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Sample records for elite female athletes

  1. Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poświata Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.

  2. Nutrition status of junior elite Canadian female soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer C; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth; Martin, Steven; Gaul, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent female team-sport athletes are faced with the challenge of meeting nutrition requirements for growth and development, as well as sport performance. There is a paucity of evidence describing the dietary adequacy of this population in respect to these physiological demands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the nutrition status of junior elite female soccer athletes. A total of 33 athletes (15.7 ± 0.7 yr) completed anthropometric assessment, 4-day food records analyzed for macro- and micronutrient intake, and hematological analysis. Energy expenditure was estimated using predictive equations. Mean sum of 7 skinfolds was 103.1 ± 35.2 mm, and body-mass index was 22.7 ± 2.7. Mean energy intake was 2,079 ± 460 kcal/day, and estimated energy expenditure was 2,546 ± 190 kcal/day. Of the athletes, 51.5% consumed nutrition status may affect soccer performance and physiological growth and development. More research is needed to understand the unique nutrition needs of this population and inform sport nutrition practice and research.

  3. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

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    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

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    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Risk factors for precompetitive sleep behavior in elite female athletes.

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    Silva, Maria-Raquel; Paiva, Teresa

    2018-06-07

    Sleep is of major importance for the athletes' short and long-term health, performance and recovery; however, published studies on athletes' sleep and even fewer before competition are scarce. This study evaluated the risk factors of sleep in young female gymnasts before an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (M=18.7,SD=2.9yrs.) of high performance (M=36.6,SD=7.6h/week) were evaluated regarding training and sport practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A, and detailed dietary intake just prior to a world competition. The majority of the participants (83.6%) presented reduced body fat levels (M=9.1,SD=2.1%) and low energy availability (M=31.5,SD=11.9kcal/kgFFM/day). They slept 8h10±1h30/night on weekdays and 8h40±00h40/night on weekends, 67% suffered from mild daytime sleepiness and 78% had a reduced sleep quality. Precompetitive anxiety was on average moderate (M=22.7,SD=3.2). The risk factors for short sleep duration were: 1.92 for a training volume>30hours/week (95%CI 0.84-4.39), 4.57 for menstruation (95%CI 1.17- 17.77), 6.62 for bedtime≥11:00PM (95%CI 1.74-25.10), 1.40 for BFsleep duration on weekdays and precompetitive stress were also predictors for a reduced sleep quality and/or abnormal daytime sleepiness. Age, training regime, menstruation, individual preferences for bedtime, body composition and energy were important predictors of gymnasts' precompetitive sleep with consequences upon their sleep duration, SQ and DS.

  6. Reference Values of Aortic Root in Male and Female White Elite Athletes According to Sport.

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    Boraita, Araceli; Heras, Maria-Eugenia; Morales, Francisco; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Canda, Alicia; Rabadan, Manuel; Barriopedro, Maria-Isabel; Varela, Amai; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Tuñón, José

    2016-10-01

    There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m 2 and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Age, left ventricular mass, and body surface area were the main predictors of aortic dimensions. Raw values were greater in males than in females (Pvalues >40 mm and 34 mm, respectively. Raw and corrected aortic measures at all levels were significantly greater in sports, with a high dynamic component in both sexes, except for corrected values of the sinotubular junction in women. Aortic root dimensions in healthy elite athletes are within the established limits for the general population. This study describes the normal dimensions for healthy elite athletes classified according to sex and dynamic and static components of their sports. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Precompetitive assessment of heart rate variability in elite female athletes during play offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Alvino, Federico; Natali, Benedetta M; Cameli, Matteo; Palmitesta, Paola; Boschetti, Giampaolo; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been rarely applied in elite athletes prior to competition. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in HRV in elite female volleyball players before a stressful match during play offs and to evaluate the impact on sport-specific performance. A short-term resting HRV analysis was applied right after the night sleep in ten female athletes 1 and 2 days prior to the match and the day of the competition. Approaching the decisive match, RR interval, resting heart rate (HR), pNN50, rMSDD and SD1 did not significantly vary. SD2 significantly increased in comparison with first-day measurement (Psports exhibit a slight change in HRV prior to a decisive competition, without a pronounced variation of the autonomic nervous system activity. A day-to-day HRV measurement could be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of a competition on the autonomic nervous system in athletes, also considering the relationship between sympathetic activity and athletic performance. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Influence of Match-Day Napping in Elite Female Netball Athletes.

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    O'Donnell, Shannon; Beaven, Christopher M; Driller, Matthew

    2018-03-15

    To assess the effect of match-day napping and duration of naps on perceptual and performance indices in elite female netball players over two consecutive netball seasons. Fourteen elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yr) participated in an observational study over 26 competition matches. On each match day, athletes provided information on their napping habits, perceived energy levels, and then performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) 3h30 prior to the start of the match. One hour following the match, subjective player performance ratings from the players and two members of the coaching staff were obtained. Naps were characterized into 3 conditions for analysis; No Nap (NN), Nap (SHORT), and ≥20 min Nap (LONG). A significant difference in peak jump velocity was observed between the SHORT and the NN condition in favor of the shorter nap (3.23 ± 0.26 and 3.07 ± 0.36 m.s -1 , respectively, d = 0.34, p nap (<20 min) on the day of competition can enhance jump velocity and improve subjective performance in elite netball players, as assessed by coaching staff.

  9. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  10. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  11. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

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    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  12. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

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    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  13. Redox balance in elite female athletes: differences based on sport types.

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    Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija; Popovic, Tamara; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Cubrilo, Dejan; Ahmetovic, Zlatko; Peric, Dusan; Borozan, Suncica; Djuric, Dragan; Barudzic, Nevena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in redox balance throughout parameters of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in elite female water polo (N.=15) and football players (N.=19) aged between 20 and 23. Fourteen age-matched sedentary women were also included in the study. Blood sampling was performed to measure levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), nitrites, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase activity (GPx). Levels of MDA, TAS, GSSG and H2O2 were significantly higher in athletes than in the control women. Football players had higher levels of O2- than the other two groups. Activity of SOD was higher in water polo players when compared with the football and control groups, CAT was increased in all athletes, while GPx did not differ among groups. Therefore, prolonged intensive training markedly increases oxidative stress in women, which depends on the type of sport. Lower concentration of O2- and increased activity of SOD in water polo players compared to football players suggest that mechanisms of adaptation of antioxidative defense are related to the type of exercise.

  14. Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes? A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach

    OpenAIRE

    Kenttä, G.; Mellalieu, S.D.; Roberts, Claire-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences prior to, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant’s experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event...

  15. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

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    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  17. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  18. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  19. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  20. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

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    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperament and risk for exercise dependence: results of a pilot study in female patients with eating disorders compared to elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Wos, Katharina; Kerling, Arno; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Cook, Brian; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the relationship between temperament and the risk for exercise dependence (EXD). A total of 32 female patients with eating disorders (potentially at risk for secondary EXD) and 29 female elite athletes without eating disturbances (potentially at risk for primary EXD) answered the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Exercise Dependence Scale-German version (EDS-G), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, and the effortful control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ-EC). There were significant positive correlations of the EDS-G with the BIS in women with an eating disorder and with the BAS in elite athletes. No significant association was found between the EDS-G and effortful control. The results indicate that the risk for EXD is associated with avoidance tendencies in women with eating disorders and with approach tendencies in elite athletes. Implications for secondary and primary EXD are discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Media portrayal of elite athletes with disability - a systematic review.

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    Rees, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla; Shields, Nora

    2017-11-10

    The media plays an important role in shaping society's beliefs about disability and sport. The aim of this systematic review is to identify how elite athletes with disability are portrayed in the media. Six electronic databases were searched from 2001 to March 2017 for quantitative or qualitative content analysis of media coverage of elite athletes with disability: SportsDiscus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline 1996-, Embase, and Proquest. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors. Seventeen moderate quality articles were included. Six themes emerged from the data such as frequency of articles and photos about elite athletes with disability; athlete gender; athlete nationality; disability; athleticism; and Olympic Games versus Paralympic Games. Our results show that elite athletes with disability are less visible in the media than their nondisabled counterparts; female athletes received less coverage than male; the media favored domestic athletes and certain types of disability; and, although there was a focus on athleticism, this was underpinned by a "supercrip" narrative and a medicalised description of disability. Although there has been a positive shift in the narrative around elite athletes with disability in media, relative absence and differing portrayal is present. Considering the power of media shaping society's perceptions of disability, further investigation is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Media has a role in how elite athletes with disability are portrayed and consequently perceived by the public. Elite athletes with disability rarely feature in media. Images of disability are minimized, and certain types of disabilities are favored. An athletic narrative is emerging; however, a medicalised description of athletes remains, shifting the focus from athleticism. "Supercrip" and "Superhuman" terms are commonly used, but may negatively impact the broader disability community.

  3. Impact of Energy Availability, Health and Sex on Hemoglobin Mass Responses Following LHTH Altitude Training in Elite Female and Male Distance Athletes.

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    Heikura, Ida A; Burke, Louise M; Bergland, Dan; Uusitalo, Arja L T; Mero, Antti A; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2018-02-12

    We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-breathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs and Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and a general injury/illness questionnaire was completed. Hypoxic exposure (hours) was calculated with low (600h) groupings. Absolute and relative percentage ΔHbmass (%ΔHbmass) was significantly greater in females (6.2±4.0%, paltitude training, while emphasizing the importance of athlete health and indices of EA on an optimal baseline Hbmass and hematological response to hypoxia.

  4. Monitoring levels of stress and overtraining in an elite brazilian female volleyball athlete: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Noce

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El sobreentrenamiento es el resultado de un desequilibrio entre el estrés y su recuperación, combinado con cortos períodos de recuperación y determinados factores psicosociales. En este estudio de caso se ha empleado un cuestionario de estrés y recuperación en el deporte para analizar los niveles de sobreentrenamiento en una jugadora brasileña de balonvolea de elite. Los resultados indican que las elevadas cargas físicas provocan cambios en el perfil de la deportista, mostrando un incremento en las escalas de fatiga. Los períodos de recuperación se han mostrado como fundamentales para el restablecimiento de las capacidades físicas y psicológicas de la deportista. Finalmente, nuestro método de análisis ha evidenciado la existencia de modificaciones en el perfil de la deportista después de acontecimientos puntuales, tal como el observado después de una derrota inesperada. Se concluye que los cambios en el perfil de la curva, obtenidas por nuestro cuestionario, reflejan los distintos períodos de recogida de datos, lo que configuraría un indicador de los cambios de la sobrecarga estresante. De esta manera, la posibilidad de detección o de la monitorización de los factores estresantes para ella deportista puede ser de gran valor para la mejora del rendimiento físico y psicológico de un equipo.

  5. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D.; Halson, Shona L.; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2) = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4)=15.9, p = 0.04) was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition. PMID:28031772

  6. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  7. Motivation and elite performance : an exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal, Yves; Guay, Frédéric; Dobreva-Martinova, Tzvetanka; Vallerand, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 98 Bulgarian top athletes (35 females and 63 males): canoeists, biathletes, figure skaters, boxers, tennis players and skiers, were investigated to explore the motivation of elite sport athletes and to determine the effects of motivation on performance. Participants' athletic performances in national and international events over 2 years (September 1990 to November 1992) was documented. Participants also completed the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (Brière, Valler...

  8. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR, the rhythmic gymnastics (GRI and the synchronized swimming (NAS elite sportswomen. Thirty two female ballet dancers of the National Cuban Ballet School and sixty three elite sportswomen who practice aesthetic sports in Cuba have been studied for the purpose. An anthropometric protocol of sixteen measures has been applied to calculate the kinanthropometric indexes of the corporal mass composition’s component. The general percentage of the fat mass (PMG in the ballet dancers was found statistically different to the GAR and GRI groups, but this one was similar in comparison with NAS group. Mayor muscle mass general percentage (PMM was obtained in the GAR and GRI groups, in comparison with the dancers. The ballet group showed the minor differential PMM-PMG, and muscular percentage of the transverse areas of the segments of extremities than the elite athlete groups. The data classified the ballet group as the one of less potential efficiency of technical and transitive movement than the other ones.

  9. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Tsaklis,1,2 Nikos Malliaropoulos,3–5,10 Jurdan Mendiguchia,6 Vasileios Korakakis,7–9 Kyriakos Tsapralis,11 Debasish Pyne,5 Peter Malliaras101Department of Physiotherapy, Laboratory of Biomechanics and Ergonomics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3National Track and Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of SEGAS, 4Thessaloniki Sports Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Rheumatology Department, Sports Medicine Clinic, Mile End Hospital, London, UK; 6Department of Physical Therapy, Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center, Pamplona, Spain; 7Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 8Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 9Hellenic Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy Diploma, Athens, Greece; 10Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK; 11K Tsapralis Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises.Methods: Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each

  10. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r = 0.032, P = 0.91). CONCLUSION: AHR in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol and methacholine...

  11. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  12. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  13. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikura, Ida A; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n = 27) and male (n = 21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and posttraining meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between subgroups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x 2 when p nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  14. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  15. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  16. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  17. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  18. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  19. Factors that Influence Career Decision-Making among Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; McGregor-Bayne, Heather

    2008-01-01

    A common belief about elite athletes is that they invest so much effort into the pursuit of their athletic careers that they fail to develop good career decision-making skills. Recent findings challenge that belief. The present study investigated career decision-making difficulties among 117 elite Australian athletes. Participants completed…

  20. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...... is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite...

  1. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    . Elite athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma seem to have less airway reactivity and fewer sputum eosinophils than non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma, but more studies are needed to further investigate if and how the asthma phenotype of elite athletes differs from that of classical asthma....

  2. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  3. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  4. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05), while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05). Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01). In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05). In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors) significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01) over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05). Moreover, change

  5. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Lesinski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass, body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass, and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05, while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05. Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01. In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01 over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05. Moreover, change

  6. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, Sara Amalie; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained...... an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances....... in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men...

  7. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency. Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls

  8. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  9. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  10. Athlete burnout in elite sport: a self-determination perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects.

  11. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  12. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.

  13. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  14. Health in elite sports from a salutogenetic perspective: athletes' sense of coherence.

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    Jochen Mayer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. METHOD: In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. RESULTS: Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. CONCLUSION: The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively

  15. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  16. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  17. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A

    2015-01-01

    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

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    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  19. Dynamic ankle stability and ankle sprain occurrence in elite ball team athletes : a one season prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chris Visscher; Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; Msc Henrike van der Does; Michel Brink; Joan Dallinga

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dynamic stability index (DSI) measured at baseline between elite ball team athletes with and without an ankle sprain during the season. Methods Forty-four elite male (age:22.5±3.6yr,height:193.7±8.0cm,mass:87.1±10.9kg) and eighteen female

  20. Results of voluntary cardiovascular examination of elite athletes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tischer, Susanne Glasius; Mattsson, N; Storgaard, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings--both training related and pathologic--and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting...... a cardiac diagnosis; one athlete (0.2%) diagnosed with long QT syndrome was advised against competition level sports. In total, 60 athletes (11.6%) were referred for additional testing. The athletes presented a very low level of psychological stress before and a slight decrease immediately after...

  1. Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Pperformance data showed no consistent congruence with athletes' anxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

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    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  3. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  4. Elite athletes experiences with risk related to cardiac screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Schmidt; Thing, Lone Friis

    Society of Cardiology as well as major sports federations such as the International Olympic Committee, however, these recommendations seem to be based on an inadequate empirical foundation, just as the costs of performing cardiac screening on a larger scale seem out of proportion. Additionally, the field...... perspective on risk (Foucault 1988). For most elite athletes participation in cardiac screening is done out of a wish to obtain an acquittal from risks. Symptomatic of the risk society cardiac screening can from an athlete perspective at the same time be seen as an attempt to gain control over......Elite Athletes experiences with risks related to Cardiac Screening Jonas Schmidt Christensen1, Lone Friis Thing1 1University of Copenhagen - Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Cardiac screening of elite athletes are recommended by both the American Heart Association & the European...

  5. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Vertical Drop Jump Is a Poor Screening Test for ACL Injuries in Female Elite Soccer and Handball Players: A Prospective Cohort Study of 710 Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosshaug, Tron; Steffen, Kathrin; Kristianslund, Eirik; Nilstad, Agnethe; Mok, Kam-Ming; Myklebust, Grethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2016-04-01

    The evidence linking knee kinematics and kinetics during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is restricted to a single small sample. Still, the VDJ test continues to be advocated for clinical screening purposes. To test whether 5 selected kinematic and kinetic variables were associated with future ACL injuries in a large cohort of Norwegian female elite soccer and handball players. Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether the VDJ test can be recommended as a screening test to identify players with increased risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Elite female soccer and handball players participated in preseason screening tests from 2007 through 2014. The tests included marker-based 3-dimensional motion analysis of a drop-jump landing. We followed a predefined statistical protocol in which we included the following candidate risk factors in 5 separate logistic regression analyses, with new ACL injury as the outcome: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact, (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) peak knee flexion angle, (4) peak vertical ground-reaction force, and (5) medial knee displacement. A total of 782 players were tested (age, 21 ± 4 years; height, 170 ± 7 cm; body mass, 67 ± 8 kg), of which 710 were included in the analyses. We registered 42 new noncontact ACL injuries, including 12 in previously ACL-injured players. Previous ACL injury (relative risk, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1-7.1) and medial knee displacement (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74 per 1-SD change) were associated with increased risk for injury. However, among the 643 players without previous injury, we found no association with medial knee displacement. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of medial knee displacement showed an area under the curve of 0.6, indicating a poor-to-failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the test, even when including previously injured players. Of the 5 risk factors considered, medial knee displacement was the

  7. Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 3: Decision making under mental performance pressure in junior elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Beth L; Walsh, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under uncertainty via the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., 2002), and fast reactive responses to perceptual stimuli via the Visual Search Task (Treisman, 1982). Mental pressure was induced with the addition of a concurrent verbal memory task, used to increase cognitive load and mimic the distracting effects of anxiety-related rumination. In junior elite athletes, fast reactive responses to perceptual stimuli (on the Visual Search Task) were slower under conditions of mental pressure. For decision making under risk there was an interaction of mental pressure and gender on the amount of points gambled, under pressure there was a higher level of risk taking in male athletes compared to females. There was no influence of mental pressure on decision making under uncertainity. There were no significant correlations in the degree to which individual's responses changed under pressure across the three measures of decision making. When assessing the applicability of results based on group averages there were no junior elite athletes who showed an "average" response (within 1SD of the mean) to mental pressure across all the three decision-making tasks. Mental pressure affects decision making in a sample of junior elite athletes, with a slowing of response times, and modulations to performance of decision making under risk that have a high requirement for working memory. In relation to sport, these findings suggest that novel situations that place high cognitive demands on the athlete may be particularly influenced by mental pressure. The application of this work in junior elite athletes included the feedback of individual results and the implementation of a decision-making taxonomy. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci

    2011-03-01

    This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.

  9. Comparison of the Dietary Habits of Elite Turkish Male and Female Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Orhan Ahmet; Güner, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional habits affect performance directly or indirectly in weight class included sports. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary habits of elite female and male weightlifters. After getting official records of athletes from Turkish Weightlifting Federation, a survey was conducted on several factors of the athletes such as weight…

  10. Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, pgender and different characteristics of sports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.

  11. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  12. Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Variables of Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10 in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11 and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10 between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH, weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, and % body fat (% BF. The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and maximum heart rate (HRmax were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02. Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02 and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00, and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01, BMI (p = .01 and the % BF (p = .00. These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.

  13. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2017-08-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloodworth Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects. Methods Participants were elite UK male and female athletes, within the age range between 12 and 21 (n = 403, mean age 17.66 ± 1.99. Associations between type of supplements and reasons for using supplements were tested by calculating Pearson's χ2 and the strength of these symmetric associations shown by phi (ϕ association coefficients. Results Single supplement use was reported by 48.1%, with energy drinks being the most popular, consumed by 41.7% of all athletes and 86.6% of the supplement users in the sample. No agreement was observed between athletes' rationale and behaviour in relation to nutritional supplements except for creatine. Among health professionals, nutritionists and physiotherapists, followed by coaches, were most frequently consulted. Answers regarding reasons and supplements used showed incongruence and suggest widespread misinformation regarding supplements and their effects is an issue for the young athlete. Conclusion Widespread supplement taking behaviour was evidenced in the young elite athlete population with the most notable congruence between rationale and practice among young athletes being performance-related. Young athletes in the present sample appear to be less 'health conscious' and more 'performance focused' than their adult counterparts. Further research, using a full list of supplements, is warranted to test the hypothesis that health consciousness is less dominant in supplement choice by young athletes.

  15. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  16. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a 'Female Health Questionnaire' was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females.

  17. Anti-doping education and dietary supplementation practice in Korean elite university athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kim, Eung-Joon; Ki, Sun-kyung; Yoon, Jaeryang; Lee, Mi-sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships and gender differences in dietary supplement (DS) and oriental supplement (OS) prevalence as well as anti-doping awareness during training and the game period. Korea National Sport University athletes (343 male and 136 female) participated in this study and completed DS and OS practice and anti-doping awareness questionnaires. Forty-six percent of athletes used DS during the training period, and there was significantly higher DS use in females (53%) compared to males (43%) (P game period was 2.38 (1.50-3.80) and 3.99 (1.20-13.28), respectively. Elite athletes' anti-doping education was highly related to increased DS use during the training period and immediately before the game. Although elite athletes use various DS and OS during the training period and before the game period, doping education for elite athletes is related with DS and OS use during the training period and before the game. PMID:21994530

  18. Management of Lumbar Conditions in the Elite Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wellington K; Jenkins, Tyler James

    2017-07-01

    Lumbar disk herniation, degenerative disk disease, and spondylolysis are the most prevalent lumbar conditions that result in missed playing time. Lumbar disk herniation has a good prognosis. After recovery from injury, professional athletes return to play 82% of the time. Surgical management of lumbar disk herniation has been shown to be a viable option in athletes in whom nonsurgical measures have failed. Degenerative disk disease is predominately genetic but may be accelerated in athletes secondary to increased physiologic loading. Nonsurgical management is the standard of care for lumbar degenerative disk disease in the elite athlete. Spondylolysis is more common in adolescent athletes with back pain than in adult athletes. Nonsurgical management of spondylolysis is typically successful. However, if surgery is required, fusion or direct pars repair can allow the patient to return to sports.

  19. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  20. Leptin: A Link Between Energy Imbalance and Exercise-Induced Amenorrhea in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Up to a quarter of female athletes may experience exercise-induced amenorrhea, depending on the type of sport and the level of competition. This amenorrhea is a component of the Female Athlete Triad, a term used to describe three interrelated conditions commonly seen together in the elite female athlete: chronic dieting and/or disordered eating, amenorrhea, and decreased bone mass. Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and believed to play a central role in eating behaviors and energy ...

  1. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  2. Great British medalists: Psychosocial biographies of Super-Elite and Elite athletes from Olympic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lew; Barlow, Matthew; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Woodman, Tim; Warr, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Participants were 32 former GB athletes from Olympic sports, 16 Super-Elite athletes who had won multiple medals at major championships, and 16 matched Elite athletes who had not. In-depth interviews with the athletes, their coaches, and one of their parents explored all psychosocial aspects of their development and careers. Content analyses revealed that there were no differences between Super-Elite and Elite athletes with regard to family values, conscientiousness, or commitment to training. However, the two groups were found to be different with regard to: (1) the experience of a foundational negative life event coupled with a foundational positive sport-related event; (2) the experience of a career turning point that enhanced motivation and focus for their sport; (3) need for success; (4) obsessiveness and/or perfectionism with regard to training and performance; (5) ruthlessness and/or selfishness in the pursuit of their sporting goals; (6) dual focus on both mastery and outcome; (7) the use of counterphobic attitudes and/or total preparation to maintain higher levels of performance under pressure; and (8) the relative importance of sport over other aspects of life. The results are discussed within the context of psychodynamic theory, and recommendations are made for both applied implications and future research. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing and orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Heijne, A

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (P = .003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5%-27.1%), during both preseason (P = .002) and competitive season (P = .031). Athletes who improved their ranking position (51%, n = 51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) compared to those who decreased (49%, n = 49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than 40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n = 5) in the middle-ranked, and 17.3% (n = 9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Predicting basal metabolic rates in Malaysian adult elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Poh, Bee Koon; Nik Shanita, Safii; Izham, Mohd Mohamad; Chan, Kai Quin; Tai, Meng De; Ng, Wei Wei; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of elite athletes and develop a gender specific predictive equation to estimate their energy requirements. 92 men and 33 women (aged 18-31 years) from 15 sports, who had been training six hours daily for at least one year, were included in the study. Body composition was measured using the bioimpedance technique, and BMR by indirect calorimetry. The differences between measured and estimated BMR using various predictive equations were calculated. The novel equation derived from stepwise multiple regression was evaluated using Bland and Altman analysis. The predictive equations of Cunningham and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University either over- or underestimated the measured BMR by up to ± 6%, while the equations of Ismail et al, developed from the local non-athletic population, underestimated the measured BMR by 14%. The novel predictive equation for the BMR of athletes was BMR (kcal/day) = 669 + 13 (weight in kg) + 192 (gender: 1 for men and 0 for women) (R2 0.548; standard error of estimates 163 kcal). Predicted BMRs of elite athletes by this equation were within 1.2% ± 9.5% of the measured BMR values. The novel predictive equation presented in this study can be used to calculate BMR for adult Malaysian elite athletes. Further studies may be required to validate its predictive capabilities for other sports, nationalities and age groups.

  5. The evolved athlete a guide for elite sport enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Gojkovic, Zoran; Greenberg, Ronald; Greenberg, Helen; Jovanovic, Bojan; Lukman, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    This handbook provides insights into becoming a better and more evolved athlete. It offers aspiring athletes, regardless of skill level, a better understanding of their bodies and how to unlock the unlimited potential of muscles without injury. It focuses on the “superhero” muscle: the iliopsoas, and also sheds light on Diamond-Corporation’s new technology and elite athleticism, and how these can contribute to a healthier life. Lastly, the authors explore the mindset of success and provide exercises for remaining calm under pressure. This stand-alone book is the sequel to Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis and Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sport (2014, Springer). This book is written by scientists, whose expertise collectively spans the fields of biomechanics, clinical surgery, current and former elite athleticism, engineering and naturopath doctoral work. Together, they aim to inspire and educate athletes on how to improve their sports performance by using new technologies, world class bio...

  6. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  7. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  8. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  9. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P  0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P  0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.

  10. Athletic identity and well-being among young talented athletes who live at a Dutch elite sport center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Hove, van P.; Dik, G.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in athletic identity and well-being were examined between athletes living in a Dutch elite sport center (CTO) and athletes not living in such a center (age range: 16–30). Measures included the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer & Cornelius, 20014. Brewer , B. W. and

  11. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  12. Consequences of sexual harassment in sport for female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, K; Brackenridge, CH; Walseth, K

    2002-01-01

    Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and/or characteristics and/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in Norway who indicated in a prior survey (N =572) that they had experienced sexual harassment from ...

  13. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21  4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes.

  14. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  15. Abnormal hip physical examination findings in asymptomatic female soccer athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Devyani; Rho, Monica; Yemm, Ted; Fong, Kathryn; Brophy, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Examination of the hip provides information regarding risk for pre-arthritic hip disorders, knee injuries, and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to report a hip screening examination of asymptomatic female soccer athletes and to test the hypothesis that these findings vary by competition experience. Methods Asymptomatic females from a youth soccer club, a college, and a professional team were evaluated. Passive hip range of motion, hip abduction strength, and hip provocative tests were assessed. Data were compared for the grade/middle school, high school, college, and professional athletes. Results One hundred and seventy-two athletes with a mean age of 16.7 ± 5 years (range 10–30) participated. Professional athletes had less flexion (HF) for both hips (p hips as compared to all other groups (p hip abduction strength as compared to other groups (p hip tests were found in 22 % of all players and 36 % of the professionals. In professionals, a positive provocative test was associated with ipsilateral decreased HF (p = 0.04). Conclusion Asymptomatic elite female soccer athletes with the most competition experience had less bilateral hip flexion and preferred kicking leg IR than less-experienced athletes. Positive provocative hip tests were found in 22 % of athletes. Future studies are needed to show whether these findings link to risk for intra-articular hip or lumbar spine and knee disorders. Level of evidence III. PMID:24150125

  16. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  17. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  18. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.

  19. The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fitch

    2016-06-01

    The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code has not prevented asthmatic individuals from becoming elite athletes. This review examines those sections of the Code that are relevant to respiratory physicians who manage elite and sub-elite athletes with asthma. The restrictions that the Code places or may place on the prescription of drugs to prevent and treat asthma in athletes are discussed. In addition, the means by which respiratory physicians are able to treat their elite asthmatic athlete patients with drugs that are prohibited in sport are outlined, along with some of the pitfalls in such management and how best to prevent or minimise them.

