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Sample records for elite female athletes

  1. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite female athletes.

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    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. The characteristics of MIP in elite female athletes remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of MIP at rest in a variety of sport-specific elite female athletes. We also aimed to clarify if there is a sex difference of MIP in elite athletes. We studied 169 Japanese elite female athletes and 301 Japanese elite male athletes. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Female athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have higher MIP values. The mean absolute MIP value in females was significantly lower than that in males. However, when this value was expressed relative to body mass, this difference disappeared. Our findings provide essential information for prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training in elite female athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of baseline free testosterone and cortisol concentrations between elite and non-elite female athletes.

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    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Smith, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    To compare the baseline free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations of elite and non-elite female athletes. Eighteen females from different sports (track and field, netball, cycling, swimming, bob skeleton) were monitored over a 12-week period. Baseline measures of salivary free T and C concentrations were taken weekly prior to any training. The elites (n = 9) and non-elites (n = 9) were classified as international and national level competitors, respectively, with both groups matched by sport. The pooled free T concentrations of the elites (87 pg/ml) were significantly higher than the non-elites (41 pg/ml) and consistently so across all weekly time points (P free C concentrations were also greater in the elite group (2.90 ng/ml) than the non-elites (2.32 ng/ml) (P free T and C concentrations could indicate a greater capacity for physical performance at higher work rates, which is commensurate with the demands of elite sport. Speculatively, the T differences observed could influence female behavior and thereby help to regulate sporting potential. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nutrient intake of female elite athletes suffering from eating disorders.

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    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1993-12-01

    This study assessed the nutrient intake and eating behavior in Norwegian female elite athletes suffering from eating disorders (ED) who met the criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN), anorexia athletica (AA), or bulimia nervosa (BN). The subjects included 7 AN, 43 AA, 42 BN, and 30 controls. Three-day and 24-hr food records were used to assess energy and nutrient intake. Results revealed that a significant number of AN and AA athletes have diets too low in energy and nutrients, the mean intake for energy and CHO being lower than recommended for active females. A significant number did not reach the protein level recommended for athletes. In addition, there were low intakes of several micronutrients, most notably calcium, vitamin D, and iron. The energy and nutritional inadequacy, combined with the use of purging, are of major concern since the athletes in this study were relatively young. It is unknown whether the abnormal eating pattern is a consequence of ED or is typical of top level athletes.

  4. Nutrition status of junior elite Canadian female soccer athletes.

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    Gibson, Jennifer C; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth; Martin, Steven; Gaul, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent female team-sport athletes are faced with the challenge of meeting nutrition requirements for growth and development, as well as sport performance. There is a paucity of evidence describing the dietary adequacy of this population in respect to these physiological demands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the nutrition status of junior elite female soccer athletes. A total of 33 athletes (15.7 ± 0.7 yr) completed anthropometric assessment, 4-day food records analyzed for macro- and micronutrient intake, and hematological analysis. Energy expenditure was estimated using predictive equations. Mean sum of 7 skinfolds was 103.1 ± 35.2 mm, and body-mass index was 22.7 ± 2.7. Mean energy intake was 2,079 ± 460 kcal/day, and estimated energy expenditure was 2,546 ± 190 kcal/day. Of the athletes, 51.5% consumed carbohydrate, 27.3% consumed players were not in energy balance, failed to meet carbohydrate and micronutrient recommendations, and presented with depleted iron and vitamin D status. Suboptimal nutrition status may affect soccer performance and physiological growth and development. More research is needed to understand the unique nutrition needs of this population and inform sport nutrition practice and research.

  5. Arthroscopic Hip Surgery in the Elite Athlete: Comparison of Female and Male Competitive Athletes.

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    Shibata, Kotaro R; Matsuda, Shuichi; Safran, Marc R

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have published the results of hip arthroscopic surgery in elite athletes and none studying a significant number of elite female athletes. (1) To compare sex-based differences in the ability to return to prior competitive sports activity after arthroscopic hip surgery. (2) To compare sex-based differences in the type of sports activity, diagnosis, and treatment in athletes requiring hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on all elite athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopic surgery between 2007 and 2014 were included. Athletes with a Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) score of over 6 were identified. The preoperative evaluation included a medical history, history of sports activity, and hip-specific outcome scores (Modified Harris Hip Score [MHHS] and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 [iHOT-33]). Surgical findings and time to return to competitive sports were documented. Of 547 hips in 484 consecutive patients, 98 elite athletes (49 female) with a mean follow-up of 18.9 ± 12.8 months were identified. Eighty patients desired to return to their original competitive activity: 38 were female (42 hips; mean age, 21.5 ± 3.9 years), and 42 were male (54 hips; mean age, 20.5 ± 1.9 years). Moreover, 84.2% of female athletes and 83.3% of male athletes were able to return to the same level of competition at a mean of 8.3 ± 3.0 and 8.8 ± 2.9 months, respectively. Significant improvements between preoperative and postoperative outcome scores were seen in both groups (all P arthroscopic surgery at a similar rate, although their performance in sports was not measured. Distinct differences in the diagnosis, treatment, and type of sports activity between sexes were seen. The duration of symptoms negatively correlated with outcomes. Microfracture did not affect the return to sports.

  6. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes.

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    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Korotkova, Tatiana A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Stewart, Dennis R

    2011-01-19

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC) and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strength in animal models. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears - basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball - were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05. 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL). The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL) and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL) and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL) and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL); these differences were not significant (P = 0.53). Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC) differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2.80 ng/mL), and those not using hormonal contraceptives (6.99 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). There is a positive correlation between serum progesterone and SRC and an attenuation of SRC with hormonal contraceptive use. Our results underscore the significant role that hormonal

  7. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Dragoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jason L Dragoo1, Tiffany N Castillo1, Tatiana A Korotkova1, Ashleigh C Kennedy1, Hyeon Joo Kim1, Dennis R Stewart21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Corthera Inc. San Mateo, CA, USAPurpose: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL strength in animal models.Methods: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears – basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball – were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05.Results: 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL. The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002. Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL; these differences were not significant (P = 0.53. Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2

  8. Sleep-hygiene Education Improves Sleep Indices in Elite Female Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Shannon; Driller, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of sleep in providing psychophysiological recovery in elite athletes is often overlooked. In other populations (eg shift workers and adolescent students), sleep hygiene education may serve to acutely improve sleep indices. However, this is yet to be examined in an elite athlete...... setting. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a sleep hygiene education session on sleep indices in elite athletes. The study involved 26 elite female netball athletes performing one week of baseline sleep monitoring (PRE), followed by a sleep hygiene education session......; 22.3 ± 39.9 minutes, p=0.01) PRE to POST sleep hygiene education session, the difference associated with a small effect (ES: 0.39). A significant improvement PRE to POST was found for WV (p=0.03), and for WED (p=0.03). There were no significant differences for SE%, SL, TTB, WE, SOV, SOT, WT...

  9. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

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    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Kinesio taping and jump performance in elite female track and field athletes and jump performance in elite female track and field athletes.

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    Schiffer, Thorsten; Möllinger, Anne; Sperlich, Billy; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    The application of kinesio tape (KT) to lower-extremity muscles as an ergogenic aid to improve muscle-strength-related parameters such as jumping is controversial. To test the hypothesis that the application of KT enhances the jumping performance of healthy uninjured elite female track and field athletes. A double 1-legged jump test was performed before and after the application of blue K-Active tape without traction on the maximally stretched gastrocnemius, hamstrings, rectus femoris, and iliopsoas muscles according to the generally accepted technique. 18 German elite female track and field athletes (age 21 ± 2 y, height 172 ± 4 cm, body mass 62 ± 5 kg, active time in their sport 13 ± 4 y). Factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA, Bonferroni) revealed no significant differences in jumping performance between the tests (P > .05, d = 0.26). These findings suggest that the application of KT has no influence on jumping performance in healthy, uninjured female elite athletes. The authors do not recommend the use of KT for the purpose of improving jump performance.

  11. Sexual harassment and eating disorders in female elite athletes - a controlled study.

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    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Fasting, K; Brackenridge, C; Torstveit, M K; Berglund, B

    2003-10-01

    The aims were to examine the percentage of female elite athletes and controls reporting sexual harassment and abuse (SHAB), and whether a higher percentage of female athletes with eating disorders (ED) had experienced SHAB. A questionnaire was administered to the total population of female elite athletes (n = 660) and controls (n = 780) aged 15-39 years. Sexual harassment and abuse were measured through 11 questions, ranging from light to severe SHAB. In addition, questions about dietary-, menstrual- and training-history and the Eating Disorder Inventory were included. The response rate was 88% for athletes and 71% for controls. Athletes (n = 121) and controls (n = 81) classified as "at risk" for ED and non-ED controls participated in a clinical interview. A higher percentage of controls compared with athletes reported experiences of SHAB in general (59% vs. 51%, P sports than outside sport (28% vs. 39%, P sport and outside sport. In spite of the fact that a higher percentage of controls compared with athletes had experienced SHAB, it is necessary to formulate clear guidelines, set up educational workshops and implement intervention programs for both ED and SHAB in sport.

  12. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

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    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  14. Celiac disease in an elite female collegiate volleyball athlete: a case report.

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    Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2005-01-01

    To present the case of an elite female volleyball player who complained of diarrhea and fatigue after preseason training. The athlete lost 8.1 kg during the first 20 days of training, and we initially suspected an eating disorder. The sports medicine team interviewed the athlete and found she did not have psychological symptoms indicative of an eating disorder. The results of routine blood tests revealed critically high platelet counts; in conjunction with the physical findings, the athlete was referred to a gastroenterologist. Our initial suggestion was an eating disorder. Therefore, the differential diagnosis included anorexia athletica, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. On referral, the differential diagnosis was anemia, gastrointestinal dysfunction, lymphoma, or bowel adenocarcinoma. Diarrhea, weight loss, and blood test results were suggestive of active celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis. The athlete was treated with a gluten-free diet, which excludes wheat, barley, and rye. Dietary substitutions were incorporated to maintain adequate caloric intake. The presence of active celiac disease may not be uncommon. However, elite athletes who face celiac disease present a new challenge for the athletic trainer. The athletic trainer can help guide the athlete in coping with the lifestyle changes associated with a gluten-free diet. One in every 200 to 400 individuals has celiac disease; many of these individuals are asymptomatic and, therefore, their conditions are undiagnosed. Undiagnosed, untreated celiac disease and patients who fail to follow the gluten-free diet increase the risk of further problems.

  15. Reference Values of Aortic Root in Male and Female White Elite Athletes According to Sport.

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    Boraita, Araceli; Heras, Maria-Eugenia; Morales, Francisco; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Canda, Alicia; Rabadan, Manuel; Barriopedro, Maria-Isabel; Varela, Amai; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Tuñón, José

    2016-10-01

    There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m2 and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Age, left ventricular mass, and body surface area were the main predictors of aortic dimensions. Raw values were greater in males than in females (P40 mm and 34 mm, respectively. Raw and corrected aortic measures at all levels were significantly greater in sports, with a high dynamic component in both sexes, except for corrected values of the sinotubular junction in women. Aortic root dimensions in healthy elite athletes are within the established limits for the general population. This study describes the normal dimensions for healthy elite athletes classified according to sex and dynamic and static components of their sports. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Specific bone mass acquisition in elite female athletes.

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    Maïmoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Galtier, Florence; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Paris, Françoise; Sultan, Charles

    2013-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that physical activity can improve bone mass acquisition. However, this design is not adequate to describe the specific kinetics of bone mass gain during pubertal development. To compare the kinetics of bone mass acquisition in female adolescent athletes of sports that impose different mechanical loads and untrained controls throughout puberty. A total of 72 girls with ages ranging from 10.8 to 18.0 years were recruited: 24 rhythmic gymnasts (RG, impact activity group), 24 swimmers (SW, no-impact activity), and 24 age-matched controls (CON). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone turnover markers were analyzed. All the investigations were performed at baseline and after 1 year. At baseline and after 1 year of follow-up, RG presented significantly greater aBMD adjusted for age, fat-free soft tissue, and fat mass compared with CON and SW, only at the femoral region. When aBMD variation throughout the pubertal period was modeled for each group from individual values, the aBMD at the femoral region was significantly higher in RG compared with the other 2 groups from 12.5 to 14 years, and this difference lasted up to 18 years. Moreover, the mean annual aBMD gain tended to be higher in RG compared with SW and CON only at the femoral region and this gain lasted longer in RG. Bone remodeling markers decreased similarly with age in the 3 groups. This study, which was based on linear mixed models for longitudinal data, demonstrated that the osteogenic effect of gymnastics is characterized by greater bone mass gain localized at mechanically loaded bone (ie, the proximal femur) principally around the menarcheal period. Moreover, the bone mass gain lasts longer in gymnasts, which may be explained by the delay in sexual maturation.

  17. Prevalence of sexual harassment among Norwegian female elite athletes in relation to sport type

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, K; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Brackenridge, CH

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that the prevalence of sexual harassment is different in different sports, this assumption has not been empirically tested. This study considers whether the experience of sexual harassment varies by sport. The female elite athletes (N = 553) in the study participated in 56 different sport disciplines. These were grouped as follows :1) team or individual sports; 2) extent to which clothing required for competition is revealing ; 3) gender structure (male-or fem...

  18. Performing high-level sport is strongly associated with urinary incontinence in elite athletes: a comparative study of 372 elite female athletes and 372 controls.

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    Carvalhais, Alice; Natal Jorge, Renato; Bø, Kari

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female elite athletes compared with controls and to investigate potential risk factors for UI among elite athletes. This cross-sectional study included 372 elite athletes (athletes group, AG) and 372 age-matched controls (control group, CG). The median age was low (19 years) and the vast majority were nulliparous. Potential risk factors, including clinical, demographic and sports practice characteristics, were collected by using a questionnaire. The International Consultation on Urinary Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form was applied to estimate the prevalence of UI. OR with 95% CIs were used to estimate the association with UI. The final model was adjusted for constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infection. The prevalence of UI was 29.6% and 13.4% in AG and CG, respectively (pelite athletes is high and the odds of UI were three times higher than in controls. Also, constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infections were significantly associated with UI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Preventing eating disorders among young male and female elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 Many athletes struggle with disordered eating or eating disorders (ED) as they attempt to conform to demands or competition regulations that might be ill-suited to their physique. In this situation, participation in sports may lead to an array of health concerns that may adversely affect the athlete’s short and long-term health at a variety of performance levels and sports. The peak onset of ED is adolescence, when most ath...

  20. Risk and trigger factors for the development of eating disorders in female elite athletes.

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    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1994-04-01

    This study examined risk factors and triggers for eating disorders in female athletes. Subjects included were all of the elite female athletes in Norway (N = 603), ages 12-35 yr, representing six groups of sports: technical, endurance, aesthetic, weight dependent, ball games, and power sports. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used to classify individuals at risk for eating disorders. Of the 117 athletes defined at risk, 103 were administered a structured clinical interview for eating disorders. A comparison group was also interviewed, consisting of 30 athletes chosen at random from a pool not at risk and matched to the at-risk subjects on age, community of residence, and sport. Ninety-two of the at-risk athletes met criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia athletica. The prevalence of eating disorders was higher in sports emphasizing leanness or a specific weight than in sports where these are less important. Compared with controls, eating disordered athletes began both sports-specific training and dieting earlier, and felt that puberty occurred too early for optimal performance. Trigger factors associated with the onset of eating disorders were prolonged periods of dieting, frequent weight fluctuations, a sudden increase in training volume, and traumatic events such as injury or loss of a coach.

