significant interaction between year group and gender because of significantly higher EAT-26 scores for females in years 10 and 12. Regression analysis of the subcategories (gender and group) reported a number of significant relationships between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. The findings suggest that dancers with disordered eating also display lower levels of nutritional knowledge, and this may have an impact on BMI. Female students' eating attitudes and BMI should especially be monitored during periods of adolescent development.

  20. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

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    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  1. Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers.

  2. Great British medalists: Psychosocial biographies of Super-Elite and Elite athletes from Olympic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lew; Barlow, Matthew; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Woodman, Tim; Warr, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Participants were 32 former GB athletes from Olympic sports, 16 Super-Elite athletes who had won multiple medals at major championships, and 16 matched Elite athletes who had not. In-depth interviews with the athletes, their coaches, and one of their parents explored all psychosocial aspects of their development and careers. Content analyses revealed that there were no differences between Super-Elite and Elite athletes with regard to family values, conscientiousness, or commitment to training. However, the two groups were found to be different with regard to: (1) the experience of a foundational negative life event coupled with a foundational positive sport-related event; (2) the experience of a career turning point that enhanced motivation and focus for their sport; (3) need for success; (4) obsessiveness and/or perfectionism with regard to training and performance; (5) ruthlessness and/or selfishness in the pursuit of their sporting goals; (6) dual focus on both mastery and outcome; (7) the use of counterphobic attitudes and/or total preparation to maintain higher levels of performance under pressure; and (8) the relative importance of sport over other aspects of life. The results are discussed within the context of psychodynamic theory, and recommendations are made for both applied implications and future research. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. US elite power and the rise of ‘statist’ Chinese elites in global markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Naná; van Apeldoorn, Bastiaan

    The rise of Chinese ‘state capitalism’ such as expressed by the global expansion of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has been met with substantial suspicion on the part of the Western corporate and political establishment—including among Washington’s policy-making elite. The underpinning claim

  4. Een ongekende elite : De opkomst van een gekleurde elite in koloniaal Suriname 1800-1863

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslo, Ellen Brigitte Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    During the slavery period in the nineteenth century in Paramaribo there was a colored elite. Their social economic status was better than generally assumed. To a great extent this was due to the many craftsmen such as carpenters, tailors and midwives. Most of them learned these skills during their

  5. Descriptive profile of hip rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Ellenbecker, Gail A; Roetert, E Paul; Silva, Rogerio Teixeira; Keuter, Greg; Sperling, Fabio

    2007-08-01

    Repetitive loading to the hip joint in athletes has been reported as a factor in the development of degenerative joint disease and intra-articular injury. Little information is available on the bilateral symmetry of hip rotational measures in unilaterally dominant upper extremity athletes. Side-to-side differences in hip joint range of motion may be present because of asymmetrical loading in the lower extremities of elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers. Cohort (cross-sectional) study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 1. Descriptive measures of hip internal and external rotation active range of motion were taken in the prone position of 64 male and 83 female elite tennis players and 101 male professional baseball pitchers using digital photos and computerized angle calculation software. Bilateral differences in active range of motion between the dominant and nondominant hip were compared using paired t tests and Bonferroni correction for hip internal, external, and total rotation range of motion. A Pearson correlation test was used to test the relationship between years of competition and hip rotation active range of motion. No significant bilateral difference (P > .005) was measured for mean hip internal or external rotation for the elite tennis players or the professional baseball pitchers. An analysis of the number of subjects in each group with a bilateral difference in hip rotation greater than 10 degrees identified 17% of the professional baseball pitchers with internal rotation differences and 42% with external rotation differences. Differences in the elite male tennis players occurred in only 15% of the players for internal rotation and 9% in external rotation. Female subjects had differences in 8% and 12% of the players for internal and external rotation, respectively. Statistical differences were found between the mean total arc of hip range of internal and external rotation in the elite tennis players with the dominant side being greater

  6. Practical recommendations for the implementation of health technologies to enhance physical fitness of students in extracurricular classes during non-traditional gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fomenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop practical recommendations for extracurricular classes nontraditional kinds of gymnastics to improve the organization of physical education teachers in schools. Material : in the experiment involved 358 students. Analyzed the available literature data. Results : a comparative analysis of physical fitness of students and practical recommendations for the non-traditional occupations gymnastics. Been a significant interest in physical education classes. Found that the main ways of improving physical education students may be the formation of the need for strengthening health facilities fitness aerobics, shaping, pilates. Conclusions : highlights the need to structure the problems they need and develop appropriate solutions.