  20. Striving for success or addiction? Exercise dependence among elite Australian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Justin; McCabe, Marita P

    2012-01-01

    Exercise dependence is a condition that involves a preoccupation and involvement with training and exercise, and has serious health and performance consequences for athletes. We examined the validity of a biopsychosocial model to explain the development and maintenance of exercise dependence among elite Australian athletes. Participants were 234 elite Australian athletes recruited from institutes and academies of sport. Thirty-four percent of elite athletes were classified as having exercise dependence based on high scores on the measure of exercise dependence. These athletes had a higher body mass index, and more extreme and maladaptive exercise beliefs compared to non-dependent athletes. They also reported higher pressure from coaches and teammates, and lower social support, compared to athletes who were not exercise dependent. These results support the utility of a biopsychosocial model of exercise dependence in understanding the aetiology of exercise dependence among elite athletes. Limitations of the study and future research directions are highlighted.

  1. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  2. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p LE of the samples was 76.0 yrs and no differences were observed in different sports, although it was lower in boxers (73.0 yrs) and higher in tennis players (79.0 yrs). Sports of different physiological demand were similar in respect to LE. No differences in LE were found related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.

  3. The gymnasts' hip and groin: a magnetic resonance imaging study in asymptomatic elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavasiliou, A.; Sykaras, E. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Sport Injuries Lab.; Siatras, T. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Excercise Physiology-Ergometry; Bintoudi, A. [Papageorgiu NHS General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Milosis, D. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Physical Education and Sport Sciences; Lallas, V. [Euromedica Diagnostic Centre, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karantanas, A. [University Hospital Heraklion (Greece). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    2014-08-15

    Specific patterns of developmental adaptation of the proximal femur have been recognized in some sports. Gymnastics are characterized by repetitive axial loading and hip rotations in combination with extreme hip positions. It is unknown how and if these forces can affect an immature skeleton in the long term. We sought to evaluate this, by means of magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and groin of such elite asymptomatic athletes. We performed a case-control comparative MR imaging study of both hips and groin of 12 (7 male, 5 female) skeletally mature young (mean age 18.6 years) asymptomatic international level gymnasts with a minimum of 10 years' training with age-matched non-athletes. At the time of recruitment, none of the athletes had a recorded musculoskeletal complaint or injury in the anatomical area around the hip. The study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal and are considered to be the result of adaptational changes to the specific sport: high centre-column-diaphysis angle (coxa valga140 on average), ligamentum teres hypertrophy, friction of the iliotibial band with oedema surrounding the greater trochanter, and a high incidence (62.5 %) of radiological appearances of ischiofemoral impingement. Our study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal. These findings were in asymptomatic subjects; hence, radiologists and sports physicians should be aware of them in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. (orig.)

  4. The gymnasts' hip and groin: a magnetic resonance imaging study in asymptomatic elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, A.; Sykaras, E.; Milosis, D.; Karantanas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Specific patterns of developmental adaptation of the proximal femur have been recognized in some sports. Gymnastics are characterized by repetitive axial loading and hip rotations in combination with extreme hip positions. It is unknown how and if these forces can affect an immature skeleton in the long term. We sought to evaluate this, by means of magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and groin of such elite asymptomatic athletes. We performed a case-control comparative MR imaging study of both hips and groin of 12 (7 male, 5 female) skeletally mature young (mean age 18.6 years) asymptomatic international level gymnasts with a minimum of 10 years' training with age-matched non-athletes. At the time of recruitment, none of the athletes had a recorded musculoskeletal complaint or injury in the anatomical area around the hip. The study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal and are considered to be the result of adaptational changes to the specific sport: high centre-column-diaphysis angle (coxa valga140 on average), ligamentum teres hypertrophy, friction of the iliotibial band with oedema surrounding the greater trochanter, and a high incidence (62.5 %) of radiological appearances of ischiofemoral impingement. Our study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal. These findings were in asymptomatic subjects; hence, radiologists and sports physicians should be aware of them in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. (orig.)

  5. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlet Betancout León; Oscar Salinas Flores; Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-01-01

    The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR), th...

  7. Gaze characteristics of elite and near-elite athletes in ice hockey defensive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Stephen G; Vickers, Joan N

    2004-04-01

    Traditional visual search experiments, where the researcher pre-selects video-based scenes for the participant to respond to, shows that elite players make more efficient decisions than non-elites, but disagree on how they temporally regulate their gaze. Using the vision-in-action [J.N. Vickers, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 22 (1996) 342] approach, we tested whether the significant gaze that differentiates elite and non-elite athletes occurred either: early in the task and was of more rapid duration [A.M. Williams et al., Res. Quart. Exer. Sport 65 (1994) 127; A.M. Williams and K. Davids, Res. Quart. Exer. Sport 69 (1998) 111], or late in the task and was of longer duration [W. Helsen, J.M. Pauwels, A cognitive approach to visual search in sport, in: D. Brogan, K. Carr (Eds.), Visual Search, vol. II, Taylor and Francis, London, 1992], or whether a more complex gaze control strategy was used that consisted of both early and rapid fixations followed by a late fixation of long duration prior to the final execution. We tested this using a live defensive zone task in ice hockey. Results indicated that athletes temporally regulated their gaze using two different gaze control strategies. First, fixation/tracking (F/T) gaze early in the trial were significantly shorter than the final F/T and confirmed that the elite group fixated the tactical locations more rapidly than the non-elite on successful plays. And secondly, the final F/T prior to critical movement initiation (i.e. F/T-1) was significantly longer for both groups, averaging 30% of the final part of the phase and occurred as the athletes isolated a single object or location to end the play. The results imply that expertise in defensive tactics is defined by a cascade of F/T, which began with the athletes fixating or tracking specific locations for short durations at the beginning of the play, and concluded with a final gaze of long duration to a relatively stable target at the end. The results are

  8. Impact of Type of Sport, Gender and Age on Red Blood Cell Deformability of Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomschi, Fabian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to detect possible differences in red blood cell (RBC) deformability of elite athletes performing different types of sports and being of different age and gender.182 athletes were included in this cross-sectional study. RBC deformability was measured using the laser-assisted optical rotational cell-analyzer. Maximal elongation index (EI  max ) and shear stress at half-maximum deformation (SS  1/2 ) were calculated. The ratio SS  1/2  /EI  max  (EI  Ratio ) was calculated with low values representing high RBC deformation. Hematocrit (Hct) and mean cellular volume (MCV) were determined in venous blood. Overall RBC deformability did not differ between male and female athletes but, when separated by age of the subjects, RBC deformability increased with age in male but not in female athletes. RBC deformability was lower in Combat sports compared other sport groups. Hct was higher in male compared to female athletes while no difference was observed for MCV. MCV and Hct increased with increasing age. A negative correlation was found between the EI  Ratio  and MCV and between EI  Ratio  and Hct. RBC deformability is influenced by age and endurance rate of the sport which suggests that the RBC system may adapt to changing conditions such as adolescence with the onset effects of sex hormones or physical exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Recovery process of elite athletes: A review of contemporary methods

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    Veljović Draško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerous training stimulus and competition as well can reduce level of abilities among athletes. This decline of performance can be a temporary phenomenon, with duration of several minutes or several hours after a workout, or take much longer, even a several days. The lack of adequate recovery process can influence on athletes not being able to train at the desired intensity or do not fully meet the tasks at the next training session. Chronic fatigue can lead to injuries, and therefore, full recovery is necessary for achieving optimal level of abilities that will ensure a better athletic performance. For this reasons, athletes often carry out a variety of techniques and methods aimed to recover after training or match. They have become a part of the training process and their purpose is reduction of stress and fatigue incurred as a result of daily exposure to intense training stimulus. There are numerous methods and techniques today that can accelerate the recovery process of athletes. For this reason it is necessary to know the efficiency of an adequate method which will be applied in the training process. The aim of this review article is to point to those currently used and their effects on the process of recovery after physical activity in elite sport.

  10. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes, Body Composition, and Cardiometabolic Parameters in Adolescent Team Sports Elite Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Abbasi, Behnood; Daneshvar, Pooya; Hojjati, Atefeh; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nutritional intake is an important issue in adolescent athletes. Proper athletes’ performance is a multifactorial outcome of good training, body composition, and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess nutritional status, body composition, and cardiometabolic factors in adolescent elite athlete's province of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 adolescent elite athletes from volleyball, basketball, and soccer teams were selected for the study. Demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Nutritional intakes of participants were recorded using three 24-h recall questioners. Results: Thirty-four female athletes and 66 male athletes participated in this study. Body mass index had not significantly different between the sexes. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, iron, and fat intakes were significantly higher in male athletes (P = 0.02), but calcium and folic acid intakes were not significantly different between the sexes, and Vitamin D intake was significantly higher in females (P = 0.01). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males (P = 0.04) and heart rate had not significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.09). Heart murmurs and heart sounds in the majority of participants were normal. Conclusion: All the evaluated anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were in normal range in the majority of participants. The results showed that dietary intake in these athletes is approximately normal but micronutrients intake status in these athletes needs to be investigated further and longer. PMID:28904935

  11. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity...

  12. Coaches' Coaching Competence in Relation to Athletes' Perceived Progress in Elite Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at whether higher levels of perceived coaching competencies focusing on relational issues, were associated with higher satisfaction among elite athletes with their progress in sport. In order to explore this, we investigated elite athletes' perceptions of their coaches' coaching competence (CCS) and how these perceptions related…

  13. Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Hvid, Lars G; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes....

  14. Air quality and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    A higher prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, and asthma has been identified among athletes who compete and train in environmental conditions of cold dry air and/or high air pollution. Repeated long-duration exposure to cold/dry air at high minute ventilation rates can cause airway damage. Competition or training at venues close to busy roadways, or in indoor ice arenas or chlorinated swimming pools, harbors a risk for acute and chronic airway disorders from high pollutant exposure. This article discusses the effects of these harsh environments on the airways, and summarizes potential mechanisms and prevalence of airway disorders in elite athletes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging the infrapatellar tendon in the elite athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, K.A.L.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Extensor mechanism injuries constitute a major cause of anterior knee pain in the elite athlete. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging methods of choice when assessing the infrapatellar tendon. A comprehensive imaging review of infrapatellar tendon normal anatomy, tendinopathy, and partial/full-thickness tendon tears is provided. The value of imaging the infrapatellar tendon in clinical practice, including whether sonography can predict symptoms in asymptomatic athletes, is discussed. Acute avulsion fractures, including periosteal sleeve avulsion, and chronic avulsion injuries, including Sinding-Larsen-Johansson and Osgood-Schlatter syndromes, are shown. Mimics of infrapatellar tendon pathology, including infrapatellar plica injury, patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome, and Hoffa's syndrome, are illustrated

  16. SHARPSports mental Health Awareness Research Project: Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms and life stress in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beable, Sarah; Fulcher, Mark; Lee, Arier C; Hamilton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression and daily life hassles in elite athletes. A cross-sectional prospective epidemiological study design. An online anonymous survey was administered during a 2-month period from May to July 2015. Athletes 18 years of age (or older) who were members of the High Performance Sport New Zealand programme were invited to participate. Of 370 potential participants, 187 completed responses were received (51%). Symptoms of depression were measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Life stress was measured by the Daily Hassles Questionnaire. Overall 21% (n=39) of participants reported symptoms consistent with depression. Only 2 of the 39 athletes were currently taking an anti-depressant medication. Those contemplating retirement, partaking in individual sport, and who were less than 25 years old had significantly increased odds of experiencing depression. Reported life stressors were higher in females, in those who play an individual sport and those in a centralised programme. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of life stress and experiencing depressive symptoms. This study highlights that depressive symptoms are prevalent in elite athletes with multiple potential risk factors identified including high life stress. These variables warrant further exploration to enable the early identification of athletes with depressive symptoms, screening and support for elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Rathi, B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players. A total forty elite and non-elite level female softball players were selected from the different colleges affiliated to the Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, for the present study. The height of subjects was measured by using the standard anthropometric rod. Weight was measured with portable weighing machine. Widths and diameters of body parts were measured by using digital caliper. Girths and lengths were taken with steel tape. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using the Slimguide skinfold caliper. All subjects were also assessed for performance tests i.e. vertical jump, 50m sprint, medicine ball throw, 10×4m shuttle run and reaction time. Independent samples t-test reveals that elite female softball players were significantly taller (Psoftball players also had significantly greater biacromial (Psoftball players. The non-elite female softball players were found to have significantly greater thigh circumference (Psoftball players. The non-elite players were also found to have significantly higher percentage body fat (Psoftball players. The elite female softball players had significantly greater kinanthropometric characteristics, body composition and performance characteristics than the non-elite female softball players.

  18. Defining elite athletes: Issues in the study of expert performance in sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, C; Moran, A; Piggott, D

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: There has been considerable inconsistency and confusion in the definition of elite/expert athletes in sport psychology research, which has implications for studies conducted in this area and for the field as a whole. This study aimed to: (i) critically evaluate the ways in which recent research in sport psychology has defined elite/expert athletes; (ii) explore the rationale for using such athletes; and (iii) evaluate the conclusions that research in this fiel...

  19. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  20. The FTO A/T polymorphism and elite athletic performance: a study involving three groups of European athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eynon

    Full Text Available The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism.A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285 as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level.There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants. These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level.The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics.

  1. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  2. Sleep, training load and performance in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, J; Mariman, A; Boone, J; Delesie, L; Tobback, E; Vogelaers, D; Bourgois, J G

    2018-03-01

    Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain. Performance of WC competitors was evaluated through coach and WC qualification ranking. For the entire group, TST (effect sizes (ES) = -1.12, confidence intervals (CI) = -60:-47, P performance. Optimizing sleep and TL may therefore represent strategies to enhance performance.

  3. Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the "competitive edge" to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as used by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high+train high (LH+TH), 2) live high+train low (LH+TL), and 3) live low+train high (LL+TH). The LH+TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and hypobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH+TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL+TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.

  4. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  5. Coração de atleta em desportistas deficientes de elite Athlete's heart in elite disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japy Angelini Oliveira Fº

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sinais de "coração de atleta" em desportistas deficientes para-olímpicos. MÉTODOS: Avaliação clínica, eletrocardiográfica, ecocardiográfica, vetorcardiográfica, ergométrica em 75 atletas, 27,8±6,7 anos, 56 homens, várias modalidades; com deficiência física (47, visual (12 e paralisia cerebral (16. RESULTADOS: Sinais de coração de atleta ocorreram em 33% dos exames clínicos (sopros e estalidos, em 55% dos eletrocardiogramas (bradicardia, bloqueio incompleto de ramo direito, sobrecargas, alterações de onda T, em 15% dos vetorcardiograma (sobrecargas, em 5% dos ecocardiogramas (dimensões cavitárias acima do habitual. Os sinais ocorreram em 51% dos atletas, sendo que em 46% dos casos havia 2 ou mais sinais e, em 12%, 4 ou mais sinais. O TE foi normal em 77% dos atletas; não houve ST isquêmico. Em 23% dos casos houve bloqueio divisional direito. CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontrados dois ou mais sinais de coração de atleta em 46% dos atletas deficientes para-olímpicos.PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of the athlete's, heart syndrome in elite disabled Brazilians athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five athletes, age 27.8±6.7 years, 56 men, with various disabilities (47 physical, 12 visual and 16 cerebral paralysis underwent clinical, electrocardiographic, vectorcardiographic, ergometric and echocardiographic evaluations. RESULTS: Athlete's heart signs occurred in 33% of the clinical evaluations, in 55% of the electrocardiograms, in 15% of the vectorcardiograms, and in 5% of the echocardiograms. At least one of these signs was presented in 51% of the athletes. There were 2 or more abnormalities in 46% of the athletes and 4 or more signs in 12%. Exercise test was considered not ischemic in 77% of the subjects. There was right bundle branch block in 23% of the tests. CONCLUSION: There were two or more athlete's heart syndrome signs in 46% of Brazilian disabled athletes.

  6. Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew W; Mah, Cheri D; Halson, Shona L

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Existing sleep questionnaires to assess sleep behaviors may not be sensitive in determining the unique sleep challenges faced by elite athletes. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ) to be used as a practical tool for support staff working with elite athletes. Methods 564 participants (242 athletes, 322 non-athletes) completed the 18-item ASBQ and three previously validated questionnaires; the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A cohort of the studied population performed the ASBQ twice in one week to assess test-retest reliability, and also performed sleep monitoring via wrist-actigraphy. Results Comparison of the ASBQ with existing sleep questionnaires resulted in moderate to large correlations (r=0.32 - 0.69). There was a significant difference between athletes and non-athletes for the ASBQ global score (44±6 vs. 41±6, respectively, psleep time (r=-0.42). Conclusion The ASBQ is a valid and reliable tool that can differentiate the sleep practices between athletes and non-athletes, and offers a practical instrument for practitioners and/or researchers wanting to evaluate the sleep behaviors of elite athletes. The ASBQ may provide information on areas where improvements to individual athletes’ sleep habits could be made. PMID:29796200

  7. Strength and Jump Biomechanics of Elite and Recreational Female Youth Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Tencer, Allan F.; Mack, Christopher D.; Levy, Marni R.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Most researchers investigating soccer injuries have studied elite athletes because they have greater athletic-exposure hours than other athletes, but most youth participate at the recreational level. If risk factors for injury vary by soccer level, then recommendations generated using research with elite youth soccer players might not generalize to recreational players. Objective To examine injury risk factors of strength and jump biomechanics by soccer level in female youth athletes and to determine whether research recommendations based on elite youth athletes could be generalized to recreational players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Seattle Youth Soccer Association. Patients or Other Participants Female soccer players (N = 92) aged 11 to 14 years were recruited from 4 randomly selected elite (n = 50; age = 12.5 years, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) = 12.3, 12.8 years; height = 157.8 cm, 95% CI = 155.2, 160.3 cm; mass = 49.9 kg, 95% CI = 47.3, 52.6 kg) and 4 randomly selected recreational (n = 42; age = 13.2 years, 95% CI = 13.0, 13.5 years; height = 161.1 cm, 95% CI = 159.2, 163.1 cm; mass = 50.6 kg, 95% CI = 48.3, 53.0 kg) soccer teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) Players completed a questionnaire about demographics, history of previous injury, and soccer experience. Physical therapists used dynamometry to measure hip strength (abduction, adduction, extension, flexion) and knee strength (flexion, extension) and Sportsmetrics to measure vertical jump height and jump biomechanics. We compared all measurements by soccer level using linear regression to adjust for age and mass. Results Elite players were similar to recreational players in all measures of hip and knee strength, vertical jump height, and normalized knee separation (a valgus estimate generated using Sportsmetrics). Conclusions Female elite youth players and recreational players had similar lower extremity strength and jump biomechanics. This suggests that recommendations generated from

  8. Temporal ordering of motivational quality and athlete burnout in elite sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken

    2011-05-01

    Using self-determination theory as the theoretical framework, we conducted a longitudinal investigation of the relationships between motivation and athlete burnout. We tested four hypotheses: H0: low self-determination (SD) does not precede burnout, and burnout does not precede low SD; H1: low SD precedes burnout; H2: burnout precedes low SD; and H3: burnout and motivation have a reciprocal relationship. We used a two-wave design, with the follow-up assessment 4 months after baseline. Elite New Zealand athletes (n=119, mean age=24.74 yr (standard deviation=8.54 yr); 57.14% of whom were females) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling of cross-lagged panel models was used to test the hypotheses. The relationship between motivation and burnout varied depending on the type of motivation assessed. Analyses related to overall levels of self-determined motivation, amotivation, and controlled forms of extrinsic motivation provided support for H1: low SD precedes burnout. When compared with external regulation, introjected regulation seemed to be a clearer antecedent of athlete burnout. Analyses related to the self-determined forms of extrinsic motivation provided support for H2: burnout precedes low SD. The only analyses in which the null hypothesis could not be rejected were those relating to intrinsic motivation. Finally, there was little support for a reciprocal effects model. Low levels of self-determination may lead to increases in athlete burnout, whereas athlete burnout may precede decrements in self-determined extrinsic motivation. Particular efforts could be made to help support the basic psychological needs of athletes with controlled forms of motivation, thereby leading to an internalization of motivation and decreased risk of burnout. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  9. Profile injuries and musculoskeletal abnormalities of elite wushu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Changizi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the profile of sports injuries and postural abnormalities of elite wushu athletes. Participants were recruited purposefully (n = 51, age 16.3 (4.9 years, height 165.4 (13.9 cm and weight 52.6 (14.7 kg and informed consent participated in the study. Injury report form (including type, anatomic site, etiology and mechanism of injury was used to record the damage. Posture was assesses using Grid Chart, flexible ruler, calipers and mirror box were performed. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods, chi-square was used. 166 injuries and 167 postural abnormalities were recorded. Injury type, anatomical location, and mechanism of injury and abnormalities in elite status was significantly different (P>0.05. 6.85 injuries per 1000 hours exposure and the risk of 8.91 injuries per 1000 athlete exposures was estimated. The most common types of injury were contusion (36.7%, hematoma (20.5% and abrasions (13.3% respectively. Based on the anatomic site of injury, lower extremities (47.6%, head and face (25.9%, upper extremities (13.9% and trunk (12.7% were injured mostly respectively. Opponent's Blow down technique (24.7%, previous injury (16.3%, lack of physical fitness (12.7% and fatigue (12% were in top priority. Receiving kicks (21%, Receiving punches (13.8% and throwing technique by opponent (12% were the most common mechanisms of injury. Flat foot (29.3%, uneven shoulders (25.7% and scoliosis (16.2% were the most common postural abnormalities.

  10. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  12. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  13. Predictors of disordered eating in a sample of elite Division I college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Johnson, Craig; Powers, Pauline S; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Steve A; Wittrock, David A; Mitchell, James E

    2003-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between a number of areas of elite student-athletes' lives and disordered eating. We surveyed 1445 elite Division I athletes at 11 different institutions and in 11 different sports. Hierarchical regression was used to indicate specific areas of the participants' collegiate experience that may be associated with disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology. Results demonstrate that the variables entered into each model predicted between 40.5% and 46.4% of the variance for the restriction of food, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Categories of variables that generally predicted the most variance for each dependent measure were demographics, athletic involvement, and personality. Of the 11 sports included in the analysis, wrestling and gymnastics demonstrated elevated levels of drive for thinness, food restriction, and purging behavior compared to other athletes. Findings suggest that in elite athletes gender, ethnicity, sport, and self-esteem are associated with several behaviors and attitudes indicative of disordered eating.

  14. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation. Athletes should therefore routinely assess their

  15. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfillment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of sports science or non-medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. A single questionnaire. The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short-term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for performed.

  16. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  17. Evaluation of ACE gene I/D polymorphism in Iranian elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Somayeh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Salehi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is an important gene, which is associated with the successful physical activity. The ACE gene has a major polymorphism (I/D) in intron 16 that determines its plasma and tissue levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is an association between this polymorphism and sports performance in our studied population including elite athletes of different sports disciplines. We investigated allele frequency and genotype distribution of the ACE gene in 156 Iranian elite athletes compared to 163 healthy individuals. We also investigated this allele frequency between elite athletes in three functional groups of endurance, power, and mixed sports performances. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was performed on intron 16 of the ACE gene. The ACE genotype was determined for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 15, and results were analyzed by Chi-Square test. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency of the ACE gene in athletes and control group (P = 0.05, P = 0.03, respectively). There was also a significant difference in allele frequency of the ACE gene in 3 groups of athletes with different sports disciplines (P = 0.045). Proportion of the ACE gene D allele was greater in elite endurance athletes (37 high-distance cyclists) than two other groups. Findings of the present study demonstrated that there is an association between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and sports performance in Iranian elite athletes.

  18. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  19. Strategies used by South African non-elite athletes to cope with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies that non-elite athletes use to overcome environmental factors during endurance events. A sample of 53 nonelite endurance athletes completed a questionnaire and interviews were conducted. The research focused on exploring individual experiences as well as ...

  20. Young females in the athletic arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, A L

    1998-10-01

    There are factors that uniquely affect young females in sports. The sociologic aspects of female youth sports can be understood from a historical perspective. Athletics have an influence on the development of young girls, from gender identity and sexual orientation to the foundations of self-esteem and moral development. There is a relationship between certain psychopathologic conditions common in girls and athletics, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders. Although involvement in sports may engender some of these problems, others may be successfully treated through physical exercise.

  1. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  2. "They have to toe the line": A Foucauldian analysis of the socialisation of former elite athletes into academy coaching roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackett, Alexander David; Evans, Adam Brian; Piggott, David

    2018-01-01

    The pathway between elite athlete and high-performance coach is common within English men’s rugby union and association football. To help develop as coaches, many elite athletes gain coaching experiences within male high-performance youth academies. The purpose of this article sought to gain...... an insight into the socialisation processes of current and former elite athletes within association football and rugby union amongst the socio-cultural context of England, and to identify why Academy Directors seemingly preferred to recruit current and former elite athletes as academy coaches. Semi...

  3. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  4. Personality, passion, self-esteem and psychological well-being among junior elite athletes in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bauger, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Personality research among athletes seems to have obtained less interest in recent years after much focus until the 1990s. This decline was obviously a result of ill conducted “personology” research, and a greater focus on psychological state versus trait in the sport psychology community. The present study explored personality dimensions, as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, passion, self-esteem, and well-being among junior elite athletes. In addition, the athletes ...

  5. Mortality and health-related habits in 900 Finnish former elite athletes and their brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2018-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, Ppower sports athletes, and 77.5, 73.7 and 72.2 years for their age-matched brothers, respectively. In 2001, compared with their brothers, former athletes smoked less (P<0.001), were more physically active (P<0.05) and rated their health more often as very good (P<0.05). Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Sleep duration and quality in elite athletes measured using wristwatch actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Jonathan; Glaister, Mark; Pizzoferro, Kathleen; Dawson, Jean; Pedlar, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is known to be an important component of recovery from training, yet little is known about the quality and quantity of sleep achieved by elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to quantify sleep in elite athletes using wristwatch actigraphy. Individual nights of sleep from a cohort of Olympic athletes (n = 47) from various sports were analysed and compared to non-athletic controls (n = 20). There were significant differences between athletes and controls in all measures apart from 'time asleep' (p = 0.27), suggesting poorer characteristics of sleep in the athlete group. There was a significant effect of gender on 'time awake' (mean difference: 12 minutes higher in males; 95% likely range: 3 to 21 minutes) and 'sleep efficiency' (mean difference: 2.4 lower in males; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 4.8). Athletes showed poorer markers of sleep quality than an age and sex matched non-athletic control group (Sleep efficiency: 80.6 ± 6.4% and 88.7 ± 3.6%, respectively. Fragmentation Index: 36.0 ± 12.4 and 29.8 ± 9.0, respectively) but remained within the range for healthy sleep. This descriptive study provides novel data for the purpose of characterising sleep in elite athletes.

  7. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  8. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  9. Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Driller

    Full Text Available Introduction: Existing sleep questionnaires to assess sleep behaviors may not be sensitive in determining the unique sleep challenges faced by elite athletes. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ to be used as a practical tool for support staff working with elite athletes. Methods: 564 participants (242 athletes, 322 non-athletes completed the 18-item ASBQ and three previously validated questionnaires; the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. A cohort of the studied population performed the ASBQ twice in one week to assess test-retest reliability, and also performed sleep monitoring via wrist-actigraphy. Results: Comparison of the ASBQ with existing sleep questionnaires resulted in moderate to large correlations (r=0.32 - 0.69. There was a significant difference between athletes and non-athletes for the ASBQ global score (44±6 vs. 41±6, respectively, p<0.01 and for the PSQI, but not for the SHI or the ESS. The reliability of the ASBQ was acceptable (ICC=0.87 when re-tested within 7 days. There was a moderate relationship between ASBQ and total sleep time (r=-0.42. Conclusion: The ASBQ is a valid and reliable tool that can differentiate the sleep practices between athletes and non-athletes, and offers a practical instrument for practitioners and/or researchers wanting to evaluate the sleep behaviors of elite athletes. The ASBQ may provide information on areas where improvements to individual athletes’ sleep habits could be made.

  10. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  11. Nutritional needs of the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, M M

    1999-07-01

    US women, including female athletes, are under ever increasing pressure to be thin ar thinner. this pressure to achieve and maintain a low body weight leads to potentially harmful patterns of long-term dieting or disordered eating, which can affect long-term health. Some of the health consequences of long-term energy restriction in female athletes may include poor energy and nutrient intakes, poor nutritional status, decreased RMR and total daily energy expenditure, increased psychological stress and risk for a clinical eating disorder, and increased risk for exercise-induced amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Female athletes participating in thin-build sports may be at risk for the disorders of the female athlete triad: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This triad of disorders can also produce severe health consequences that can influence present and future health. Strategies for helping active women get off the dieting "bandwagon" requires the identification of an appropriate and healthy body weight, good eating and exercise habits, and techniques for maintaining these habits throughout life.

  12. The Female Athlete Triad: Prevalence in Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauder, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    The female athlete triad, otherwise known as the inter-relatedness of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is an area of increasing awareness in female athletes, which has not been explored in military women...

  13. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers.