  1. Experiences of sexual harassment and abuse among Norwegian elite female athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2003-03-01

    This paper compares the prevalence of sexual harassment and abuse among 660 Norwegian elite female athletes and an age-matched control sample of nonathletes. It also explores differences in the prevalence of harassment and abuse in sport and work or school settings and compares harassment and abuse perpetrated by male authority figures and peers in these different contexts. No differences were found between the athletes and controls in overall prevalence of sexual harassment or abuse. However, the athletes experienced significantly more harassment from male authority figures than did the controls. Based on these results, the article considers whether or not sport offers women any particular immunity from sexual harassment and abuse. The implications of the findings for structural and cultural change in sport are discussed.

  2. Oral contraceptive therapy reduces serum relaxin-2 in elite female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose-Ogura, Sayaka; Yoshino, Osamu; Yamada-Nomoto, Kaori; Nakamura, Mariko; Harada, Miyuki; Dohi, Michiko; Okuwaki, Toru; Osuga, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi; Saito, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that athletes with high relaxin-2 levels have a high risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, while athletes taking oral contraceptives (OC) have low relaxin-2 levels. It has not yet been clarified whether taking OC reduces relaxin-2 levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in relaxin-2 levels in athletes taking OC. Levels of relaxin-2, estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured in serum samples (n = 183) from 106 elite female athletes. Five athletes with serum relaxin-2 concentrations > 6 pg/mL during the luteal phase were recruited to assess the effect of OC therapy. Serum relaxin-2 concentrations were significantly higher during the luteal phase (n = 57) than in the follicular phase (n = 72), or in athletes on OC therapy (n = 10) (P athletes had relaxin levels > 6 pg/mL. In 23 athletes, serum relaxin-2 concentrations were measured during both the follicular and luteal phases, revealing that relaxin-2 levels were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase. In 5 out of 23 athletes, serum relaxin-2 concentrations were > 6 pg/mL in the luteal phase and during the second cycle of OC therapy, relaxin-2 concentrations decreased dramatically to below the detection limit (0.26 pg/mL). High serum relaxin-2 concentrations were only detected during the luteal phase. In athletes with high relaxin-2 concentrations during the luteal phase, OC therapy decreased serum relaxin-2 levels. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Eklund; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Carla Muytjens; Sarah Wheeler; Anu Mathew; Martin Stengelin; Eli Glezer; Galina Nikolenko; Brown, Marshall D.; Yingye Zheng; Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

    2017-01-01

    Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.? Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA) and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA), by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of ...

  4. Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Petushek, Erich; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the within-session and between-session reliability of knee kinematics and kinetics in a vertical drop jump task among elite female handball and football athletes. Specifically, we aimed to quantify the within-session waveform consistency and between-session consistency of the subject ranking for a variety of knee kinematics and kinetics. Forty-one elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes were tested in two sessions. The reliability of three-dimensional knee biomechanical measurements was quantified by the intra-class correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and typical error. All the selected discrete variables achieved excellent within-session reliability (ICC>0.87). The typical error of valgus angles, internal rotation angles, and internal rotation moment was constant throughout the whole stance phase. For between-session reliability, the selected discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.69), except peak internal rotation moment (ICC=0.40). All between-session rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.90. Most of the discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability in both within-session and between-session analysis. Moreover, moderate to strong between-session consistency of subject rankings was found, implying that the measurements assessed during the vertical drop jump demonstrate sufficient reliability to be used in both single-session and multiple-session studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-perception in elite collegiate female gymnasts, cross-country runners, and track-and-field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Phard, D; Van Dorsten, B; Marx, R G; York, K A

    1999-08-01

    To compare self-perception between a group of competitive, elite female collegiate athletes (participating in gymnastics, cross country, and track and field) and a group of female political science students (nonathletic control subjects). We hypothesized that the athletic group would rate athletics as more important than would the nonathletic group, that the perception of athletic competence would correlate positively with self-worth for athletes only, and that the perception of athletic competence would have a stronger influence on self-worth in the athletic group. The Self-perception Profile for College Students was completed by 32 athletes and 13 nonathletes. This profile measures 12 subscales plus Global Self-worth independently and generates scores that reflect the subject's perceived importance of and competence in each of the subscale areas. The athletes rated athletics as more important than did nonathletes, although this trend was nonsignificant when adjusted for age. As age increased, the importance of athletics decreased for both groups. There was a direct relationship between perceived athletic competence and self-worth for the athletes but not for the nonathletes. Variables that accounted for the Global Self-worth score in athletes were perceptions of Competence subscales for Appearance, Social Acceptance, Friendship, and Job. Variables that accounted for the Global Self-worth scores in the nonathletes were perceptions of Competence subscales for Romance, Morality, Humor, and Appearance. The athletic group had significantly lower Global Self-worth scores than the nonathletic group. The female athletes in this study derived a large component of their self-worth from their perceived athletic competence. Clinicians should bear in mind the relative importance of athletics to young female athletes and the relationship of perceived athletic ability to self-worth when treating these individuals.

  6. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  7. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  8. Atrial fibrillation in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Dallago, M; Galassi, A; Fernando, F; Biffi, A; Mazzone, P; Pappone, C; Chierchia, S

    1998-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rare event in people younger than 25 years of age, but is probably more frequent in competitive athletes. We analyzed the presence of AF, paroxysmal or chronic, in a population of young elite athletes, including previous Olympic and World champions, who were studied for arrhythmias that endangered their athletic careers. From 1974 to June 1977, 1,772 athletes identified with arrhythmias (1,464 males and 308 females; mean age 21 years) underwent individualized work-ups. Among these, 146 (122 males and 24 females; mean age 24 years) were young elite athletes. They were studied from 1985 to 1997, with a mean follow-up of 62 months. Of the 146 young elite athletes, 13 (9%) had AF (paroxysmal in 11 and chronic in 2); all were male. The paroxysmal AF occurred during effort (n = 7), after effort (n = 1), or at rest (n = 3) and was reinduced by transesophageal pacing or endocavitary electrophysiologic testing under the same clinical circumstances. AF was the cause of symptoms in 13 (40%) of 22 young elite athletes with long-lasting palpitations. Five young elite athletes had a substrate for AF: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) in 3, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) in 1, healed myocarditis in 1, and was considered idiopathic in 8. All elite athletes are alive with a mean follow-up of 62 months and 7 continue in their sports: 3 after radiofrequency catheter ablation (of WPW in 2 and AF with maze-type nonfluoroscopic approach in 1) and 4 after a period of de-training. AF, occurring in young elite athletes and affecting only males, is one of the most frequent causes of prolonged palpitations and is reproduced easily by transesophageal atrial pacing or electrophysiologic testing. AF may be a cause of disqualification from sports eligibility, but may disappear if the athletic activity is stopped for an adequate period of time, if trigger mechanisms are corrected (i.e., WPW), or if the substrate is modified.

  9. Redox balance in elite female athletes: differences based on sport types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija; Popovic, Tamara; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Cubrilo, Dejan; Ahmetovic, Zlatko; Peric, Dusan; Borozan, Suncica; Djuric, Dragan; Barudzic, Nevena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in redox balance throughout parameters of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in elite female water polo (N.=15) and football players (N.=19) aged between 20 and 23. Fourteen age-matched sedentary women were also included in the study. Blood sampling was performed to measure levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), nitrites, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase activity (GPx). Levels of MDA, TAS, GSSG and H2O2 were significantly higher in athletes than in the control women. Football players had higher levels of O2- than the other two groups. Activity of SOD was higher in water polo players when compared with the football and control groups, CAT was increased in all athletes, while GPx did not differ among groups. Therefore, prolonged intensive training markedly increases oxidative stress in women, which depends on the type of sport. Lower concentration of O2- and increased activity of SOD in water polo players compared to football players suggest that mechanisms of adaptation of antioxidative defense are related to the type of exercise.

  10. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2015-01-01

    measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (..., athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency....

  11. The Effects of Menstrual Phases on the Levels of Wellness and Performance in Elite Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Üçdağ, Gülcihan; Pehlivan, Aysel

    2012-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of menstrual phases in various stages on female athletes performance capasity (aerobik-anaerobik) and nutrition, life quality and wellness, taking into account their premenstrual and menstrual phases. 22 female athletes in soccer and table tennis voluntarily participated in this study. The demographic data of the athletes, the identification of their well-being and quality of life were taken by the way of scales, before the research. In o...

  12. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B; Matsushigue, Karin A; Artioli, Guilherme G

    2011-02-01

    To be successful in international competitions, judo athletes must achieve an excellent level of physical fitness and physical condition during training. This article reviews the physiological profiles of elite judo athletes from different sex, age and weight categories. Body fat is generally low for these athletes, except for the heavyweight competitors. In general, elite judo athletes presented higher upper body anaerobic power and capacity than non-elite athletes. Lower body dynamic strength seems to provide a distinction between elite and recreational judo players, but not high-level judo players competing for a spot on national teams. Even maximal isometric strength is not a discriminant variable among judo players. However, more studies focusing on isometric strength endurance are warranted. Although aerobic power and capacity are considered relevant to judo performance, the available data do not present differences among judo athletes from different competitive levels. Typical maximal oxygen uptake values are around 50-55 mL/kg/min for male and 40-45 mL/kg/min for female judo athletes. As for other variables, heavyweight competitors presented lower aerobic power values. The typical differences commonly observed between males and females in the general population are also seen in judo athletes when analysing anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic power, and maximal strength and power. However, further research is needed concerning the differences among the seven weight categories in which judo athletes compete.

  14. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  15. [Heart screening of elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Rasmusen, Hanne; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2010-11-29

    Sudden cardiac death in competing athletes is usually caused by unsuspected heart disease, and pre-participation screening may reduce the incidence of this tragic event. Although the cost-effectiveness of screening programs is unclear, international sports associations are currently implementing mandatory screening of elite athletes. During the first year of screening in the top Danish soccer league, all athletes were found to be eligible for continued participation in the game, suggesting that concern about false positive screening results may be exaggerated.

  16. Telomere Length in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

  17. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  18. Natural selection for genetic variants in sport: the role of Y chromosome genes in elite female athletes with 46,XY DSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Bavington, L Dawn

    2014-12-01

    At present, it is widely assumed that hyperandrogenism in female athletes confers an unfair competitive advantage. This view is perpetuated in current regulations governing eligibility of female athletes with hyperandrogenism to compete, which identify testosterone levels in the male range as the critical factor. Detailed evidence is presented here for the first time that genes for stature (and possibly other genes) on the Y chromosome are responsible for the increased frequency of 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD) among elite female athletes identified by eligibility tests. In many cases, androgens are non-functional or, alternatively, absent and therefore testosterone cannot be responsible for their athletic success. Genetic variation has a major role in the selection of individuals for training and success in competition; however, this variation is not grounds for determining who should compete in athletic events. There is no convincing evidence to support the view that hyperandrogenism is associated with performance advantage in female athletes. Current time-consuming regulations may lead to the unwelcome resurgence of innuendo in the media and coercion of female athletes into accepting gonadectomy and other treatments to which they might otherwise not have been subjected. These regulations should be withdrawn on the grounds that they are not supported scientifically, are discriminatory towards women and place some female athletes at risk of unnecessary and potentially harmful investigations. Improved understanding about genetic factors that lead to selection in sport should offer reassurance that women with hyperandrogenism possess no physical attribute relevant to athletic performance that is neither attainable, nor present in other women.

  19. Exercise characteristics influence femoral cross-sectional geometry: a magnetic resonance imaging study in elite female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, A; Matsumoto, M; Kato, T; Umemura, Y

    2015-03-01

    The associations between mid-femoral cross-sectional geometry and exercise characteristics were investigated in female athletes. The effects on bone geometry for weight-bearing sports with low-to-high-impact were greater than those for non-impact weight-bearing sports, whereas low-impact or high-strain-magnitude/low-strain-rate sports had less of an effect on bone geometry compared with higher-impact sports. Many previous studies have investigated tibial geometry in athletes; however, few studies have examined the associations between femoral cross-sectional geometry and exercise characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate these relationships using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the femoral mid-shaft. One hundred and fifty-three female elite athletes, aged 18-34 years, were classified into five groups based on the characteristics of their sports. Sports were considered non-impact (n = 27), low- or moderate-impact (n = 39), odd-impact (n = 38), high-strain-magnitude/low-strain-rate (n = 10), or high-impact (n = 39). Bone geometrical parameters, including cortical area, periosteal perimeter, and moment of inertia (bone strength index), were determined using MRI images. Higher-impact groups displayed bone expansion, with significantly greater periosteal perimeters, cortical areas (~37.3%), and minimum moments of inertia (I(min,) ~92.3%) at the mid-femur than non- and low-impact groups. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, the cortical area and I(min) of the low-impact and high-strain-magnitude/low-strain-rate groups were also significantly greater than those of the non-impact group. Higher-impact sports with high strain rates stimulated periosteal bone formation and improved bone geometry and strength indices at the femoral mid-shaft. Although our results indicate that weight-bearing sports are beneficial even if they are low impact, the effects of lower-impact or high-strain-magnitude/low-strain-rate sports on bone geometry were less

  20. Elite athletes and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, S; McLaughlin, K; Morgaine, K; Drummond, B

    2011-09-01

    Elite athletes follow demanding training regimes to achieve optimal performance. Training incorporates strategies which coincide with risk factors for dental caries and erosion. The important role of a disease-free oral cavity for peak performance is often overlooked and oral health may be compromised. This initial exploratory study aimed to identify risk factors for dental caries and erosion in elite triathletes. Questionnaires regarding training, diet and oral health were distributed to a sample of elite triathletes in New Zealand. A further sample of 10 athletes was randomly selected from the Dunedin triathlon club to participate in a clinical oral examination. Sports drinks were consumed by 83.9% of the triathletes while training; for 48.4% consumption of both sports drinks and water was described as 'little sips often, from a bottle'. Eating during training sessions was reported by 93.5% of participants; of those 62.1% ate only during cycling training. Only 3.2% perceived training as high risk to oral health. All clinical examination cases were assessed as high risk for developing caries. The diet of elite triathletes is consistent with a high risk profile for caries and erosion. Future research should be aimed at oral health promotion programs for the athletes, coaches and oral-health providers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Healy, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.healy@imperial.ac.uk

    2007-11-15

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries.