  7. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  8. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  9. The Elite and Political Process in Nigeria | Banjo | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's crisis-ridden political history shows how it survived multiple military dictatorships, and had only three short-lived civilian-led political dispensations until the Fourth Republic. The article considers the concept of African elite and progresses to unravel the Nigerian elite and its role in the scuttling of the First and ...

  10. Factors that Influence Career Decision-Making among Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; McGregor-Bayne, Heather

    2008-01-01

    A common belief about elite athletes is that they invest so much effort into the pursuit of their athletic careers that they fail to develop good career decision-making skills. Recent findings challenge that belief. The present study investigated career decision-making difficulties among 117 elite Australian athletes. Participants completed…

  11. Elite coaches' perceptions of the characteristics of decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at discovering what elite coaches perceive to be the critical characteristics of decision-making that distinguish expert players from novices in basketball. A qualitative method of inquiry (the long interview) was followed. The data were gathered during interviews with five elite coaches. A framework to ...

  12. Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

    2013-01-01

    of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings...

  13. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  14. Environmentalism and elitism: a conceptual and empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Denton E.; Dunlap, Riley E.

    1986-09-01

    The frequent charge that environmentalism is “elitist” is examined conceptually and empirically. First, the concept of elitism is analyzed by distinguishing between three types of accusations made against the environmental movement: (a) compositional elitism suggests that environmentalists are drawn from privileged socioeconomic strata, (b) ideological elitism suggests that environmental reforms are a subterfuge for distributing benefits to environmentalists and/or costs to others, and (c) impact elitism suggests that environmental reforms, whether intentionally or not, do in fact have regressive social impacts. The evidence bearing on each of the three types of elitism is examined in some detail, and the following conclusions are drawn: Compositional elitism is an exaggeration, for although environmentalists are typically above average in socioeconomic status (as are most sociopolitical activists), few belong to the upper class. Ideological elitism may hold in some instances, but environmentalists have shown increasing sensitivity to equity concerns and there is little evidence of consistent pursuit of self-interest. Impact elitism is the most important issue, and also the most difficult to assess. It appears that there has been a general tendency for environmental reforms to have regressive impacts. However, it is increasingly recognized that problems such as workplace pollution and toxic waste contamination disproportionately affect the lower socioeconomic strata, and thus reforms aimed at such problems will likely have more progressive impacts.

  15. Beyond Anti-Elitism: Black Studies and the Pedagogical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jane Anna

    2010-01-01

    "Elitism" is frequently invoked among the pantheon of "isms" actively to be disavowed. Indeed the charge of elitism often takes the form of reiteration, of identifying yet another manifestation of adherence to traditional standards steeped in discrimination by sex, race, and class, this time in their institutional guises in the merit credited to…

  16. The Question of Elitism: Some Movement to the Left?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Calls for a synthesis of beneficial elitism and beneficial populism to ensure excellence for all. Suggests that Robert Penn Warren's views on how to collapse dualisms between these two philosophies provides the key to their synthesis. Concludes by comparing differences between elitism and populism and examining questions raised by Ralph Smith's…

  17. ECMS--Educational Contest Management System for Selecting Elite Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Selecting elite students out of a huge collective is a difficult task. The main problem is to provide automated processes to reduce human work. ECMS (Educational Contest Management System) is an online tool approach to help--fully or partly automated--with the task of selecting such elite students out of a mass of candidates. International tests…

  18. Elite perceptions of poverty and Nigeria's poverty reduction research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The way the elite perceive poverty and the poor in any society constitutes a very important dimension of poverty research. This is because normally there are several areas of interrelationship and interdependence between the poor and the elite, and these form part of the basis for social life in all societies. Perceptions of the ...

  19. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed...... and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21...