  14. Physical and Physiological Profile of Elite Iranian Karate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Faraji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No study to date, has investigated the physiologic and anthropometric of Iranian elite Karatekas profile. Forty men internationally ranked karatekas in kumite field took part in this study. They were selected for national camp for participation in world karate championships in Germany 2014. The anthropometric and physiological profiles were measured. The major results were as follows: body height (177.9±6.20 kg, weight (72.8±9.98 cm, BMI (23.2±2.36 kg/m2, fat mass (9.5±2.47 kg, lean body mass (64.1±8.89 kg, percentage of body fat (12.9±2.36, sitting height (95.1±4.21 cm, arm span (180.5±7.87 cm, sit and reach (38.7±5.71 cm, pull up (15.7±8.37 rep, shuttle run 4×9 m (8.4±0.28 sec, 40-yd sprint (5.0±0.16 sec, vertical jump Sargent (56.6±8.14 cm, standing broad jump (151.1±13.90 cm, peak power (957.5±164.11 W, anaerobic threshold (165.5±8.05 HR pm and visual reaction time (378.8±63.82 ms. Significant correlations occurred between peak power with weight, BMI, height, lean body mass, arm span and sitting height (r = 0.75, 0.70, 0.53, 0.77, 0.44, and 0.63, respectively. Also, both arm span and height was negatively correlated to standing broad jump results (r= -0.41 and -0.34, respectively (p< 0.05. These anthropometric and physiological profiles from elite Iranian Karatekas can be used in evaluating for talent identification and are important for the optimal construction of training programs the sport scientific, coaches and these athletes.

  15. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy.

  16. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  17. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates.

  18. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  19. Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Best, Simon; Meerstetter, Fabienne; Walter, Marco; Ludyga, Sebastian; Brand, Serge; Bianchi, Renzo; Madigan, Daniel J; Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2018-05-18

    To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. 6-month prospective study. A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M=16.82years, SD=1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North-Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, Kurt; Mourot, L

    2014-01-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints...... "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic....... Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist...

  1. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K E

    2007-01-01

    Background The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non‐medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. Objective To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of sports science or non‐medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. Methods A single questionnaire. Results The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short‐term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Conclusion Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for performed. PMID:17062653

  2. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  3. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  4. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  5. Heart rate recovery in elite Spanish male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, A B; Benito, P J; Barriopedro, M; Lorenzo, I; Maffulli, N; Calderón, F J

    2014-06-01

    During postexercise recovery, heart rate (HR) initially falls rapidly, followed by a period of slower decrease, until resting values are reached. The aim of the present work was to examine the differences in the recovery heart rate (RHR) between athletes engaged in static and dynamic sports. The study subjects were 294 federated sportsmen competing at the national and international level in sports classified using the criteria of Mitchell et al. as either prevalently static (N.=89) or prevalently dynamic (N.=205). Within the dynamic group, the subjects who practised the most dynamic sports were assigned to further subgroups: triathlon (N.=20), long distance running (N.=58), cycling (N.=28) and swimming (N.=12). All athletes were subjected to a maximum exertion stress test and their HR recorded at 1, 2, 3 and 4 min (RHR1,2,3,4) into the HR recovery period. The following indices of recovery (IR) were then calculated: IR1=(HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4)/(HRmax-HRrest)*100, IR2=(HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4)/(HRmax/HRpeak), and IR3=HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4. The differences in the RHR and IR for the static and dynamic groups were examined using two way ANOVA. The RHR at minutes 2 (138.7±15.2 vs. 134.8±14.4 beats·min⁻¹) and 3 (128.5±15.2 vs. 123.3±14.4 beats·min⁻¹) were significantly higher for the static group (Group S) than the dynamic group (Group D), respectively. Significant differences were seen between Group D and S with respect to IR1 at minutes 1 (26.4±8.7 vs. 24.8±8.4%), 2 (43.8±8.1 vs. 41.5±7.8%), 3 (52.1±8.3 vs. 49.1±8%) and 4 (56.8±8.6 vs. 55.4±7.4%) of recovery. For IR2, significant differences were seen between the same groups at minutes 2 (59.7±12.5 vs. 55.9±10.8 beats·min⁻¹) and 3 (71.0±13.5 vs. 66.1±11.4 beats·min⁻¹) of recovery. Finally, for IR3, the only significant difference between Group D and S was recorded at minute 3 of recovery (72.2±12.5 vs. 66.2±11.5 beats·min⁻¹). This work provides information on RHR of a large population of elite

  6. Two distinct phenotypes of asthma in elite athletes identified by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Mariana; Stang, Julie; Horta, Luís; Stensrud, Trine; Severo, Milton; Mowinckel, Petter; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luís; Moreira, André; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of asthma in athletes have been insufficiently studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize asthma phenotypes in elite athletes using latent class analysis (LCA) and to evaluate its association with the type of sport practiced. In the present cross-sectional study, an analysis of athletes' records was carried out in databases of the Portuguese National Anti-Doping Committee and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. Athletes with asthma, diagnosed according to criteria given by the International Olympic Committee, were included for LCA. Sports practiced were categorized into water, winter and other sports. Of 324 files screened, 150 files belonged to asthmatic athletes (91 Portuguese; 59 Norwegian). LCA retrieved two clusters: "atopic asthma" defined by allergic sensitization, rhinitis and allergic co-morbidities and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels; and "sports asthma", defined by exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and airway hyperesponsiveness without allergic features. The risk of developing the phenotype "sports asthma" was significantly increased in athletes practicing water (OR = 2.87; 95% CI [1.82-4.51]) and winter (OR = 8.65; 95% CI [2.67-28.03]) sports, when compared with other athletes. Two asthma phenotypes were identified in elite athletes: "atopic asthma" and "sports asthma". The type of sport practiced was associated with different phenotypes: water and winter sport athletes had three- and ninefold increased risk of "sports asthma". Recognizing different phenotypes is clinically relevant as it would lead to distinct targeted treatments.

  7. Incidence, etiology, and symptomatology of upper respiratory illness in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Luke; Brown, Wendy J; Pyne, David B; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P; McCormack, Joseph G; Locke, A Simon; Fricker, Peter A

    2007-04-01

    Upper respiratory illness (URI) is the most common medical condition affecting elite athletes. The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the incidence, pathogenic etiology, and symptomatology of acute URI during a 5-month training and competition period. Thirty-two elite and 31 recreationally competitive triathletes and cyclists, and 20 sedentary controls (age range 18.0-34.1 yr) participated in a prospective surveillance study. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected from subjects presenting with two or more defined upper respiratory symptoms. Swabs were analyzed using microscopy, culture, and PCR testing for typical and atypical respiratory pathogens. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-44) was used to assess symptomatology and functional impairment. Thirty-seven URI episodes were reported in 28 subjects. Incidence rate ratios for illness were higher in both the control subjects (1.93, 95% CI: 0.72-5.18) and elite athletes (4.50, 1.91-10.59) than in the recreationally competitive athletes. Infectious agents were identified in only 11 (two control, three recreationally competitive, and six elite) out of 37 illness episodes. Rhinovirus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated. Symptom and functional impairment severity scores were higher in subjects with an infectious pathogen episode, particularly on illness days 3-4. The results confirm a higher rate of URI among elite athletes than recreationally competitive athletes during this training and competition season. However, because pathogens were isolated in fewer than 30% of URI cases, further study is required to uncover the causes of unidentified but symptomatic URI in athletes. Despite the common perception that all URI are infections, physicians should consider both infectious and noninfectious causes when athletes present with symptoms.

  8. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Krzywanski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OHD < 30 ng/ml and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  9. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Hadžović - Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with...

  10. THE INVESTIGATION TO THE SEX OF BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE MASTER ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel ÇELİK; Mert TUNER

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on body composition by bioelektrik impedance analysis (BIA) methods, respiratory function parameters and physical performance levels. 20 men and 10 women, total 30 long-distance elite master athletes who had joined World, European and The Balkans Championships in Athletics and into at least one degree, were included in the study. The body composition such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat weight, Waist-hip ratio an...

  11. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  12. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassarjian, A.; Rodrigo, R.M.; Santisteban, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  13. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  14. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Andrade, Guilherme G. Bevilacqua, Danilo R. Coimbra, Fabiano S. Pereira, Ricardo Brandt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Participants (n = 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes, 214 (77.3% men and 63 (22.7% women completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS and reported their subjective sleep perception. Athletes with poor sleep quality reported higher scores for confusion compared to athletes with good sleep quality (p < 0.01, d = 0.43. In addition, athletes who lost their game at the time of evaluation showed higher tension (p < 0.01, d = 0.49 and confusion (p < 0.01, d = 0.32 levels compared to athletes who won their game. A regression analysis demonstrated that for each point increase in the confusion level, there was a 19.7% reduction in sleep quality. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. Further, our results indicated that the athletes’ mood associated with their success in the competitions. Therefore, in a competition, it is important that the athletes show good sleep quality, and use techniques and strategies to ease their mood variations.

  15. Paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder in the elite athlete: experience at a large division I university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Anna M; Thompson, Jennifer; Chiang, Tendy; Forrest, L Arick; deSilva, Brad W

    2014-06-01

    To review our experience at a large division I university with the diagnosis and management of paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD) in elite athletes. A single institution retrospective review and cohort analysis. All elite athletes (division I collegiate athletes, triathletes, and marathon runners) with a diagnosis of PVFMD were identified. All patients underwent flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) to confirm the diagnosis of PVFMD. The type of PVFMD therapy was identified and efficacy of treatment was graded based on symptom resolution. Forty-six consecutive athletes with PVFMD were identified. A total of 30/46 (65%) were division 1 collegiate athletes and 16/46 (35%) were triathletes or marathon runners. In comparison to a nonathlete PVFMD cohort, athletes were less likely to present with a history of reflux (P dysphagia (P < 0.01). The use of postexertion FFL provided additional diagnostic information in 11 (24%) patients. Laryngeal control therapy (LCT) was recommended for 45/46. A total of 36/45 attended at least one LCT session and 25 (69%) reported improvement of symptoms. Additionally, biofeedback, practice-observed therapy, and thyroarytenoid muscle botulinum toxin injection were required in three, two, and two patients, respectively. The addition of postexertion FFL improves the sensitivity to detect PVFMD in athletes. PVFMD in athletes responds well to LCT. However, biofeedback, practice-observed therapy, and botulinum toxin injection may be required for those patients with an inadequate response to therapy. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 1: Decision making under physical performance pressure in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Beth L; Warriner, Katie; Walsh, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate. A number of studies have shown that conditions of elevated pressure influence athletes' decision quality (Kinrade et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2016), response times (Hepler, 2015; Smith et al., 2016) and risk taking (Pighin et al., 2015). However, almost all of this work has been undertaken in nonelite athletes and participants who do not routinely operate under conditions of high stress. Thus, there is very little known about the influence of pressure on decision making in elite athletes. This study investigated the influence of physical performance pressure on decision making in a sample of world-class elite athletes. This allowed an examination of whether findings from the previous work in nonelite athletes extend to those who routinely operate under conditions of high stress. How this work could be applied to improve insight and understanding of decision making among sport professionals is examined. We sought to introduce a categorization of decision making useful to practitioners in sport: gunslingers, poker players, and chickens. Twenty-three elite athletes who compete and have frequent success at an international level (including six Olympic medal winners) performed tasks relating to three categories of decision making under conditions of low and high physical pressure. Decision making under risk was measured with performance on the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under

  17. Cardiorespiratory screening in elite endurance sports athletes: the Quebec study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, Julie; Poirier, Paul; Bougault, Valérie; Blouin, Evelyne; Belzile, Mireille; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory disorders are common in athletes. However, these conditions are often underdiagnosed, which potentially results in impaired performance and increased health risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a research setting, the prevalence of cardiorespiratory disorders in athletes in order to determine the potential value of a screening program. One hundred thirty-three athletes were studied. Each subject underwent a physical examination. A eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test and a methacholine inhalation test were performed to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. A cardiovascular evaluation was also performed, including maximal exercise test with electrocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and blood sampling. Seventy-four (56%) athletes had airway hyperresponsiveness to EVH or the methacholine inhalation test. Among those with airway hyperresponsiveness, 45 (61%) athletes were only hyperresponsive to EVH, and 10 (14%) were only hyperresponsive to the methacholine inhalation test (using the criteria of a PC20 ≤ 4 mg/mL). Thirty-two (24%) athletes had a known diagnosis of asthma, while 34 (26%) athletes received a new asthma diagnosis. Ninety-seven (73%) athletes were sensitized to common airborne allergens. Forty-seven (35%) athletes completed the cardiovascular evaluation. Three (6%) and 7 (15%) athletes had a previous or new diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Resting systemic hypertension was documented in 2 (4%) athletes and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise was found in 12 (26%) athletes. This cardiorespiratory screening data set in athletes showed a high prevalence of exercise-induced asthma and exercise hypertension, which in many cases were not previously diagnosed.

  18. Women Athletes: Re-signifying the Female Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Adelman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How does women’s participation in sport contribute to the re-signification of women’s corporality? Considering Susan Brownmiller’s notion that femininity, in modern society, can be understood as an “aesthetic of limitation”, I also work with notions of gender and corporality taken from recent work by Susan Bordo and Judith Butler, in an attempt to identify changes in women’s practices and representations of the female body propitiated by sporting activity. I analyze the testimonies of Brazilian women athletes, most of whom can be considered professionals, from two sporting fields: on the one hand, equestriennes engaged in the elite sport of showjumping, and on the other, women involved in the popular sport of volleyball. I also look at cultural images of women athletes as currently produced in mass media. he evidence that I obtain through field work leads me to identify conflicting tendencies of “deconstruction” of certain aspects of the above-mentioned aesthetics of limitation and persistent cultural concern for women’s “masculinization” through sport.

  19. Former male elite athletes and risk of hypertension in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Merja K; Kujala, Urho M; Eriksson, Johan G; Wasenius, Niko S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli M; Peltonen, Markku; Heinonen, Olli; Jula, Antti; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether a former career as an elite athlete protects from hypertension in later life. We hypothesized that vigorous physical activity during young adulthood protects against hypertension later in life. The study population (n = 3440) consists of 2037 former male elite athletes and 1403 matched controls. Of those, 599 (392 former athletes, 207 controls) participated in a clinical study in 2008. The athletes were divided into three groups: endurance, mixed and power sports. Assessment of hypertension was based on athletes' entitlement to reimbursable antihypertensive medication from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution; among the clinical study participants, this was also based on self-reported current use of antihypertensive drugs or measured hypertension. The current volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was determined by questionnaires. Among the participants, the former athletes had lower age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension than the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.98] and the endurance athletes had the lowest OR (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.80). OR for the prevalence of hypertension decreased (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.96 per 10 metabolic equivalent hours/week) when there was an increase in the volume of LTPA. The former athletes without blood pressure-lowering medication had significantly lower SBP than the controls [139.2 mmHg (SD 18.7) vs. 144.2 mmHg (SD 19.5)] (P = 0.027). A former career as an elite athlete seems to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension in later life. The volume of current LTPA was inversely related to prevalence of hypertension.

  20. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  1. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  2. A longitudinal analysis of salivary testosterone concentrations and competitiveness in elite and non-elite women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2018-05-01

    There is evidence linking women's testosterone (T) to competitive behaviours in sport and exercise. To advance this work, we examined the longitudinal relationships between salivary T (sal-T) and competitiveness in athletic women who differ in training status. Elite (n = 9) and non-elite (n = 21) women athletes were monitored on days 6-8 (follicular phase), 13-15 (ovulatory phase) and 20-22 (Luteal phase) of a menstrual cycle with two repeats. Salivary T levels were assessed before breakfast, followed by two questions (each rated on a 1-7 scale) on competitive desire and training motivation. Using a linear mixed model, we evaluated the menstrual phase and training status effects on each variable, before assessing the within-subject effects of sal-T on competitiveness. Salivary T concentrations were higher at ovulation (effect size [ES] difference = 0.2-1.4), relative to the follicular and luteal phases, with a more marked response among elite women (p competitiveness ratings showed similar menstrual-phase variation (ES difference = 0.6-1.0 at ovulation). A positive effect of sal-T on competitiveness emerged in both groups (p competitive desire and training motivation all peaked around ovulation in women athletes. Notably, sal-T availability and its relationship with competitiveness was stronger among high-performing athletes. Our findings confirm menstrual fluctuations in T and competitiveness among naturally-cycling women, with population context as a moderating factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychometrics of the Emotional Intelligence Scale in Elite, Amateur, and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Robert; Laborde, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometrics properties of the Emotional Intelligence Scale and assess the measurement invariance across elite (n = 367), amateur (n = 629), and non-athletes (n = 550). In total, 1,546 participants from various sports completed the emotional intelligence scale. Several competing models were compared…

  4. Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part I - Energy and nutrient needs. ... assessed with skin folds or body fat percentages. Anthropometric measurements should be limited to twice yearly and too much ... 1300 mg calcium per day which can be achieved by having ~3 milk and/or dairy servings per day.

  5. Reconceptualising Elite Athlete Programmes: "Undoing" the Politics of Labelling in Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    High-performance sport is a big business, with nations such as Australia and New Zealand dedicating hundreds of millions of dollars in the development of facilities and in creating sporting centres of excellence. Historically, high-performance sport and elite athlete programmes (EAPs) were regulated to an extra-curricular space in schools or local…

  6. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  7. Investigating neural efficiency of elite karate athletes during a mental arithmetic task using EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Adil Deniz; Assem, Moataz

    2018-02-01

    Neural efficiency is proposed as one of the neural mechanisms underlying elite athletic performances. Previous sports studies examined neural efficiency using tasks that involve motor functions. In this study we investigate the extent of neural efficiency beyond motor tasks by using a mental subtraction task. A group of elite karate athletes are compared to a matched group of non-athletes. Electroencephalogram is used to measure cognitive dynamics during resting and increased mental workload periods. Mainly posterior alpha band power of the karate players was found to be higher than control subjects under both tasks. Moreover, event related synchronization/desynchronization has been computed to investigate the neural efficiency hypothesis among subjects. Finally, this study is the first study to examine neural efficiency related to a cognitive task, not a motor task, in elite karate players using ERD/ERS analysis. The results suggest that the effect of neural efficiency in the brain is global rather than local and thus might be contributing to the elite athletic performances. Also the results are in line with the neural efficiency hypothesis tested for motor performance studies.

  8. Some views of elite athletes on cooperation with the media and the media's influence on sports and private lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zadražnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, sport represents an element of the quality of life as it is often an indicator of a country's civilisational, societal and economic development. The public is mostly interested in elite sport which has effects for both society as well the lives of individuals as the public is not only interested in sports achievements but also in athlete's private lives. The border between the public and private is difficult to establish. The interlinked work of elite athletes and the media often results in misunderstandings as the media intrudes on the private lives of athletes, which in turn impacts both the private and professional lives of athletes. OBJECTIVE: The study's main purpose was to identify the attitude of elite athletes to the media and the influence of the media on the private and professional lives of athletes. The study also evaluated the qualities of an ideal journalist in the eyes of athletes. METHODS: Differences between more and less experienced elite athletes were studied on a sample of 67 Slovenian athletes from team sports. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The findings were further interpreted in line with the opinions of ten leading athletes from individual sports, which were collected through a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Differences between groups of more and less experienced athletes were detected in answers to the question, "When do athletes decide to cooperate with the media?" and "Have you already been offended by the media?". Elite athletes like to cooperate with the media and usually give information away freely. Similarly, journalists largely understand that athletes desire peace and quiet prior to a competition. Athletes perceive precision and verification of information as the most important qualities of journalists, while they consider some personal qualities and materialistic characteristics as less important. CONCLUSIONS: The study's results show that in the future athletes would

  9. Elite athletes' estimates of the prevalence of illicit drug use: evidence for the false consensus effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O; Swift, Wendy; Burns, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    The false consensus effect (FCE) is the tendency for people to assume that others share their attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than they actually do. The FCE has been demonstrated for a range of health behaviours, including substance use. The study aimed to explore the relationship between elite athlete's engagement in recreational drug use and their consensus estimates (the FCE) and to determine whether those who engage in the behaviour overestimate the use of others around them. The FCE was investigated among 974 elite Australian athletes who were classified according to their drug use history. Participants tended to report that there was a higher prevalence of drug use among athletes in general compared with athletes in their sport, and these estimates appeared to be influenced by participants' drug use history. While overestimation of drug use by participants was not common, this overestimation also appeared to be influenced by athletes' drug use history. The results suggest that athletes who have a history of illicit drug use overestimate the prevalence of drug use among athletes. These findings may be helpful in the formulation of normative education initiatives. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Physical Performance in Elite Male and Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Patrick; Fusco, Andrea; Fuchs, Philip; Bell, W Jeffrey; Duvillard, Serge P

    2018-06-12

    Biological differences between men and women are well known; however, literature-addressing knowledge about the influence of sex to specific and general performance in team handball is almost nonexistent. Consequently, the aim of the study was to assess and compare specific and general physical performance in male and female elite team handball players, to determine if the differences are consequential for general compared to specific physical performance characteristics and the relationship between general and specific physical performance. Twelve male and ten female elite team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper- und lower-body strength and power tests, a sprinting test, and an incremental treadmill-running test. Significant differences (Phandball specific tests compared to the general tests. Our findings also suggest that female players should focus more on strength training.

  11. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  12. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  13. Exploring athletes' perceptions of coach stress in elite sport environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Rayner, Adam; Chapman, Michael; Barker, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend research that has focused on the identification of stressors associated with coaching practice by systematically evaluating how such stressors effect athletes, and more broadly, the coach-athlete relationship. A total of 13 professional- and national-level athletes were interviewed to address the three study aims: how they detect when a coach is encountering stressors, how coach experiences of stress effects them as an athlete, and how effective the coach is when experiencing stress. Following content analysis, the data suggested athletes were able to detect when a coach was experiencing stress and this was typically via a variety of verbal and behavioural cues. Despite some positive effects of the coach experiencing stress, the majority were negative and varied across a range of personal influences on the athlete, and effects on the general coaching environment. It was also the broad view of the athletes that coaches were less effective when stressed, and this was reflected in performance expectations, perceptions of competence, and lack of awareness. The findings are discussed in relation to the existing theory and with reference to their implications for applied practice, future research, and development of the coach-athlete relationship.

  14. Skating start propulsion: three-dimensional kinematic analysis of elite male and female ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Jaymee R; Robbins, Shawn M K; Dixon, Philippe C; Renaud, Philippe J; Turcotte, René A; Wu, Tom; Pearsall, David J

    2017-09-01

    The forward skating start is a fundamental skill for male and female ice hockey players. However, performance differences by athlete's sex cannot be fully explained by physiological variables; hence, other factors such as skating technique warrant examination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the body movement kinematics of ice hockey skating starts between elite male and female ice hockey participants. Male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) elite ice hockey players performed five forward skating start accelerations. An 18-camera motion capture system placed on the arena ice surface captured full-body kinematics during the first seven skating start steps within 15 meters. Males' maximum skating speeds were greater than females. Skating technique sex differences were noted: in particular, females presented ~10° lower hip abduction throughout skating stance as well as ~10° greater knee extension at initial ice stance contact, conspicuously followed by a brief cessation in knee extension at the moment of ice contact, not evident in male skaters. Further study is warranted to explain why these skating technique differences exist in relation to factors such as differences in training, equipment, performance level, and anthropometrics.

  15. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  16. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  17. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Barbero-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET, until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR, VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b and running speeds (km • h -2 . During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1, 12.5±1.77 km • h -2 , 197±8 beats • min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km • h -2 , 199±8 beats • min-1 and 2.5±2.2 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p<0.0001 with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  18. Comparing of athletic performance and biometric features of selected teenagers based on the specific talent identification pattern of Karate with elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    seyed Ehsan Naghibi; Mehrdad Anbarian; Mohammad Reza Mahmoodkhani

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparing the athletic performance and biometric features in elite karate players teenagers with a specific talent identification pattern of  karate in a professional gyms in Iran. Methods: Subjects available for sampling were divided into two groups teenagers karate athletes elite (n=19) and members developmental center and the Club Championship (n=19) for assessing the biometric data of the sport performance tests respectively. Shapiro-Wilk te...

  19. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  20. Stress fractures in elite cross-country athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Scott R; Saint-Phard, Deborah; Tyburski, Mark; Van Dorsten, Brent

    2007-04-01

    This retrospective and comparative survey investigates an unusual number of stress fractures seen within a Division I college cross-country team. An anonymous questionnaire-designed to observe factors known to increase stress fracture incidence-was distributed to members of the current and previous seasons' teams. Running surface, sleep hours, intake of calcium, and shoe type were among the factors investigated. Eleven lower extremity stress fractures were found in nine athletes. Athletes with stress fractures reported significantly fewer workouts per week on the new track. All other study parameters had no statistically significant effect on stress fractures in these athletes.

  1. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaida, J; Cook, J; Bass, S; Austen, S; Kiss, Z

    2004-01-01

    Background: Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into ...

  2. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of vitamin D muscle receptors in the last few years suggested a significant role in muscle tissue, pointing out athletes as a special group. Specific data are scarce. The main aim of the current paper was to provide, for the first time, comparable data about vitamin D status in elite Spanish athletes by sport, age, season and training environment. Four hundred and eight elite athletes with a mean age of 22.8 ± 8.4 years were recruited from the High-performance sport centre in Barcelona for this cross-sectional study. Athletes from 34 different sports modalities were analysed. Data were available for vitamin D status, training environment, seasonality and number of medical visits. All data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Mean 25(OH)D of all athletes was 56.7 ± 23.4 nmol/L. Approximately 82% of the athletes were below the optimal levels, (D concentrations with increasing age (p < 0.01) Highest levels were observed in those subjects training outdoors compared with those training indoor (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  4. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack Majgaard

    2010-01-01

    .06 +/- 0.06 seconds after the game, which was 4% slower (p game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both......Krustrup, P, Zebis, M, Jensen, JM, and Mohr, M. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res 24(2): 437-441, 2010-The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier...... League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood...

  5. [SLEEP OF ELITE YOUNG ATHLETE AT THE ACADEMY FOR SPORT EXCELLENCE AT THE WINGATE INSTITUTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot Mintzer, Dalya; Shargal, Eyal; Fuxman, Yair; Wissblat, Dorit; Baharav, Anda

    2016-06-01

    Sleep duration and quality have a critical role in cognitive and athletic performances. A relationship was demonstrated between sleep deprivation, reduced performance and elevated injury risk. The recommended sleep duration for teenagers is at least 9 hours a day but most sleep less. To estimate sleep duration among elite adolescent athletes at the Academy for Sport Excellence at the Wingate Institute, by quantifying the changes after joining the academy and the relation to school performances and the usage of medical services. Data from medical records, including sleep screening questionnaires and a number of the athletes' medical appointments were analyzed. Athletes reported that sleep duration was less than recommended before joining the academy. After joining the academy the average sleep duration decreased (7.37 vs 7.7 hours, P = 0.05) and daytime sleepiness was elevated (13/24 v 11/24 Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS), P = 0.002). Correlations between changes in sleep duration and changes in school achievements before and after joining the academy were demonstrated (P = 0.027). No correlation was found between sleep duration at the academy and usage of medical services. Elite adolescent athletes do not sleep enough and are tired during the day. Reduction in sleep duration and elevation in sleepiness were observed with the transition to practice, study and life at the Academy for Sport Excellence. In accordance with previous studies, our findings showed elite young athletes are in a state of continuous sleep deprivation that interferes with their school achievements. Further research is needed to evaluate the importance of sleep duration and quality in performance for the health of young athletes.

  6. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  7. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  8. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-04-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  9. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  10. The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.

  11. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Trivers

    Full Text Available In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  12. Controlling coaching and athlete thriving in elite adolescent netballers: The buffering effect of athletes' mental toughness.

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    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Stamatis, Andreas; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2017-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the association between controlling coach behaviours and athlete experiences of thriving and test the buffering effect of mental toughness on this relation. A cross-sectional survey. In total, 232 female netballers aged 11 to 17 years (14.97+1.52) with between 1 and 15 years of experience in their sport (7.50+2.28) completed measures of controlling coach interpersonal style, mental toughness and thriving. Latent moderated structural models indicated that (i) controlling coach behaviours were inversely related with experiences of vitality and learning; (ii) mental toughness was positively associated with psychological experiences of both dimensions of thriving; and (iii) mental toughness moderated the effect of coach's controlling interpersonal style on learning but not vitality experiences, such that the effect was weaker for individuals who reported higher levels of mental toughness. This study extends past work and theory to show that mental toughness may enable athletes to counteract the potentially deleterious effect of controlling coach interpersonal styles. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

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    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. T he Relationship between Perfectionism and Burnout in Junior - Elite Athletes

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    Mohammad Taghi AGHDASI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athlete burnout. The target population of research consisted of 168 elite handball players who participate in National Junior Championships. 123 athletes were selected randomly as the sample. We used a multi - section inventory to collect data, contained measures of multidimensional perfectionism, dispositional achievem ent goals, athlete burnout, perceived satisfaction with goal attainment and perceived coach satisfaction with goal attainment. In this study was used Pierson correlation and Hierarchical regression for the analysis of collected data. Regression analyses re vealed that socially prescribed perfectionism demonstrated a significant positive association, and self - oriented perfectionism a significant negative association with burnout dimensions. In conclusion, in this study were not supported the hypotheses of the moderating influence of Perceived satisfaction with goal attainment and achievement goal orientations on the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athlete burnout .