  2. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Pacademic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Media portrayal of elite athletes with disability - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla; Shields, Nora

    2017-11-10

    The media plays an important role in shaping society's beliefs about disability and sport. The aim of this systematic review is to identify how elite athletes with disability are portrayed in the media. Six electronic databases were searched from 2001 to March 2017 for quantitative or qualitative content analysis of media coverage of elite athletes with disability: SportsDiscus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline 1996-, Embase, and Proquest. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors. Seventeen moderate quality articles were included. Six themes emerged from the data such as frequency of articles and photos about elite athletes with disability; athlete gender; athlete nationality; disability; athleticism; and Olympic Games versus Paralympic Games. Our results show that elite athletes with disability are less visible in the media than their nondisabled counterparts; female athletes received less coverage than male; the media favored domestic athletes and certain types of disability; and, although there was a focus on athleticism, this was underpinned by a "supercrip" narrative and a medicalised description of disability. Although there has been a positive shift in the narrative around elite athletes with disability in media, relative absence and differing portrayal is present. Considering the power of media shaping society's perceptions of disability, further investigation is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Media has a role in how elite athletes with disability are portrayed and consequently perceived by the public. Elite athletes with disability rarely feature in media. Images of disability are minimized, and certain types of disabilities are favored. An athletic narrative is emerging; however, a medicalised description of athletes remains, shifting the focus from athleticism. "Supercrip" and "Superhuman" terms are commonly used, but may negatively impact the broader disability community.

  4. Monitoring levels of stress and overtraining in an elite brazilian female volleyball athlete: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Noce

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El sobreentrenamiento es el resultado de un desequilibrio entre el estrés y su recuperación, combinado con cortos períodos de recuperación y determinados factores psicosociales. En este estudio de caso se ha empleado un cuestionario de estrés y recuperación en el deporte para analizar los niveles de sobreentrenamiento en una jugadora brasileña de balonvolea de elite. Los resultados indican que las elevadas cargas físicas provocan cambios en el perfil de la deportista, mostrando un incremento en las escalas de fatiga. Los períodos de recuperación se han mostrado como fundamentales para el restablecimiento de las capacidades físicas y psicológicas de la deportista. Finalmente, nuestro método de análisis ha evidenciado la existencia de modificaciones en el perfil de la deportista después de acontecimientos puntuales, tal como el observado después de una derrota inesperada. Se concluye que los cambios en el perfil de la curva, obtenidas por nuestro cuestionario, reflejan los distintos períodos de recogida de datos, lo que configuraría un indicador de los cambios de la sobrecarga estresante. De esta manera, la posibilidad de detección o de la monitorización de los factores estresantes para ella deportista puede ser de gran valor para la mejora del rendimiento físico y psicológico de un equipo.

  5. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, H E; Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, protocol) proved to be adequate in terms of power output (P30, P5) velocity and heart rate. Male and female athletes were comparable with respect to personal characteristics (age, body weight, training hours). Track athletes (classified in 4 different functional classes) showed a class-related mean power output (P30: mean power produced during the 30-second sprint period) of 23, 68, 100, and 138 W for the male athletes (n = 38) and 38, 77, and 76 W for females in the upper three classes (n = 10). Sprint power was low for the group of subjects with cerebral palsy (35 W; mixed, n = 6) and relatively high for the amputee group (121 W; mixed, n = 6), female basketball players (81 W; n = 5), and two male field athletes (110 W). Significant differences between male and female athletes were found for P30 and P5 (highest mean power output over any of the six 5-second periods). As was to be expected, mean maximum heart rate in the sprint test varied significantly between the track groups from 112 (high lesion group) to 171 beats/minute(-1) (low lesion group) but not for both genders. The lower P30 in the T1 and T2 groups must be explained not only by the reduced functional muscle mass and impaired coordination but also by phenomena of cardiovascular dysfunction. Based on the performance parameters, the functional classification of the track athletes into four groups seems adequate. P30 was significantly associated with the personal characteristics of gender and hours of training. A significant correlation was found between P30 and sprint performance times for 200 meters (r = -0.79). No correlation was found between either of the forms of power output and the marathon times

  6. Optimal individual competition calendar in biathlon (the case of elite female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Pidhrushna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimization of highly skilled female biathlete preparation on the basis of creating individual competition calendars. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific-methodical literature; theoretical methods of scientific cognition; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: optimum number of starts necessary for qualitative preparation of female biathletes for the season major competition has been determined. It has been determined that in case of the season major competition to be held in February after 6 stages of the World Cup, the optimum number of starts is 13–15, and 27–30 per season (total number of available starts 34. When the season major competition is planned for March after 8 stages of the World Cup, then the average number of starts is 21 (the range from 18 to 25. Average number of starts in a season is 30 during the competitive period (the range from 24 to 34. Conclusions: the main criterion in creating individual competition calendars is the number of starts before the season major competition

  7. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  8. Motivation and elite performance : an exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal, Yves; Guay, Frédéric; Dobreva-Martinova, Tzvetanka; Vallerand, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 98 Bulgarian top athletes (35 females and 63 males): canoeists, biathletes, figure skaters, boxers, tennis players and skiers, were investigated to explore the motivation of elite sport athletes and to determine the effects of motivation on performance. Participants' athletic performances in national and international events over 2 years (September 1990 to November 1992) was documented. Participants also completed the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (Brière, Valler...

  9. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR, the rhythmic gymnastics (GRI and the synchronized swimming (NAS elite sportswomen. Thirty two female ballet dancers of the National Cuban Ballet School and sixty three elite sportswomen who practice aesthetic sports in Cuba have been studied for the purpose. An anthropometric protocol of sixteen measures has been applied to calculate the kinanthropometric indexes of the corporal mass composition’s component. The general percentage of the fat mass (PMG in the ballet dancers was found statistically different to the GAR and GRI groups, but this one was similar in comparison with NAS group. Mayor muscle mass general percentage (PMM was obtained in the GAR and GRI groups, in comparison with the dancers. The ballet group showed the minor differential PMM-PMG, and muscular percentage of the transverse areas of the segments of extremities than the elite athlete groups. The data classified the ballet group as the one of less potential efficiency of technical and transitive movement than the other ones.

  10. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Tsaklis,1,2 Nikos Malliaropoulos,3–5,10 Jurdan Mendiguchia,6 Vasileios Korakakis,7–9 Kyriakos Tsapralis,11 Debasish Pyne,5 Peter Malliaras101Department of Physiotherapy, Laboratory of Biomechanics and Ergonomics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3National Track and Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of SEGAS, 4Thessaloniki Sports Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Rheumatology Department, Sports Medicine Clinic, Mile End Hospital, London, UK; 6Department of Physical Therapy, Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center, Pamplona, Spain; 7Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 8Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 9Hellenic Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy Diploma, Athens, Greece; 10Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK; 11K Tsapralis Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises.Methods: Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each

  11. Motivation and well-being among elite junior athletes : the role of challenge during training

    OpenAIRE

    Tyssen, Oddvar Jordheim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivation, positive emotions and challenge in groups of elite junior athletes. Results are discussed in terms of self-determination theory and the functional well-being approach. Men and female elite junior athletes (N=211) aged 15-19 years completed a series of online questionnaires. Results revealed that a) older athletes reported higher levels of extrinsic motivation than younger athletes, b) younger athletes reported higher levels of both eudai...

  12. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p training and anthropometrics/body composition/physical fitness (−0.541 ≤ r ≤ 0.505). Soccer training and/or growth/maturation contributed to significant variations in anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness outcomes throughout the different training periods over the course of a soccer season in female elite young soccer players. However, changes in components of fitness were inconsistent (e.g., power, speed, strength). Thus, training volume and/or types should be carefully considered in order to develop power-, speed- or strength-related fitness measures more efficiently throughout the soccer season. PMID:29375392

  13. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  14. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  15. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-01-01

    For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.

  16. Learning styles of elite and sub-elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Braakhuis, Andrea Jane

    2015-01-01

    Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalise and process information. Athlete educators, such as coaches and sports medical staff, rarely consider the learning style of an prior to education. This study aims to characterise a range of athletes with regards to their learning style, to increase awareness and conversation about athletes as learners. Athletes (n=93; 44 males, 49 females), age 24 ±8 yrs, completed the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic) questionnair...

  17. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  18. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  19. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a lasting effect on how strong a woman's bones are later in life. Who Gets Female Athlete Triad? Many girls have concerns about the size and shape of their bodies. But being a highly competitive athlete and participating in a sport that requires you to train extra hard can ...

  20. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females.

  1. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.Girls and women may be at risk for the female athlete triad if they:are a competitive athleteplay sports that require them to maintain a certain weight ...

  2. Career Decision Making for Young Elite Athletes: Are We Ahead on Points?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison is made between the career decision making of secondary school students who are also elite athletes and a sample of non-athlete students. The 226 athletes (111 females, 115 males) in the study were on sporting scholarships with the Australian Institute of Sport or state/territory institutions. Measures used included the "Career…

  3. Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; Baker, Joseph

    Understanding of an athlete's lifespan is limited with a much more sophisticated knowledge of their competitive careers and little knowledge of post-career outcomes. In this review, we consider the relationship between participation at elite levels of sport and mortality risk relative to other athletes and age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Our objective was to identify, collate, and disseminate a comprehensive list of risk factors associated with longevity and trends and causes of mortality among elite athletes. English language articles were searched using the Web of Science database. Keywords athletes, death, elite, "high performance" life expect*, longevity, mortality, players, professional, and sport were used to locate research articles. Seventeen additional articles were retrieved from reference lists found in these papers and a general web search. The inclusion criteria were the following: (1) publication year 1980 or later; (2) the study examined elite-level athletes; and (3) outcome data measured mortality/longevity trends and/or causes. Fifty-four peer-reviewed publications and three articles from online sources met the criteria for inclusion. Baseball, football, soccer, basketball, and cycling had the most reported data on elite athletes' lifespan longevities. A variety of mechanisms have attempted to explain mortality risk (e.g., handedness, playing position, achievement, etc.). Considerable support was found for superior longevity outcomes for elite athletes, particularly those in endurance and mixed sports. Future research into the mechanisms that may affect mortality risk is important for a better understanding of life expectancies in both eminent and non-eminent populations. Participation in elite sport is generally favorable to lifespan longevity. A majority of studies included in this review reported superior lifespan longevity outcomes for elite athletes compared to age- and sex-matched controls from the general

  4. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

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    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  5. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  6. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  7. Self-Actualization of Elite Blind Athletes: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study used the Personal Orientation Inventory to compare self-actualization of 52 elite blind athletes with sighted athletes. Self-actualization profiles of blind athletes were lower for measures of existentiality and self-acceptance but otherwise identical to those of sighted athletes. Both sighted and blind athletes scored below test-manual…

  8. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Lesinski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass, body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass, and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05, while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05. Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01. In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01 over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05. Moreover, change

  9. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite......Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...

  10. Dynamic ankle stability and ankle sprain occurrence in elite ball team athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel Brink; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; Anne Benjaminse; Msc Henrike van der Does; Joan Dallinga; Chris Visscher

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dynamic stability index (DSI) measured at baseline between elite ball team athletes with and without an ankle sprain during the season. Methods Forty-four elite male (age:22.5±3.6yr,height:193.7±8.0cm,mass:87.1±10.9kg) and eighteen female

  11. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  12. The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (χ(2)(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p athletes.

  13. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency. Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls

  14. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  15. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Lygeri; Weiler, Richard; Lloyd-Smith, Rebecca; Turner, Antony; Heath, Luke; James, Nic; Reid, Anna

    2014-02-12

    To determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the associations among BMD, menstrual history, disordered eating (DE), training history, intentional weight loss (IWL) and rib pain for the first time in female lightweight rowers. 9 lightweight rowing clubs, UK. 29 Caucasian female lightweight rowers volunteered. 21 (12 active, 9 retired) completed the study. female lightweight rowers aged over 18 years. participants with a history of bone disease, used medications known to influence BMD or if they were pregnant, lactating or postmenopausal. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total body (TB) composition and BMD at the spine, femoral neck (FN), radius and TB. DE, oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea years; rib pain and training history. DE was reported in six of the rowers. The active with DE started rowing younger (phistory of oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea 17 (76%) and/or rib pain 7 (32%) with those with rib pain having lower spine and TB Z-scores (psport science support should be offered at a young age and perhaps also to consider changing the weight rules to prevent the development of the Triad.

  16. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  17. Elite athletes experiences with risk related to cardiac screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Schmidt; Thing, Lone Friis

    perspective on risk (Foucault 1988). For most elite athletes participation in cardiac screening is done out of a wish to obtain an acquittal from risks. Symptomatic of the risk society cardiac screening can from an athlete perspective at the same time be seen as an attempt to gain control over......Elite Athletes experiences with risks related to Cardiac Screening Jonas Schmidt Christensen1, Lone Friis Thing1 1University of Copenhagen - Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Cardiac screening of elite athletes are recommended by both the American Heart Association & the European...... is dominated by studies with a clinical medical focus and studies of athlete’s perspectives on cardiac screening are consequently an absence. By using an interpretive sociological perspective (Denzin 2001) and qualitative research done with elite athletes of both gender this paper seeks to explore how elite...