  20. CAFFEINE INTAKE ENHANCES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN SUB-ELITE BUT NOT IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Smolka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution is to evaluate the influence of caffeine (CAF ingestion on maximal power output (MPO during endurance performance. Two groups of men – 10 sub-elite cyclists and 8 elite cyclists completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Over the course of three days participants completed three identical experimental tests (60min cycling time trial on 70 % VO2max followed by test to exhaustion. Three experimental meals - a combination of 500ml water, a gel supplement and a specific dose of CAF: a placebo (PLA, no caffeine, CAF2 (2 mg / kg body weight (BW and CAF7 (7 mg / kg BW were administered 45min prior to the start of the experimental tests. Subjective RPE values were determined using the Borg 20-category scale. The results show significant differences between MPOPLA and MPOCAF7 and between MPOCAF2 and MPOCAF7 with p = 0.018 and p = 0.019, respectively, in the sub-elite cyclists group only. The mean MPO during experimental test in sub-elite cyclists, but not in elite cyclists, was significantly enhanced following caffeine ingestion (p = 0.05. These findings indicate that caffeine intake at recommended levels is not associated with improved performance in a professional level cyclist. The results of the comparison of the experimental situations using the Borg scale are not persuasive. We found a significant difference (0.008356 between the PLA and CAF2 experimental measurements (p < 0.05. The level of substantive significance was assessed using Cohen’s coefficient effect and only a small “size of effect” (0.19 was found. It is therefore not possible to determine whether the Borg scale might be used to define the effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance, due to the multifactorial effects of caffeine.

  1. POPULISM AS A DISCOURSE OF HUNGARIAN ELITES

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    A. Bozóki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 19th century populist movements emerged as significant actors of the Hungarian politics. The attempts to assess populism appeared to be as ambiguous, as the attempts by politicians and pundits to describe it. The study of its development demonstrates that it is not linked to the traditional division between left and right, but represents dissatisfaction with the established elites in the society. The article considers changing nature of Hungarian populism on different stages of national history. Specific attention is devoted to the content and value of populist policies in the current Hungary.

  2. Stressors in elite sport: a coach perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Weston, Neil J V; Greenlees, Iain A; Hutchings, Nicholas V

    2008-07-01

    We examined the varying performance and organizational stressors experienced by coaches who operate with elite athletes. Following interviews with eleven coaches, content analysis of the data revealed coaches to experience comparable numbers of performance and organizational stressors. Performance stressors were divided between their own performance and that of their athletes, while organizational stressors included environmental, leadership, personal, and team factors. The findings provide evidence that coaches experience a variety of stressors that adds weight to the argument that they should be labelled as "performers" in their own right. A variety of future research topics and applied issues are also discussed.

  3. Interviewing Ghanaian Educational Elites: Strategies for Access, Commitment, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Pius Nudzor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A review of the research methodology literature suggests that owing to the difficulty of gaining access to and obtaining commitments from elites, social scientists less frequently use them as research respondents, opting instead to investigate those over whom power is exercised. This article provides insights into some intricacies of elite interviewing. It recounts the experience of a novice researcher in his quest to gain access to and interview elite individuals within the Ghanaian educational system for his PhD thesis. In the process, the article sheds light on strategies and techniques (related to interviewee identification, scheduling, and researcher preparation for the interview, as well as rapport establishment with potential interviewees that are helpful as toolkits in ensuring that elite interview processes are not unduly derailed. The article argues that the strategies discussed are useful for circumventing formalised and “public relations” responses, which elites tend to communicate with the press and public.

  4. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENT GYMNASTICS TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON STATIC STRENGTH OF 3TH & 4TH GRADE PUPILS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Aleksić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the subject of the research is only one segment of the anthropological area, which refers to the appearance of appropriate motor abilities-coordination. Static strength Static strength is ability to retain in nonmetrics contraction of muscle that body is preserved in certain position. Static work as physical work doesn’t exist in static strength, because development doesn’t exist, but quality of static work the muscle should start with physiology’s opinion of work. Static work is used for demonstration the power during that last.The battery for the evaluation of static strength consists of the following tests: MVIS, MIPR, MINS. During the 2005/06 academic year, a research was conducted so as to determine the effects of current program of physical education teaching on motor abilities coordination of female pupils. The research involved a total sample of 102 girls from the 3th and 4th grade of elementary school. The subjects were classified in one experimental and one control group. The experimental group was made of 54 studentsand they were practicing according to planning instruction where the artistic gymnastics had the primary part. The control group of 48 students was practicing according to official instructional plan and program for P.E. of the Republic of Serbia. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. The multi-variant procedures were used in this research ant those were: the multi-variant analysis of the variable (MANCOVA, MANOVA. Also, the mono-variant procedures were used and those were: the variable analysis (ANCOVA, ANOVA and the interval of entrust. After the experimental treatment, i.e. at the final testing, significant differences were found with female pupils in the experimental and control groups concerning the one of three tests for the evaluation of static strength. The basic conclusion is

  5. Attributes of top elite team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a multidisciplinary model to predict the probability of a handball athlete to be a top elite player.