  15. Anthropometric and motor performance profile of elite futsal athletes

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    Ademar Avelar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p76 The purpose of the present study was to identify the anthropometric and motor performance profi le of futsal (indoor soccer athletes in the second and third-placed teams in the Parana state championships (Brazil. Anthropometric(body mass, stature and skinfolds thickness and motor performance (modified abdominal test, shuttle run, race of 30 m and 40 s measures were obtained from twenty-seven male athletes (24.7 ± 6.4 years; 73.6 ± 7.6 kg; 174.8 ± 6.6 cm. For data analysis, athletes were grouped according to game positions. ANOVA one-way was used for comparisons between different positions, followed by Scheffé’s post hoc test, with p < 0.05. Signifi cant differences were detected in body mass (midfielder < goalkeeper, p < 0.01, stature (midfielder < forward and goalkeeper, p < 0.01 and lean body mass (midfi elder < goalkeeper, p < 0.01. No significant differences in motor performance were detected between the athletes studied. The results of this study show that futsal athletes playing in different positions exhibit similar anthropometric and motor performance, in the majority of variables.

  16. Nutrition education intervention for college female athletes.

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    Abood, Doris A; Black, David R; Birnbaum, Rachel D

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention for college female athletes to improve nutrition knowledge, build self-efficacy with respect to making healthful dietary choices, and improve dietary intake. A pretest-posttest control group design was implemented. A women's soccer team (n =15) and a women's swim team (n = 15) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. The intervention focused on nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy in making healthful dietary choices, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and dietary practices. Independent variables were group assignment. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results between groups, and the Fisher exact probability test was used to detect differences between groups in the number of positive dietary changes. Treatment participants significantly improved nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (P nutrition education intervention research among athletes and demonstrates the ability to increase not only nutrition knowledge, which is typically reported, but also self-efficacy and improvement in overall positive dietary changes during an 8-week intervention.

  17. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  18. Analyses of Helsinki 2012 European Athletics Championships injury and illness surveillance to discuss elite athletes risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Depiesse, Frédéric; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    To further analyze newly incurred injuries and illnesses (I&Is) during Athletics International Championships to discuss risk factors. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. The 2012 European Athletics (EA) Championships in Helsinki, Finland. National team and local organizing committee physicians and physiotherapists and 1342 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses. Ninety-three percent of athletes were covered by medical teams, with a response rate of 91%. One hundred thirty-three injuries were reported (incidence of 98.4 injuries per 1000 registered athletes). Sixty-two injuries (47%) resulted in time loss from sport. The most common diagnosis was hamstring strain (11.4% of injuries and 21% of time-loss injuries). Injury risk was higher in males and increased with age. The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle- and long-distance events. Twenty-seven illnesses were reported (4.0 illnesses per 1000 athlete days). The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (33.3%) and gastroenteritis/diarrhea (25.9%). During outdoor EA Championships, injury and illness incidences were slightly lower and injury characteristics were comparable with those during outdoor World Athletics Championships. During elite athletics Championships, gender (male), age (older than 30 years), finals, and some events (combined events and middle- and long-distance races) seem to be injury risk factors. Illness risk factors remain unclear. As in previous recommendations, preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries, hamstring strains, and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries, decreasing risk of infectious diseases transmission, appropriate event scheduling, sports clothes, and heat acclimatization.

  19. The Female Athlete Triad: A Metabolic Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B. Loucks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The Female Athlete Triad (Triad is a syndrome in which low energy availability triggers a broad range of endocrine mechanisms that conserve energy expenditure, and thereby impairs reproductive and skeletal health.  Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other physiological functions each day.  The specific kind of reproductive dysfunctions caused by low energy availability are functional hypothalamic menstrual disorders.  To ensure that affected athletes receive appropriate care, endocrine tests are required to diagnose these disorders by the exclusion of other types of menstrual disorders unrelated to the Triad.  In addition, low energy availability impairs skeletal health by uncoupling bone turnover, in which the rate of bone resorption increases while the rate of bone formation declines.  The result is a progressive loss or failure to accrue bone mass, which increases the risks of stress fractures and osteoporosis.  Low energy availability originates in one or more of three sources:  restrictive eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa; intentional efforts to lose body weight or body fat to improve athletic performance or appearance; and the inadvertent suppression of appetite by exercise and diets containing a high percentage of carbohydrates.  It is necessary to know the origin of low energy availability in a particular athlete in order to intervene effectively with her.  The key behavior modification for preventing and treating the Triad is to increase energy availability, either by increasing dietary energy intake, reducing exercise energy expenditure, or both.  Guidelines for doing so are provided. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5

  20. Parameters of anaerobic physiological profile of elite athletes

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    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anaerobic capacity is much less evaluated in literature compared to aerobic component. Anaerobic performance of athletes can be measured using different motoric tests, lasting 20 to 30 seconds, one of them being the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the work performed and power generated by athletes and non-athletes during a 30-second high intensity exercise, as well as to compare explosive characteristics of subjects using a new parameter of WAnT, named explosive power, or slope of power. Methods. All parameters of anaerobic power were investigated in 152 subjects classed into different groups depending on their physical fitness and sport specialties as follows: non-athletes (n=31, rowers (n=26, volleyball players (n=37, handball players (n=34 and judo players (n=24. The WAnT, as well as basic anthropometric measurements, was administrated to all participants. Results. Values of anaerobic parameters were higher in the group of athletes compared to physically inactive subjects. The highest values of the WAnT parameters were registered in the group of volleyball players (AP=1006 W; relative AP=11.4 W/ kg, AC=19.8 kJ, compared to athletes of other sport disciplines (volleyball, rowing and judo. The new parameter of the WAnT, explosive power, also showed highest values in volleyball players (EP=154 W/s; relative EP=1.74 W/s/kg. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. The results of laboratory tests can provide useful information on improvements in training processes. The new parameter of the WAnT could be implemented in further analyses of explosive characteristics of muscle contraction.

  1. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  2. Developing Competitive Excellence in the Talented Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenhaus, Kevin J.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the historical development of female participation in sports, then identifies the unique issues associated with women's struggles for athletic acceptance and competitive excellence. Topics discussed include talent recognition and development, sex roles and socialization, physiology and maturation, coaching the female athlete,…

  3. Aetiology and prevention of injuries in elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation confers many varied benefits in children and adolescents, such as self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility and strength. Nevertheless, the age of initiation of intense training is decreasing and programmes which expose children to excessive amounts of exercise increase the risk of injury. We review sports injuries in young athletes and the long-term outcomes. Sports injuries can lead to disturbances in growth such as limb length discrepancy, caused by traumatised physeal growth induced by injury. Osgood-Schlatter lesion may also cause some sequelae such as painful ossicles in the distal patellar tendon. The apophysis can be fragmentised or separated, and this could be an adaptive change to the increased stress typical of overuse activities. These changes produce an osseous reaction even though they are not disabling. Participation in physical exercise at a young age should be encouraged, because of the health benefits, but decreasing the incidence and severity of sports injuries in young athletes is an important component of any athletic programme and may generate a long-term economic impact in health care costs. Active prevention measures are the main weapon to decrease the (re-)injury rate and to increase athletic performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy on performance outcomes in elite paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A G; Barker, J B; Turner, M J; Sheffield, D

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological well-being of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. This study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes. Using a single-case research design, eight athletes recruited from the same Paralympic sport (M=40.12, SD=12.99) received five, one-to-one REBT sessions. Measures of irrational beliefs were collected weekly, whereas the remaining psychological and physiological measures were collected at a pre-, post-, and at a 9-month follow-up time point. Visual and statistical analyzes of the data indicates reductions in irrational beliefs were coupled with reductions in systolic blood pressure indicative of an adaptive physiological response, improved athletic performance during competition simulations, and reductions in avoidance goals. Furthermore, social validation data indicated greater self-awareness, emotional control, and enhanced focus during competition as a result of the REBT intervention. This study contributes to growing literature supporting the efficacy of REBT as an intervention that not only facilitates psychological health but also enhances athletic performance. Results are discussed with reference to theory, limitations, and future recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  6. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  7. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2018-02-01

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  8. Objectifying Tactics: Athlete and Race Variability in Elite Short-Track Speed Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Marco J; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2018-02-01

    To objectively capture and understand tactical considerations in a race, the authors explored whether race-to-race variation of an athlete and the variation of competitors within a race could provide insight into how and when athletes modify their pacing decisions in response to other competitors. Lap times of elite 500-, 1000-, and 1500-m short-track speed-skating competitions from 2011 to 2016 (N = 6965 races) were collected. Log-transformed lap and finishing times were analyzed with mixed linear models. To determine within-athlete race-to-race variability, athlete identity (between-athletes differences) and the residual (within-athlete race-to-race variation) were added as random effects. To determine race variability, race identity (between-races differences) and the residual (within-race variation) were added as random effects. Separate analyses were performed for each event. Within-athlete race-to-race variability of the finishing times increased with prolonged distance of the event (500-m, CV = 1.6%; 1000-m, CV = 2.8%; 1500-m, CV = 4.1%), mainly due to higher within-athlete race-to-race variability in the initial phase of 1000-m (3.3-6.9%) and 1500-m competitions (8.7-12.2%). During these early stages, within-race variability is relatively low in 1000-m (1.1-1.4%) and 1500-m (1.3-2.8%) competitions. The present study demonstrated how analyses of athlete and race variability could provide insight into tactical pacing decisions in sports where finishing position is emphasized over finishing time. The high variability of short-track skaters is a result of the decision to alter initial pacing behavior based on the behavior of other competitors in their race, emphasizing the importance of athlete-environment interactions in the context of pacing.

  9. CAFFEINE INTAKE ENHANCES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN SUB-ELITE BUT NOT IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Smolka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution is to evaluate the influence of caffeine (CAF ingestion on maximal power output (MPO during endurance performance. Two groups of men – 10 sub-elite cyclists and 8 elite cyclists completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Over the course of three days participants completed three identical experimental tests (60min cycling time trial on 70 % VO2max followed by test to exhaustion. Three experimental meals - a combination of 500ml water, a gel supplement and a specific dose of CAF: a placebo (PLA, no caffeine, CAF2 (2 mg / kg body weight (BW and CAF7 (7 mg / kg BW were administered 45min prior to the start of the experimental tests. Subjective RPE values were determined using the Borg 20-category scale. The results show significant differences between MPOPLA and MPOCAF7 and between MPOCAF2 and MPOCAF7 with p = 0.018 and p = 0.019, respectively, in the sub-elite cyclists group only. The mean MPO during experimental test in sub-elite cyclists, but not in elite cyclists, was significantly enhanced following caffeine ingestion (p = 0.05. These findings indicate that caffeine intake at recommended levels is not associated with improved performance in a professional level cyclist. The results of the comparison of the experimental situations using the Borg scale are not persuasive. We found a significant difference (0.008356 between the PLA and CAF2 experimental measurements (p < 0.05. The level of substantive significance was assessed using Cohen’s coefficient effect and only a small “size of effect” (0.19 was found. It is therefore not possible to determine whether the Borg scale might be used to define the effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance, due to the multifactorial effects of caffeine.

  10. Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Pope, Harrison G; Cléret, Léa; Petróczi, Andrea; Nepusz, Tamás; Schaffer, Jay; Kanayama, Gen; Comstock, R Dawn; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown. We surveyed 2167 athletes at two sporting events: the 13th International Association of Athletics Federations Word Championships in Athletics (WCA) in Daegu, South Korea in August 2011 and the 12th Quadrennial Pan-Arab Games (PAG) in Doha, Qatar in December 2011. To estimate the prevalence of doping, we utilized a "randomized response technique," which guarantees anonymity for individuals when answering a sensitive question. We also administered a control question at PAG assessing past-year use of supplements. The estimated prevalence of past-year doping was 43.6% (95% confidence interval 39.4-47.9) at WCA and 57.1% (52.4-61.8) at PAG. The estimated prevalence of past-year supplement use at PAG was 70.1% (65.6-74.7%). Sensitivity analyses, assessing the robustness of these estimates under numerous hypothetical scenarios of intentional or unintentional noncompliance by respondents, suggested that we were unlikely to have overestimated the true prevalence of doping. Doping appears remarkably widespread among elite athletes, and remains largely unchecked despite current biological testing. The survey technique presented here will allow future investigators to generate continued reference estimates of the prevalence of doping.

  11. Multiple factors explain injury risk in adolescent elite athletes: Applying a biopsychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A

    2017-12-01

    Many risk factors for injury are presented in the literature, few of those are however consistent and the majority is associated with adult and not adolescent elite athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors for injury in adolescent elite athletes, by applying a biopsychosocial approach. A total of 496 adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), participating in 16 different sports, were monitored repeatedly over 52 weeks using a valid questionnaire about injuries, training exposure, sleep, stress, nutrition, and competence-based self-esteem. Univariate and multiple Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors for first reported injury. The main finding was that an increase in training load, training intensity, and at the same time decreasing the sleep volume resulted in a higher risk for injury compared to no change in these variables (HR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45, Pself-esteem increased the hazard for injury with 1.02 (HR 95% CI, 1.00-1.04, P=.01). Based on the multiple Cox regression analysis, an athlete having the identified risk factors (Risk Index, competence-based self-esteem), with an average competence-based self-esteem score, had more than a threefold increased risk for injury (HR 3.35), compared to an athlete with a low competence-based self-esteem and no change in sleep or training volume. Our findings confirm injury occurrence as a result of multiple risk factors interacting in complex ways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  13. Women on board: female board membership as a form of elite democratization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Fennema, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate elites have been all-male bastions until the twenty-first century. The recent inclusion of women in the corporate elite needs explanation because it is an abrupt change in recruitment practices. We consider female presence in corporate boards as a sign of the democratization of elite

  14. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability. RESULTS: SFHA athletes had lower estrogen (0.12 ±0.03 vs. 0.17 ±0.09 nmol/L, ptriiodothyronine (T3) (1.4 ±0.2 vs. 1.7 ±0.3 nmol/L, p

  15. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid-Base Status in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Sharma, Avish P; Ross, Megan L; Welvaert, Marijke; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-18

    Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃ - ) and lactate (La - ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female) elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO₃ - ], and blood [La - ] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48-72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO₃ - ], or [La - ], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day -1 ) (95% CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid-base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid-base status than nutritional intake.

  16. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Carr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although short (up to 3 days exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate [HCO3−] and lactate [La−] in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9, PCHO (n = 7, or HCHO (n = 8 under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3−], and blood [La−] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3−], or [La−], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day−1 (95% CI = (10.44; 36.04. Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.

  17. Body composition of elite female players in five different sports games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Lucia; Maly, Tomas; Zahalka, František; Bunc, Vaclav; Kaplan, Ales; Jebavy, Radim; Tuma, Martin

    2015-03-29

    The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC) variables in elite female athletes (age ± years): volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1), softball (23.6 ± 4.9), basketball (25.9 ± 4.2), soccer (23.2 ± 4.2) and handball (24.0 ± 3.5) players. Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α), and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05). Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01). The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer). The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer). Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  18. Body Composition of Elite Female Players in Five Different Sports Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC variables in elite female athletes (age ± years: volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1, softball (23.6 ± 4.9, basketball (25.9 ± 4.2, soccer (23.2 ± 4.2 and handball (24.0 ± 3.5 players. Fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP, body cell mass (BCM, extracellular mass (ECM, their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α, and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05. Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01. The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer. The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer. Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  19. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.; Dragoni, S.

    2005-01-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  20. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Dragoni, S. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Medicina dello Sport, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  1. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  2. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  3. Respiratory health of elite athletes - preventing airway injury: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established.

  4. Respiratory health of elite athletes – preventing airway injury: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established. PMID:22522585

  5. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Scott C; McKean, Kelly A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2007-11-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during a non-contact athletic maneuver. Identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in female athletes may help with the development of preventive training programs aimed at reducing injury rates. Differences between genders in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular patterns will be identified in an adolescent soccer population during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two elite adolescent soccer players (21 male and 21 female) performed an unanticipated side-cut maneuver, with the 3-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic lower limb data being analyzed using principal component analysis. The female athletes had higher gastrocnemius activity, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and a mediolateral gastrocnemius activation imbalance that was not present in the male athletes during early stance to midstance of the side-cut. Female athletes demonstrated greater rectus femoris muscle activity throughout stance, and the only hamstring difference identified was a mediolateral activation imbalance in male athletes only. Female athletes performed the side-cut with less hip flexion and more hip external rotation and also generated a smaller hip flexion moment compared with the male athletes. This is the first study to identify gender-related differences in gastrocnemius muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting maneuver. The increased and imbalanced gastrocnemius muscle activity, combined with increased rectus femoris muscle activity and reduced hip flexion angles and moments in female subjects, may all have important contributing roles in the higher noncontact ACL injury rates observed in female athletes.

  6. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  7. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  8. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  9. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, N S; Gibbs, E L; Matheson, G O

    2017-03-01

    Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e.g., illness and injury risk, and weight maintenance) have all been shown to be negatively affected by insufficient sleep or experimentally modeled sleep restriction. However, healthy adults are notoriously poor at self-assessing the magnitude of the impact of sleep loss, underscoring the need for increased awareness of the importance of sleep among both elite athletes and practitioners managing their care. Strategies to optimize sleep quality and quantity in athletes include approaches for expanding total sleep duration, improving sleep environment, and identifying potential sleep disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  11. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2018-03-15

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  12. Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, N N; Stentoft, D; Flattum, A; Côté, J; Karbing, D S

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have found significant differences in the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete depending on community population sizes and densities, an effect known as the place of early development, or birthplace effect. However, the results have not been consistent between sports or European countries. As both professional and voluntary clubs are vital to the talent development systems in Europe, the proximity of an athlete's place of early development to the location of talent clubs may be an important predictor of the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the place of early development effect and the effect of proximity to talent clubs. The samples included elite youth league athletes (579 football and 311 handball) and national youth athletes (85 football and 80 handball) and a comparison group of 147 221 football and 26 290 handball youth athletes. Odds ratios showed variations in the optimal community size and density across sports. Geospatial analyses of proximity to talent clubs highlighted a trend indicating that most national and elite youth league athletes in both sports had their place of early development in their sport near a talent club. The results suggest that proximity is an important predictor in the development of expertise across sports, but future studies need to clarify if proximity is important in other countries and sports. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 25(OHD Status of Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Relative to Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Pritchett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OHD levels. The purposes of this study were to examine: (1 the seasonal proportion of vitamin D insufficiency among elite athletes with SCI; and (2 to determine whether lifestyle factors, SCI lesion level, and muscle performance/function are related to vitamin D status in athletes with SCI. Methods: Thirty-nine members of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association, and the US Olympic Committee Paralympic program from outdoor and indoor sports were recruited for this study. Dietary and lifestyle factors, and serum 25(OHD concentrations were assessed during the autumn (October and winter (February/March. An independent t-test was used to assess differences in 25(OHD status among seasons, and indoor and outdoor sports in the autumn and winter, respectively. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OHD concentration was 69.6 ± 19.7 nmol/L (range from 30 to 107.3 nmol/L and 67.4 ± 25.5 nmol/L (range from 20 to 117.3 nmol/Lin the autumn and winter, respectively. In the autumn, 15.4% of participants were considered vitamin D deficient (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L whereas 51.3% had 25(OHD concentrations that would be considered insufficient (<80 nmol/L. In the winter, 15.4% were deficient while 41% of all participants were considered vitamin D insufficient. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with SCI have insufficient (41%–51% and deficient (15.4% 25(OHD status in the autumn and winter. Furthermore, a seasonal decline in vitamin D status was not observed in the current study.

  14. Comparison of athlete-coach perceptions of internal and external load markers for elite junior tennis training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis. Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P coach and athlete. However, athlete drill RPE (P = .14; r = .71) and mental exertion (P = .44; r = .68) were comparable and substantially correlated. No significant differences in estimated stroke count were evident between athlete and coach (P = .21), athlete notational analysis (P = .06), or coach notational analysis (P = .49). Coaches estimated significantly greater unforced errors than either athletes or notational analysis (P coach RPE was explained by intended session exertion and coach drill RPE, while drill RPE and peak HR explained 45.3% of the variance in athlete session RPE. Coaches misinterpreted session RPE but not drill RPE, while inaccurately monitoring error counts. Improved understanding of external- and internal-load monitoring may help coach-athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.

  15. The LEAF questionnaire: a screening tool for the identification of female athletes at risk for the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Tornberg, Asa B; Skouby, Sven; Faber, Jens; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-04-01

    Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to detect disordered eating behaviour (DE), but no validated screening tool to detect persistent low EA and Triad conditions, with or without DE/ED, is available. The aim of this observational study was to develop and test a screening tool designed to identify female athletes at risk for the Triad. Female athletes (n=84) with 18-39 years of age and training ≥5 times/week filled out the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), which comprised questions regarding injuries and gastrointestinal and reproductive function. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated in a subsample of female dancers and endurance athletes (n=37). Discriminant as well as concurrent validity was evaluated by testing self-reported data against measured current EA, menstrual function and bone health in endurance athletes from sports such as long distance running and triathlon (n=45). The 25-item LEAF-Q produced an acceptable sensitivity (78%) and specificity (90%) in order to correctly classify current EA and/or reproductive function and/or bone health. The LEAF-Q is brief and easy to administer, and relevant as a complement to existing validated DE screening instruments, when screening female athletes at risk for the Triad, in order to enable early detection and intervention.

  16. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack M; Mohr, Magni

    2010-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood lactate was 5.1 +/- 0.5 mmol.L after the first half, which was higher (p game, which was 62% lower (p game, which was 4% slower (p game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both at rest (r = -0.76, p game (r = -0.66, p game does cause marked impairment in intense intermittent exercise and repeated sprint performance but does not affect vertical jump performance. These findings support the notion that decrements in distance covered by sprinting and high-speed running toward the end of elite female games are caused by fatigue.

  17. Periodization and physical performance in elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L; Ball, Nick B

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the variation in training demands, physical performance, and player well-being across a women's soccer season. Seventeen elite female players wore GPS tracking devices during every training session (N=90) throughout 1 national-league season. Intermittent high-speed-running capacity and 5-, 15-, and 25-m-sprint testing were conducted at the beginning of preseason, end of preseason, midseason, and end of season. In addition, subjective well-being measures were self-reported daily by players over the course of the season. Time over 5 m was lowest at the end of preseason (mean 1.148 s, SE 0.017 s) but then progressively deteriorated to the end of the season (Pperformance over 15 m improved by 2.8% (P=.013) after preseason training, while 25-m-sprint performance peaked at midseason, with a 3.1% (P=.05) improvement from the start of preseason, before declining at the end of season (P=.023). Training demands varied between phases, with total distance and high-speed distance greatest during preseason before decreasing (Pphysical performance in elite female soccer players allow coaches to ensure that training periodization goals are being met and related positive training adaptations are being elicited.

  18. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Athletes completed a demographic, health and sport questionnaire; pathogenic body weight control questionnaire; menstrual history questionnaire; four 24-hour dietary recalls and one three-day diet and exercise record form. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual ...

  19. Anthropometric and motor performance profile of elite futsal athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the anthropometric and motor performance profile of futsal (indoor soccer athletes in the second and third-placed teams in the Parana state championships (Brazil. Anthropometric (body mass, stature and skinfolds thickness and motor performance (modified abdominal test, shuttle run, race of 30 m and 40 s measures were obtained from twenty-seven male athletes (24.7 ± 6.4 years; 73.6 ± 7.6 kg; 174.8 ± 6.6 cm. For data analysis, athletes were grouped according to game positions. ANOVA one-way was used for comparisons between different positions, followed by Scheffé’s post hoc test, with p ABSTRACT Este estudo objetivou identificar o perfil antropométrico e o desempenho motor de atletas de futsal masculino, pertencentes às equipes finalistas do campeonato paranaense da categoria adulto, chave ouro. Para tanto, coletou-se medidas antropométricas (massa corporal, estatura e espessura de dobras cutâneas e de desempenho motor (testes abdominal modificado, shuttle run, corrida de 30 m e corrida de 40 s de vinte e sete atletas (24,7 ± 6,4 anos; 73,6 ± 7,6 kg; 174,8 ± 6,6 cm, do sexo masculino. Para a análise dos dados, agrupou-se os atletas de acordo com a posição de jogo. Anova one-way foi empregada para as comparações entre os jogadores das diferentes posições, seguida pelo teste post hoc de Scheffé, com P < 0,05. Verificou-se diferença signifi cante entre os jogadores de diferentes posições de jogo nas variáveis: massa corporal (alas < goleiros, P < 0,01, estatura (alas < pivôs e goleiros, P < 0,01 e massa corporal magra (alas < goleiros, P < 0,01. Não foram observadas diferenças significantes entre os jogadores das diferentes posições de jogo nas variáveis de desempenho motor. Os resultados encontrados no presente estudo sugerem que atletas de futsal apresentam, na maioria das variáveis analisadas, características antropométricas e de desempenho motor semelhantes entre

  20. The Prevalence of Grass Pollen-Related Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in Elite Amateur Irish Athletes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grace, M

    2016-09-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR\\/C), has been shown to impact upon athletic performance. The championships of the unique, amateur Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football (collectively known as GAA) take place during the prime pollen months of summer. Elite GAA players must perform optimally when most exposed to pollen. Elite GAA subjects (n=254) underwent skin prick testing to 6 aeroallergens and completed a validated questionnaire (AQUA), producing a score indicating likelihood of having allergy. The prevalence of allergy (positive to at least one aeroallergen on SPT and positive AQUA score) was 27.1% (n=69). Sixteen and a half percent (n=42) of the subjects tested had grass pollen AR\\/C while 22% (n=54) had house dust mite AR\\/C, though none were on standard medical therapies or had used allergen-specific immunotherapy. Grass pollen AR\\/C prevalence appears as common in elite Irish athletes as it is in other countries. It appears to be mild rather than well controlled in these subjects.

  1. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes : Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-trained elite athletes differ from the general population in being considerably more physically active and by other lifestyle characteristics including intensive training routines and periodisation of their training programs. Hence, adequate intake of energy and

  2. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  3. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  4. A population study of urine glycerol concentrations in elite athletes competing in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian N; Madsen, Myke; Sharpe, Ken; Nair, Vinod; Eichner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an endogenous substance that is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited threshold substances due to its potential use as a plasma volume expansion agent. The WADA has set the threshold for urine glycerol, including measurement uncertainty, at 1.3 mg/mL. Glycerol in circulation largely comes from metabolism of triglycerides in order to meet energy requirements and when the renal threshold is eclipsed, glycerol is excreted into urine. In part due to ethnic differences in postprandial triglyceride concentrations, we investigated urine glycerol concentrations in a population of elite athletes competing in North America and compared the results to those of athletes competing in Europe. 959 urine samples from elite athletes competing in North America collected for anti-doping purposes were analyzed for urine glycerol concentrations by a gas chromatography mass-spectrometry method. Samples were divided into groups according to: Timing (in- or out-of-competition), Class (strength, game, or endurance sports) and Gender. 333 (34.7%) samples had undetectable amounts of glycerol (sport classes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparison of Static Balance and the Role of Vision in Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Raouf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP on a force platform during a 30 s bipedal quiet standing posture in 4 conditions: firm surface with opened and closed eyes, foam surface with opened and closed eyes. Three-factor ANOVA indicated a significant main effect for groups (F=21.69, df=2, p0.05. The nature of the sport practiced and the absence of visual control are linked to modify static balance in elite athletes. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are recommended to use a variety of exercises to improve balance, including both exercises with opened and closed eyes on progressively challenging surfaces in order to make decisions about tasks and sensory availability during assessment and training.

  6. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dental trauma incidence and mouthguard use in elite athletes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeci, Ayşe Diljin; Eroglu, Erdal; Baydar, Metin Lütfi

    2005-04-01

    Contact sports may lead to dental trauma, which often can be reduced with appropriate preventive measures. While numerous studies exist on this topic for several countries throughout the world, there is a lack of comprehensive descriptive studies in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of dental injuries associated with three different sports among Turkish elite athletes, who do not contact (volleyball), contact directly (taekwondo) or indirectly (handball) with competition rivals. Additionally, awareness and use of mouthguards were also compared. Thus, during the 2003 and 2004 Turkish National Championships in three sports, 50 taekwondo, 62 handball and 50 volleyball male athletes were interviewed by questionnaire. Results showed that taekwondo and handball athletes experienced significantly more dental trauma than volleyball athletes (P Awareness of mouthguards as a preventive measure against dental trauma was significantly higher among taekwondo and handball athletes (P competitors and indirect contact with rival competitors was not significantly different. The incidence of dental trauma in contact sports shows that the awareness and use of mouthguards must be intensified. Mouthguard use should be made compulsory, especially in those sports with high risk for dental trauma.