  18. Back pain in elite sports: A cross-sectional study on 1114 athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, Daniela; Trompeter, Katharina; Platen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of back pain in German elite athletes; examine the influence of age, sex, sports discipline and training volume; and compare elite athletes with a physically active control group. A standardized and validated online back pain questionnaire was sent by the German Olympic Sports Confederation to approximately 4,000 German national and international elite athletes, and a control group of 253 physically active but non-elite sports students. We received responses from 1,114 elite athletes (46.5% male and 53.1% female, mean age 20.9 years ± 4.8 years, mean height 176.5 ± 11.5 cm, mean weight 71.0 ± 10.3 kg) and 166 physically active sports students (74.7% male and 24.1 female, mean age 21.2 ± 2.0 years, mean height 180.0 ± 8.0 cm, mean weight 74.0 ± 14.5 kg). In elite athletes, the lifetime prevalence of back pain was 88.5%, the 12-month prevalence was 81.1%, the 3-month prevalence was 68.3% and the point prevalence was 49.0%, compared with 80.7%, 69.9%, 59.0% and 42.8%, respectively in the control group. The lifetime, 12-month and 3-month prevalences in elite athletes were significantly higher than in the control group. Regarding the individual sports disciplines, the prevalence of back pain was significantly higher in elite rowers, dancers, fencers, gymnasts, track and field athletes, figure skaters and marksmen, and those who play underwater rugby, water polo, basketball, hockey and ice hockey compared with the control group. The prevalence of back pain was significantly lower in elite triathletes. Back pain is a common complaint in German elite athletes. Low back pain seems to be a problem in both elite athletes and physically active controls. A high training volume in elite athletes and a low training volume in physically active individuals might increase prevalence rates. Our findings indicate the necessity for specific prevention programs, especially in high-risk sports. Further research should investigate the optimal dose

  19. Back pain in elite sports: A cross-sectional study on 1114 athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish the prevalence of back pain in German elite athletes; examine the influence of age, sex, sports discipline and training volume; and compare elite athletes with a physically active control group. Methods A standardized and validated online back pain questionnaire was sent by the German Olympic Sports Confederation to approximately 4,000 German national and international elite athletes, and a control group of 253 physically active but non-elite sports students. Results We received responses from 1,114 elite athletes (46.5% male and 53.1% female, mean age 20.9 years ± 4.8 years, mean height 176.5 ± 11.5 cm, mean weight 71.0 ± 10.3 kg) and 166 physically active sports students (74.7% male and 24.1 female, mean age 21.2 ± 2.0 years, mean height 180.0 ± 8.0 cm, mean weight 74.0 ± 14.5 kg). In elite athletes, the lifetime prevalence of back pain was 88.5%, the 12-month prevalence was 81.1%, the 3-month prevalence was 68.3% and the point prevalence was 49.0%, compared with 80.7%, 69.9%, 59.0% and 42.8%, respectively in the control group. The lifetime, 12-month and 3-month prevalences in elite athletes were significantly higher than in the control group. Regarding the individual sports disciplines, the prevalence of back pain was significantly higher in elite rowers, dancers, fencers, gymnasts, track and field athletes, figure skaters and marksmen, and those who play underwater rugby, water polo, basketball, hockey and ice hockey compared with the control group. The prevalence of back pain was significantly lower in elite triathletes. Conclusions Back pain is a common complaint in German elite athletes. Low back pain seems to be a problem in both elite athletes and physically active controls. A high training volume in elite athletes and a low training volume in physically active individuals might increase prevalence rates. Our findings indicate the necessity for specific prevention programs, especially in high-risk sports. Further research

  20. Back pain in elite sports: A cross-sectional study on 1114 athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fett

    Full Text Available To establish the prevalence of back pain in German elite athletes; examine the influence of age, sex, sports discipline and training volume; and compare elite athletes with a physically active control group.A standardized and validated online back pain questionnaire was sent by the German Olympic Sports Confederation to approximately 4,000 German national and international elite athletes, and a control group of 253 physically active but non-elite sports students.We received responses from 1,114 elite athletes (46.5% male and 53.1% female, mean age 20.9 years ± 4.8 years, mean height 176.5 ± 11.5 cm, mean weight 71.0 ± 10.3 kg and 166 physically active sports students (74.7% male and 24.1 female, mean age 21.2 ± 2.0 years, mean height 180.0 ± 8.0 cm, mean weight 74.0 ± 14.5 kg. In elite athletes, the lifetime prevalence of back pain was 88.5%, the 12-month prevalence was 81.1%, the 3-month prevalence was 68.3% and the point prevalence was 49.0%, compared with 80.7%, 69.9%, 59.0% and 42.8%, respectively in the control group. The lifetime, 12-month and 3-month prevalences in elite athletes were significantly higher than in the control group. Regarding the individual sports disciplines, the prevalence of back pain was significantly higher in elite rowers, dancers, fencers, gymnasts, track and field athletes, figure skaters and marksmen, and those who play underwater rugby, water polo, basketball, hockey and ice hockey compared with the control group. The prevalence of back pain was significantly lower in elite triathletes.Back pain is a common complaint in German elite athletes. Low back pain seems to be a problem in both elite athletes and physically active controls. A high training volume in elite athletes and a low training volume in physically active individuals might increase prevalence rates. Our findings indicate the necessity for specific prevention programs, especially in high-risk sports. Further research should investigate the

  1. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  2. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing, orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette

    2017-12-11

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. 162 male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n=59), cross-country skiing (n=66) and orienteering (n=37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (p=.003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5-27.1%), during both pre-season (p=.002) and competitive season (p=.031). Athletes that improved their ranking position (51%, n=51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) compared to those that decreased (49%, n=49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n=5) in the middle-ranked and 17.3% (n=9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.

  4. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…

  5. Health in Elite Sports from a Salutogenetic Perspective: Athletes' Sense of Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jochen; Thiel, Ansgar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and

  6. Stress, control, and coping in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, A M; Ursin, H

    1998-06-01

    The main object of this study was to explore different dimensions of the stress experience and the following coping efforts among elite athletes. Sixty-nine Norwegian Winter Olympic athletes, competing in the Lille-hammer Games in 1994 participated in the study. Recall of the most stressful experiences was reported through open-ended questions following the Olympic Games, and the actual time of the experience with the following coping efforts were measured with the COPE inventory (19). The stress was mainly experienced during the time period prior to the competition. External distractions and expectations were the most frequently reported stress experiences. The coach was viewed as a major source of stress by some athletes, with a subsequent lack of control and low satisfaction with performance. Type of stress more than the time of the experience seemed to have a detrimental effect on performance. Problem-focused coping strategies were employed at all times, while cognitive defense strategies were employed more days before (time phase 1) and after the competition (time phase 4).

  7. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  8. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    -α), completed a respiratory questionnaire, and underwent spirometry. Bronchial challenges with mannitol were performed in all 57 athletes, and 47 agreed to perform an additional methacholine provocation. RESULTS: Based on a physician's diagnosis, 18 (32%) athletes were concluded to be asthmatic. Asthmatic...... subjects trained more hours per week than the 39 nonasthmatics (median (min-max): 25 h·wk (14-30) versus 20 h·wk (11-30), P = 0.001). AHR to both methacholine and mannitol (dose response slope) increased with the number of weekly training h (r = 0.43, P = 0.003, and r = 0.28, P = 0.034, respectively....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r = 0.032, P = 0.91). CONCLUSION: AHR in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol and methacholine...

  9. Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, J S; Corbin, C B

    1987-02-01

    In brief: Research has indicated that 4% to 19% of female college students have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica, or bulimia. To determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes, we analyzed the responses to a questionnaire completed by 168 college women-101 nonathletes, 35 athletes whose sports emphasize leanness, and 32 athletes whose sports do not emphasize leanness. The results showed that 6% of the nonathletes, 20% of the athletes in sports that emphasize leanness, and 10% of all the athletes were either exceptionally preoccupied with weight or had tendencies toward eating disorders.

  10. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  11. Investigating Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in athletes. Elite athletes were recruited and provided information on their sport training including Achilles and patellar tendon pain history. In order to ascertain whether between-discipline differences existed, data were categorized into discipline groups. Middle-distance athletes reported the highest prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy and the combined athletes reported the highest patellar tendinopathy prevalence. Greater calf stiffness was reported in athletes who experienced Achilles tendinopathy compared to those who did not. A substantial portion of athletes believed their performance decreased as a result of their tendon pain. In order to develop discipline-specific evidence-based injury prevention programmes, further discipline-specific research is required to quantify the mechanism for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy development in elite athletics.

  12. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  13. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A

    2015-01-01

    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Thams, Line; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular...... content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (Prestriction to 4 weeks of regular endurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle...

  15. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti......-asthmatic medication in elite athletes is also currently under scrutiny in order to reduce the risk of under-treatment or over treatment. OBJECTIVES: Determine the use of anti-asthmatic medication and the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Danish elite athletes. Further, to determine whether elite...... athletes with asthma-like symptoms have asthma and investigate the airway inflammation and airway reactivity to mannitol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three cross-sectional studies: (i) Applications for Abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption (ATUE) certificates in 2005 were studied (N = 694); (ii) a questionnaire...

  16. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections. PMID:24999399

  17. Prevalence of eating disorders in elite athletes is higher than in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia athletica (AA), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (ED-NOS) in both male and female Norwegian elite athletes and a representative sample from the general Norwegian population. A 2-step study including self-reported questionnaire and clinical interview. The entire population of Norwegian male and female elite athletes (n=1620) and controls (n=1696) was evaluated for the presence of eating disorders (EDs). Based on the results of the questionnaire, all athletes and controls classified as at risk for EDs, and a representative sample of athletes and controls classified as healthy participated in the clinical part of the study to determine the number of subjects meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for EDs. More athletes (13.5%) than controls (4.6%; P<0.001) had subclinical or clinical EDs. The prevalence of EDs among male athletes was greater in antigravitation sports (22%) than in ball game (5%) and endurance sports (9%; P<0.05). The prevalence of EDs among female athletes competing in aesthetic sports (42%) was higher than that observed in endurance (24%), technical (17%), and ball game sports (16%). The prevalence of EDs is higher in athletes than in controls, higher in female athletes than in male athletes, and more common among those competing in leanness-dependent and weight-dependent sports than in other sports. A collaborative effort among coaches, athletic trainers, parents, physicians, and athletes is optimal for recognizing, preventing, and treating EDs in athletes.

  18. ACL tears in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Danica N; Solomon, Jennifer L

    2007-08-01

    With the growing number of female athletes, an increase is occurring in the number of sports-related injuries, which can cause physical, psychological, academic, and financial suffering. Female athletes are reported to be two to eight times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Further research on risk factors and preventative strategies for the female ACL is needed, because the cause of the disparity in injury rates remains equivocal and controversial. Individualized treatment for the injured knee is necessary and can include either conservative treatment or reconstructive surgery.

  19. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  20. Comparison of the Dietary Habits of Elite Turkish Male and Female Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Orhan Ahmet; Güner, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional habits affect performance directly or indirectly in weight class included sports. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary habits of elite female and male weightlifters. After getting official records of athletes from Turkish Weightlifting Federation, a survey was conducted on several factors of the athletes such as weight…

  1. The Vertical Drop Jump Is a Poor Screening Test for ACL Injuries in Female Elite Soccer and Handball Players: A Prospective Cohort Study of 710 Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosshaug, Tron; Steffen, Kathrin; Kristianslund, Eirik; Nilstad, Agnethe; Mok, Kam-Ming; Myklebust, Grethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2016-04-01

    The evidence linking knee kinematics and kinetics during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is restricted to a single small sample. Still, the VDJ test continues to be advocated for clinical screening purposes. To test whether 5 selected kinematic and kinetic variables were associated with future ACL injuries in a large cohort of Norwegian female elite soccer and handball players. Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether the VDJ test can be recommended as a screening test to identify players with increased risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Elite female soccer and handball players participated in preseason screening tests from 2007 through 2014. The tests included marker-based 3-dimensional motion analysis of a drop-jump landing. We followed a predefined statistical protocol in which we included the following candidate risk factors in 5 separate logistic regression analyses, with new ACL injury as the outcome: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact, (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) peak knee flexion angle, (4) peak vertical ground-reaction force, and (5) medial knee displacement. A total of 782 players were tested (age, 21 ± 4 years; height, 170 ± 7 cm; body mass, 67 ± 8 kg), of which 710 were included in the analyses. We registered 42 new noncontact ACL injuries, including 12 in previously ACL-injured players. Previous ACL injury (relative risk, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1-7.1) and medial knee displacement (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74 per 1-SD change) were associated with increased risk for injury. However, among the 643 players without previous injury, we found no association with medial knee displacement. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of medial knee displacement showed an area under the curve of 0.6, indicating a poor-to-failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the test, even when including previously injured players. Of the 5 risk factors considered, medial knee displacement was the

  2. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  3. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  4. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F(3,48)=3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Results of voluntary cardiovascular examination of elite athletes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tischer, Susanne Glasius; Mattsson, N; Storgaard, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings--both training related and pathologic--and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting...... a cardiac diagnosis; one athlete (0.2%) diagnosed with long QT syndrome was advised against competition level sports. In total, 60 athletes (11.6%) were referred for additional testing. The athletes presented a very low level of psychological stress before and a slight decrease immediately after...

  6. The mental health of elite athletes in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foskett, R L; Longstaff, F

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of signs of anxiety/depression and distress among a sample of elite athletes in the United Kingdom (UK). A secondary aim was to identify the variables associated with signs of anxiety/depression and distress in the same sample. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to a sample of elite athletes in the UK. A total of 143 elite athletes completed an online survey that consisted of demographic questions, the Greenhaus Scale assessing career satisfaction, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire assessing signs of anxiety/depression and a distress screener based on the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire. 47.8% of the overall sample met the cut-off for signs of anxiety/depression and 26.8% met the cut-off for signs of distress. A significant association was found between gender and signs of distress (x2=8.64, df=1, p=0.003). Career dissatisfaction was a significant independent predictor of signs of anxiety/depression (OR=0.836, p=0.001) and distress (OR=0.849, p=0.003). The percentage of a sample of elite athletes in the UK showing signs of anxiety/depression and distress indicate that further cross-sectional research is required to understand the prevalence of mental health issues in the elite athlete population in the UK. Findings indicate that screening elite athletes for career dissatisfaction may support the early detection of signs of anxiety/depression and/or distress. Emphasis should be placed on understanding and improving the mental health of elite athletes in the UK. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  8. Exploring attitudes toward eating disorders among elite athlete support personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, S; Meade, M M; Moore, P

    2016-09-01

    To date, little is known about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of athlete support personnel (ASP) working in elite sport toward disordered eating (DE) and eating disorders (EDs). This study seeks to explore this area of mental health, employing an attribution model of stigma as a conceptual lens. Interviews were undertaken with 14 service providers (seven males and seven females) working in high-performance sport in Ireland. In contrast to previous research in the general population, findings revealed that sport-based personnel, in the main, did not hold the individual responsible for the development of their eating disorder. The predominant emotional response of those who had worked with an athlete with a known or suspected eating disorder was anxiety and worry. In line with the findings of previous studies with other health professionals, negative views on the prognosis of those with EDs were expressed by the ASP. Furthermore, confidentiality was found to be a significant barrier to bringing athletes' disclosure of problematic eating or exercise behavior to the fore. The findings of this study add to the limited research exploring attitudes toward EDs in sport and highlights the importance of greater education and openness toward this particular mental health problem. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 3: Decision making under mental performance pressure in junior elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Beth L; Walsh, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under uncertainty via the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., 2002), and fast reactive responses to perceptual stimuli via the Visual Search Task (Treisman, 1982). Mental pressure was induced with the addition of a concurrent verbal memory task, used to increase cognitive load and mimic the distracting effects of anxiety-related rumination. In junior elite athletes, fast reactive responses to perceptual stimuli (on the Visual Search Task) were slower under conditions of mental pressure. For decision making under risk there was an interaction of mental pressure and gender on the amount of points gambled, under pressure there was a higher level of risk taking in male athletes compared to females. There was no influence of mental pressure on decision making under uncertainity. There were no significant correlations in the degree to which individual's responses changed under pressure across the three measures of decision making. When assessing the applicability of results based on group averages there were no junior elite athletes who showed an "average" response (within 1SD of the mean) to mental pressure across all the three decision-making tasks. Mental pressure affects decision making in a sample of junior elite athletes, with a slowing of response times, and modulations to performance of decision making under risk that have a high requirement for working memory. In relation to sport, these findings suggest that novel situations that place high cognitive demands on the athlete may be particularly influenced by mental pressure. The application of this work in junior elite athletes included the feedback of individual results and the implementation of a decision-making taxonomy. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Heart rhythm abnormalities in middle-aged veteran elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharashdze, N S; Pagava, Z T; Saatashvili, G A; Agladze, R A

    2008-06-01

    Disrrhythmia is frequent finding in high competitive athletes. Majority of heart rhythm abnormalities in athletes, suggested being benign, however, prognostic value of it is not yet well established. Purpose of the present study was to investigate heart rhythm and relationship of heart rhythm abnormalities with LV mass in veteran elite athletes. 30 veteran elite athletes (16 soccer players and 14 water-polo players) aged 30-50 were studied. They formed main group. >10 years of active sports activity and >5 years after competitive sports cessation. All athletes were symptom free. Control group consists of 30 age - matched sedentary healthy individuals. In all study subjects ambulatory 24 hour ECG was recorded and, LV mass, dimensions and function by ultrasound-Doppler technique was evaluated. LV mass by Devereux formula was calculated and indexed to body surface area. Student's t-test for continuous variables, Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables were used. A P-value of conductivity abnormalities as well as complex arrhythmias were more frequent findings in athletes as compared with healthy sedentary subjects. Heart Rhythm abnormalities were associated with enhanced LV mass in Veteran athletes. Hence, veteran elite athletes may be at increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. However, prognostic value of heart rhythm disturbances in veteran athletes has to be studied.