  6. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  7. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  8. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    . Elite athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma seem to have less airway reactivity and fewer sputum eosinophils than non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma, but more studies are needed to further investigate if and how the asthma phenotype of elite athletes differs from that of classical asthma....

  9. Effects of water gymnastics on anthropometric variables of women aged 60 - 80 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of eight months of water gymnastics on the anthropometric variables of women aged 60 - 80 years. The sample comprised formed by 62 women (Experimental Group, EG, n = 50; Control Group, CG, n = 12, who were measured for body mass (kg, stature (cm, circumferences in cm (arms, normal chest, abdomen waist, hip, mid-thigh and calf and sum of skinfolds representing regional fat (trunk, limbs, central and peripheral, and total fat. The EG participated at all water activities for 32 weeks which, a total of 64 sessions, each lasting for about 45 min. Alpha level was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons. For pre-and-post test comparison of the EG, Student’s t test for dependent samples was used. The independent t test was used to compare both groups at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. According to the results the following can be stated: the water gymnastics program followed for 8 months, helped to statistically reduce body mass and body circumferences at waist, hip, mid-thigh and calf levels. Signifi cant differences in the distribution of regional body fat and total fat were observed found (p ≤ 0.05 at trunk and limbs and in peripheral and total body fat. ABSTRACT O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos de oito meses de hidroginástica sobre indicadores antropométricos de mulheres entre 60 e 80 anos de idade. Participaram da amostra 62 mulheres, divididas em dois grupos: experimental (GE, n = 50 e controle (GC, n = 12. Mediu-se a massa corporal (kg, estatura corporal (cm, perímetros, cm (tronco normal, abdômen na região da cintura, glútea, coxa e panturrilha e somatórios de dobras cutâneas (mm, representando a gordura por região (tronco, membros, central e periférica e a gordura total. O grupo experimental participou das atividades de hidroginástica durante 32 semanas, totalizando 64 sessões, com duração aproximada de 45 minutos. Para a análise dos dados entre o

  10. Athlete burnout in elite sport: a self-determination perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects.

  11. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, E M; Bull, A M J; McGregor, A H

    2015-04-01

    In rowing, the parameters of injury, performance, and technique are all interrelated and in dynamic equilibrium. Whilst rowing requires extreme physical strength and endurance, a high level of skill and technique is essential to enable an effective transfer of power through the rowing sequence. This study aimed to determine discrete aspects of rowing technique, which strongly influence foot force production and asymmetries at the foot-stretchers, as these are biomechanical parameters often associated with performance and injury risk. Twenty elite female rowers performed an incremental rowing test on an instrumented rowing ergometer, which measured force at the handle and foot-stretchers, while three-dimensional kinematic recordings of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic joints were made. Multiple regression analyses identified hip kinematics as a key predictor of foot force output (R(2)  = 0.48), whereas knee and lumbar-pelvic kinematics were the main determinants in optimizing the horizontal foot force component (R(2)  = .41). Bilateral asymmetries of the foot-stretchers were also seen to significantly influence lumbar-pelvic kinematics (R(2)  = 0.43) and pelvic twisting (R(2)  = 0.32) during the rowing stroke. These results provide biomechanical evidence toward aspects of technique that can be modified to optimize force output and performance, which can be of direct benefit to coaches and athletes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Technical characteristics of elite junior men and women race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, B; Bissas, A; Drake, A

    2014-12-01

    Successful coaching in race walking requires a thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles underlying this unique form of gait. The purpose of this study was to analyze elite male and female junior race walkers and identify key kinematic variables. Twenty junior men and 20 junior women were videoed as they competed over 10 km in the 8th European Cup Race Walking. Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained using motion analysis software (SIMI, Munich). Step length and cadence were correlated with speed in both sexes, and greater step lengths were the kinematic reason for junior men's faster walking speeds. While cadence did not differ between junior men and junior women, there was a difference in proportion of step time spent in contact. There were some differences between genders for upper body joint angles (e.g., elbow) but there were few differences within lower limb joint angles. Although some technical aspects (e.g., pelvic and shoulder girdle rotation) appeared undeveloped, it was noteworthy that most athletes achieved full knee extension at initial contact in accordance with the rules. However, in many athletes flight times were evident that might present problems during the transition to the higher standards of senior competition. There was a large range of ability among both sexes and coaches are advised to ensure that technical development continues during the transition to senior competition.