  8. Too little sleep and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of sustaining a new injury in adolescent elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about health variables and if these variables could increase the risk of injuries among adolescent elite athletes. The primary aim was to present overall data on self-perceived stress, nutrition intake, self-esteem, and sleep, as well as gender and age differences, on two occasions among adolescent elite athletes. A secondary aim was to study these health variables as potential risk factors on injury incidence. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 340 adolescent elite athletes on two occasions during a single school year: autumn semester and spring semester. The results show that during autumn semester, the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish was not met for 20%, 39%, and 43% of the adolescent elite athletes, respectively. The recommended amount of sleep during weekdays was not obtained by 19%. Multiple logistic regression showed that athletes sleeping more than 8 h of sleep during weekdays reduced the odds of injury with 61% (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.99) and athletes reaching the recommended nutrition intake reduced the odds with 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.91). Our findings suggest that nutrition intake and sleep volume are of importance in understanding injury incidence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Subjective Assessment of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Poor Sleep Quality Amongst Elite Japanese Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Masako; Uchida, Sunao; Hirano, Yuichi

    2018-02-26

    The amount, quality, and timing of sleep are considered important for athletes' ability to train, maximize training responses, and recover. However, some research has shown that elite athletes do not obtain sufficient sleep. Based on this background, researchers recently started to assess and manage sleep in elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors amongst elite Japanese athletes. Eight hundred and ninety-one candidates for the 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014, who were over 20 years old, participated in this study. They completed a questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, two-question case-finding instruments, and a checklist for sleep hygiene. Data from 817 of the 891 athletes (91.7%) with no missing values were analyzed. The mean time in bed was 7 h and 29 min. Two hundred and twenty-nine (28.0%) athletes showed a PSQI global score above the clinical criteria. A multiple logistic analysis revealed that sleep quality was significantly associated with five factors: "time in bed," "eating breakfast every morning," "avoiding the use of electronic devices (PC, smartphone, etc.) just before bedtime," "depressive mood", and "not thinking about troubles while in bed." Forty percent of athletes reported they had been informed by someone about "snoring loudly" and/or "leg twitching or jerking during sleep." The results of this study demonstrate that 28% of the athletes showed the PSQI score above the cutoff for poor sleep quality (> 5.5), which suggests that there may be a high prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population of athletes. To improve athletes' sleep, the five factors associated with sleep quality should be emphasized in athletes' sleep education. Furthermore, in medical evaluations of athletes, it may be desirable to include screening for sleep disorders.

  10. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  11. Match Performance and Physiological Capacity of Female Elite Team Handball Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches...

  12. A cross-national comparison of the transition out of elite sport of Swiss, Danish and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the transition out of elite sport of former Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes in terms of (a) preconditions of retirement, (b) the transitional and adaptation period, and (c) consequences of the transition. The sample consisted of 231 Swiss, 86 Danish...... athletes relocated mainly in jobs connected to the sport and thus rated their previous sport network as more important for finding an occupation compared to Swiss and Danish athletes. Based on our results and in line with findings of previous cross-national studies, we emphasize that it is important...... from the three countries. Athletes differed significantly in their educational level, their athletic identity, and their working experience while active in the sport. Swiss athletes experienced the least distress during the transition, while Polish athletes reported the highest difficulties. Polish...

  13. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Lori; May, April C; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N; Hickman, Steven D; Liu, Thomas T; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes' ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1) elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2) greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3) increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; (4) increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale identifying feelings subscale; (5) decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the right medial frontal cortex and the ACC. Taken together, this pilot study suggests that mPEAK training may lead to increased attention to bodily signals and greater neural processing during the anticipation and recovery from interoceptive perturbations. This association between attention to and processing of interoceptive afferents may result in greater adaptation during stressful situations in elite athletes.

  14. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mesut Çelebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  15. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  16. Comparing interventions with youth and senior elite athletes: Insights from expert sport psychology practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Louise Kamuk; Henriksen, Kristoffer; Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    Meaningful sport psychology practice requires a context-sensitive approach. Competitive youth sport and senior elite (professional) sport can be seen as two different contexts that require different applied approaches; however we know little about the differences, and we are in lack of studies...... that directly compare interventions from these two contexts (Henriksen, Larsen, Storm & Ryom, 2014). Literature on applied sport psychology with senior athletes is far richer than corresponding literature on working with youth athletes. The objectives were: (1) to identify key themes that expert practitioners...... used to communicate their experiences of sport psychology interventions, and to integrate them into an empirical framework, and (2) to explore the experiences of these practitioners in their successful and less successful interventions in youth and senior sports using the framework. Twelve...

  17. The impact of training schedules on the sleep and fatigue of elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Lastella, Michele; Halson, Shona L; Roach, Gregory D

    2014-12-01

    In any sport, successful performance requires a planned approach to training and recovery. While sleep is recognized as an essential component of this approach, the amount and quality of sleep routinely obtained by elite athletes has not been systematically evaluated. Data were collected from 70 nationally ranked athletes from seven different sports. Athletes wore wrist activity monitors and completed self-report sleep/training diaries for 2 weeks during normal training. The athletes also recorded their fatigue level prior to each training session using a 7-point scale. On average, the athletes spent 08:18 ± 01:12 h in bed, fell asleep at 23:06 ± 01:12 h, woke at 6:48 ± 01:30 h and obtained 06:30 ± 01:24 h of sleep per night. There was a marked difference in the athletes' sleep/wake behaviour on training days and rest days. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that on nights prior to training days, time spent in bed was significantly shorter (p = 0.001), sleep onset and offset times were significantly earlier (p sleep obtained was significantly less (p = 0.001), than on nights prior to rest days. Moreover, there was a significant effect of sleep duration on pre-training fatigue levels (p ≤ 0.01). Specifically, shorter sleep durations were associated with higher levels of pre-training fatigue. Taken together, these findings suggest that the amount of sleep an elite athlete obtains is dictated by their training schedule. In particular, early morning starts reduce sleep duration and increase pre-training fatigue levels. When designing schedules, coaches should be aware of the implications of the timing of training sessions for sleep and fatigue. In cases where early morning starts are unavoidable, countermeasures for minimizing sleep loss - such as strategic napping during the day and correct sleep hygiene practices at night - should be considered.

  18. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołaś Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg. The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM, anterior deltoid (AD, as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong. The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002 between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007, 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016 and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032. The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to

  19. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Zwierzchowska, Anna; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Stastny, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to generate

  20. Jumping and Hopping in Elite and Amateur Orienteering Athletes and Correlations to Sprinting and Running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Jensen, Kurt; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlatio...... and rapid generation of high relative maximal forces, especially vertically. These functional measures were more closely related to sprinting and/or running abilities, indicating benefits of lower-body training in orienteering.......PURPOSE: Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations...... with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes. METHODS: We investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations...

  1. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  2. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer, Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McHardy Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form (MPQ-SF, along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39, 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46 and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39. Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42 and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40. A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.

  3. Perceived Sleep Quality, Mood States, and Their Relationship With Performance Among Brazilian Elite Athletes During a Competitive Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Andrade, Alexandro

    2017-04-01

    Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?"). Evaluations of mood state and sleep quality were performed up to 60 minutes before national and international sports competitions began. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including logistic regression) were used to evaluate the relationship of sleep quality and mood states with performance (i.e., winning or losing). Athletes typically had good sleep quality and mood states similar to the Iceberg profile (i.e., high vigor and low tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and mental confusion). The Wald test revealed that sleep, anger, tension, and vigor predicted athletes' performance. Specifically, poor sleep quality and low vigor and anger decreased the odds of winning, whereas higher tension increased these odds. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated that the results were sufficiently generalizable. Overall, we observed a significant relationship between sleep and mood states, which in turn both significantly influenced athletes' sports performance. Thus, coaching staff and athletes should monitor athletes' sleep quality before competitions to ensure athletes are in the optimal condition for performance.

  4. Relationship Between Change of Direction, Speed and Power in Male and Female National Olympic Team Handball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas A; Nimphius, Sophia; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Turisco, Luiz A L; Orsi, Rita C; Cal Abad, César Cs; Loturco, Irineu

    2018-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) assess the relationship between selected speed-power related abilities (determined by 20-m sprint, unloaded countermovement and squat jumps [CMJ and SJ] and loaded jump squat [JS]) and performance in two distinct change of direction (COD) protocols (Zigzag and T-Test), and (2) determine the magnitude of difference between female and male Brazilian National Olympic Team handball athletes. Fifteen male and twenty-three female elite handball athletes volunteered to perform the following assessments: SJ and CMJ; Zigzag and T-Test; 20-m sprint with 5-, 10-, and 20-m splits, and mean propulsive power (MPP) in JS. Pearson product moment correlation (Phandball athletes.

  5. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  6. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  7. Modern problems of perfection of elite light athletic sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kolot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.

  8. Modern problems of perfection of elite light athletic sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolot A.V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.

  9. Anorexia, bulimia, and the female athlete triad: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Felicia A; Warren, Michelle P

    2010-03-01

    The female athlete triad is an increasingly prevalent condition involving disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. An athlete can suffer from all 3 components of the triad, or just 1 or 2 of the individual conditions. The main element underlying all the aspects of the triad is an adaptation to a negative caloric balance. Screening for these disorders should be an important component of an athlete's care. Prevention and treatment should involve a team approach, including a physician, a nutritionist, and a mental health provider. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  11. The Comparison of Body Image Between Athletes and Non-Athletes Postmenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare and contrastthe sub-scale of the body image of the athletes and nonathlete menopaused females. Methods & Materials: The subjects of the research comprise 60 individuals who were between 43-53 years old. In this study the personalinformation questionnaire and PSDQ test were used.The Personal information questionnaire included the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body appearance and, body activity. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov and T test used to analys data . Results: The results showed that the body image of the athletes in all of the sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and whole body was significantly better than individuals who were not athletes. Conclusion: It seems that participation in physical activity programs have a positive effect on menopausal negative side effects.

  12. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  13. Impact of Gatorade Beverage on Elite Female Badminton Players’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Mehraein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports beverages assumed as one the principle factor on players' performance, and impact on their indicators, noticeably. Gatorade beverage is one of this primary beverages that in present study focused on its impact on elite female badminton players' performance in Iran. In the present survey has been considered in 2 groups of Gatorade and control that included 79 participants. The data has been got based on 24 hours’ recall questionnaire on three different days in every week. As well, skin folds’ brachial triceps index was applied for body fat percent assessment. To quantity VO2max, Shuttle runs sub-maximal test was used. Also, for controlling fluid intake in every two groups based on players’ body weight,150 ml per every 70 kg weight for every 15 minutes was recommended. Besides, for control of blood volume changes related to plasma blood glucose, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, and potassium was measured during three time periods of zero, 30 minutes after the start and 90 minutes after the start. To end, to measure performance, standardized tests measure the indicators: aerobic power, speed, flexibilityy, agility, muscular strength, and endurance were used. The results showed that supply adequate water and fluids in during of sport, play a critical role in gaining the high level of female badminton players’ performance. In truth, the players who supply enough water shown better performance as compared with those who provide Gatorade beverage.

  14. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  15. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  16. Caffeine improves muscular performance in elite Brazilian Jiu-jitsu athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; García, Jose Manuel; Portillo, Luis J; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Scientific information about the effects of caffeine intake on combat sport performance is scarce and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of caffeine to improve Brazilian Jiu-jitsu (BJJ)-specific muscular performance. Fourteen male and elite BJJ athletes (29.2 ± 3.3 years; 71.3 ± 9.1 kg) participated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover experiment. In two different sessions, BJJ athletes ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. After 60 min, they performed a handgrip maximal force test, a countermovement jump, a maximal static lift test and bench-press tests consisting of one-repetition maximum, power-load, and repetitions to failure. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeine increased: hand grip force in both hands (50.9 ± 2.9 vs. 53.3 ± 3.1 kg; respectively p caffeine also increased the one-repetition maximum (90.5 ± 7.7 vs. 93.3 ± 7.5 kg; p = .02), maximal power obtained during the power-load test (750.5 ± 154.7 vs. 826.9 ± 163.7 W; p caffeine increased dynamic and isometric muscular force, power, and endurance strength in elite BJJ athletes. Thus, caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in BJJ.

  17. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (<18 yr) ate less often, especially their morning snack, than the older athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  18. Personality of Elite Male and Female Chess Players and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstadt-Klein, Sabine; Grimm, Oliver; Kirsch, Peter; Bilalic, Merim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas a lot of studies examine cognitive processes in chess players, personality profiles of elite chess players are still not described well. The aim of this study was to examine personality of strong chess experts and its influence on chess skill. We tested elite male and female chess players with Freiburg Personality Inventory Revised…

  19. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk

  20. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knufinke, M.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mø st, E.I.S.; Maase, K.; Moen, M.H.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage

  1. Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological “architecture” of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a brief overview of the literature around the field of excellence, focused on the sport's context. Thus, the main approaches to the study of excellence were presented and then some important factors in its development and maintenance were sought considering a set of social and personal dimensions. Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture". The characterization of these athletes included a number of consensual factors and strategies, such as high levels of motivation, commitment, concentration, and self-confidence, as well as the use of adaptive coping strategies, self-regulation, goal-setting and mental imagery. Although these results show some consistency in terms of research, it is still unsolved the issue of the weight and importance of each one of these factors and how such factors are combined in order to "produce" excellent performances.

  2. Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

     Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates.  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports.  Randomized, controlled clinical trial.  Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season.  The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program.  Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball).  The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions

  3. Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina

    and reduced EA, as well as those with oligomenorrhea/FHA, had lower RMR compared to those with either current optimal EA or eumenorrheic athletes. Furthermore, athletes with secondary FHA had increased work efficiency compared to eumenorrheic subjects, indicating a more profound metabolic adaptation in female...... athletes with clinical menstrual dysfunction. All three Triad conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range and body composition. Furthermore, issues and physiological symptoms related to current low and reduced EA and oligomenorrhea/FHA were not limited to impaired bone...... health, but also included hypoglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypotension. The results indicated that diets lower in energy density, fat content, compact carbohydrate-rich foods and energy-containing drinks, together with higher fibre content, were associated with current low and reduced EA...

  4. Warm-up Practices in Elite Boxing Athletes: Impact on Power Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Brian; Ellison, Mark; Loosemore, Mike; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Cunniffe, B, Ellison, M, Loosemore, M, and Cardinale, M. Warm-up practices in elite boxing athletes: Iimpact on power output. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 95-105, 2017-This study evaluated the performance impact of routine warm-up strategies in elite Olympic amateur boxing athletes and physiological implications of the time gap (GAP) between warm-up and boxing activity. Six male boxers were assessed while performing standardized prefight warm-up routines. Core and skin temperature measurements (Tcore and Tskin), heart rate, and upper- and lower-body power output (PO) were assessed before and after warm-up, during a 25-minutes GAP and after 3 × 2 minutes rounds of sparring. Reflected temperature (Tc) was also determined using high-resolution thermal images at fixed time-points to explore avenues for heat loss. Despite individual differences in warm-up duration (range 7.4-18.5 minutes), increases in Tcore and Tskin occurred (p ≤ 0.05). Corresponding increases (4.8%; p ≤ 0.05) in countermovement jump (CMJ) height and upward-rightward shifts in upper-body force-velocity and power-velocity curves were observed. Athletes remained inactive during the 25-minutes GAP with a gradual and significant increase in Tc occurring by the end of GAP suggesting the likelihood of heat loss. Decreases in CMJ height and upper-body PO were observed after 15 minutes and 25 minutes GAP (p ≤ 0.05). By the end of GAP period, all performance variables had returned to pre-warm-up values. Results suggest routine warm-ups undertaken by elite boxers have acute effects on power-generating capacity. Gradual decreases in performance variables are evident with inactivity and seem related to alterations in body temperature. Considering the constraints of major competitions and time spent in air conditioned holding areas before fights, practitioners should be aware of the potential of nullifying the warm-up effects.

  5. The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review

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    Bacciotti Sarita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts’ anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i a common physique and (ii the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review. Most studies identified similar physiques based on: physical traits (small size and low body mass, a body type (predominance of ecto-mesomorphy, body composition (low fat mass, and maturity status (late skeletal maturity as well as late age-at-menarche. However, there was no consensus as to whether these features predicted competitive performance, or even differentiated between gymnasts within distinctive competitive levels. In conclusion, gymnasts, as a group, have unique pronounced characteristics. These characteristics are likely due to selection for naturally-occurring inherited traits. However, data available for world class competitions were mostly outdated and sample sizes were small. Thus, it was difficult to make any conclusions about whether physiques differed between particular competitive levels.

  6. The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts' anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i) a common physique and (ii) the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review. Most studies identified similar physiques based on: physical traits (small size and low body mass), a body type (predominance of ecto-mesomorphy), body composition (low fat mass), and maturity status (late skeletal maturity as well as late age-at-menarche). However, there was no consensus as to whether these features predicted competitive performance, or even differentiated between gymnasts within distinctive competitive levels. In conclusion, gymnasts, as a group, have unique pronounced characteristics. These characteristics are likely due to selection for naturally-occurring inherited traits. However, data available for world class competitions were mostly outdated and sample sizes were small. Thus, it was difficult to make any conclusions about whether physiques differed between particular competitive levels.

  7. Environmental influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold

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    Aoife A. Donnelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognised, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Dual Career Environments for Elite Athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was (a) to provide an overview of the provided dual career opportunities for elite athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland; (b) to deepen our understanding of how the cultural context influences the development of dual career programs and trajectories...... trajectories were proposed to dual career athletes as the desired way how to combine elite sport and education. Based on the results of our cross-cultural comparison, we assert that culture is not only an influential but also a constituting factor in the development of dual career opportunities. Conclusions...... of dual career athletes. Methods: In each country, four semi-structured interviews with key informants involved in dual career were used to discuss benefits, obstacles, and best practices of the national dual career settings and programs. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed...

  9. Relationship Between General Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Quality in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, Inge; Heaney, Susan E; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and diet quality by an adapted version of the Australian Recommended Food Score (A-ARFS) calculated from food frequency questionnaire data. Analysis of variance and linear modeling were used to assess relationships between variables. mean (Standard Deviation). A total of 101 athletes (Males: 37; Females: 64), 18.6 (4.6) years were recruited mainly from team sports (72.0%). Females scored higher than males for both nutrition knowledge (Females: 59.9%; Males: 55.6%; p = .017) and total A-ARFS (Females: 54.2% Males: 49.4%; p = .016). There was no significant influence of age, level of education, athletic caliber or team/individual sport participation on nutrition knowledge or total A-ARFS. However, athletes engaged in previous dietetic consultation had significantly higher nutrition knowledge (61.6% vs. 56.6%; p = .034) but not total A-ARFS (53.6% vs. 52.0%; p = .466). Nutrition knowledge was weakly but positively associated with total A-ARFS (r = .261, p= .008) and A-ARFS vegetable subgroup (r = .252, p = .024) independently explaining 6.8% and 5.1% of the variance respectively. Gender independently explained 5.6% of the variance in nutrition knowledge (p= .017) and 6.7% in total A-ARFS (p = .016). Higher nutrition knowledge and female gender were weakly but positively associated with better diet quality. Given the importance of nutrition to health and optimal sports performance, intervention to improve nutrition knowledge and healthy eating is recommended, especially for young male athletes.

  10. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  11. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

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    De Luca Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.

  12. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    introduction to current talent development theories and models is given. Here, the Theory of Deliberate Practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993), the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2007), the Lifespan Model (Wylleman & Reints, 2010), and the normative transitions.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...... by an introduction to mixed methods, namely the ontology, epistemology, and methodology of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to obtain data about the phenomenon under scrutiny, and it is defined, which methodological standpoint has supported the methods of this thesis, namely the pragmatic standpoint...

  13. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  14. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  15. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-05-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 ± 23.0 vs. 68.5 ± 30.8 and 80.72 ± 29.1 μmol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 ± 35.6 μmol/L), wrestlers (342.5 ± 36.2 μmol/L) and basketball players (347.95 ± 31.3 μmol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 ± 667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1 ± 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime.

  16. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović - Džuvo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players: 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP and malondialdehyde (MDA, as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 ± 23.0 vs. 68.5 ± 30.8 and 80.72 ± 29.1 μmol/L respectively. Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 ± 35.6 μmol/L, wrestlers (342.5 ± 36.2 μmol/L and basketball players (347.95 ± 31.3 μmol/L. Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 ± 667.7 ng/mL compared to soccer players (1060.1 ± 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003. In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime.

  17. An innovative way to highlight the power of each polymorphism on elite athletes phenotype expression

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    Valentina Contrò

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs distributed on five genes: PPARα, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 ± 2.2 and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2± 2.3 were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype polymorphism/soccer players association (p<0.05 as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p=0.02. Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPARα could acts on NRF2 (GG enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance. In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other

  18. Fostering Elite Athlete Development and Recreational Sport Participation: a Successful Club Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rafaela Galatti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this article was to present a positive case study about how a sport club can foster both elite athlete development in parallel with offering a diverse range of sport activities to attract and maintain a greater number of children and youth for continued participation in a long term sport program.  To this end, an in-depth case study was conducted of a model Spanish Basketball Club, considered an example of success in achieving consistent level of performance and high rates of participation among their youth. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with administrators, setting observation, and analysis of current and archived club documents. The results show that the club has created changes over the years that have led to a clear organizational structure with a philosophy that connects its youth development teams and elite teams. An increase focus on youth development, the addition of recreational activities, and the implementation of a coach education program have been linked to enhanced participation rate and performance.

  19. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

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    Lori eHaase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1 elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2 greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3 increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; (4 increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS identifying feelings subscale; (5 decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the

  20. Lower Body Stiffness Modulation Strategies in Well Trained Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Emma L; Moresi, Mark P; Watsford, Mark L; Taylor, Paul G; Greene, David A

    2016-10-01

    Millett, EL, Moresi, MP, Watsford, ML, Taylor, PG, and Greene, DA. Lower body stiffness modulation strategies in well trained female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2845-2856, 2016-Lower extremity stiffness quantifies the relationship between the amount of leg compression and the external load to which the limb are subjected. This study aimed to assess differences in leg and joint stiffness and the subsequent kinematic and kinetic control mechanisms between athletes from various training backgrounds. Forty-seven female participants (20 nationally identified netballers, 13 high level endurance athletes and 14 age and gender matched controls) completed a maximal unilateral countermovement jump, drop jump and horizontal jump to assess stiffness. Leg stiffness, joint stiffness and associated mechanical parameters were assessed with a 10 camera motion analysis system and force plate. No significant differences were evident for leg stiffness measures between athletic groups for any of the tasks (p = 0.321-0.849). However, differences in joint stiffness and its contribution to leg stiffness, jump performance outcome measures and stiffness control mechanisms were evident between all groups. Practitioners should consider the appropriateness of the task utilised in leg stiffness screening. Inclusion of mechanistic and/or more sports specific tasks may be more appropriate for athletic groups.

  1. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

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    Østerås H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Håvard Østerås,1 Kirsti Krohn Garnæs,2 Liv Berit Augestad3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16, both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1% responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors (77.6%, and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors (20.3%, and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries, calf (12.2%, ankle/foot (10.8%, lower back (10.8%, and thigh (10.1%. The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. Keywords: injuries, cross-country skiing, skating

  2. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jack Han-Chao; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Erik Chihhung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize and compare microscopic differences in white matter integrity in the basal ganglia between elite professional athletes specializing in running and martial arts. Thirty-three young adults with sport-related skills as elite professional runners (n = 11) or elite professional martial artists (n = 11) were recruited and compared with non-athletic and healthy controls (n = 11). All participants underwent health- and skill-related physical fitness assessments. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), the primary indices derived from DTI, were computed for five regions of interest in the bilateral basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), globus pallidus external segment (GPe), and subthalamic nucleus. Results revealed that both athletic groups demonstrated better physical fitness indices compared with their control counterparts, with the running group exhibiting the highest cardiovascular fitness and the martial arts group exhibiting the highest muscular endurance and flexibility. With respect to the basal ganglia, both athletic groups showed significantly lower FA and marginally higher MD values in the GPi compared with the healthy control group. These findings suggest that professional sport or motor skill training is associated with changes in white matter integrity in specific regions of the basal ganglia, although these positive changes did not appear to depend on the type of sport-related motor skill being practiced.

  4. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaverova Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women’s Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8 or the Women’s National Handball Team (NT, n=9. The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric and 60°/s (eccentric. The Mann- Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02. However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  5. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverova, Zuzana; Dirnberger, Johannes; Lehnert, Michal; Belka, Jan; Wagner, Herbert; Orechovska, Karolina

    2015-12-22

    Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women's Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8) or the Women's National Handball Team (NT, n=9). The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric) and 60°/s (eccentric). The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD) for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02). However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  6. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors.

  7. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-04-17

    Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17-39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16-46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18-39). Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29-2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29-2.38). Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.

  8. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of L-carnitina in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, I G; Vasiliu, A; Georgescu, E; Eremia, N

    1989-01-01

    Chronic and acute effects of L-Carnitina (vials of 1 g L-Carnitina endovenous; per orally administered vials of 1 g L-Carnitina; tablets of 1 g L-Carnitina) were recorded in 110 top athletes (rowing, kayak-canoe, swimming, weightlifting medium and long-distance runners), 47 girls and 63 boys, by six double blind placebo trials and cross over. Significant changes were registered after L-Carnitina treatment (both for a single dose or after 3 weeks of treatment) compared to placebo, for FFA, triglycenides, lactic acid after exercise, evoked muscular potential, plasma carnitine (free and acetyl-carnitine), urine carnitine (free carnitine) and others. The authors explain these changes by the increase of free carnitine, which permits a larger quantity of FFA to enter the mitochondria and to be more extensively used as energy source in endurance and strength efforts. Based on these results the authors recommend L-Carnitina as an ergogenic aid in elite athletes, especially in endurance and strength sports.

  10. An examination of the Sport Drug Control Model with elite Australian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    This study presents an opportunistic examination of the theoretical tenets outlined in the Sport Drug Control Model(1) using questionnaire items from a survey of 643 elite Australian athletes. Items in the questionnaire that related to the concepts in the model were identified and structural equation modelling was employed to test the hypothesised model. Morality (cheating), benefit appraisal (performance), and threat appraisal (enforcement) evidenced the strongest relationships with attitude to doping, which in turn was positively associated with doping susceptibility. Self-esteem, perceptions of legitimacy and reference group opinions showed small non-significant associations with attitude to doping. The hypothesised model accounted for 30% and 11% of the variance in attitudes to doping and doping susceptibility, respectively. These present findings provide support for the model even though the questionnaire items were not constructed to specifically measure concepts contained in it. Thus, the model appears useful for understanding influences on doping. Nevertheless, there is a need to further explore individual and social factors that may influence athletes' use of performance enhancing drugs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of lower limb compression on blood flow and performance in elite wheelchair rugby athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, Joanna; Stefanovic, Brad; Askew, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of compression socks worn during exercise on performance and physiological responses in elite wheelchair rugby athletes. In a non-blinded randomized crossover design, participants completed two exercise trials (4 × 8 min bouts of submaximal exercise, each finishing with a timed maximal sprint) separated by 24 hr, with or without compression socks. National Sports Training Centre, Queensland, Australia. Ten national representative male wheelchair rugby athletes with cervical spinal cord injuries volunteered to participate. Participants wore medical grade compression socks on both legs during the exercise task (COMP), and during the control trial no compression was worn (CON). The efficacy of the compression socks was determined by assessments of limb blood flow, core body temperature, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion, perceived thermal strain, and physical performance. While no significant differences between conditions were observed for maximal sprint time, average lap time was better maintained in COMP compared to CON (Pbenefit may be associated with an augmentation of upper limb blood flow.

  12. Effects of resistance training periodization on performance and salivary immune-endocrine responses of elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J A; Crewther, B T; Viveiros, L; De Rose, D; Aoki, M S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the effects of resistance training periodization on the performance and salivary hormone-immune responses of elite female basketball players. Twelve female athletes were monitored across a 50 day period of resistance training that emphasized strength, endurance and power. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, maximal repetitions at 50% 1RM and vertical jump performance was assessed pre- and post-training. Saliva samples were also collected at 0700, 0930, 1100 and 1730 hours and analyzed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and immunoglobulin A (IgA). Improvements in 1RM strength, maximal repetitions and vertical jump performance were identified post-training (PTraining had no effect on salivary T and C concentrations, but the T:C ratio increased at 0730 hours (Ptraining) in strength and T concentrations were positively correlated at 0730 hours (Ptraining increased muscle performance in elite female basketball players, but only minor changes in the salivary T:C ratio and IgA were noted. Correlational analysis identified a possible role for early morning changes in T as a regulator of individual strength changes.