  11. Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci

    2011-03-01

    This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.

  12. Validity And Reliability Of A New Test Of Planned Agility In Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine; Capranica, Laura; Bouguezzi, Raja; Hachana, Younés; Rouahi, Mohamed Ali; Mkaouer, Bessem

    2017-11-06

    This study aimed to examine the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a new test of planned agility in elite taekwondo athletes and to establish its relationship with sprint-time, jumping ability, and dynamic balance. Twenty-seven (20 males and 7 females) taekwondo athletes participated to this study. They performed taekwondo-specific agility test (TSAT) in two occasions (i.e., test-retest). Additionally, they performed jumping ability (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, standing long jump, and three-hop jump), sprint-time (5-m and 20-m dash), and dynamic balance (i.e., Y-test) tests along with a planned agility test (i.e., T-test). To establish TSAT's construct validity, two subgroups were identified based on their international and national taekwondo results: top-elite (9 males and 2 females) and elite (11 males and 2 females). TSAT showed high relative and absolute reliability as well as a good ability to detect small and meaningful performance change. Top-elite athletes showed greater (pagility test. Additionally, results showed moderate to large associations between TSAT and jumping ability, sprint-time, and dynamic balance tests. The TSAT might be considered as a valid and reliable test to evaluate specific agility of taekwondo athletes.

  13. Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, psports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.

  14. Elite Athletes' Experience of Coping with Emotional Abuse in the Coach-Athlete Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Emma J.; Brown, Lorraine; Jones, I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the coping strategies used by elite athletes in response to emotional abuse experienced within the coach-athlete relationship. The athletes in this study adopted emotion- and avoidance-focussed coping strategies to manage their feelings in the moment that emotional abuse occurred. Over time, athletes accessed support networks and engaged in sense-making to rationalise their experiences. The potential of coping-level intervention to develop individual resources and to...

  15. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  16. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity...... to mannitol in Danish elite canoe and kayak athletes...

  17. Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Variables of Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10 in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11 and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10 between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH, weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, and % body fat (% BF. The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and maximum heart rate (HRmax were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02. Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02 and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00, and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01, BMI (p = .01 and the % BF (p = .00. These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.

  18. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2017-08-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  20. Lower-extremity isokinetic strength ratios of elite springboard and platform diving athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amilton; Alex, Savio; Martorelli, André; Brown, Lee E; Moreira, Ricardo; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine knee extensor and flexor muscle strength ratios of an elite group of diving athletes. Sixteen divers (10 females and 6 males) from the Brazil national team were assessed for lower-body strength. They had participated in international competitions such as the 2016 Olympic Games and 2015 Pan American Games. The dynamic concentric torque of their knee flexor and extensor muscles were evaluated using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Bilateral tests were performed at 60º s-1. Flexor to extensor (F/E) peak torque ratio and percentage bilateral difference (BD%) was also measured. The results revealed that elite diving athletes produced higher than usual reported in previous studies for relative knee extension torque (3.2 for females and 3.6 for males N∙m∙kg-1). However, they presented low levels of knee flexor torque (1.5 for females and 1.8 for males N∙m∙kg-1). These results are reflected in a low F/E ratio (0.39 to 0.49). Males presented a greater BD% in knee flexors when compared to females (12.4% vs 6.6%). Elite diving athletes demonstrated high knee extensor and low knee flexor strength. This partially explains their low F/E ratio, which might increase risk of knee injuries. Strength and conditioning programs should strive to correct knee strength imbalances in diving athletes where necessary.

  1. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a 'Female Health Questionnaire' was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females.

  2. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  3. Eating disorders in Spanish female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, J; Galilea, B; Martinez-Mallén, E; Salamero, M; Capdevila, L; Mari, J; Mayolas, J; Toro, E

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and risk factors for their development in female athletes. Two hundred and eighty-three elite sportswomen, competing in 20 different sports, were administered the EAT, the CETCA (the Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire, based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria), and two other inventories which evaluated 1) the possible influence on eating disorders of exposure of the body in public and 2) pressure from coaches regarding eating habits, weight, physical appearance and performance. More than 11% of subjects had scores above the cut-off point (>30) on the EAT questionnaire, a proportion similar to that found in a general female population in Spain. On the basis of the CETCA score, AN was putatively diagnosed in 2.5% of the sample, and BN in 20.1%. Though some of these cases may have been EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), the proportion of athletes suffering from some kind of eating disorder was five times higher than in the general population (22.6% vs. 4.1%). No differences were found between the sportswomen and the general population in terms of specific risk behaviours and attitudes, but a substantial subgroup of athletes presented two or more of these risk behaviours. Exposure of the body in public seems to be a risk factor for eating disorders in general, and pressure from coaches seems to be a risk factor for bulimia.

  4. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloodworth Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects. Methods Participants were elite UK male and female athletes, within the age range between 12 and 21 (n = 403, mean age 17.66 ± 1.99. Associations between type of supplements and reasons for using supplements were tested by calculating Pearson's χ2 and the strength of these symmetric associations shown by phi (ϕ association coefficients. Results Single supplement use was reported by 48.1%, with energy drinks being the most popular, consumed by 41.7% of all athletes and 86.6% of the supplement users in the sample. No agreement was observed between athletes' rationale and behaviour in relation to nutritional supplements except for creatine. Among health professionals, nutritionists and physiotherapists, followed by coaches, were most frequently consulted. Answers regarding reasons and supplements used showed incongruence and suggest widespread misinformation regarding supplements and their effects is an issue for the young athlete. Conclusion Widespread supplement taking behaviour was evidenced in the young elite athlete population with the most notable congruence between rationale and practice among young athletes being performance-related. Young athletes in the present sample appear to be less 'health conscious' and more 'performance focused' than their adult counterparts. Further research, using a full list of supplements, is warranted to test the hypothesis that health consciousness is less dominant in supplement choice by young athletes.

  5. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  6. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, J L; Hartmann, K; Strupler, M; Perret, C

    2016-11-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes over the whole year and to detect differences between winter and summer months, and between indoor and outdoor athletes. This study was conducted in Switzerland. A total of 164 blood samples from 72 Swiss elite wheelchair athletes (mean±s.d.: age 32±13 years) were analyzed for total serum 25[OH]D. All participants were members of the national team in their discipline. The following disciplines have been included: rugby, athletics, cycling, tennis, ski alpine, curling and basketball. According to general guidelines, insufficient vitamin D status was defined between 50 and 75 nmol l-1, deficiency below 50 nmol l-1 and severe deficiency below 27.5 nmol l-1. In all, 73.2% of all samples showed an insufficiency/deficiency in vitamin D status. Total serum 25[OH]D was significantly higher during summer compared with winter months (69.5±21.4 nmol l-1 vs 51.5±21.9 nmol l-1; Pwheelchair athletes. Conclusively, we recommend supplementation with vitamin D-especially during winter-to prevent a deficiency and an impairment of performance.

  8. Female athletes and menstrual disorders: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Lorini, Silvia; Beni, Giada; Dei, Metella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background There is a greater incidence of menstrual disorders in female athletes than in their sedentary counterparts. The menstrual disorder is reported in female athletes suffering from athletic triad syndrome, while few data in those free of this syndrome are available. The study aims to ascertain the presence of menstrual disorders and the eventual relationship with myocardial performance in female athletes practicing different sports. Methods A sample of 64 subjects aged 18.5±2 was selected and divided into 3 groups (37 subjects practicing rhythmic gymnastics, 11 swimmers, and 16 volleyball players). All underwent echocardiography, biompendance analysis, and answered a questionnaire. Results All anthropometrics parameters were normal. Few athletes reported menstrual disorders. No association between the presence of menstrual disorders and BMI. All echo results were within the normal range. Cardiac Mass Index (CMI) was normal for all athletes despite in swimmers significantly higher values (90.64±14.9 g/m2) compared to the volleyball players (78.25±14.0 g/m2; prhythmic gymnasts (77.89±13.4 g/m2; p<.009) were found. Conclusions Despite menstrual disorders are represented among female athletes, the eventual relationship with the sport practiced is not so evident. Questionnaire should be used to identify menstrual disorders in non-elite athletically active females. PMID:27900290

  9. Physiological and Perceived Responses in Different Levels of Exergames in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Sun, Feng Hua; Cheng, Chris Tsz Man

    2017-02-01

    Exergames have been suggested to increase the public's physical activity and to benefit cardiovascular health, particularly among the youth. However, not many studies compared the physiological and perceived responses between exergames and the authentic sports especially for elite athletes. This study aimed to investigate the physiological and perceived responses in different levels of Nintendo® Wii Fit™ U rowing exergames in one group of elite rowing athletes. All participants were asked to perform the authentic rowing on the indoor rowing machine on the first day and to play the rowing exergames on the second day, in three levels with 1 hour rest between levels. Oxygen consumption (VO2), lactate concentration, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and muscle soreness scale (MSS) of the elite athletes were measured in three levels of rowing exergames and were compared with those measured in indoor rowing. Percentages of HR ranged from 57% to 64% and from 67% to 82% of peak HR in males and females, respectively. Percentages of RPE and MSS obtained from the three levels of rowing exergames ranged from 34% to 55% and from 2% to 33% of the peak RPE and the peak MSS, respectively, in authentic rowing. Physiological and perceived responses of elite rowing athletes could not reach their highest response in authentic rowing even for the hard level of exergames. This study contributed direct data on the physiological benefits of exergames against authentic rowing.

  10. Sport participation motivesof Kenyan female university athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. ... gender, athletes' sexual orientation, student athletes'residence and as well as the influence of friends/family, could affect participation of female athletes in university sport.

  11. Vitamin D status and supplementation in elite Irish athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela J; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Wallace, Julie M W; Cleary, John; Conway, Joe; Harney, Edward; Madigan, Sharon M

    2013-10-01

    A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, which may impact on health and training ability, is evident among athletes worldwide. This observational study investigated the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes and determined the effect of wintertime supplementation on status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and plasma parathyroid hormone were analyzed in elite athletes in November 2010 (17 boxers, 33 paralympians) or March 2011 (34 Gaelic Athletic Association [GAA] players). A subset of boxers and paralympians (n = 27) were supplemented during the winter months with either 5,000 IU vitamin D3/d for 10-12 weeks or 50,000 IU on one or two occasions. Biochemical analysis was repeated following supplementation. Median 25(OH)D of all athletes at baseline was 48.4 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (serum 25(OH)D supplementation (all doses) significantly increased 25(OH)D (median 62.8 nmol/L at baseline vs. 71.1 nmol/L in April or May; p = .001) and corrected any insufficiencies/deficiencies in this subset of athletes. In contrast, 25(OH)D significantly decreased in those that did not receive a vitamin D supplement, with 74% of athletes classed as vitamin D insufficient/deficient after winter, compared with only 35% at baseline. This study has highlighted a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency among elite Irish athletes and demonstrated that wintertime vitamin D3 supplementation is an appropriate regimen to ensure vitamin D sufficiency in athletes during winter and early spring.

  12. Influences on the socialisation of South African elite athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings reflect the shifting nature and dominant role of significant others as socialising agents, the influence of environmental factors, and socio-cultural and economic aspects. The social worlds and career paths of elite athletes is further constructed through ideological and subjective schemes, which translate into ...

  13. Perspective of coaches on LTAD of elite judo athletes: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plans for Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) can only have effect by way of optimal management of resources. The Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success (SPLISS) provides a theoretical model for policy factors that account for the functioning of elite sport systems and ultimately the ...

  14. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  15. The evolved athlete a guide for elite sport enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Gojkovic, Zoran; Greenberg, Ronald; Greenberg, Helen; Jovanovic, Bojan; Lukman, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    This handbook provides insights into becoming a better and more evolved athlete. It offers aspiring athletes, regardless of skill level, a better understanding of their bodies and how to unlock the unlimited potential of muscles without injury. It focuses on the “superhero” muscle: the iliopsoas, and also sheds light on Diamond-Corporation’s new technology and elite athleticism, and how these can contribute to a healthier life. Lastly, the authors explore the mindset of success and provide exercises for remaining calm under pressure. This stand-alone book is the sequel to Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis and Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sport (2014, Springer). This book is written by scientists, whose expertise collectively spans the fields of biomechanics, clinical surgery, current and former elite athleticism, engineering and naturopath doctoral work. Together, they aim to inspire and educate athletes on how to improve their sports performance by using new technologies, world class bio...

  16. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  17. Comparison of Athletes? Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than ...

  18. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  19. Kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Rathi, B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players. A total forty elite and non-elite level female softball players were selected from the different colleges affiliated to the Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, for the present study. The height of subjects was measured by using the standard anthropometric rod. Weight was measured with portable weighing machine. Widths and diameters of body parts were measured by using digital caliper. Girths and lengths were taken with steel tape. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using the Slimguide skinfold caliper. All subjects were also assessed for performance tests i.e. vertical jump, 50m sprint, medicine ball throw, 10×4m shuttle run and reaction time. Independent samples t-test reveals that elite female softball players were significantly taller (Pelite players. The elite female softball players also had significantly greater biacromial (Pelite female softball players. The non-elite female softball players were found to have significantly greater thigh circumference (Pelite female softball players. The non-elite players were also found to have significantly higher percentage body fat (Pelite players. In performance tests, the elite players were found to have significantly better reaction time (Pelite female softball players. The elite female softball players had significantly greater kinanthropometric characteristics, body composition and performance characteristics than the non-elite female softball players.