  13. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.

  14. Elite Sport, Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     aim of this book is toillustrate how the issue of doping has evolved beyond the world of elite sport into an arena of public health.  In so doing, the book drawsupon multi-disciplinary perspectives from applied and professionalethics, biomedical science, history, philosophy, policy studies, andsociology.  The essays, written by a...... group of leading international experts, is theproduct of a colloquium of the International Network of HumanisticDoping Research held at Aarhus University in Denmark.  Their scoperanges from conceptual analysis, case studies to policy critique.  Eachof these disciplinary perspectives, it is argued, is necessary to understand the problem of doping “in......The issue of doping in sport was once of interest only to aficionados of elite sports.  Nowadays, it is a matter of intense public scrutiny thatspans the worlds of health, medicine, sports, politics, technology, andbeyond.  In keeping with this territorial expansion, the...

  15. Egalitarian Democracy between Elitism and Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cerovac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his influential book Disagreement: Politics and Philosophy Jacques Ranciere builds a substantial critique of liberal regimes present in most Western countries. He finds them defective because: (1 they allow wealth and economic power of groups and individuals to influence public decision-making, making those with economic power an elite group; (2 they allow knowledge and expertise of groups and individuals to influence public decision-making, making those with epistemic power an elite group; (3 they allow and encourage social and economic conditions that make people inappropriate for decision-making on important issues, making those with certain characteristics thus acquired an inferior group. We focus on the Ranciere’s second objection by relying on Estlund’s epistemic proceduralis approach and claim that one does not have to embrace postmodernist idea of reducing reason to relations of power in order to present a substantial critique of our contemporary society. Furthermore, we argue that one does not have to base egalitarian democracy on postmodernist ideas that reject the truth-tracking potential of democratic procedures – egalitarian democracy is perfectly compatible with the idea of truth in politics. Key words: , , , , ,

  16. Menakar moralitas elit politik melalui kontrak politik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiwan Nasiwan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the General Election to choose the legislative members, that is held on April 5, 2005 and President General Election, that is held on June 5 and September 20, 2004, there was a political phenomenon, which then popularly said "a political contract. " The political contract was initiated by some elements of 'the civil society', which were the important components of the political power of pro-reform community. Looking at the cultural side, the existence of the political contract in the development of Indonesian politics implied that there was a change in cognitive, affective and evaluation  orientation of some of Indonesian people in their attitudes and political habits to be more rational.  The emergence of the more-rational political orientation was also pushed by the previous political experience of ''being betrayed by the political elite ', just like in 1999 General Election at the reform era. The chance also rose after the changes in the system of General Election that introduced the district and proportional system, and the direct president election that rose up the important of people's vote and aspiration. The changes had pushed the political elites to approach the people, fit themselves with the people's rhythm and dynamism, including the aspiration for political transparency and political accountability by willing to sign the political contract.

  17. Oral health and elite sport performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  18. Gaze characteristics of elite and near-elite athletes in ice hockey defensive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Stephen G; Vickers, Joan N

    2004-04-01

    Traditional visual search experiments, where the researcher pre-selects video-based scenes for the participant to respond to, shows that elite players make more efficient decisions than non-elites, but disagree on how they temporally regulate their gaze. Using the vision-in-action [J.N. Vickers, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 22 (1996) 342] approach, we tested whether the significant gaze that differentiates elite and non-elite athletes occurred either: early in the task and was of more rapid duration [A.M. Williams et al., Res. Quart. Exer. Sport 65 (1994) 127; A.M. Williams and K. Davids, Res. Quart. Exer. Sport 69 (1998) 111], or late in the task and was of longer duration [W. Helsen, J.M. Pauwels, A cognitive approach to visual search in sport, in: D. Brogan, K. Carr (Eds.), Visual Search, vol. II, Taylor and Francis, London, 1992], or whether a more complex gaze control strategy was used that consisted of both early and rapid fixations followed by a late fixation of long duration prior to the final execution. We tested this using a live defensive zone task in ice hockey. Results indicated that athletes temporally regulated their gaze using two different gaze control strategies. First, fixation/tracking (F/T) gaze early in the trial were significantly shorter than the final F/T and confirmed that the elite group fixated the tactical locations more rapidly than the non-elite on successful plays. And secondly, the final F/T prior to critical movement initiation (i.e. F/T-1) was significantly longer for both groups, averaging 30% of the final part of the phase and occurred as the athletes isolated a single object or location to end the play. The results imply that expertise in defensive tactics is defined by a cascade of F/T, which began with the athletes fixating or tracking specific locations for short durations at the beginning of the play, and concluded with a final gaze of long duration to a relatively stable target at the end. The results are