  13. Birthplace effects on the development of female athletic talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Dany J; King, Jared; Côté, Jean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an athlete's place of birth can influence the likelihood of playing professional sport. Information regarding the birthplace of all American female athletes in the Ladies Professional Golf Association and Women's United Soccer Association was gathered from official league websites. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if the birthplace of these professional athletes differed in any systematic way from official census population distributions. Odds-ratios were determined for cities within specific population ranges to ascertain if the likelihood of playing professional sport was influenced in any systematic way by city size. The analyses revealed that female professional soccer players born in cities of less than 1,000,000 were over-represented, as were female professional golfers born in cities of less than 250,000. Results are consistent with those of male professional athletes in suggesting that areas of lower population provide conditions more conducive to the development of expertise than do larger city environments.

  14. elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-05-01

    As usual, there are a lot of questions, much more than the answers. The questions are urgent and uneasy. Well, the greater the journal’s chances to become interesting, comprehensive and elite, in a good sense.

  15. Holistic life-span health outcomes among elite intercollegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M; Martin, Brandon E; Gordon, James E; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2014-01-01

    Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes (SAs). Cross-sectional study. A large Division I university. Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17-84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P students (P 99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = -0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. The SAs demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful evidence of greater joint health concerns later in life, comparable

  16. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Cook, J L; Bass, S L; Austen, S; Kiss, Z S

    2004-10-01

    Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180 degrees /s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (ppatellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not. This suggests that the aetiology of these conditions may be different. However, interpretation must respect the limitation of small subject numbers.

  17. Laboratory- and Field-Based Assessment of Maximal Aerobic Power of Elite Stand-Up Paddle-Board Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ben; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity for which only anecdotal evidence exists on its proposed health, fitness, and injury-rehabilitation benefits. 10 internationally and nationally ranked elite SUP athletes. Participants were assessed for their maximal aerobic power on an ergometer in a laboratory and compared with other water-based athletes. Field-based assessments were subsequently performed using a portable gas-analysis system, and a correlation between the 2 measures was performed. Maximal aerobic power (relative) was significantly higher (P = .037) when measured in the field with a portable gas-analysis system (45.48 ± 6.96 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) than with laboratory-based metabolic-cart measurements (43.20 ± 6.67 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). There was a strong, positive correlation (r = .907) between laboratory and field maximal aerobic power results. Significantly higher (P = .000) measures of SUP paddling speed were found in the field than with the laboratory ergometer (+42.39%). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate between the laboratory and field settings (P = .576). The results demonstrate the maximal aerobic power representative of internationally and nationally ranked SUP athletes and show that SUP athletes can be assessed for maximal aerobic power in the laboratory with high correlation to field-based measures. The field-based portable gas-analysis unit has a tendency to consistently measure higher oxygen consumption. Elite SUP athletes display aerobic power outputs similar to those of other upper-limb-dominant elite water-based athletes (surfing, dragon-boat racing, and canoeing).

  18. Do the coach and athlete have the same "picture" of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Stanton, Neville A

    2014-05-01

    Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. GRAPE EXTRACT IMPROVES ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ELITE MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lafay

    2009-09-01

    .8+/-0.2 vs g·dL-1, p < 0.05, suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05 and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1 after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball. Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes

  20. Tensiomyographic Markers Are Not Sensitive for Monitoring Muscle Fatigue in Elite Youth Athletes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tensiomyography (TMG is an indirect measure of a muscle's contractile properties and has the potential as a technique for detecting exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of tensiomyographic markers to identify reduced muscular performance in elite youth athletes.Methods: Fourteen male junior tennis players (age: 14.9 ± 1.2 years with an international (International Tennis Federation ranking position participated in this pre-post single group trial. They completed a 4-day high-intensity interval training (HIT microcycle, which was composed of seven training sessions. TMG markers; countermovement jump (CMJ performance (criterion measure of fatigue; delayed onset muscle soreness; and perceived recovery and stress were measured 24 h before and after the training program. The TMG measures included maximal radial deformation of the rectus femoris muscle belly (Dm, contraction time between 10 and 90% Dm (Tc and the rate of deformation until 10% (V10 and 90% Dm (V90, respectively. Diagnostic characteristics were assessed with a receiver-operating curve (ROC analysis and a contingency table, in which the area under the curve (AUC, Youden's index, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic effectiveness (DE of TMG measures were reported. A minimum AUC of 0.70 and a lower confidence interval (CI >0.50 classified “good” diagnostic markers to assess performance changes.Results: Twenty-four hours after the microcycle, CMJ performance was observed to be significantly (p < 0.001 reduced (Effect Size [ES] = −0.68, and DOMS (ES = 3.62 as well as perceived stress were significantly (p < 0.001 increased. In contrast, Dm (ES = −0.35, Tc (ES = 0.04, V10 (ES = −0.32, and V90 (ES = −0.33 remained unchanged (p > 0.05 throughout the study. ROC analysis and the data derived from the contingency table revealed that none of the tensiomyographic markers were effective diagnostic

  1. Caught between passion for the game and the need for education: a study of elite-level female football players in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Hansen, Marianne; Ottesen, Laila

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the passion of Danish elite-level female football players for the game and the challenges they face. How do they manage to combine the tough demands of a football life with the need for education? A quantitative survey (2010) was sent out to female players in the Danish 3F...... by Victor Pestoff, we may be operating with a different form of elite in women’s football in Denmark. Future focal points for clubs and the Danish Football Association are to continue supporting the players’ passion for the game and Team Denmark’s focus on ‘the whole human being’ in athletes....... Ligaen and Danish national team players. The findings indicate challenges faced by players in pursuing their passion, as they struggle to combine everyday life, education and work with a football career, either as amateurs or on a playing contract. In the light of the Scandinavian sport model inspired...

  2. The Effects of the Removal of Electronic Devices for 48 Hours on Sleep in Elite Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunican, Ian C; Martin, David T; Halson, Shona L; Reale, Reid J; Dawson, Brian T; Caldwell, John A; Jones, Maddison J; Eastwood, Peter R

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of evening use of electronic devices (i.e., smartphones, etc.) on sleep quality and next-day athletic and cognitive performance in elite judo athletes. Over 6 consecutive days and nights, 23 elite Australian judo athletes were monitored while attending a camp at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In 14 athletes, all electronic devices were removed on days 3 and 4 (i.e., for 48 hours: the "device-restricted group"), whereas 9 were permitted to use their devices throughout the camp (the "control group"). All athletes wore an activity monitor (Readiband) continuously to provide measures of sleep quantity and quality. Other self-reported (diary) measures included time in bed, electronic device use, and rate of perceived exertion during training periods. Cognitive performance (Cogstate) and physical performance (single leg triple hop test) were also measured. When considering night 2 as a "baseline" for each group, removal of electronic devices on nights 3 and 4 (device-restricted group) resulted in no significant differences in any sleep-related measure between the groups. When comparing actigraphy-based measures of sleep to subjective measures, all athletes significantly overestimated sleep duration by 58 ± 85 minutes (p = 0.001) per night and underestimated time of sleep onset by 37 ± 72 minutes (p = 0.001) per night. No differences in physical or cognitive function were observed between the groups. This study has shown that the removal of electronic devices for a period of two nights (48 hours) during a judo camp does not affect sleep quality or quantity or influence athletic or cognitive performance.

  3. Are adolescent elite athletes less psychologically distressed than controls? A cross-sectional study of 966 Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenvinge JH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan H Rosenvinge,1 Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen,2 Gunn Pettersen,3 Marianne Martinsen,4 Annett Victoria Stornæs,2 Anne Marte Pensgaard5 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Physical Education, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sports Science, Oslo, Norway Introduction: Psychological distress is increasing among adolescents and clusters with other mental health problems such as eating problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychological distress among young elite athletes and age-matched controls and whether prevalence figures may be attributed to perfectionism and eating problems. Methods: First-year athletes from all Norwegian elite sport high schools (n=711 and 500 ­students from randomly selected ordinary high schools were eligible for this cross-sectional study. In total, 611 athletes and 355 student controls provided self-report data about psychological distress, perfectionism, and eating problems (ie, body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness, as well as their physical training/activity. Results: A significantly higher proportion of controls scored above the cutoff point for marked psychological distress. Physical activity above the recommended levels for this age group predicted psychological distress among the controls, while the opposite was found in the student elite athlete sample. In both samples, perfectionistic concerns, ie, concern over mistakes, predicted overall psychological distress. However, among elite athletes, perfectionistic concerns were particularly associated with clinically significant

  4. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  5. Heart rate variability to monitor performance in elite athletes: Criticalities and avoidable pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Daniela; Marchetti, Ilaria; Spataro, Antonio; Malacarne, Mara; Benzi, Manuela; Tamorri, Stefano; Sala, Roberto; Pagani, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a simple, non-invasive technique that is widely used in sport to assess sympatho-vagal regulation of the heart. Its employment is increasing partly due to the rising usage of wearable devices. However data acquisition using these devices may be suboptimal because they cannot discriminate between sinus and non-sinus beats and do not record any data regarding respiratory frequency. This information is mandatory for a correct clinical interpretation. This study involved 974 elite athletes, all of them underwent a complete autonomic assessment, by way of Autoregressive HRV analysis. In 91 subjects (9% of the total population) we observed criticalities of either cardiac rhythm or respiration. Through perusal of one-lead ECG analysis we observed that 77 subjects had atrial or ventricular ectopy, i.e. conditions which impair stationarity and sinus rhythm. Running anyway autonomic nervous system analysis in this population, we observed that RR variance and raw values of LF and HF regions are significantly higher in arrhythmic subjects. In addition 14 subjects had slow (about 6 breath/min, 0.1Hz) respiration. This condition clouds the separation between LF from HF spectral regions of RR interval variability, respectively markers of the prevalent sympathetic and vagal modulation of SA node and of their synergistic interaction. Caution must be payed when assessing HRV with non-ECG wearable devices. Recording ECG signal and ensuring that respiratory rate is higher than 10 breath/min are both prerequisites for a more reliable analysis of HRV particularly in athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Do former elite athletes live longer? Potential role of critical window(s in the development of the health-oriented behaviors and physiological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kujawska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some epidemiological data indicate that moderate-to-vigorous levels of physical activity could be beneficial for longevity. Moreover, in terms of cognitive functioning, mental activities undertaking during first decades of life translate to better coping with pathological changes of brain during aging. Therefore, it is worth to examine the relationship between the most intense form of regular physical exercise undertaking, which is typical for the former elite athletes, with longevity. Material and methods: Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, ex-elite athletes, former elite athletes, ex-athletes, mortality, chronic diseases. Results: Reviewed literature described the longevity of participants who were active elite athletes. Analyzed groups could be separated based on sport type: aerobic, anaerobic and mixed, and due to, inter alia, sex and race of sportsmen. Conclusions: There is some evidence for increased longevity in the former elite athletes of aerobic and mixed sports and for decreased longevity in anaerobic, comparing to general population. However, there is need for further studies with design which could explain the mechanism of differences in longevity and incorporate potentially confounding factors.

  7. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.

  8. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; pathletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (pathletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors contributing to the quality of the transition out of elite sports in Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Schmid, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study was (a) to compare athletic retirement of former Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes; and (b) to explore the influence of factors on the quality of the transition. Based on existing transitional models, we developed a working model to investigate the predictive power...... of commonly assumed resources and barriers related to the transition (Park, Lavallee, & Tod, 2013).Design and methods Former international elite athletes from Switzerland (n = 231), Denmark (n = 86), and Poland (n = 84) from 35 different sports completed an online questionnaire in their native language. Mean....../proportional differences across countries were explored using ANOVAs and chi-square tests. For each sample, a multiple regression analysis was performed with 26 predictors on the transition quality, which was a component score of seven variables.Results and conclusions More differences were found among individual...

  10. Video Feedback and 2-Dimensional Landing Kinematics in Elite Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Postma, Wytze; Janssen, Ina; Otten, Egbert

    2017-11-01

      In team handball, an anterior cruciate ligament injury often occurs during landing after a jump shot. Many intervention programs try to reduce the injury rate by instructing athletes to land more safely. Video is an effective way to provide feedback, but little is known about its influence on landing technique in sport-specific situations.   To test the effectiveness of a video-overlay feedback method on landing technique in elite handball players.   Controlled laboratory study.   Laboratory.   A total of 16 elite female handball players assigned to a control group (n = 8; age = 17.61 ± 1.34 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.06 m, mass = 69.55 ± 4.29 kg) or video group (n = 8; age = 17.81 ± 0.86 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.03 m, mass = 64.28 ± 6.29 kg).   Both groups performed jump shots in a pretest, 2 training sessions, and a posttest. The video group received video feedback of an expert model with an overlay of their own jump shots in training sessions 1 and 2, whereas the control group did not.   We measured ankle, knee, and hip angles in the sagittal plane at initial contact and peak flexion; range of motion; and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores. One 2 × 4 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the group, time, and interaction effects of all kinematic outcome measures and the LESS score.   The video group improved knee and hip flexion at initial contact and peak flexion and range of motion. In addition, the group's average peak ankle flexion (12.0° at pretest to 21.8° at posttest) and LESS score (8.1 pretest to 4.0 posttest) improved. When we considered performance variables, no differences between groups were found in shot accuracy or vertical jump height, whereas horizontal jump distance in the video group increased over time.   Overlay visual feedback is an effective method for improving landing kinematics during a sport-specific jump shot. Further research is warranted to determine the long-term effects

  11. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  12. Comparison o f Level of Anger between Male and Female Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer CANBAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the level of anger of the athletes taking part in A dults N at ional T eam eliminations. The sample group consists of 52 female s , 115 male s , total ly 167 elite athletes took part in the eliminations . The average of age for female s was 20 , 38 , and 20, 99 for male s . In order to identify the level, Spielberg ’s fou r - dimensional Sc hedule whose validity and reliability for our country was adapted to by Özer in 1994, developed by S pielberg in 1983 was used. As a result of analysis made, no outstanding difference of anger level was found between males and females in te rms of permanent anger factor (p=0, 579; similarly no significant difference was discovered in respect to sub factor of anger - out (p=0,315. Also in analysis of anger - in (p=0.673 and anger - out (p=0.290 sub scales, important difference wasn’t pointed out b etween male and female athletes.

  13. Treatment strategies for the female athlete triad in the adolescent athlete: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein-Nissenbaum J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jill Thein-Nissenbaum,1 Erin Hammer2 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD. These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously. Because of the complex nature of the Triad, treatment is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a physician, psychologist or psychiatrist, nutritionist or dietitian, physical therapist, athletic trainer, coach, family members, and most importantly, the patient. A thorough physical examination by a primary care physician is essential to identify all organs/systems that may be impacted by Triad-related conditions. Laboratory tests, assessment of bone density, nutritional assessment, and behavior health evaluation guide the management of the female athlete with Triad-related conditions. Treatment of the Triad includes adequate caloric consumption to restore a positive energy balance; this is often the first step in successful management of the Triad. In addition, determining the cause of menstrual dysfunction (MD and resumption of menses is very important. Nonpharmacologic interventions are the first choice; pharmacologic treatment for MD is reserved only for those patients with symptoms of

  14. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Makowska, Joanna S; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2014-04-15

    Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are

  15. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Møst, Els I S; Maase, Kamiel; Moen, Maarten H; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2018-04-01

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions in elite athletes and calculated their association with perceived training load. Mixed-methods. Perceived training load, actigraphy and one-channel EEG recordings were collected among 98 elite athletes during 7 consecutive days of regular training. Actigraphy revealed total sleep durations of 7:50±1:08h, sleep onset latencies of 13±15min, wake after sleep onset of 33±17min and sleep efficiencies of 88±5%. Distribution of sleep stages indicated 51±9% light sleep, 21±8% deep sleep, and 27±7% REM sleep. On average, perceived training load was 5.40±2.50 (scale 1-10), showing large daily variability. Mixed-effects models revealed no alteration in sleep quantity or sleep stage distributions as a function of day-to-day variation in preceding training load (all p's>.05). Results indicate healthy sleep durations, but elevated wake after sleep onset, suggesting a potential need for sleep optimization. Large proportions of deep sleep potentially reflect an elevated recovery need. With sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions remaining irresponsive to variations in perceived training load, it is questionable whether athletes' current sleep provides sufficient recovery after strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of high-intensity training and resumed training on macroelement and microelement of elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiahong; He, Wangxiao; Huang, Hongen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-intensity training and resumed training in hot and humid environment on plasma macro- and microelements levels of elite Han Chinese basketball players. Ten well-trained elite basketball athletes' plasma macroelements (chlorin, sodium, potassium, and calcium), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were measured before and after a 2-h high-intensity training, and microelements (zinc, copper, iron, and selenium) were determined before and after a 1-week high-intensity training and after a 1-week resumed training. The blood CK and CK-MB levels of the elite basketball athletes were significantly increased (P basketball training. The macroelements (chlorin, sodium, and calcium) levels of blood increased significantly except potassium after high-intensity basketball training. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in zinc and copper levels; nevertheless, the levels of plasma selenium and plasma iron were significantly lower (P training. After a 1-week resumed training, except zinc, all of microelements measured had a trend toward original levels. These results implicated that high-intensity training would provoke the change of macroelements which would lead to electrolyte disturbance. In addition, the present study suggested that a 1-week high-intensity training would have an impact on microelement levels, especially for selenium and iron.

  17. Dietary intake habits and controlled training on body composition and strength in elite female volleyball players during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake of elite female volleyball players (EFVPs, n = 22) during the first 11 weeks of the competitive season. Further, we compared findings for total energy intake and specific macronutrient distribution with the established recommendations for high-intensity athletes. Subjects also engaged in periodized training and we assessed changes in body composition (BC) and strength. Twenty-two EFVPs had dietary intake (7-day dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire), BC (body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, fat mass, muscle mass), and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (bench press, military press, back squat, power clean, clean and jerk, pull-over) assessed at baseline (T0, before preseason) and 11 weeks later (T11). Athletes consumed less total kilocalories and carbohydrates (CHO) compared with established recommendations (total kilocalories: 40.7 ± 5.2 kcal/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 50-80 kcal/(kg · day)(-1); CHO: 4.3 ± 0.6 g/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 5-8 g/(kg · day)(-1)). Further, subjects consumed greater protein (2.1 ± 0.4 g/(kg · day)(-1)) compared with recommendations (1.6-1.8 g/(kg · day)(-1)) and greater fat (36.1 ± 4.6% of total kilocalories) than recommendations (20%-35% of total kilocalories). There were improvements (p 0.05) in BMI or military press and pull-over. Back squat (p = 0.054; +33.0% ± 83.7%) and power clean (p = 0.056; +26.2% ± 49.0%) increases approached significance. Our findings indicate that EFVPs improved BC and strength despite a dietary intake different from recommendations. This is possibly due to different substrate utilization during exercise in females versus males, thus new recommendations should be considered for high-intensity athletes, which are sex-specific.

  18. Female Head Athletic Trainers in NCAA Division I (IA Football) Athletics: How They Made It to the Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorant, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not carry over into positions of high rank. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of female head athletic trainers in…

  19. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous...... occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P ... 1490 ± 447, 1261 ± 449, and 994 ± 373 m). For elite senior female players, wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P 

  20. Injury and illness among athletes during a multi-day elite cycling road race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanturali, Sedat; Canacik, Omer; Karsli, Emre; Suner, Selim

    2015-11-01

    Although road bicycle races have been held for more than a century, injury and illness patterns during multi-day bicycle events have not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injury and illness among riders and describe the medical care interventions provided to participants of cycling road races. A prospective observational study was conducted on the Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey, which was held between April 26 and May 3, 2015. The race lasted 8 days and covered 1258 km of road. There were 166 elite cycling athletes representing 21 teams from various countries. Data collected pertaining to incidents involving injury or illness included the following: type of injury; anatomical location of injury; details of the medical encounter; location of the intervention; treatment provided; medication administered and disposition of the rider. An injury was defined as a physical complaint or observable damage to the body produced by the transfer of energy of the rider. An illness was defined as a physical complaint or presentation not related to injury. The overall incidence (injury and illness) was 5.83 per 1000 cycling hours. (Injury incidence was 2.82 vs illness incidence of 3.01 per 1000 hours cycling). A total of 31 incidents occurred. Of these, 15 were injuries, while 16 were complaints of a non-traumatic nature. A total of 43 interventions were made in the 15 cases of injury. The most commonly injured body regions were limbs; the majority of injuries involved the skin and soft tissue. The most common medical intervention was wound care (64% of all interventions). Two riders had to withdraw from the race, and one was hospitalized due to a traumatic pneumothorax. None of the non-traumatic cases resulted in withdrawal from the race. A broad spectrum of illness and injury occurs during elite multi-day road races, ranging from simple skin injuries to serious injuries requiring hospital admission. Most injuries and illnesses are

  1. Fatigue shifts and scatters heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Schmitt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This longitudinal study aimed at comparing heart rate variability (HRV in elite athletes identified either in 'fatigue' or in 'no-fatigue' state in 'real life' conditions. METHODS: 57 elite Nordic-skiers were surveyed over 4 years. R-R intervals were recorded supine (SU and standing (ST. A fatigue state was quoted with a validated questionnaire. A multilevel linear regression model was used to analyze relationships between heart rate (HR and HRV descriptors [total spectral power (TP, power in low (LF and high frequency (HF ranges expressed in ms(2 and normalized units (nu] and the status without and with fatigue. The variables not distributed normally were transformed by taking their common logarithm (log10. RESULTS: 172 trials were identified as in a 'fatigue' and 891 as in 'no-fatigue' state. All supine HR and HRV parameters (Beta±SE were significantly different (P<0.0001 between 'fatigue' and 'no-fatigue': HRSU (+6.27±0.61 bpm, logTPSU (-0.36±0.04, logLFSU (-0.27±0.04, logHFSU (-0.46±0.05, logLF/HFSU (+0.19±0.03, HFSU(nu (-9.55±1.33. Differences were also significant (P<0.0001 in standing: HRST (+8.83±0.89, logTPST (-0.28±0.03, logLFST (-0.29±0.03, logHFST (-0.32±0.04. Also, intra-individual variance of HRV parameters was larger (P<0.05 in the 'fatigue' state (logTPSU: 0.26 vs. 0.07, logLFSU: 0.28 vs. 0.11, logHFSU: 0.32 vs. 0.08, logTPST: 0.13 vs. 0.07, logLFST: 0.16 vs. 0.07, logHFST: 0.25 vs. 0.14. CONCLUSION: HRV was significantly lower in 'fatigue' vs. 'no-fatigue' but accompanied with larger intra-individual variance of HRV parameters in 'fatigue'. The broader intra-individual variance of HRV parameters might encompass different changes from no-fatigue state, possibly reflecting different fatigue-induced alterations of HRV pattern.

  2. Susceptibility to eating disorders among collegiate female student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student-athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student-athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern.

  3. Susceptibility to Eating Disorders Among Collegiate Female Student–Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N.; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student–athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. Results: A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. Conclusions: These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student–athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern. PMID:24762233

  4. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  5. Comparison of landing biomechanics between male and female dancers and athletes, part 1: Influence of sex on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishimo, Karl F; Liederbach, Marijeanne; Kremenic, Ian J; Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among dancers is much lower than among team sport athletes, and no clear disparity between sexes has been reported in the dance population. Although numerous studies have observed differences in landing biomechanics of the lower extremity between male and female team sport athletes, there is currently little research examining the landing biomechanics of male and female dancers and none comparing athletes to dancers. Comparing the landing biomechanics within these populations may help explain the lower overall ACL injury rates and lack of sex disparity. The purpose was to compare the effects of sex and group (dancer vs team sport athlete) on single-legged drop-landing biomechanics. The primary hypothesis was that female dancers would perform a drop-landing task without demonstrating typical sex-related risk factors associated with ACL injuries. A secondary hypothesis was that female team sport athletes would display typical ACL risk factors during the same task. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematics and kinetics were recorded as 40 elite modern and ballet dancers (20 men and 20 women) and 40 team sport athletes (20 men and 20 women) performed single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Joint kinematics and kinetics were compared between groups and sexes with a group-by-sex multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by pairwise t tests. Dancers of both sexes and male team sport athletes landed similarly in terms of frontal-plane knee alignment, whereas female team sport athletes landed with a significantly greater peak knee valgus (P = .007). Female dancers were found to have a lower hip adduction torque than those of the other 3 groups (P = .003). Dancers (male and female) exhibited a lower trunk side flexion (P = .002) and lower trunk forward flexion (P = .032) compared with team sport athletes. In executing a 30-cm drop landing, female team sport athletes displayed a greater knee valgus

  6. Influence of different characteristics of sport on heart rate recovery in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđić Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the benefits of regular physical activity is lower resting heart rate and its faster recovery after maximal exercise test, as a result of a stronger parasympatic (vagal tone. Heart rate recovery is used as reliable parameter for prescription of the training program and also in prognostic purposes as a parameter of risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Aim: The purpose of this study is to show significant differences in heart rate recovery after maximal exercise test and resting heart rate among different groups of elite athletes. Material and Methods: This study subjected 575 adult (23.1 ± 4.3 years, male athletes divided into four sport groups: skill, power, mixed and endurance. Every subject performed progressive, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery in first (ΔHRR1 and third (ΔHRR3 minute was calculated as a difference of maximal heart rate and heart rate in the first and the third minute after cessation of exercise, respectively. Results: Compared to skill, power and mixed group (62.9 ± 11.4; 61.5 ± 10.0; 59.9 ± 10.4 min-1 respectively, significantly lower values od resting heart rate are recorded in the endurance group (56.2 ± 10.6 min-1 (p = 0,05. Also, ΔHRR1 was significantly higher in the endurance group (33.5 ±14.3 min-1 compared to skill, power and mixed group (24.3 ± 10.9; 25.5 ± 11.2; 27.8 ± 15.6 min-1 respectively (p = 0,05. Values od ΔHRR3 were significantly higher in power, mixed and endurance groups (74.8 ± 14.3; 79.5 ± 12.7; 79.4 ± 12.6 min-1 respectively compared to skill group (67.3±16.1 min-1 (p = 0,05. Conclusion: Training endurance group of sports has the most contribution to lower resting heart rate and faster recovery of heart rate in the first minute after exercising, due to dominant parasympatic tone.

  7. Oxidative stress and nitrite dynamics under maximal load in elite athletes: relation to sport type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubrilo, Dejan; Djordjevic, Dusica; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Dragan; Blagojevic, Dusko; Spasic, Mihajlo; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    Maximal workload in elite athletes induces increased generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) and oxidative stress, but the dynamics of RONS production are not fully explored. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of long-term engagement in sports with different energy requirements (aerobic, anaerobic, and aerobic/anaerobic) on oxidative stress parameters during progressive exercise test. Concentrations of lactates, nitric oxide (NO) measured through stabile end product-nitrites (NO(2) (-)), superoxide anion radical (O(2) (•-)), and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) as index of lipid peroxidation were determined in rest, after maximal workload, and at 4 and 10th min of recovery in blood plasma of top level competitors in rowing, cycling, and taekwondo. Results showed that sportmen had similar concentrations of lactates and O(2) (•-) in rest. Nitrite concentrations in rest were the lowest in taekwondo fighters, while rowers had the highest levels among examined groups. The order of magnitude for TBARS level in the rest was bicycling > taekwondo > rowing. During exercise at maximal intensity, the concentration of lactate significantly elevated to similar levels in all tested sportsmen and they were persistently elevated during recovery period of 4 and 10 min. There were no significant changes in O(2) (•-), nitrite, and TBARS levels neither at the maximum intensity of exercise nor during the recovery period comparing to the rest period in examined individuals. Our results showed that long term different training strategies establish different basal nitrites and lipid peroxidation levels in sportmen. However, progressive exercise does not influence basal nitrite and oxidative stress parameters level neither at maximal load nor during the first 10 min of recovery in sportmen studied.

  8. [Food habits and body composition of Spanish elite athletes in combat sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, N; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N; Montalvo Zenarruzabeitia, Z; García Juan, B; García, A; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a scarcity of information about the dietary intake and food selection of combat sport people. Optimizing nutritional status, body weight, and body composition are key factors for their performance. The assessment of dietary intake, food habits, and body composition in elite combat sport people. 22 sportsmen were recruited from the Spanish National Teams of Tae kwon do, Judo, and Boxing. Food intake (FFQ), food habits and body composition (DXA and Bioimpedance) were analyzed. Weight and body composition of the individuals assessed were similar to that previously described, although almost half of them were moderately over their desired competition weight. A lower than the recommended intake of vegetables (77% of individuals), cereals, bread, rice, potatoes, and pasta (73%), while red meat and derivatives intake exceeded the recommendations. Their main preferences were pasta, meat, and cereals. Legumes, vegetables, and fish were their main dislikes. A statistically significant relationship between food preferences and intakes was only observed for legumes, yogurt, and nuts. The athletes reported that reducing the intake of biscuits and confectionery (68% of individuals), high-fat foods (36%), and/or bread (27%) would be a good dietetic strategy for losing weight. None of them reported that voluntary dehydration would be a good strategy for this purpose. food offer to which this sport people have access and their choices are adequate, although the intake of some food groups (vegetables, red meat and derivatives) does not follow the recommendations. Their body weight slightly exceeds their competition weight, what it is frequently found in these sports. Nevertheless, their knowledge about nutrition and dietetics applied to exercise are acceptable.