  20. Gender verification of female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, L J; Ljungqvist, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Simpson, J L; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ferris, E; de la Chapelle, A; Ehrhardt, A A

    2000-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially mandated gender verification for female athletes beginning in 1968 and continuing through 1998. The rationale was to prevent masquerading males and women with "unfair, male-like" physical advantage from competing in female-only events. Visual observation and gynecological examination had been tried on a trial basis for two years at some competitions leading up to the 1968 Olympic Games, but these invasive and demeaning processes were jettisoned in favor of laboratory-based genetic tests. Sex chromatin and more recently DNA analyses for Y-specific male material were then required of all female athletes immediately preceding IOC-sanctioned sporting events, and many other international and national competitions following the IOC model. On-site gender verification has since been found to be highly discriminatory, and the cause of emotional trauma and social stigmatization for many females with problems of intersex who have been screened out from competition. Despite compelling evidence for the lack of scientific merit for chromosome-based screening for gender, as well as its functional and ethical inconsistencies, the IOC persisted in its policy for 30 years. The coauthors of this manuscript have worked with some success to rescind this policy through educating athletes and sports governors regarding the psychological and physical nature of sexual differentiation, and the inequities of genetic sex testing. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for abandonment of required genetic screening of women athletes, and by 1992 had adopted a fairer, medically justifiable model for preventing only male "impostors" in international track and field. At the recent recommendation of the IOC Athletes Commission, the Executive Board of the IOC has finally recognized the medical and functional inconsistencies and undue costs of chromosome-based methods. In 1999, the IOC ratified the abandonment of on

  1. Managing pressure: patterns of appraisals and coping strategies of non-elite and elite athletes during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmeiro, Luis; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eccles, David William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moment-to-moment appraisals and coping strategies of 4 non-elite and 2 elite male trap shooters during competitions and in particular during periods of competition perceived as critical to performance. Appraisals and coping patterns of trap shooters were captured via verbal reports of thinking provided between sets of shots during major competitions. Verbal reports were coded according to an appraisal and coping typology. Coded data as well as shooting performance data were subjected to a sequential analysis of probabilities of pairs of events. Fewer reports of negative appraisals (NEGAs) and more frequent reports of problem-focused coping (PFC) were observed among both elite athletes compared to non-elite athletes. After making a NEGA, non-elite shooters often progressed to the next target without attempting to cope, whereas elite shooters used both PFC and emotion-focused coping (EFC) before proceeding to the next target. After missing a target, the non-elite athletes used more EFC than expected. These results indicate that elite athletes are more likely to cope with NEGAs than non-elite athletes using a wider variety of coping strategies. Athletes might benefit from increased awareness of the potentially detrimental impact of NEGAs on performance and by integrating coping strategies within preparatory routines.

  2. Higher prevalence of eating disorders among adolescent elite athletes than controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Marianne; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) among female and male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. This was a two-phase study, including a self-report questionnaire (part I) followed by clinical interviews (part II). The total population of first-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. The questionnaire was completed by 611 (90%) athletes and 355 (84%) controls. The subjects reporting symptoms associated with ED were classified as "at risk" for ED. In part II, all "at-risk" athletes (n = 153), a random sample of not "at risk" (n = 153), and a random sample of 50% of the controls classified as "at risk" (n = 91) and not "at risk" (n = 88) were invited to the clinical interview to screen for ED (i.e., meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or ED not otherwise specified). In part I, more controls than athletes were classified as "at risk" for ED (50.7% vs 25.0%, P athletes and controls was estimated to be 7.0% versus 2.3%, with a difference of 4.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.4-6.0; P = 0.001), with the ED prevalence being higher for female than male athletes (14.0% vs 3.2%, P athletes than controls and higher in female than male athletes. Clinical interview is needed to determine accurate prevalence of ED.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IMAGERY TYPE AND COLLECTIVE EFFICACY IN ELITE AND NON ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Shearer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between imagery function and individual perceptions of collective efficacy as a function of skill level. Elite (n = 70 and non elite (n = 71 athletes from a number of interactive team sports completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ and the Collective Efficacy Inventory (CEI. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was then used to examine which SIQ sub-scales predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy. For the elite sample, Motivational General-Mastery (MG-M imagery accounted for approximately 17% of the variance in collective efficacy scores. No significant predictions were observed in the non elite sample. The findings suggest MG-M imagery as a potential technique to improve levels of collective efficacy although competitive level may moderate the effectiveness of such interventions

  4. An Echocardiographic Study of Heart in a Group of Male Adult Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohebi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe and prolonged physical training is associated with morphological and physiological cardiac changes, often termed as the “athlete’s heart”. Echocardiographic features peculiar to elite Iranian athletes have not been previously described. The aim was to examine the echocardiographic characteristics of highly trained Iranian athletes involved in three different sports. Methods: We studied cardiac morphology and function as assessed by rest echocardiography in 50 elite adult male athletes referring to a university hospital in Tehran between February 2001 and March 2006. Resting ejection fraction, interventricular septal wall thickness (IVSWT, left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT, left ventricular internal end diastolic dimension (LVEdD, left ventricular internal systolic dimension (LVIsD, left ventricular (LV mass, and relative wall thickness (RWT were measured. The control group consisted of 50 age- and weight-matched normal healthy men. Results: Of the athletes, 38 were engaged in predominantly dynamic (running and soccer and 12 in predominantly static (weightlifting sports. The overall mean LVEdD (51.06±5.49mm and IVSWT (10.24±1.43mm were higher in the athletes than those in the normal subjects. The mean of IVSWT in the 38 endurance-trained athletes was significantly more than that of the 12 strength-trained athletes (11.1 mm vs. 10.3 mm, P<0.05. LVEdD was also greater in the endurance-trained athletes, but the difference was not statistically significant (51.2 mm vs. 50.6 mm. Conclusion: Our results of higher LVEdD and IVSWT in Iranian male athletes are in line with previous reports. To generalize the results, we require more studies with larger sample sizes (with female athletes included.

  5. Special Judo Fitness Test Level and Anthropometric Profile of Elite Spanish Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Cristina; Huertas, Jesús R; Franchini, Emerson; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Escobar-Molina, Raquel

    2017-05-01

    Casals, C, Huertas, JR, Franchini, E, Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Sterkowicz, S, Gutiérrez-García, C, and Escobar-Molina, R. Special judo fitness test level and anthropometric profile of elite spanish judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1229-1235, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric variables that best predict Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance. In addition, anthropometric profiles of elite Spanish judo athletes were compared by sex and age category (seniors and juniors). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 51 (29 females) athletes from the Spanish National Judo Team were evaluated during a competitive period. All athletes performed the SJFT and underwent an anthropometric assessment through skinfold thickness measurements. Mann-Whitney comparisons by sex and age category showed that males had significantly higher muscle mass and lower fat mass than females (p training programs should attempt to increase the muscle mass percentage and reduce the upper arm fat, whereas the bone percentage could be considered in the selection of talented athletes in conjunction with other factors.

  6. Consequences of sexual harassment in sport for female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, K; Brackenridge, CH; Walseth, K

    2002-01-01

    Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and/or characteristics and/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in Norway who indicated in a prior survey (N =572) that they had experienced sexual harassment from ...

  7. Sport Participation for Elite Athletes With Physical Disabilities: Motivations, Barriers, and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Gabriella; Weisman Fecske, Courtney; Castaneda, Yvette; Gwin, Candace; Graber, Kim

    2017-10-01

    There are many reasons why individuals are motivated to participate in sports. Less attention, however, is given for studying motivation and athlete development in adapted sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the motivations, facilitators, and barriers to sports participation of elite athletes with a physical disability. Participants (N = 23, 17 males, six females, mean age: 24.3 years) were recruited through online listservs, e-mails, and snowball sampling. A semistructured interview guide was employed. Analysis was conducted and grounded in self-determination theory and literature surrounding barriers and facilitators of sports participation. Through coding by multiple researchers, six themes emerged. Themes indicated that athletes attributed participation to constructs of self-determination theory as well as overcoming specific barriers such as cost, time constraints, and lack of opportunity. Among facilitators to their athletic development, there were empowerment and advocacy, increased health, college scholarships, and achieving performance-related goals.

  8. Laboratory Tests Ordered By a Chiropractic Sports Physician on Elite Athletes Over a 1-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Dustin C.; Moreau, William J.; Barylski, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss laboratory tests ordered on elite athletes in an interdisciplinary sports medicine clinic by a doctor of chiropractic over 1 calendar year. Methods A retrospective review of laboratory tests ordered during routine clinical practice as standard screening and diagnostic tests from November 1, 2009, to November 1, 2010 was performed. Data were collected during clinical encounters at one sports medicine clinic and entered into a database for analysis. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to describe the tests ordered and the frequency of abnormal findings. Results Five hundred and thirty-nine studies were ordered for diagnostic and routine screenings on 137 athlete patients (86 males, 51 females), representing 49 types of tests. Sample sources included blood, urine, skin lesions, and fecal matter. The most commonly ordered tests were complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, serum ferritin, creatine kinase, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, total cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and lipid panels. There were 217 studies (40%) flagged as abnormal by the reporting laboratory. Conclusion This report provides greater insight into the diverse array of laboratory studies ordered over a 1-year period for diagnosis and screening of elite athletes. A high percentage of the results were flagged as abnormal by the laboratory. These findings show that the unique physiology of the elite athlete must be considered when interpreting laboratory findings in this population. PMID:26257590

  9. How do elite athletes lead themselves?

    OpenAIRE

    Heiss, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The present research transfers the concept of self-leadership, originally rooted in organizational psychology, to the domain of elite sports. For this two studies were conducted: The first study analyzes whether self-leadership maintains construct-specific variance when compared with the similar concept of volition. Results showed that self-leadership and volition are distinguishable, albeit weak to moderately correlated concepts (r = .33). Moreover using the Rubicon model of action phases to...

  10. Prevalence of jumper's knee among elite athletes from different sports: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Oystein B; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of jumper's knee across different sports has not been examined, and it is not known if there is a gender difference. Data from surgical case series indicate that there may be a high prevalence in sports with high speed and power demands. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of jumper's knee in different sports among female and male athletes and to correlate the prevalence to the loading characteristics of the extensor mechanism in these sports. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. The authors examined approximately 50 Norwegian male and female athletes at the national elite level from each of the following 9 sports: athletics (male athletes: high jump, 100- and 200-m sprint), basketball (male athletes), ice hockey (male athletes), volleyball (male athletes), orienteering (male athletes), road cycling (male athletes), soccer (male and female athletes), team handball (male and female athletes), and wrestling (male athletes). The examination included an interview on individual characteristics (weight, age, height, and training background), a clinical examination, and self-recorded Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The overall prevalence of current jumper's knee was 14.2% (87 of 613 athletes), with a significant difference between sports with different performance characteristics (range, 0%-45%). In addition, 51 athletes (8%) reported previous symptoms. The prevalence of current symptoms was highest in volleyball (44.6%+/-6.6%) and basketball (31.9%+/-6.8%), whereas there were no cases in cycling or orienteering. The prevalence of current jumper's knee was lower among women (5.6%+/-2.2%) compared with men (13.5%+/-3.0%; chi2 test, P=.042). The duration of symptoms among athletes with current jumper's knee (n=87) was 32+/-25 (standard deviation) months, with a Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score of 64+/-19. The prevalence of jumper's knee is high in sports characterized by high

  11. Feasibility to apply eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Eycken, S; Schelpe, A; Marijsse, G; Dilissen, E; Troosters, T; Vanbelle, V; Aertgeerts, S; Dupont, L J; Peers, K; Bullens, D M; Seys, S F

    2016-02-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is more common in athletes compared to the general population. The eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation test is used to detect EIB in adult athletes. It is however unclear whether this technique is also applicable to young athletes. Young athletes (basketball (n = 13), football (n = 19), swimming (n = 12)) were recruited at the start of their elite sports career (12-14 years). Eight age-matched controls were also recruited. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation test was performed according to ATS guidelines in all subjects. A second (after 1 year, n = 32) and third (after 2 years, n = 39) measurement was performed in a subgroup of athletes and controls. At time of first evaluation, 3/13 basketball players, 4/19 football players, 5/11 swimmers and 1/8 controls met criteria for EIB (fall in FEV1≥10% after EVH). A ventilation rate of >85% of the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) is recommended by current guidelines (for adults) but was only achieved by a low number of individuals (first occasion: 27%, third occasion: 45%) However, MVV in young athletes corresponds to 30 times FEV1, which is equivalent to 85% of MVV in adults. A threshold of 70% of MVV (21 times FEV1) is feasible in the majority of young athletes. EIB is present in a substantial number of individuals at the age of 12-14 years, especially in swimmers. This underscores the importance of screening for EIB at this age. EVH is feasible in young elite athletes, however target ventilation needs to be adjusted accordingly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  13. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21  4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes.

  14. Athletic identity and well-being among young talented athletes who live at a Dutch elite sport center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Hove, van P.; Dik, G.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in athletic identity and well-being were examined between athletes living in a Dutch elite sport center (CTO) and athletes not living in such a center (age range: 16–30). Measures included the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer & Cornelius, 20014. Brewer , B. W. and

  15. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-22

    Aug 22, 2012 ... Objectives: To explore the female athlete triad components in university track and field athletes, as well as calculate estimated energy availability. ... Athletes with menstrual pattern changes had lower spine [1.043 (0.975-1.059) vs. ..... subject burden and fatigue, and establishing the exact cut-off point.

  16. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counseling Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid J M; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne H M; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F

    2017-02-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counseling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counseling as compared with athletes not receiving dietary counseling. Of the athletes, 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counseling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counseling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counseling seemed to result in better-informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.

  17. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Taheri; Khadijeh Irandoust; Masoomeh Razipoor

    2017-01-01

    Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo) w...

  18. Effects of a Novel Cooling Shirt on Various Physical Performance Parameters in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0017 Effects of a Novel Cooling Shirt on Various Physical Performance Parameters in Elite Athletes Reginald...Cooling Shirt on Various Physical Performance Parameters in Elite Athletes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Elite athletes, as well as military personnel, are routinely exposed to a variety of high-heat conditions

  19. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  20. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  1. Epidemiology of injuries in Hong Kong elite badminton athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Romy Hing-Kwan; Wong, Fiona Chui-Yan; Cheuk, Phoebe Wai-Ling; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui

    2007-01-01

    This study retrospectively reviewed the injury epidemiology on 44 Hong Kong elite badminton players in 2003. Team training records were reviewed to retrieve the training and competition hours, while the medical records from the physiotherapy department were reviewed to obtain information regarding injuries. A total of 253 injuries (128 recurrent and 125 new injuries) were recorded, which accounted for an overall incidence rate of 5.04 per 1,000 player hours. Elite senior athletes had a higher incidence rate of recurrent injuries, while elite junior and potential athletes had a higher incidence rate of new injuries. A total of 1,219 visits (4.82 per athlete) to the physiotherapy department were recorded, which cost HK$487,600 (HK$1,928 per injury). Most new injuries were strain (80 injuries), and the most frequently injured body sites were the back (17 injuries), the shoulder (15 injuries), the thigh (15 injuries), and the knee (15 injuries). One-sided exact test showed that a previous injury experience significantly associated with the occurrence of new injury.

  2. TEI Index in elite sprinters and endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, N; Ergün, M; Alioğlu, E; Edem, E; Tengiz, I; Aytemiz, F; Ercan, E; İşleğen, Ç

    2015-09-01

    Aerobic training has been reported to have a positive effect on myocardial performance index. The aim of the present study was to examine the myocardial performance index (MPI) in sprinters and endurance athletes. A total of 66 elite male athletes (36 sprinter and 30 endurance athletes) and 33 agematched sedentary controls voluntarily participated in the study. The echocardiographic evaluation was performed and TEI index was measured as a marker of myocardial performance index in all groups. Demographic features, training ages and weekly exercise volumes were similar in sprinters and endurance athletes. There were no significant differences in terms of diastolic parameters and among the groups. In sprinters, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) were significantly shorter than in controls. In endurance athletes, IVCT was significantly shorter than in controls. Both sprinters and endurance athletes had longer ET compared with controls. TEI Index was significantly lower in sprinters and endurance athletes than in controls. Our results suggest that both aerobic and anaerobic training seem to have a positive effect on myocardial performance. This comparable effect might be a result of frequently exercising, especially aerobic exercising in sprinters' training programs.