  19. Radiographic Evidence of Hip Microinstability in Elite Ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ronald J; Gerrie, Brayden J; McCulloch, Patrick C; Murphy, Andrew J; Varner, Kevin E; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D

    2016-06-01

    To determine prevalence, magnitude, and predisposing radiographic features of hip subluxation in elite ballet dancers. A cross-sectional investigation of professional male and female ballet dancers was performed using 5 plain radiographs. A "splits" anteroposterior (AP) radiograph was performed with legs abducted parallel to the trunk in the coronal plane (splits position; grand écart facial). Hip center position (HCP) was measured on standing AP pelvis and AP pelvis splits views and the difference calculated (subluxation distance) to determine prevalence and magnitude of femoral head subluxation. Student t test compared HCP on AP pelvis and splits radiographs. Pearson correlations were used to correlate splits HCP with radiographic measures of femoroacetabular impingement and dysplasia. Analyzing 47 dancers (21 men, 26 women; 23.8 ± 5.4 years), mean HCP on standing AP pelvis was 9.39 ± 3.33 mm versus 10.8 ± 2.92 mm on splits radiograph, with mean subluxation distance of 1.41 mm (P = .035). Forty-two dancers' femoral heads translated laterally with splits positioning, and 17 dancers (36%) exhibited a "vacuum sign" (bilateral in 71% of subjects with at least 1 hip vacuum sign). There was strong positive correlation (r = 0.461, P = .001) with splits HCP and alpha angle (Dunn 45°), and moderate negative correlation (r = -0.332, P = .022) with subluxation distance and neck-shaft angle. In men, splits HCP increased as lateral center edge angle (CEA) decreased (r = -0.437, P = .047), as anterior CEA decreased (r = -0.482, P = .027), as Tönnis angle increased (r = 0.656, P = .001), and as femoral head extrusion index increased (r = 0.511, P = .018). In women, there was moderate negative correlation (r = -0.389, P = .049) with subluxation distance and neck-shaft angle. Hip subluxation occurs during splits in most professional ballet dancers, with a significantly greater magnitude of subluxation in women than men. Subluxation magnitude

  20. Injury risk in Danish youth and senior elite handball using a new SMS text messages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Merete; Attermann, Jorn; Myklebust, Grethe; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-06-01

    To assess the injury incidence in elite handball, and if gender and previous injuries are risk factors for new injuries. Cohort study of 517 male and female elite handball players (age groups under (u)16, u-18 and senior). Participants completed a web survey establishing injury history, demographic information and sports experience, and provided weekly reports of time-loss injuries and handball exposure for 31 weeks by short message service text messaging (SMS). Injuries were further classified by telephone interview. The weekly response rate ranged from 85% to 90% illustrating the promise of the SMS system as a tool in injury surveillance. Of 448 reported injuries, 165 injuries (37%) were overuse injuries and 283 (63%) traumatic injuries. Knee (19%) and ankle (29%) were the most common traumatic injuries. The injury incidence during match play was 23.5 (95% CI 17.8 to 30.4), 15.1 (95% CI 9.7 to 22.2), 11.1 (95% CI 7.0 to 16.6) injuries per 1000 match hours among senior, u-18 and u-16 players, respectively. U-18 male players had an overall 1.76 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.80) times higher risk of injury compared to females. Having had two or more previous injuries causing absence from handball for more than 4 weeks increased the risk of new injury in the u-16 group (IRR: 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11)-2.23 (95% CI 1.22 to 4.10)). The incidence of time-loss injuries in elite handball was higher during match play than previously reported in recreational handball. Previous injuries were a risk factor for new injuries among u-16 players. Male players had a significant higher injury rate in the u-18 group.