  9. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Josefa; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Matías; Feriche, Belén; Iglesias, Xavier; Chaverri, Diego; Rodréguez, Ferran A

    2018-03-24

    Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction. At the end of the intervention, nitrites levels were similar in all altitude groups but higher than in the Lo-Lo controls (P = .02). Hi-HiLo had greater GPx activity than Hi-Hi and Hi-Hi3 during most of the intervention (P ≤ .001). GRd activity was higher in Lo-Lo than in Hi-Hi at the end of the training camp (P ≤ .001). All groups showed increased levels of LPO, except Lo-Lo, and carbonyls at the end of the study (P ≤ .001). Training at altitude for 3 or 4 weeks drives oxidative stress leading to cellular damage mainly by worsening the antioxidant capacities. The GSSG/GSH ratio appears to be related to perceived exertion and fatigue. The stronger antioxidant defence showed by the Hi-HiLo group suggests an inverse relationship between redox alterations and performance. Further studies are required to investigate the role of oxidative stress in acclimatization, performance, and health.

  10. Energetic efficiency, menstrual irregularity, and bone mineral density in elite professional female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Akers, Jeremy D; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-01-01

    Sports that emphasize low body weight for optimal performance, such as ballet, are associated with an increased prevalence of the female athlete triad (FT). Previous research in this area that involves dancers has been limited; the majority of studies have been performed on adolescents training in classical ballet, and not professional adult dancers. The purpose of this study is to compare the physical and behavioral characteristics of female elite ballet dancers to sedentary, recreationally active non-dancing controls, with regard to characteristics of the FT and energetic efficiency. Women aged 18 to 35 years were recruited as participants. The dancers (N = 15) and non-dancing controls (N = 15) were pair-matched via age (dancers: 24.3 ± 1.3 years; controls: 23.7 ± 0.9 years), body mass index (dancers: 18.9 ± 0.2; controls: 19.4 ± 0.2 kg/m 2 ), and fat-free mass (dancers: 44.3 ± 0.8; controls: 44.1 ± 0.9 kg). Assessments included habitual dietary intake using 4-day food records, self-reported physical activity, psychometric measures of eating behaviors, health and menstrual history, body composition and bone density (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessed by indirect calorimetry. Characteristics of the FT, specifically menstrual irregularities (6 of 15 dancers reported irregular or no menses; 1 of 15 controls reported irregular menses) and low energy availability, were more prevalent in dancers than in pair-matched controls. Despite having a similar fat-free mass (FFM), dancers had a significantly lower absolute RMR (dancers: 1367 ± 27; controls: 1454 ± 34 kcal/d; p ≤ 0.05) and significantly lower RMR relative to FFM (dancers: 30.9 ± 0.6; controls: 33.1 ± 0.8 kcal/kg fat-free mass/d; p ≤ 0.05). Energy intake between dancers (1577 ± 89 kcal/d) and pair-matched controls (2075 ± 163 kcal/d) also differed significantly (p ≤ 0.01). Six of the 15 dancers met the criteria for the FT (including low bone mineral

  11. Physiological and performance responses to a preseason altitude-training camp in elite team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Justin

    2013-07-01

    Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (~2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hbmass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hbmass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season.

  12. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P Ramadan (23.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg). There was a minor reduction of 1.3 kg in body mass and an increase in total fatigue scores (T2, 19 +/- 5; T3, 16 +/- 4; both P Ramadan in comparison with the control period (T1, 12 +/- 3). These results show that the RIF has little effect on aerobic performance and on very short duration sprinting and jumping test performance in elite Judokas. Additionally, experienced athletes can maintain both sufficient energy intake and normal training loads during the RIF. The slight reduction in the 30-second jump test may be associated with reduced central drive and body mass. Collectively, these results suggest that the RIF has little effect on the performance of experienced Judokas, but Muslim athletes who train during the RIF should carefully periodize their training load and monitor their food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  13. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Legg; David B. Pyne; Stuart Semple; Nick Ball

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height,...

  14. Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated With Previous Meniscus and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery Among Elite College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V; Nepple, Jeffrey J; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    Football puts athletes at risk for knee injuries such meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, which are associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Previous knee surgery, player position, and body mass index (BMI) may be associated with knee OA. In elite football players undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging at the National Football League's Invitational Combine, the prevalence of knee OA is associated with previous knee surgery and BMI. Retrospective cohort. Level 4. A retrospective review was performed of all participants of the National Football League Combine from 2005 to 2009 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the knee because of prior knee injury, surgery, or knee-related symptoms or concerning examination findings. Imaging studies were reviewed for evidence of OA. History of previous knee surgery-including ACL reconstruction, meniscal procedures, and articular cartilage surgery-and position were recorded for each athlete. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. There was a higher prevalence of OA in knees with a history of previous knee surgery (23% vs 4.0%, P 30 kg/m 2 was also associated with a higher risk of OA ( P = 0.007) but player position was not associated with knee OA. Previous knee surgery, particularly ACL reconstruction and partial meniscectomy, and elevated BMI are associated with knee OA in elite football players. Future research should investigate ways to minimize the risk of OA after knee surgery in these athletes. Treatment of knee injuries in football athletes should consider chondroprotection, including meniscal preservation and cartilage repair, when possible.

  15. Polymorphisms in ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Blood Pressure Response to Acute Exercise in Elite Male Athletes from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmic, Tijana S; Zdravkovic, Marija D; Djelic, Marina N; Gavrilovic, Tamara D; Djordjevic Saranovic, Slavica A; Plavsic, Jadranka N; Mirkovic, Sanja V; Batinic, Djordje V; Antic, Milena N; Mihailovic, Zoran R; Atanasijevic, Nikola G; Mileusnic, Milan J; Stojkovic, Oliver V

    2017-12-01

    Physiological adaptations to various types of prolonged and intensive physical activity, as seen in elite athletes from different sports, include changes in blood pressure (BP) response to acute exercise. Also, functional polymorphisms of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and alfa-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are shown to be associated with BP parameters changes, both in athletes and sedentary population. In this study, an Alu insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in ACE gene, as well as nonsense mutation in the gene encoding ACTN3 have been scored in 107 elite Serbian athletes classified according to their sporting discipline to power/sprint (short distance runners/swimmers), endurance (rowers, footballers, middle-distance swimmers) or mixed sports (water polo, handball, volleyball players). Presence of nonfunctional allele in ACTN3 is associated with significantly increased maximal systolic BP (SBPmax, p = 0.04). Athletes with Alu insertion in ACE had significantly (p = 0.006) larger decline of systolic BP after 3 minutes of recovery (SBPR3), calculated as the percentage of maximal SBP response during exercise stress testing. Concomitant presence of non-functional variant in ACTN3 gene decreased this beneficiary effect of ACE mutation on SBPR3. Long term enrollment in power/sprint sports significantly increased resting diastolic BP (DBPrest: 74 mmHg) and SBPmax (197 mmHg) and improved SBPR3 (74.8%) compared to enrolment in endurance (72 mmHg; 178 mmHg; 81.1%) and mixed sports (69 mmHg; 185 mmHg; 80.0%). Lack of the effect of genotype by sport interaction on BP parameters suggests that the long-term effects of different disciplines on BP are not mediated by these two genes.

  16. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, Olaf; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP) thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S) exercise vs. a strength only (S) exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players ( N = 12) aged 14-15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8-10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S), and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time) were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties ( p jump performance outputs ( p jump performance. It is concluded that PAP effects in the plantar flexors may not directly translate to improved jump performance in female elite young soccer players. Therefore, the observed gains in jump performance following B+S are most likely related to neuromuscular changes (e.g., intramuscular coordination) rather than improved contractile properties.

  17. Milk: An Effective Recovery Drink for Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rankin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk has become a popular post-exercise recovery drink. Yet the evidence for its use in this regard comes from a limited number of investigations utilising very specific exercise protocols, and mostly with male participants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a sprinting and jumping protocol in female team-sport athletes. Eighteen females participated in an independent-groups design. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development (RFD, countermovement jump (CMJ, reactive strength index (RSI, sprint performance, muscle soreness and tiredness, symptoms of stress, serum creatine kinase (CK and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were determined pre- and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise. MILK had a very likely beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180○/s from baseline to 72 h (0.0 ± 10.0% vs. −8.7 ± 3.7%, MILK v CHO, and countermovement jump (−1.1 ± 5.2% vs. −10.4 ± 6.7% and symptoms of stress (−13.5 ± 7.4% vs. −18.7 ± 11.0% from baseline to 24 h. MILK had a likely beneficial effect and a possibly beneficial effect on other peak torque measures and 5 m sprint performance at other timepoints but had an unclear effect on 10 and 20 m sprint performance, RSI, muscle soreness and tiredness, CK and hsCRP. In conclusion, consumption of 500 mL milk attenuated losses in muscle function following repeated sprinting and jumping and thus may be a valuable recovery intervention for female team-sport athletes following this type of exercise.

  18. Milk: An Effective Recovery Drink for Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Paula; Landy, Adrian; Stevenson, Emma; Cockburn, Emma

    2018-02-17

    Milk has become a popular post-exercise recovery drink. Yet the evidence for its use in this regard comes from a limited number of investigations utilising very specific exercise protocols, and mostly with male participants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a sprinting and jumping protocol in female team-sport athletes. Eighteen females participated in an independent-groups design. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK) or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development (RFD), countermovement jump (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), sprint performance), muscle soreness and tiredness, symptoms of stress, serum creatine kinase (CK) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined pre- and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise. MILK had a very likely beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180 ○ /s) from baseline to 72 h (0.0 ± 10.0% vs. -8.7 ± 3.7%, MILK v CHO), and countermovement jump (-1.1 ± 5.2% vs. -10.4 ± 6.7%) and symptoms of stress (-13.5 ± 7.4% vs. -18.7 ± 11.0%) from baseline to 24 h. MILK had a likely beneficial effect and a possibly beneficial effect on other peak torque measures and 5 m sprint performance at other timepoints but had an unclear effect on 10 and 20 m sprint performance, RSI, muscle soreness and tiredness, CK and hsCRP. In conclusion, consumption of 500 mL milk attenuated losses in muscle function following repeated sprinting and jumping and thus may be a valuable recovery intervention for female team-sport athletes following this type of exercise.

  19. Sprint Running Performance and Technique Changes in Athletes During Periodized Training: An Elite Training Group Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David G; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Salo, Aki I T

    2017-11-15

    To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA. As training progressed, a link in the changes in velocity and step frequency was maintained. There were 71 between-session comparisons with a change in step velocity yielding at least a large effect size (>1.2), of which 73% had a correspondingly large change in step frequency in the same direction. Within-athlete mean session step length remained relatively constant throughout. Reductions in step velocity and frequency occurred during training phases of high volume lifting and running, with subsequent increases in step velocity and frequency happening during phases of low volume lifting and high intensity sprint work. The importance of step frequency over step length to the changes in performance within a training year was clearly evident for the sprinters studied. Understanding the magnitudes and timings of these changes in relation to the training program is important for coaches and athletes. The underpinning neuro-muscular mechanisms require further investigation, but are likely explained by an increase in force producing capability followed by an increase in the ability to produce that force rapidly.

  20. Dynamic of arm’s micro movements of elite athlete in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol and Air Pistol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Pyatkov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements in Olympic exercises with pistol. Material: in the research we used the data of 37 elite athletes in exercise Air Pistol (n=32 and in exercise Rapid Fire Pistol (n=5. Registration of pistol projection’s quickness of movement in target area was realized with the help of computer system Scatt. In total we analyzed 3100 space-time parameters of athletes’ technical-tactic actions in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. Results: we tested innovative method of contactless measuring of athlete’s hand’s micro movements in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. We found uncontrolled deviations from optimal pistol pointing position in vertical, horizontal and sagittal planes. Quickness of athlete hand’s movements in shooting process was determined. Conclusions: we scientifically substantiated the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements at a distance in Olympic exercises with pistol. Besides, we determined the dynamic of athlete’s hand micro movements in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol та Air Pistol.

  1. Deterrence by risk of detection? An inquiry into how elite athletes perceive the deterrent effect of the doping testing regime in their sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2017-01-01

    Aims: A central paradigm of global anti-doping policy is detection-based deterrence, i.e. the risk of testing and exclusion from sport are effective doping deterrents. This paper investigates how elite athletes perceive the deterrent effect of the testing strategy in their sport and explores...... the likelihood of testing nor detection as deterrents. 8% did not consider the likelihood of testing and detection nor the ban from sport as deterrents.  Conclusions: Testing programmes–as a strategy to detect and deter doping–are no great deterrent for many athletes. The results highlight the limitations...... whether and how specific factors such as the frequency of testing influence athletes’ perceptions of testing as a deterrent.  Methods: 645 Danish elite athletes completed a web-based questionnaire about their perceptions of testing efforts in their sport.  Findings: 75% of the athletes considered...

  2. Gender may have an influence on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen scores and gait parameters in elite junior athletes - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, N; Szakács, V; Bartha, C; Szilágyi, B; Galamb, K; Magyar, M O; Hortobágyi, T; Kiss, R M; Tihanyi, J; Négyesi, J

    2017-09-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters. Methods Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line. Results Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender. Conclusion There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

  3. COL5A1 gene variants previously associated with reduced soft tissue injury risk are associated with elite athlete status in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Erskine, Robert M; Day, Stephen H; Stebbings, Georgina K; Cook, Christian J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Bennett, Mark A; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2017-11-14

    Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR. For rs12722, the injury-protective CC genotype and C allele were more common in all athletes (21% and 47%, respectively) and RU athletes (22% and 48%) than in controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.01). For rs3196378, the CC genotype and C allele were overrepresented in all athletes (23% and 48%) and RU athletes (24% and 49%) compared with controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.02). The CC genotype in particular was overrepresented in the back and centres (24%) compared with controls, with more than twice the odds (OR = 2.25, P = 0.006) of possessing the injury-protective CC genotype. Furthermore, when considering both SNPs simultaneously, the CC-CC SNP-SNP combination and C-C inferred allele combination were higher in all the athlete groups (≥18% and ≥43%) compared with controls (13% and 40%; P = 0.01). However, no genotype differences were identified for either SNP when RU playing positions were compared directly with each other. It appears that the C alleles, CC genotypes and resulting combinations of both rs12722 and rs3196378 are beneficial for rugby athletes to achieve elite status and carriage of these variants may impart an inherited resistance against soft tissue injury, despite exposure to the high-risk environment of elite rugby. These data have implications for the management of inter-individual differences in injury risk amongst elite athletes.

  4. Morphological optimization of female combat sports athletes as seen by the anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukiewicz Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body build and proportions are key determinants of athletic success. The effects of the athlete selection process and discipline-specific training are differentiated body dimensions. The aim of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of female combat athletes. The results of anthropometric measurements of 154 females aged 21.2±1.79 years competing in judo, jiu-jitsu, karate, taekwondo, and fencing for 7.5±3.43 years.

  5. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  6. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; van der Does, H. T. D.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes ( age, 27 +/- 8 years; VO2max, 50.3 +/- 4.6 mL center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress

  7. Metabolic clues regarding the enhanced performance of elite endurance athletes from orchiectomy-induced hormonal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the metabolic performance of an elite cyclist, Lance Armstrong, before and after his diagnosis with testicular cancer. Although a champion cyclist in 1-day events prior to his diagnosis of testicular cancer at age 25, he was not a contender in multi-day endurance cycle races such as the 3-week Tour de France. His genetic makeup and physiology (high VO2max, long femur, strong heavy build) coupled with his ambition and motivation enabled him at an early age to become one of the best 1-day cyclists in the world. Following his cancer diagnosis, he underwent a unilateral orchiectomy, brain surgery and four cycles of chemotherapy. After recovering, he returned to cycling and surprisingly excelled in the Tour de France, winning this hardest of endurance events 7 years running. This dramatic transformation from a 1-day to a 3-week endurance champion has led many to query how this is possible, and under the current climate, has led to suggestions of doping as to the answer to this metamorphosis. Physiological tests following his recovery indicated that physiological parameters such as VO2max were not affected by the unilateral orchiectomy and chemotherapy. We propose that his dramatic improvement in recovery between stages, the most important factor in winning multi-day stage races, is due to his unilateral orchiectomy, a procedure that results in permanent changes in serum hormones. These hormonal changes, specifically an increase in gonadotropins (and prolactin) required to maintain serum testosterone levels, alter fuel metabolism; increasing hormone sensitive lipase expression and activity, promoting increased free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization to, and utilization by, muscles, thereby decreasing the requirement to expend limiting glycogen stores before, during and after exercise. Such hormonal changes also have been associated with ketone body production, improvements in muscle repair and haematocrit levels and may facilitate the loss of body weight

  8. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2015-01-01

    measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 ± 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 ± 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P ... subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 ± 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 ± 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P 

  9. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  10. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings......, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  11. Assessing the Energy Expenditure of Elite Female Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total and exercise energy expenditure of elite female soccer players during a training week. Eight elite female soccer players wore SenseWear Mini Armbands (SWAs) for 7 consecutive days during the preseason phase of a national league competition. In addition, players wore 15-Hz GPSports tracking devices during 4 training sessions and a friendly game. Total energy expenditure, exercise energy expenditure, and training and game demands were collected from the SWA and GPSports devices. Mean daily energy expenditure for the game day, training days, and rest days were 12,242 kJ (SD = 603 kJ), 11,692 (SD = 274 kJ), and 9,516 (SD = 369 kJ), respectively, with significant differences shown between activities (p soccer players. Nutritional intake should be adjusted accordingly to avoid energy imbalances for optimal performance and recovery.

  12. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  13. Influence of Ghrelin and Adipocytokines on Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Female Athletes with Amenorrhea and Eumenorrheic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic at...

  14. The reliability of a maximal isometric hip strength and simultaneous surface EMG screening protocol in elite, junior rugby league athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Grimaldi, Alison; Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A

    2017-02-01

    Firstly to describe the reliability of assessing maximal isometric strength of the hip abductor and adductor musculature using a hand held dynamometry (HHD) protocol with simultaneous wireless surface electromyographic (sEMG) evaluation of the gluteus medius (GM) and adductor longus (AL). Secondly, to describe the correlation between isometric strength recorded with the HHD protocol and a laboratory standard isokinetic device. Reliability and correlational study. A sample of 24 elite, male, junior, rugby league athletes, age 16-20 years participated in repeated HHD and isometric Kin-Com (KC) strength testing with simultaneous sEMG assessment, on average (range) 6 (5-7) days apart by a single assessor. Strength tests included; unilateral hip abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) and bilateral ADD assessed with squeeze (SQ) tests in 0 and 45° of hip flexion. HHD demonstrated good to excellent inter-session reliability for all outcome measures (ICC (2,1) =0.76-0.91) and good to excellent association with the laboratory reference KC (ICC (2,1) =0.80-0.88). Whilst intra-session, inter-trial reliability of EMG activation and co-activation outcome measures ranged from moderate to excellent (ICC (2,1) =0.70-0.94), inter-session reliability was poor (all ICC (2,1) Isometric strength testing of the hip ABD and ADD musculature using HHD may be measured reliably in elite, junior rugby league athletes. Due to the poor inter-session reliability of sEMG measures, it is not recommended for athlete screening purposes if using the techniques implemented in this study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac structure and function in elite Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Rugby Football League athletes: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; Papadakis, Michael; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to define the Athletes Heart (AH) phenotype in Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander (NH&PI) Rugby Football League (RFL) athletes. Specifically, (1) to describe conventional echocardiographic indices of left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) structure and function in NH&PI RFL players and matched RFL Caucasian controls (CC) and (2) to demonstrate LV and RV mechanics in these populations. Ethnicity is a contributory factor to the phenotypical expression of the AH. There are no data describing the cardiac phenotype in NH&PI athletes. Twenty-one male elite NH&PI RFL athletes were evaluated using conventional echocardiography and myocardial speckle tracking, allowing the assessment of global longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rate (SR); and basal, mid and global radial and circumferential ε and SR. Basal and apical rotation and twist were also assessed. Results were compared with age-matched Caucasian counterparts (CC; n = 21). LV mass [42 ± 9 versus 37 ± 4 g/(m 2.7 )], mean LV wall thickness (MWT: 9.5 ± 0.7 and 8.7 ± 0.4 mm), relative wall thickness (RWT: 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.31 ± 0.03) and RV wall thickness (5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mm, all p rugby players have a greater LV mass, MWT and RWT with concomitant reductions in circumferential and twist mechanics. This data acts to prompt further research in NH&PI athletes.

  16. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (Pvertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, Pvertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  17. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  18. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  19. Speed and countermovement-jump characteristics of elite female soccer players, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among elite players over a 15-y period. 194 female elite players (22± 4.1 y, 63 ± 5.6 kg), including an Olympic winning squad, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic training center from 1995 to 2010. Moderate to large velocity differences across performance levels and positions were observed. National-team players were 2% faster than 1st-division players (P = .027, d = 0.5) and 5% faster than 2nd-division players (P players jumped 8-9% higher than 1st-division players (P = .001, d = 0.6) and junior elite players (P = .023, d = 0.5). Forwards were 3-4% faster than midfielders (P Players from 2006-2010 were 2% faster (P players from 1995-1999 over 20 m, whereas no differences in 20- to 40-m velocity or CMJ performance were observed. This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, age, and player position on sprint and CMJ performance in female soccer players. While 20- to 40-m velocity and CMJ performance have remained stable over the time, there has been a moderate but positive development in 0- to 20-m velocity among elite performers.

  20. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. RBC (4.499×10(5) cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity.

  1. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  2. Polimorfismos genéticos determinantes da performance física em atletas de elite Genetic polymorphisms determining of the physical performance in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gonçalves Dias

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo direciona-se à revisão de publicações sobre os "genes candidatos" e sua relação com os fenótipos de performance física humana em atletas de elite. Nosso objetivo é trazer ao conhecimento do leitor informações atualizadas sobre marcadores e variantes genéticas que podem levar certos indivíduos a sobressair-se em modalidades esportivas específicas. Além disso, serão descritos os mecanismos pelos quais um gene pode contribuir para a performance física, detalhando em cada momento as propriedades celulares, fisiológicas e moleculares do sistema em questão. Por esse motivo, limitamos nossa discussão a um número pequeno de variantes genéticas: polimorfismos R577X do gene da alfa-actinina 3 (ACTN3, C34T do gene da AMP deaminase (AMPD1, I/D da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA, -9/+9 do receptor beta2 de bradicinina (BDKRB2 e 985+185/1170 do gene da enzima creatina quinase M (CK-M. Esperamos com este artigo informar e sensibilizar o leitor para o fato de que a identificação de talentos e a otimização do potencial individual do atleta, com conseqüente sucesso no esporte, estão diretamente associados a variantes genéticas.This article is focused on the review of studies looking for "candidate genes" and their relationship with physical performance phenotypes in elite athletes. Our goal is to bring to readers what makes some individuals excel in some sports modalities, based on variants in genetic loci and markers. In addition, we assume the necessity to describe by what mechanisms a gene can contribute in physical performance, detailing in each part the cellular, physiological and molecular pathways involved. For this reason, we limited our discussion to a small number of genetic variants: polymorphisms R577X alpha-actinin 3 gene (ACTN3, C34T AMP deaminase gene (AMPD1, I/D angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE, -9/+9 beta2 bradykinin receptor gene (BDKRB2, and 985+185/ 1170 creatine kinase M gene (CK-M. We

  3. Level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)

  4. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case-control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse 'weak' versus 'strong' athletes according to the median (weak median vs strong median ). 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weak median group compared with the strong median group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength-injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes.

  5. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vansteenkiste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5% compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7% and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05. Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions.

  6. Training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in endurance athletes: is female gender cardioprotective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürholz, Monika; Radtke, Thomas; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The risk of sudden death is increased in athletes with a male predominance. Regular physical activity increases vagal tone, and may protect against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in female and male endurance athletes. Runners of a 10-mile race were invited. Of 873 applicants, 68 female and 70 male athletes were randomly selected and stratified according to their average weekly training hours in a low (≤4 h) and high (>4 h) volume training group. Analysis of heart rate variability was performed over 24 h. Spectral components (high frequency [HF] and low frequency [LF] power in normalized units) were analyzed for hourly 5 min segments and averaged for day- and nighttime. One hundred and fourteen athletes (50 % female, mean age 42 ± 7 years) were included. No significant gender difference was observed for training volume and 10-mile race time. Over the 24-h period, female athletes exhibited a higher HF and lower LF power for each hourly time-point. Female gender and endurance training hours were independent predictors of a higher HF and lower LF power. In female athletes, higher training hours were associated with a higher HF and lower LF power during nighttime. In male athletes, the same was true during daytime. In conclusion, female and male athletes showed a different circadian pattern of the training-related increase in markers of vagal tone. For a comparable amount of training volume, female athletes maintained their higher markers of vagal tone, possibly indicating a superior protection against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias.

  7. Sport-Specific Capacity to Use Elastic Energy in the Patellar and Achilles Tendons of Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Hans-Peter; Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During running and jumping activities, elastic energy is utilized to enhance muscle mechanical output and efficiency. However, training-induced variations in tendon spring-like properties remain under-investigated. The present work extends earlier findings on sport-specific profiles of tendon stiffness and cross-sectional area to examine whether years of distinct loading patterns are reflected by tendons' ability to store and return energy. Methods: Ultrasound scans were performed to examine the morphological features of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle-tendon units in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players, and sedentary controls. Tendon strain energy and hysteresis were measured with combined motion capture, ultrasonography, and dynamometry. Results: Apart from the fractional muscle-to-tendon cross-sectional area ratio being lower in the knee extensors of ski jumpers (-31%) and runners (-33%) than in water polo players, no difference in the considered muscle-tendon unit morphological features was observed between groups. Similarly, no significant difference in tendon energy storage or energy return was detected between groups. In contrast, hysteresis was lower in the patellar tendon of ski jumpers (-33%) and runners (-30%) compared to controls, with a similar trend for the Achilles tendon (significant interaction effect and large effect sizes η 2 = 0.2). Normalized to body mass, the recovered strain energy of the patellar tendon was ~50% higher in ski jumpers than in water polo players and controls. For the Achilles tendon, recovered strain energy was ~40% higher in ski jumpers and runners than in controls. Discussion: Advantageous mechanical properties related to tendon spring-like function are observed in elite athletes whose sport require effective utilization of elastic energy. However, the mechanisms underpinning the better tendon capacity of some athletes to retain elastic energy could not be ascribed to intrinsic or

  8. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km, cycling (180 km, running (42 km, and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii.Methods: The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011.Results: The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05, while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years were significantly (P < 0.05 younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years. During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05, but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event.Keywords: gender difference, swimming, cycling, running

  9. Correlates of Female Athletic Participation: Masculinity, Femininity, Self-Esteem, and Attitudes toward Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colker, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    1980-01-01

    Investigates self-esteem, psychological masculinity and femininity, and attitudes toward women of female athletes in an attempt to examine the validity of various stereotypes and to investigate potential subgroup distinctions based on sport played, level of commitment to athletics, and experience. (Author)

  10. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  11. Menstrual Changes in Body Composition of Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.

  12. Career and family aspirations of female athletic trainers employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Ferraro, Elizabeth M; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be problematic for female ATs and stimulate departure from the setting and even the profession.

  13. Career and Family Aspirations of Female Athletic Trainers Employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be

  14. Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: a cognitive motivational relational theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphill, Mark A; Jones, Marc V

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03), representing a range of sports (badminton, golf rugby union, athletics, archery, sailing, and snooker) explored the association between athletes' appraisals and emotions. Concurrent inductive and deductive content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego-involvement, blame/credit, coping potential, future expectations) were associated with a range of emotions: anger anxiety, guilt, happiness, pride, relief sadness, and shame. A hierarchical content analysis provided some support for Lazarus' (1991) core relational themes. Limitations and applications of this study are discussed.

  15. Treating the elite athlete: anti-doping information for the health professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shikha; Bowers, Larry D; Fedoruk, Matthew N

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and health professionals are a vital component in preserving the integrity of competition and the core principles of true sport. When treating an athlete, health professionals need to be cognizant of the anti-doping rules of the relevant sport organization. This review aims to provide an overview of the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, Therapeutic Use Exemptions, roles and responsibilities of the health professional, as well as provide resources that will guide their work with athletes.

  16. Personality and psychological factors as predictors of disordered eating among female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine; Carter, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the relationship of perfectionism, psychological well-being (self-esteem and optimism), reasons for exercising and appearance orientation to eating disorder classification among 204 female collegiate athletes. Multivariate analyses showed that only self-esteem, exercising to improve appearance and be more attractive, and appearance orientation differentiated significantly between the symptomatic/eating disordered athletes and those who were asymptomatic. No differences existed between the two groups of athletes on perfectionism, optimism, or exercising for fitness/health. For athletes, self-esteem, appearance orientation and exercising to be attractive and improve appearance were most important for understanding their level of disordered eating.