  3. The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fitch

    2016-06-01

    The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code has not prevented asthmatic individuals from becoming elite athletes. This review examines those sections of the Code that are relevant to respiratory physicians who manage elite and sub-elite athletes with asthma. The restrictions that the Code places or may place on the prescription of drugs to prevent and treat asthma in athletes are discussed. In addition, the means by which respiratory physicians are able to treat their elite asthmatic athlete patients with drugs that are prohibited in sport are outlined, along with some of the pitfalls in such management and how best to prevent or minimise them.

  4. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.

  5. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes, Body Composition, and Cardiometabolic Parameters in Adolescent Team Sports Elite Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional intake is an important issue in adolescent athletes. Proper athletes' performance is a multifactorial outcome of good training, body composition, and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess nutritional status, body composition, and cardiometabolic factors in adolescent elite athlete's province of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 adolescent elite athletes from volleyball, basketball, and soccer teams were selected for the study. Demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Nutritional intakes of participants were recorded using three 24-h recall questioners. Results: Thirty-four female athletes and 66 male athletes participated in this study. Body mass index had not significantly different between the sexes. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, iron, and fat intakes were significantly higher in male athletes (P = 0.02, but calcium and folic acid intakes were not significantly different between the sexes, and Vitamin D intake was significantly higher in females (P = 0.01. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males (P = 0.04 and heart rate had not significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.09. Heart murmurs and heart sounds in the majority of participants were normal. Conclusion: All the evaluated anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were in normal range in the majority of participants. The results showed that dietary intake in these athletes is approximately normal but micronutrients intake status in these athletes needs to be investigated further and longer.

  6. Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological “architecture” of elite athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L.S. Almeida; J.F.A. Cruz; D.S. Matos

    2011-01-01

    .... Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture...

  7. Striving for success or addiction? Exercise dependence among elite Australian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Justin; McCabe, Marita P

    2012-01-01

    Exercise dependence is a condition that involves a preoccupation and involvement with training and exercise, and has serious health and performance consequences for athletes. We examined the validity of a biopsychosocial model to explain the development and maintenance of exercise dependence among elite Australian athletes. Participants were 234 elite Australian athletes recruited from institutes and academies of sport. Thirty-four percent of elite athletes were classified as having exercise dependence based on high scores on the measure of exercise dependence. These athletes had a higher body mass index, and more extreme and maladaptive exercise beliefs compared to non-dependent athletes. They also reported higher pressure from coaches and teammates, and lower social support, compared to athletes who were not exercise dependent. These results support the utility of a biopsychosocial model of exercise dependence in understanding the aetiology of exercise dependence among elite athletes. Limitations of the study and future research directions are highlighted.

  8. Assessment of physiological capacities of elite athletes & respiratory limitations to exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Greg D; Norris, Stephen R

    2009-09-01

    Physiological assessment of athletes is an important process for the characterization of the athlete, monitoring progress and the trained state or 'level of preparedness' of an athlete, as well as aiding the process of training program design. Interestingly, the majority of physiological assessments performed on athletes can also be performed on children with disease, and therefore clinicians can learn a great deal about physiology and assessment of patient populations through the examination of the physiological responses of elite athletes. This review describes typical physiological responses of elite athletes to tests of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and provides a specific focus upon respiratory limitations to exercise performance. Typical responses of elite athletes are described to provide the scientist and clinician with a perspective of the upper range of physiological capacities of elite athletes.

  9. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P  0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P standards (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.

  10. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  11. A Comparative Study of Sleep and Mood Between Young Elite Athletes and Age-Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde; Andreassen, Pia Mørk; Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    Sleep and mood have seldom been compared between elite athletes and nonelite athletes, although potential differences suggest that physical activity may affect these parameters. This study aims to explore whether adolescent elite athletes differ from controls in terms of sleep, positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Forty-eight elite athletes and 26 controls participating in organized and nonorganized sport completed a questionnaire, and a 7-day sleep diary. On school days, the athletes and the controls who participated in organized and nonorganized sport differed in bedtime (22:46, 23:14, 23:42, P mood in adolescents.

  12. FLUID BALANCE DURING TRAINING IN ELITE YOUNG ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 ...

  13. The gymnasts' hip and groin: a magnetic resonance imaging study in asymptomatic elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavasiliou, A.; Sykaras, E. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Sport Injuries Lab.; Siatras, T. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Excercise Physiology-Ergometry; Bintoudi, A. [Papageorgiu NHS General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Milosis, D. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Physical Education and Sport Sciences; Lallas, V. [Euromedica Diagnostic Centre, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karantanas, A. [University Hospital Heraklion (Greece). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    2014-08-15

    Specific patterns of developmental adaptation of the proximal femur have been recognized in some sports. Gymnastics are characterized by repetitive axial loading and hip rotations in combination with extreme hip positions. It is unknown how and if these forces can affect an immature skeleton in the long term. We sought to evaluate this, by means of magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and groin of such elite asymptomatic athletes. We performed a case-control comparative MR imaging study of both hips and groin of 12 (7 male, 5 female) skeletally mature young (mean age 18.6 years) asymptomatic international level gymnasts with a minimum of 10 years' training with age-matched non-athletes. At the time of recruitment, none of the athletes had a recorded musculoskeletal complaint or injury in the anatomical area around the hip. The study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal and are considered to be the result of adaptational changes to the specific sport: high centre-column-diaphysis angle (coxa valga140 on average), ligamentum teres hypertrophy, friction of the iliotibial band with oedema surrounding the greater trochanter, and a high incidence (62.5 %) of radiological appearances of ischiofemoral impingement. Our study showed that elite gymnasts share four common morphological characteristics on MRI that deviate from normal. These findings were in asymptomatic subjects; hence, radiologists and sports physicians should be aware of them in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. (orig.)

  14. Life span exercise among elite intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2015-01-01

    Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A total of 496 students and alumni (age range, 17-84 year) at a large, NCAA Division I university, including student athletes and an age- and sex-matched nonathlete control group, completed anonymous, self-report health and exercise questionnaires. Age-stratified, cross-sectional analysis evaluated previous week's total exercise volume (ExVol), self-rated exercise importance (ExImp), and compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) exercise guidelines for healthy adults. The association of ACSM guideline compliance with lifetime cardiopulmonary health outcomes was also assessed. Current student athletes reported significantly greater ExVol (P 99.5%), ExImp (P ACSM guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.6, 11.0-84.6) compared with nonathletes. No significant differences were found between alumni student athletes and nonathletes. Alumni student athletes demonstrated substantially lower ExVol (P 99.5%) and guideline compliance (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.05-0.19) compared with current student athletes, whereas nonathletes had similar exercise behavior across the life span. Among alumni, ACSM guideline compliance was associated with significant attenuation of cardiopulmonary health concerns (P = 0.02, d = -0.50, pCID = 14%) independent of intercollegiate athletic participation. Although current NCAA Division I student athletes demonstrated significant, clinically important differences in exercise behavior compared with nonathletes, no group differences were evident later in life

  15. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and clinical studies in athletes have found increased airway inflammation. Objective: To investigate asthma-like symptoms, airway inflammation, airway reactivity (AR) to mannitol and use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. Methods......: The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e......-diagnosed asthma had less AR (response dose ratio 0.02 (0.004) vs 0.08 (0.018) pathletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma. Use of inhaled corticosteroids was similar in the two groups (not significant). In all, 42 elite athletes had...

  16. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    . The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes......Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...

  17. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well....... The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...

  18. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes, Body Composition, and Cardiometabolic Parameters in Adolescent Team Sports Elite Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Abbasi, Behnood; Daneshvar, Pooya; Hojjati, Atefeh; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nutritional intake is an important issue in adolescent athletes. Proper athletes’ performance is a multifactorial outcome of good training, body composition, and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess nutritional status, body composition, and cardiometabolic factors in adolescent elite athlete's province of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 adolescent elite athletes from volleyball, basketball, and soccer teams were selected for the study. Demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Nutritional intakes of participants were recorded using three 24-h recall questioners. Results: Thirty-four female athletes and 66 male athletes participated in this study. Body mass index had not significantly different between the sexes. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, iron, and fat intakes were significantly higher in male athletes (P = 0.02), but calcium and folic acid intakes were not significantly different between the sexes, and Vitamin D intake was significantly higher in females (P = 0.01). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males (P = 0.04) and heart rate had not significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.09). Heart murmurs and heart sounds in the majority of participants were normal. Conclusion: All the evaluated anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were in normal range in the majority of participants. The results showed that dietary intake in these athletes is approximately normal but micronutrients intake status in these athletes needs to be investigated further and longer. PMID:28904935

  19. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Durmic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 4 years engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry. RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001. In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001. Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001, the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001. Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes.

  20. Recovery process of elite athletes: A review of contemporary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Draško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerous training stimulus and competition as well can reduce level of abilities among athletes. This decline of performance can be a temporary phenomenon, with duration of several minutes or several hours after a workout, or take much longer, even a several days. The lack of adequate recovery process can influence on athletes not being able to train at the desired intensity or do not fully meet the tasks at the next training session. Chronic fatigue can lead to injuries, and therefore, full recovery is necessary for achieving optimal level of abilities that will ensure a better athletic performance. For this reasons, athletes often carry out a variety of techniques and methods aimed to recover after training or match. They have become a part of the training process and their purpose is reduction of stress and fatigue incurred as a result of daily exposure to intense training stimulus. There are numerous methods and techniques today that can accelerate the recovery process of athletes. For this reason it is necessary to know the efficiency of an adequate method which will be applied in the training process. The aim of this review article is to point to those currently used and their effects on the process of recovery after physical activity in elite sport.

  1. Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Hvid, Lars G; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes....

  2. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at an Australian University: Debunking the Dumb Jock Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Wilson, Rachel; Ferguson, Jamaya

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes and their academic achievement in higher education have long been subject to considerable debate within North American scholarship. This interest proliferated especially after the release of the Knight Report (2001), which, amongst other findings, revealed a clear negative link between elite athletes and their academic achievement.…

  3. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity...

  4. The Meaning of Physical Education and Sport among Elite Athletes with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.; Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning that elite athletes with visual impairments ascribed to their school-based physical education (PE) and sport experiences. A convenience sample of four elite male goalball athletes with visual impairment voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected through…

  5. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled and oral salbutamol in elite athletes with asthma and nonasthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John

    2012-01-01

    Data on pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in elite athletes with asthma are needed to differentiate between therapeutic use and doping in doping control.......Data on pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in elite athletes with asthma are needed to differentiate between therapeutic use and doping in doping control....

  6. Perfectionistic profiles among elite athletes and differences in their motivational orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Mahoney, John; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J; Parkes, Jarred

    2012-04-01

    Although there is an emerging body of research that has examined perfectionistic clusters in the general population, few studies have explored such profiles in athlete samples. The purposes of this research were to explore perfectionistic profiles within a sample of elite athletes and the differences between them on key motivational variables. A sample of 423 elite athletes (179 males, 244 females) aged between 14 and 66 years (M = 25.64; SD = 8.57) from a variety of team (e.g., rowing, hockey, baseball, rugby) and individual sports (e.g., cycling, athletics, triathlon, gymnastics) completed a multisection questionnaire including measures of sport perfectionism, motivation regulation, achievement goals, and fear of failure. Cluster analyses revealed the existence of three perfectionism profiles, namely, nonperfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and adaptive perfectionists. Subsequent analyses generally supported the robustness of these perfectionism profiles in terms of differential motivational orientations (achievement goals, fear of failure, and motivation regulation) in hypothesized directions. Overall, the differences in motivational orientations between the three clusters supported a categorical conceptualization of perfectionism.

  7. The Elite Athlete and Strenuous Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, James M; Szymanski, Linda M; Conway, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    Highly trained women continue to exercise during pregnancy, but there is little information available to guide them, and their health care providers, in how to maximize performance without jeopardizing the maternal-fetal unit. Available evidence focusing on average women who perform regular vigorous exercise suggests that this activity is helpful in preventing several maladies of pregnancy, with little to no evidence of harm. However, some studies have shown that there may be a limit to how intense an elite performer should exercise during pregnancy. Health care providers should monitor these women athletes carefully, to build trust and understanding.

  8. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Erkander Mullen; Jenny Jakobsson Schulze; Emma eBerglund Lindgren; Magnus eEricsson; Lena eEkström; Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

    2014-01-01

    The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormo...

  9. Female Intercollegiate Athletes. Changes and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinde, Elaine M.

    1989-01-01

    Data from several surveys and studies which examined the sports experience of over 2,000 female college athletes is summarized. Issues explored include reasons for and conditions surrounding sport participation, academic performance of female athletes, reactions to college sport, and post-college sport participation patterns. (IAH)

  10. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff Helge, E; Melin, Anna Katarina; Waaddegaard, M

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...

  11. Air quality and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    A higher prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, and asthma has been identified among athletes who compete and train in environmental conditions of cold dry air and/or high air pollution. Repeated long-duration exposure to cold/dry air at high minute ventilation rates can cause airway damage. Competition or training at venues close to busy roadways, or in indoor ice arenas or chlorinated swimming pools, harbors a risk for acute and chronic airway disorders from high pollutant exposure. This article discusses the effects of these harsh environments on the airways, and summarizes potential mechanisms and prevalence of airway disorders in elite athletes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayios, I A; Bergeles, N K; Apostolidis, N G; Noutsos, K S; Koskolou, M D

    2006-06-01

    The aims of the present study were: a) to determine the anthropometric profile, body composition and somatotype of elite Greek female basketball (B), volleyball (V) and handball (H) players, b) to compare the mean scores among sports and c) to detect possible differences in relation to competition level. A total of 518 female athletes, all members of the Greek first National League (A1 and A2 division) in B, V and H sport teams participated in the present study. Twelve anthropometric measures required for the calculation of body composition indexes and somatotype components were obtained according to the established literature. V athletes were the tallest (Psomatotype was characterized as balanced endomorph (3.4-2.7-2.9). B athletes were taller (Psomatotype characterized as mesomorph-endomorph (3.7-3.2-2.4). H athletes were the shortest of all (Psomatotype was mesomorph-endomorph (4.2-4.7-1.8). In comparison with their A2 counterparts the A1 division players were taller (Psomatotype characteristics (Psomatotype variables of Greek female elite teamball players varied among sports; selection criteria, hours of training and sport-specific physiological demands during the game could explain the observed differences. More data are certainly needed to define the anthropometric profile of B, V and H female athletes internationally.

  13. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  14. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national...... organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise....... Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...