  17. ‘Everything revolves around gymnastics’: athletes and parents make sense of elite youth sport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Froukje; Jacobs, F.M.; Knoppers, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    The continuation of emotional abuse as a normalized practice in elite youth sport has received scholarly attention, often with the use of a Foucauldian framework. The use of sense-making, a theoretical framework that focuses on how meaning is created in ambiguous situations, may give additional

  18. ‘Everything revolves around gymnastics’: athletes and parents make sense of elite youth sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froukje Smits; Frank Jacobs; Annelies Knoppers

    2017-01-01

    The continuation of emotional abuse as a normalized practice in elite youth sport has received scholarly attention, often with the use of a Foucauldian framework. The use of sense-making, a theoretical framework that focuses on how meaning is created in ambiguous situations, may give additional

  19. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [pcore stability training improves landing kinetics without improving jump height, and may reduce lower extremity injury risk in female athletes.

  20. Epidemiology of Basketball, Soccer, and Volleyball Injuries in Middle-School Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981

  1. New approaches to determine fatigue in elite athletes during intensified training: Resting metabolic rate and pacing profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Woods

    Full Text Available Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR and exercise regulation (pacing, and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes.Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training. RMR, body composition and energy intake were assessed PRE and POST the four-week period using indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometry (DXA, and three-day food diary, respectively. On-water rowing performance and pacing strategy was evaluated from 5 km time trials. Wellness was assessed weekly using the Multicomponent Training Distress Scale (MTDS.Significant decreases in absolute (mean ± SD of difference, p-value: -466 ± 488 kJ.day-1, p = 0.01 and relative RMR (-8.0 ± 8.1 kJ.kg.FFM-1, p = 0.01 were observed. Significant reductions in body mass (-1.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.003 and fat mass (-2.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.0001 were detected, while energy intake was unchanged. On-water 5 km rowing performance worsened (p < 0.05 and an altered pacing strategy was evident. Fatigue and total mood disturbance significantly increased across the cycle (p < 0.05, and trends were observed for reduced vigour and increased sleep disturbance (p < 0.1.Four weeks of heavy training decreased RMR and body composition variables in elite rowers and induced substantial fatigue, likely related to an imbalance between energy intake and output. This study demonstrates that highly experienced athletes do not necessarily select the correct energy intake during periods of intensified training, and this can be assessed by reductions in RMR and body composition. The shortfall in energy availability likely affected recovery from training and altered 5 km time trial

  2. The bases for the differences in the training methodology for male and female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Платонов

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review article presents the data reflecting the need for significant differentiation of the methodology of sports training for male and female athletes, which unfortunately is ignored in sports practice and is not adequately reflected in the vast majority of publications in the field of theory and methodology of sports training. This differentiation can be attributed to the following main components: the physique, strength qualities and flexibility; the energy systems; the peculiarities of the psyche and behavioral reactions; the menstrual cycle; female athlete triad; hyperandrogenism; pregnancy and parturition; and age dependence of sports performance. The clearly insufficient consideration of the peculiarities of the female body not only does not allow to fully use the natural talent of athletes for achieving the highest attainable sports performance, but also may with high probability disturb the normal age-related development and produce serious health problems in female athletes.

  3. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  4. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  5. Performance Changes of Elite Paralympic Judo Athletes During a Paralympic Games Cycle: A Case Study with the Brazilian National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Winckler, Ciro; Bragança, Jaime R; da Fonseca, Roger A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Franchini, Emerson

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variations in power performance of elite Paralympic judo athletes across three consecutive training cycles of preparation for the ParaPan American Games, the World Championship and the Paralympic Games. Eleven Paralympic judokas from the Brazilian National team participated in this study. They were repeatedly assessed using squat and countermovement jumps, mean propulsive power (MPP) in the jump-squat (JS), the bench press and prone bench pull at several moments of the preparation. Training supervision based on the optimum power zone (range of loads where power production is maximized) was provided in the final cycle, prior to the Paralympic Games. Magnitude-based inference was used to compare the repeated measurements of power performance. Lower and upper limb muscle power gradually increased throughout the cycles; however, the best results in all exercises were observed prior to the Paralympic Games, during which the team won four silver medals. As an illustration, prior to participation in the Paralympic Games the MPP in the JS was likely to very likely higher than prior to the World Championship (effect size [ES] = 0.77) and ParaPan American Games (ES = 0.53), and in January and March 2016 (ES = 0.98 and 0.92, respectively; months preceding the Paralympic Games). Power performance assessments can provide information about the evolution of Paralympic judokas, and training at the optimum power zone seems to constitute an effective method to improve lower and upper limb power in these athletes.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE FEMALE ATHLETE FINALIST IN JUMPING DISCIPLINES AT THE BEIJING OLYMPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Pavlović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological status of athletes is his, we can say, based on an identification card, which can be assigned to a particular constitutional type, and we also got information about his body height, body weight, BMI, and even used to analyze and age. Different constitutional types are present in the sport and are important in terms of targeting, selection and performance of a specific sport. This is particularly pronounced in the athletic sport where within athletics have many different types of athletes is constitutional requires a certain discipline. This paper analyzes the morphological status of female finalists in jumping events at the Olympic Games in Beijing 2008. The survey included 32 athletes who performed in the final of the measured variables to assess the morphological status: body height (AVIS, body mass (AMAS, derived body mass index (BMI and age athletes (GOD. Applying basic statistical parameters (mean made a comparative analysis of the applied variables based competitors that have passed certain conclusions.

  7. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-12-01

    There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pagility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.

  8. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16 and under-18 (U18 female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05 higher values in upper (+21.2% and lower (+27.11% limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005. These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.

  9. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pjump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421

  10. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; pvolleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  11. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  12. Graded shuttle run performance by playing positions in elite female basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane

    2015-03-01

    A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.

  13. Iron deficiency and anemia: a common problem in female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Göran; Adolfsson, Peter; Börjesson, Mats; Mannheimer, Clas; Rödjer, Stig

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women's World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.

  14. A Short Stress Coping Intervention in Female Collegate Student-Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a stress coping based intervention in the lives of female student-athletes. Sixteen female student-athletes attending Utah State University participated in a 60 minute intervention teaching skills such as progressive muscle relaxation, stressor identification, and stress coping. Participants completed the Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life Experiences before and after the intervention. The scores collected from the inventory were used to determine ...

  15. Athletic Pubalgia in Females: Predictive Value of MRI in Outcomes of Endoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Markku; Hermunen, Heikki; Paajanen, Hannu

    2017-08-01

    Athletic pubalgia is typically associated with male athletes participating in contact sports and less frequently with females. Endoscopic surgery may fully treat the patient with athletic pubalgia. To perform an outcomes analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic surgery in female patients with athletic pubalgia. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifteen physically active female patients (mean age, 37 years) with athletic pubalgia were treated surgically via placement of total extraperitoneal endoscopic polypropylene mesh behind the injured groin area. The presence of preoperative bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis seen on MRI was graded from 0 to 3 and correlated with pain scores after surgery. The outcome measures were pre- and postoperative pain scores and recovery to daily activity between 1 and 12 months after surgery. Results were compared with previously published scores from male athletes (n = 30). With the exception of lower body mass index, the females with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) pubic BME had similar patient characteristics to the corresponding males. Mean inguinal pain scores (0-10) before surgical treatment were greater in females than males (during exercise, 7.8 ± 1.1 vs 6.9 ± 1.1; P = .0131). One month after surgery, mean pain scores for females were still greater compared with males (2.9 ± 1.7 vs 1.3 ± 1.6; P = .0034). Compared with female athletes with normal MRI, pubic BME was related to increased mean preoperative pain scores (8.13 ± 0.99 vs 6.43 ± 1.2; P = .0122). After 1 year, surgical outcomes were excellent or good in 47% of women. Endoscopic surgery was helpful in half of the females with athletic pubalgia in this study. The presence of pubic BME may predict slightly prolonged recovery from surgery.

  16. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Prieske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S exercise vs. a strength only (S exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players (N = 12 aged 14–15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8–10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S, and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ and drop jump (DJ performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties (p < 0.05, d = 1.1 and jump performance outputs (p < 0.05, 1.1 ≤ d ≤ 1.2 were found. Post-hoc tests revealed that S compared to control produced larger PAP for twitch peak torques by trend (p = 0.07, d = 1.8, 33 vs. 21% and significantly larger PAP for twitch rate of torque development (p < 0.05, d = 2.4, 55 vs. 43%. Following B+S compared to control, significant improvements in CMJ height (p < 0.01, d = 1.9, 3% and DJ contact time were found (p < 0.01, d = 2.0, 10%. This study revealed protocol-specific acute performance improvements. While S resulted in significant increases in twitch contractile properties, B+S produced

  17. Anthropometrical, physiological, and tracked power profiles of elite taekwondo athletes 9 weeks before the Olympic competition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nick; Nolan, Emily; Wheeler, Keane

    2011-10-01

    Physiological, anthropometric, and power profiling data were retrospectively analyzed from 4 elite taekwondo athletes from the Australian National Olympic team 9 weeks from Olympic departure. Power profiling data were collected weekly throughout the 9-week period. Anthropometric skinfolds generated a lean mass index (LMI). Physiological tests included a squat jump and bench throw power profile, bleep test, 20-m sprint test, running VO2max test, and bench press and squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength tests. After this, the athletes power, velocity, and acceleration profile during unweighted squat jumps and single-leg jumps were tracked using a linear position transducer. Increases in power, velocity, and acceleration between weeks and bilateral comparisons were analyzed. Athletes had an LMI of 37.1 ± 0.4 and were 173.9 ± 0.2 m and 67 ± 1.1 kg. Relatively weaker upper body (56 ± 11.97 kg 3RM bench press) compared to lower body strength (88 ± 2.89 kg 3RM squat) was shown alongside a VO2max of 53.29 ml(-1)·min(-1)·kg, and a 20-m sprint time of 3.37 seconds. Increases in all power variables for single-leg squat and squat jumps were found from the first session to the last. Absolute peak power in single-leg squat jumps increased by 13.4-16% for the left and right legs with a 12.9% increase in squat jump peak power. Allometrically scaled peak power showed greater increases for single-leg (right leg: 18.55%; left: 23.49%) and squat jump (14.49%). The athlete's weight did not change significantly throughout the 9-week mesocycle. Progressions in power increases throughout the weeks were undulating and can be related to the intensity of the prior week's training and athlete injury. This analysis has shown that a 9-week mesocycle before Olympic departure that focuses on core lifts has the ability to improve power considerably.

  18. Effects of menarcheal age on the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The post-menarche group showed a decrease in their maximum knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.

  19. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a treatment for high ankle sprain in elite athletes: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Carmont, Michael R; McConkey, Mark O; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Yaacobi, Eyal; Mann, Gideon; Nyska, Meir; Kots, Eugene; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2015-11-01

    Syndesmotic sprains are uncommon injuries that require prolonged recovery. The influence of ultrasound-guided injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into the injured antero-inferior tibio-fibular ligaments (AITFL) in athletes on return to play (RTP) and dynamic stability was studied. Sixteen elite athletes with AITFL tears were randomized to a treatment group receiving injections of PRP or to a control group. All patients followed an identical rehabilitation protocol and RTP criteria. Patients were prospectively evaluated for clinical ability to return to full activity and residual pain. Dynamic ultrasound examinations were performed at initial examination and at 6 weeks post-injury to demonstrate re-stabilization of the syndesmosis joint and correlation with subjective outcome. All patients presented with a tear to the AITFL with dynamic syndesmosis instability in dorsiflexion-external rotation, and larger neutral tibia-fibula distance on ultrasound. Early diagnosis and treatment lead to shorter RTP, with 40.8 (±8.9) and 59.6 (±12.0) days for the PRP and control groups, respectively (p = 0.006). Significantly less residual pain upon return to activity was found in the PRP group; five patients (62.5 %) in the control group returned to play with minor discomfort versus one patient in the treatment group (12.5 %). One patient in the control group had continuous pain and disability and subsequently underwent syndesmosis reconstruction. Athletes suffering from high ankle sprains benefit from ultrasound-guided PRP injections with a shorter RTP, re-stabilization of the syndesmosis joint and less long-term residual pain. II.

  20. Association between coping skills, past injury and hip pain and function in adolescent elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Jessica L; Stracciolini, Andrea; Griffith, Kelsey L; D'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Owen, Michael; Sugimoto, Dai

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping skills and current hip pain and function scores in ballet dancers. Secondly, we examined the relationship between coping skills and past injuries. Thirdly, we investigated the association between past injuries and current pain and function scores. This was a cross-sectional observational study. Twenty-six young elite female dancers (mean age 15.9 years, range 14-17 years) participated. Participants completed surveys indicating past injury history, rating pain and function on the short International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12), and assessing coping skills on the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory Score (ACSI-28). Independent t-tests, Cohen's d, effect size, chi-square and correlation coefficient and determination analyses were conducted. There was no significant relationship between iHOT-12 scores and ACSI-28 scores (r = -0.250, p = 0.087). There was no significant difference (p = 0.289) in past injuries comparing those with ACSI-28 scores above and below the mean ACSI-28. A significant moderate negative correlation was detected between both iHOT-12 scores and total past injuries (r = -0.609, p < 0.001), and iHOT-12 scores and past non-hip injuries (r = -0.628, p < 0.001). Past injuries may influence current hip pain and function in young female dancers. Correlation determination (r 2 ) indicated that 37% of current pain and function scores were explained by total past injuries in a small group of young high-level ballet dancers. Further research should engage a prospective design to investigate the predictive ability of findings.

  1. Informational feedback and self-esteem among male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, A F; Blais, C; McCarrey, M; Laramee, D; Ekstrand, K

    1992-06-01

    The self-esteem of male and female competitive athletes was compared after each was provided either positive or negative (verbal) informational feedback on a nonathletic task, a series of single-solution anagrams. Subjects were 50 men and 50 women, aged 18 to 25 years, who were tested on the semantic differential to estimate athletes' self-esteem before and after receiving the informational feedback. Over-all, female athletes responded more strongly to both feedback conditions, with both groups being more influenced by negative rather than by positive feedback.

  2. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Lori; May, April C.; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N.; Hickman, Steven D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Pe...

  3. Cerebrovascular reactivity changes in asymptomatic female athletes attributable to high school soccer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Diana O; McCuen, Emily C; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Nho, Yeseul; Hannemann, Robert; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    As participation in women's soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes' careers continues to increase, prevention and care for mTBI in women's soccer has become a major concern for female athletes since the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women's sports, soccer exhibits among the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men's football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that "concussive hits" occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision sport athletes should be assessed. Neuroimaging biomarkers have proven to be valuable in detecting brain changes that occur before neurocognitive symptoms in collision sport athletes. Quantifying the relationship between changes in these biomarkers and head impacts experienced by female soccer athletes may prove valuable to developing preventative measures for mTBI. This study paired functional magnetic resonance imaging with head impact monitoring to track cerebrovascular reactivity changes throughout a season and to test whether the observed changes could be attributed to mechanical loading experienced by female athletes participating in high school soccer. Marked cerebrovascular reactivity changes were observed in female soccer athletes, relative both to non-collision sport control measures and pre-season measures and were localized to fronto-temporal aspects of the brain. These changes persisted 4-5 months after the season ended and recovered by 8 months after the season. Segregation of the total soccer cohort into cumulative loading groups revealed that population-level changes were driven by athletes experiencing high cumulative loads, although athletes experiencing lower cumulative loads still contributed to group changes. The results of this study imply a non-linear relationship between cumulative

  4. Use of a functional movement screening tool to determine injury risk in female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorba, Rita S; Chorba, David J; Bouillon, Lucinda E; Overmyer, Corey A; Landis, James A

    2010-06-01

    Athletes often utilize compensatory movement strategies to achieve high performance. However, these inefficient movement strategies may reinforce poor biomechanical movement patterns during typical activities, resulting in injury. This study sought to determine if compensatory movement patterns predispose female collegiate athletes to injury, and if a functional movement screening (FMS™) tool can be used to predict injuries in this population. Scores on the FMS™, comprised of seven movement tests, were calculated for 38 NCAA Division II female collegiate athletes before the start of their respective fall and winter sport seasons (soccer, volleyball, and basketball). Seven athletes reported a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Injuries sustained while participating in sport activities were recorded throughout the seasons. The mean FMS™ score and standard deviation for all subjects was 14.3±1.77 (maximum score of 21). Eighteen injuries (17 lower extremity, 1 lower back) were recorded during this study. A score of 14/21 or less was significantly associated with injury (P=0.0496). Sixty-nine percent of athletes scoring 14 or less sustained an injury. Odds ratios were 3.85 with inclusion of all subjects, and 4.58 with exclusion of ACLR subjects. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.58 and 0.74 for all subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was found between low-scoring athletes and injury (P=0.0214, r=0.76). A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ tool resulted in a 4-fold increase in risk of lower extremity injury in female collegiate athletes participating in fall and winter sports. The screening tool was able to predict injury in female athletes without a history of major musculoskeletal injury such as ACLR. Compensatory fundamental movement patterns can increase the risk of injury in female collegiate athletes, and can be identified by using a functional movement screening tool.

  5. Enhancing appearance and sports performance: are female collegiate athletes behaving more like males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Susan M; Gorrow, Teena R; Schneider, Sidney R

    2009-01-01

    The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about the average number of times each week they performed specific supplementing, exercise, or dietary behaviors. The authors found differences associated with gender for 9 of the 18 behaviors. Specifically, 2 of these 9 behaviors were dietary, 1 was supplementary, 3 were physique concerns, and 3 involved personal motivation for weightlifting. Male athletes reported a higher drive for size, speed, and power, whereas female athletes were more concerned with body fat, more likely to restrict caloric intake, and more prone to consume weight loss supplements. No differences were found by gender regarding supplement use to increase body size.

  6. Doping control, providing whereabouts and the importance of privacy for elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, D.; de Hon, O.; van Hilvoorde, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To improve anti-doping efforts in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the World Anti-Doping Program, in which (among others) regulations for providing athletes' whereabouts are described. Because the effectiveness and efficiency of this system depends on the

  7. Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, Inge; Heaney, Susan E.; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge

  8. Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rijken, Noortje H.; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B.; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily...

  9. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...... (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side...... on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER...

  10. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  11. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  12. Nutritional Status and Dietary Pattern of Male Athletes in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was ... Keywords: Athletes, Nutritional Status, Dietary Pattern, Ibadan, Nigeria. ©Physiological Society of ..... status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent ... Gil J. (2005) Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages.

  13. Differences in muscle mechanical properties between elite power and endurance athletes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Gil, Saulo; Laurino, Cristiano Frota de Souza; Roschel, Hamilton; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle mechanical properties (using tensiomyography-TMG) and jumping performance of endurance and power athletes and to quantify the associations between TMG parameters and jumping performance indices. Forty-one high-level track and field athletes from power (n = 22; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.2 ± 3.6 years; 180.2 ± 5.4 cm; and 79.4 ± 8.6 kg, respectively) and endurance (endurance runners and triathletes; n = 19; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.1 ± 6.9 years; 169.6 ± 9.8 cm; 62.2 ± 13.1 kg, respectively) specialties had the mechanical properties of their rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) assessed by TMG. Muscle displacement (Dm), contraction time (Tc), and delay time (Td) were retained for analyses. Furthermore, they performed squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and drop jumps to assess reactive strength index (RSI), using a contact platform. Comparisons between groups were performed using differences based on magnitudes, and associations were quantified by the Spearman's ρ correlation. Power athletes showed almost certain higher performance in all jumping performance indices when compared with endurance athletes (SJ = 44.9 ± 4.1 vs. 30.7 ± 6.8 cm; CMJ = 48.9 ± 4.5 vs. 33.6 ± 7.2 cm; RSI = 2.19 ± 0.58 vs. 0.84 ± 0.39, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05), along with better contractile indices reflected by lower Dm, Tc, and Td (Tc BF = 14.3 ± 2.3 vs. 19.4 ± 3.3 milliseconds; Dm BF = 1.67 ± 1.05 vs. 4.23 ± 1.75 mm; Td BF = 16.8 ± 1.6 vs. 19.6 ± 1.3 milliseconds; Tc RF = 18.3 ± 2.8 vs. 22.9 ± 4.0 milliseconds; Dm RF = 4.98 ± 3.71 vs. 8.88 ± 3.45 mm; Td RF = 17.5 ± 1.0 vs. 20.9 ± 1.6 milliseconds, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05). Moderate correlations (Spearman's ρ between -0.61 and -0.72) were found between TMG and jumping

  14. The Female Athlete Body (FAB) study: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tiffany M; Pollard, Tarryn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Beyl, Robbie; Wesley, Nicole; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2017-09-01

    Eating Disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric illnesses marked by psychiatric comorbidity, medical complications, and functional impairment. Research indicates that female athletes are often at greater risk for developing ED pathology versus non-athlete females. The Female Athlete Body (FAB) study is a three-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to assess the efficacy of a behavioral ED prevention program for female collegiate athletes when implemented by community providers. This paper describes the design, intervention, and participant baseline characteristics. Future papers will discuss outcomes. Female collegiate athletes (N=481) aged 17-21 were randomized by site, team, and sport type to either FAB or a waitlist control group. FAB consisted of three sessions (1.3h each) of a behavioral ED prevention program. Assessments were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), post-intervention (3weeks), and six-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups. This study achieved 96% (N=481) of target recruitment (N=500). Few group differences emerged at baseline. Total sample analyses revealed moderately low baseline instances of ED symptoms and clinical cases. Health risks associated with EDs necessitate interventions for female athletes. The FAB study is the largest existing RCT for female athletes aimed at both reduction of ED risk factors and ED prevention. The methods presented and population recruited for this study represent an ideal intervention for assessing the effects of FAB on both the aforementioned outcomes. We anticipate that findings of this study (reported in future papers) will make a significant contribution to the ED risk factor reduction and prevention literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A; Mohr, M; Wilkie, A; Datson, N; Orntoft, C; Zebis, M; Gomez-Diaz, A; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P World Cup Finals (2049 ± 283 vs 1803 ± 342 m). The data demonstrate that the Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and is an indicator of the match-specific physical capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test illustrates sensitivity by differentiating intermittent exercise performance of female players in various competitive levels, stages of the season and playing positions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  17. Right and Left Ventricular Function and Mass in Male Elite Master Athletes: A Controlled Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Schneider, Günther; Linneweber, Lutz; Rentzsch, Axel; Krämer, Nadine; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim; Scharhag, Jürgen

    2016-05-17

    It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Thirty-three healthy white competitive elite male master endurance athletes (age range, 30-60 years) with a training history of 29±8 years, and 33 white control subjects pair-matched for age, height, and weight underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography including tissue-Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Indexed left ventricular mass and right ventricular mass (left ventricular mass/body surface area, 96±13 and 62±10 g/m(2); Pright ventricular mass/body surface area, 36±7 and 24±5 g/m(2); Pleft ventricular end-diastolic volume and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (left ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 104±13 and 69±18 mL/m(2); Pright ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 110±22 and 66±16 mL/m(2); PRight ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between athletes and control subjects (52±8 and 54±6%; P=0.26). Pathological late enhancement was detected in 1 athlete. No correlations were found for left ventricular and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitive troponin was negative in all subjects. Based on our results, chronic right ventricular damage in elite endurance master athletes with lifelong high training volumes seems to be unlikely. Thus, the hypothesis of an exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has to be questioned. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Influence of caffeine and sodium citrate ingestion on 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine and sodium citrate. Nine healthy, elite wheelchair-racing athletes (median: [min; max] age: 28 y [23; 54]; height: 173 cm [165; 188]; weight: 62.9 kg [48.9; 68.4], category T53/54) completed the study. All athletes were national team members, including several Paralympic Games, World and European Championship medalists. The athletes performed a 1,500-m time trial four times on a wheelchair training roller. Time to complete 1,500-m, pH, bicarbonate and sodium concentration as well as lactate concentration were measured. The time to complete 1,500-m was not significantly different between the four treatments (placebo: 170.6 s [141.7; 232.0]; caffeine: 179.5 s [134.8; 239.6]; sodium citrate: 178.3 s [136.4; 247.1]; combination: 177.6 s [136.1; 256.2]). However, pH and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly increased with sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo. Moreover, maximal lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the caffeine and the combination treatment compared with placebo. The supplementation with sodium citrate and/or caffeine did not provide an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in wheelchair elite athletes.

  19. Factor structure of the integrated training of elite athletes - representatives of mountain sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the factor structure of the readiness of mountaineers and climbers of different specializations. The study involved 26 athletes, among them - 10 masters of sports of international class (speed climbing , 10 masters of sports of international class ( climbing difficulty and 6 world-class climbers. The age of the athletes was 19-22 years. Identified 10 factors in the overall readiness of the surveyed athletes. It is shown that the most prominent climbers factors are adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular system, special endurance. Do climbers ( climbing difficulty - relative strength, stability, reaction speed, arm strength and the press. Do climbers ( climbing speed - spigot size hand, the mobility of the nervous system, the reaction rate. Shows the complexity of the manifestations of power-speed in relation to the performance of morphological and functional characteristics and capabilities of psychophysiological representatives of mountain sports. Found that the development of the power-speed positive effect on the improvement of psycho-physiological regulation of the body. The obtained data on the characteristics of the severity of different factors in representatives of different types of rock climbing and mountaineering can be used to predict future specialization novice climbers.

  20. The association between fundamental athletic movements and physical fitness in elite junior Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; McKeown, Ian; Keogh, Justin; Robertson, Sam

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the associations between fundamental athletic movement and physical fitness in junior Australian football (AF). Forty-four under 18 players performed a fundamental athletic movement assessment consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge, single leg Romanian deadlift and a push up. Movements were scored on three assessment criterions using a three-point scale. Additionally, participants performed five physical fitness tests commonly used for talent identification in AF. A Spearman's nonparametric correlation matrix was built, with correlation coefficients being visualised using a circularly rendered correlogram. Score on the overhead squat was moderately positively associated with dynamic vertical jump height on left (r s  = 0.40; P ≤ 0.05) and right (r s  = 0.30; P ≤ 0.05) leg take-off, stationary vertical jump (r s  = 0.32; P ≤ 0.05) and negatively associated with 20-m sprint time (r s  = -0.35; P ≤ 0.05). Score on the double lunge (left/right side) was moderately positively associated with the same physical fitness tests as well as score on the multistage fitness test. Results suggest that improvements in physical fitness qualities may occur through concurrent increases in fundamental athletic movement skill, namely the overhead squat and double lunge movements. These findings may assist with the identification and development of talent.

  1. The influence of athletic status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics and postural balance performance in Division I female soccer athletes and non-athlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Thiele, Ryan M; Conchola, Eric C; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance to discriminate between female collegiate soccer athletes and non-athlete controls. Ten athletes (mean ± SE: age = 19·20 ± 0·36 year; mass = 62·23 ± 3·12 kg; height = 162·43 ± 1·70 cm) and 10 non-athletes (age = 20·30 ± 0·40 year; mass = 69·64 ± 3·20 kg; height = 163·22 ± 2·10 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of static stability based on sway index (SI). Results indicated that absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms (RTD50 and RTD50norm) were greater (P = 0·007 and 0·026), and postural SI was lower (P = 0·022) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes. However, no differences (P = 0·375-0·709) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms (RTD100-200 and RTD100-200norm). Significant relationships were also observed between RTD50 and RTD50norm and SI (r = -0·559 and -0·521; P = 0·010 and 0·019). These findings suggest that early rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between college-aged athletes and non-athletes. Coaches and practitioners may use these findings as performance evaluation tools to help in identifying athletes with both superior early rapid torque and balance performance abilities, which may possibly be an indicator of overall athletic potential. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John

  2. A three-week traditional altitude training increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite biathlon athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, K; Heinicke, I; Schmidt, W; Wolfarth, B

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that altitude training stimulates erythropoiesis, but only few data are available concerning the direct altitude effect on red blood cell volume (RCV) in world class endurance athletes during exposure to continued hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of three weeks of traditional altitude training at 2050 m on total hemoglobin mass (tHb), RCV and erythropoietic activity in highly-trained endurance athletes. Total hemoglobin mass, RCV, plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) from 6 males and 4 females, all members of a world class biathlon team, were determined on days 1 and 20 during their stay at altitude as well as 16 days after returning to sea-level conditions (800 m, only males) by using the CO-rebreathing method. In males tHb (14.0 +/- 0.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.0 g/kg, p altitude and returned to near sea-level values 16 days after descent. Similarly in females, tHb (13.0 +/- 1.0 to 14.2 +/- 1.3 g/kg, p altitude training period, whereas PV was not altered. In male athletes, plasma erythropoietin concentration increased up to day 4 at altitude (11.8 +/- 5.0 to 20.8 +/- 6.0 mU/ml, p altitude training period, both parameters indicating enhanced erythropoietic activity. In conclusion, we show for the first time that a three-week traditional altitude training increases erythropoietic activity even in world class endurance athletes leading to elevated tHb and RCV. Considering the relatively fast return of tHb and RCV to sea-level values after hypoxic exposure, our data suggest to precisely schedule training at altitude and competition at sea level.

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