  15. Toward a conceptual understanding of the flow experience in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S A

    1996-03-01

    An in-depth investigation into flow state was conducted in order to understand how this optimal state is experienced by elite athletes. Twenty-eight elite-level athletes, representing 7 sports, were interviewed on their perceptions of flow state during performance of their sport. Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) model of the flow state was examined for its applicability to elite athletes. Correspondence was found between the dimensions of flow, as described by Csikszentmihalyi (1990), and the athletes' descriptions of their experience of flow; some dimensions received greater support through the qualitative analysis of the athletes' descriptions than did other dimensions. Those dimensions of flow most represented across the group's data were the autotelic experience of flow, total concentration on the task at hand, merging of action and awareness, and the paradox of control. The analyses provided a detailed, sport-specific picture of flow state in elite athletes.

  16. Developmental tasks and well-being in adolescent elite athletes in comparison with recreational/non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Ott, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Young elite athletes (EA) have to solve the same developmental tasks (DTs) as non-athletes, even though they spend a lot of time with their sports and have to solve certain sports-related DTs in addition [Ohlert & Kleinert (2014). Entwicklungsaufgaben jugendlicher Elite-Handballerinnen und -Handballer [Developmental tasks in adolescent elite handball players]. Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie, 21(4), 161-172. doi: 10.1026/1612-5010/a000129 ]. The aim of this study was to find out if this situation leads to a shortfall in certain DTs and, furthermore, to a reduced well-being in adolescent EA. In total, 185 EA participated in the survey together with 166 recreational/non-athletes (RA). Participants were between 16 and 19 years old (69% female) and answered questions regarding the relevance of different DTs, their actual progression, satisfaction with their actual progression, and the WHO-5 measure for well-being. Compared to the RA group, the EA group reported a different relevance for some DTs. No significant differences were found between the two groups in progression or satisfaction with progression. The stepwise multiple regression resulted in two significant predictors for well-being in EA: satisfaction with progression in the DTs "to find oneself" and "circle of friends". For RA, the analysis revealed only satisfaction with progression in "circle of friends" as a significant predictor. Implications are that, at least for this age group, problems with DTs were not detected for the adolescent EA. However, if satisfaction with the own progression in certain DTs is low, well-being will also be reduced.

  17. Performance level and sexual harassment prevalence among female athletes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Knorre, Nada

    2010-01-01

    © 2010 National Association for Girls & Women in Sport This article investigates whether there is a relationship between the sport performance level of female athletes inside the sport (at clubs, competitions, or training events) and outside sport (in family or community settings) and the likelihood that they will be victims of sexual harassment. The study sample consisted of 595 women from the Czech Republic and was divided into three performance groups: elite, non-elite/co...

  18. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity to mannitol in Danish elite canoe and kayak athletes The study group consisted of 29 (of 33 eligible) elite athletes aged 17-43 years, and the examination programme consisted of questionnaires, including the Asthma Control Questionnaire, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry and airway reactivity to mannitol. Asthma was defined as a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma and/or elevated FENO and airway reactivity. Seven of the elite athletes (24.1%) were found to have asthma, including four subjects with previously doctor-diagnosed asthma. Of the four athletes (all treated with inhaled corticosteroids) with doctor-diagnosed asthma, all reported asthma-symptoms and two had elevated FENO, but none had airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol. All three athletes with previously undiagnosed asthma had elevated FENO and AHR to mannitol, but reported no asthma-like symptoms. Asthma is common in elite canoe and kayak athletes, and classical signs of asthmatic airway inflammation are also found in asymptomatic athletes. not relevant. not relevant.

  19. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  20. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  1. Strength and Jump Biomechanics of Elite and Recreational Female Youth Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Tencer, Allan F.; Mack, Christopher D.; Levy, Marni R.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Most researchers investigating soccer injuries have studied elite athletes because they have greater athletic-exposure hours than other athletes, but most youth participate at the recreational level. If risk factors for injury vary by soccer level, then recommendations generated using research with elite youth soccer players might not generalize to recreational players. Objective To examine injury risk factors of strength and jump biomechanics by soccer level in female youth athletes and to determine whether research recommendations based on elite youth athletes could be generalized to recreational players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Seattle Youth Soccer Association. Patients or Other Participants Female soccer players (N = 92) aged 11 to 14 years were recruited from 4 randomly selected elite (n = 50; age = 12.5 years, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) = 12.3, 12.8 years; height = 157.8 cm, 95% CI = 155.2, 160.3 cm; mass = 49.9 kg, 95% CI = 47.3, 52.6 kg) and 4 randomly selected recreational (n = 42; age = 13.2 years, 95% CI = 13.0, 13.5 years; height = 161.1 cm, 95% CI = 159.2, 163.1 cm; mass = 50.6 kg, 95% CI = 48.3, 53.0 kg) soccer teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) Players completed a questionnaire about demographics, history of previous injury, and soccer experience. Physical therapists used dynamometry to measure hip strength (abduction, adduction, extension, flexion) and knee strength (flexion, extension) and Sportsmetrics to measure vertical jump height and jump biomechanics. We compared all measurements by soccer level using linear regression to adjust for age and mass. Results Elite players were similar to recreational players in all measures of hip and knee strength, vertical jump height, and normalized knee separation (a valgus estimate generated using Sportsmetrics). Conclusions Female elite youth players and recreational players had similar lower extremity strength and jump biomechanics. This suggests that recommendations generated from

  2. Postural control and low back pain in elite athletes comparison of static balance in elite athletes with and without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzo, Claudio A; Villagrán, Claudio R; Silvestre, Rony E; Carpintero, Pedro; Berral, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Although current research findings suggest that postural control or static balance is impaired in subjects with low back pain, few studies have specifically addressed the effect of low back pain on static balance in elite athletes. Forty-four athletes belonging to Chilean national teams took part in this study; 20 had low back pain and the remaining 24 were healthy controls. Displacement of the centre of pressure was analyzed by computerized platform posturography, using a standardized protocol; subjects were required to stand upright on both feet, with eyes first open then closed. The results showed that, athletes with low back pain used significantly more energy (pposture than healthy athletes. It may be concluded that static balance is impaired in elite athletes with low back pain and that analysis of two-footed stance provides a sensitive assessment of static balance in athletes.

  3. Self-reported sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene in elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knufinke, M.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While actigraphy-based studies revealed suboptimal sleep in athletes, information on their subjective experience of sleep is scarce. Relatively unexplored is also the extent to which athletes' sleep is adversely affected by

  4. Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Manore, Melinda M

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and relationship between the disorders of the female athlete triad in collegiate athletes participating in aesthetic, endurance, or team/anaerobic sports. Participants were 425 female collegiate athletes from 7 universities across the United States. Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and musculoskeletal injuries were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (EDI-BD). The percentage of athletes reporting a clinical diagnosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa was 3.3% and 2.3%, respectively; mean ( SD) EAT and EDI-BD scores were 10.6 9.6 and 9.8 7.6, respectively. The percentage of athletes with scores indicating "at-risk" behavior for an eating disorder were 15.2% using the EAT-26 and 32.4% using the EDI-BD. A similar percentage of athletes in aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic sports reported a clinical diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia. However, athletes in aesthetic sports scored higher on the EAT-26 (13.5 10.9) than athletes in endurance (10.0 9.3) or team/anaerobic sports (9.9 9.0, p athletes in aesthetic versus endurance or team/anaerobic sports scored above the EAT-26 cut-off score of 20 (p athletes not using oral contraceptives, and there were no group differences in the prevalence of self-reported menstrual irregularity. Muscle and bone injuries sustained during the collegiate career were reported by 65.9% and 34.3% of athletes, respectively, and more athletes in aesthetic versus endurance and team/anaerobic sports reported muscle (p =.005) and/or bone injuries (p Athletes "at risk" for eating disorders more frequently reported menstrual irregularity (p =.004) and sustained more bone injuries (p =.003) during their collegiate career. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in female collegiate athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating

  5. Body composition and power changes in elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A M; Fields, D A; Heymsfield, S B; Sardinha, L B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between body composition changes, from a weight stable period to prior competition, on upper-body power in judo athletes. 27 top-level male athletes were evaluated at baseline (weight stable period) and 1-3 days before competition, with a time difference of approximately 1 month. Total body and extracellular water were estimated by dilution techniques (deuterium and bromide, respectively) and intracellular water was calculated as the difference. Body composition was assessed by DXA. A power-load spectrum was used to assess upper-body power output in a bench-press position. Comparison of means, bivariate, and partial correlations were used. Results indicate that though no significant mean changes were found in body composition and upper-body power, individual variability was large. Among all body composition changes, only total-body water (r=0.672; pbody power variation. These associations remained significant after controlling for weight and arm lean-soft tissue changes (r=0.594, p=0.002 for total-body water; r=0.524, p=0.007 for intracellular water). These findings highlight the need for tracking total-body water, specifically the intracellular compartment in elite judo athletes in order to avoid reductions in upper-body power when a target body weight is desired prior to competition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  7. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.

  8. Comparison of brachial artery vasoreactivity in elite power athletes and age-matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Welsch

    Full Text Available Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes.To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls.Eight elite power athletes (age = 23 ± 2 years and ten controls (age = 22 ± 1 yrs were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD and a cold pressor test (CPT. Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test.Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39 ± 1.51 vs.3.73 ± 0.71 mm, p0.05 and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88 ± 21 vs.98 ± 26 bpm, p>0.05 following the step test.Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an 'athlete's artery' as previously shown for elite endurance athletes to elite power athletes, and presents a hypothetical explanation for the functional significance of the 'power athlete's artery'.

  9. Coração de atleta em desportistas deficientes de elite Athlete's heart in elite disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japy Angelini Oliveira Fº

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sinais de "coração de atleta" em desportistas deficientes para-olímpicos. MÉTODOS: Avaliação clínica, eletrocardiográfica, ecocardiográfica, vetorcardiográfica, ergométrica em 75 atletas, 27,8±6,7 anos, 56 homens, várias modalidades; com deficiência física (47, visual (12 e paralisia cerebral (16. RESULTADOS: Sinais de coração de atleta ocorreram em 33% dos exames clínicos (sopros e estalidos, em 55% dos eletrocardiogramas (bradicardia, bloqueio incompleto de ramo direito, sobrecargas, alterações de onda T, em 15% dos vetorcardiograma (sobrecargas, em 5% dos ecocardiogramas (dimensões cavitárias acima do habitual. Os sinais ocorreram em 51% dos atletas, sendo que em 46% dos casos havia 2 ou mais sinais e, em 12%, 4 ou mais sinais. O TE foi normal em 77% dos atletas; não houve ST isquêmico. Em 23% dos casos houve bloqueio divisional direito. CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontrados dois ou mais sinais de coração de atleta em 46% dos atletas deficientes para-olímpicos.PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of the athlete's, heart syndrome in elite disabled Brazilians athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five athletes, age 27.8±6.7 years, 56 men, with various disabilities (47 physical, 12 visual and 16 cerebral paralysis underwent clinical, electrocardiographic, vectorcardiographic, ergometric and echocardiographic evaluations. RESULTS: Athlete's heart signs occurred in 33% of the clinical evaluations, in 55% of the electrocardiograms, in 15% of the vectorcardiograms, and in 5% of the echocardiograms. At least one of these signs was presented in 51% of the athletes. There were 2 or more abnormalities in 46% of the athletes and 4 or more signs in 12%. Exercise test was considered not ischemic in 77% of the subjects. There was right bundle branch block in 23% of the tests. CONCLUSION: There were two or more athlete's heart syndrome signs in 46% of Brazilian disabled athletes.

  10. Mentoring Connections between Coaches and Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Nancy L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role that mentoring could have in helping female athletes become leaders in their sports through coaching, focusing on: women in coaching; the importance of mentoring potential female coaches; successful mentoring relationships for female coaches; and strategies for mentors. This type of collaboration may help reverse the ongoing…

  11. Diagnostics of psychophysiological states and motivation in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeynikov, G; Mazmanian, K; Korobeynikova, L; Jagiello, W

    2011-01-01

    Concepts explored in our study concerned identification of various types of motivation and their connection to psychophysiological states in elite judo and Greco-Roman wrestlers. We tried to figure out how do these different types of motivation interact to describe psychophysiological state in qualified wrestlers. Neuropsychological evaluation methods as simple (SRT) and choice reaction-time (CRT) tests, HRV measurements, psychological questionnaires. To explore obtained data methods of statistical analysis were used Obtained data show that different combinations of levels of motivation to achieve success and motivation to avoid failure provoke different psychophysiological states. Conducted experiment revealed that combination of high levels of both motivation to achievement of success and motivation to avoid failure provides better psychophysiological state in elite wrestlers compared to other groups with different combinations of motivational variables. Conducted experiment revealed that motivation to avoid failures had been formed as a personality formation, which compensates excessive tension, caused by high level of motivation to achieve and regulate the psychophysiological state. This can be viewed as an effect of training in athletes (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 38).

  12. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  13. REVIEW OF SPORTS PERFORMANCE RESEARCH WITH YOUTH, COLLEGIATE, AND ELITE ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  14. Sex and Weight Category Differences in Time-Motion Analysis of Elite Judo Athletes: Implications for Assessment and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Miarka, Bianca; Fukuda, David H

    2017-03-01

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Miarka, B, and Fukuda, DH. Sex and weight category differences in time-motion analysis of elite judo athletes: implications for assessment and training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 817-825, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to support training program development through the comparison of combat and pause phases during elite male and female judo competition in athletes of varying weight categories. A total of 1,411 video recorded judo matches between athletes who qualified for the 2012 Olympic Games were analyzed. Within the matches, 111,203 competitive situations were categorized as combat (with subphases of approach, gripping, attack, defense, and groundwork) or pause phases. Time-motion analysis data were compared between extra light, light, middle, and heavyweight categories for men and women. Median times varied between sex and weight category groups for individual combat (23.9-28.5 seconds), pause (4.0-8.8 seconds), and combat subphases (p ≤ 0.05). Sex-based differences in accumulated combat and combat subphase times were primarily found in the middleweight athletes. Heavyweight female athletes had longer accumulated groundwork and pause times, extra lightweight women had greater groundwork time, and both extra light and lightweight women had shorter accumulated attack times compared with their male counterparts. No differences between men and women were found for the time to complete an individual combat action; however, the pause phase and most of the combat subphases displayed differences. The lightest and heaviest judo athletes displayed unique characteristics compared with athletes in the other weight categories, particularly in the attack, defense, groundwork, and pause phases. These results have important implications related to training program design and support the need for the development of normative data for male and female judo athletes of varying weight categories.

  15. Outcomes of Lumbar Discectomy in Elite Athletes: The Need for High-level Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rueben; Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Although lumbar discectomy for treatment of lumbar disc herniation in the general population generally improves patients' pain, function, and validated outcomes scores, results of treatment in elite athletes may differ because of the unique performance demands required of competitive athletes. We performed a systematic review to answer the following questions: (1) What proportion of athletes return to play after lumbar discectomy, and what is the effect of sport? (2) What is the expected recovery time after lumbar discectomy in elite athletes? (3) What is the expected career length and performance of elite athletes after lumbar discectomy? We performed a systematic literature review of articles of lumbar discectomy in the elite athlete population through the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1947 to 2013. Elite athletes were defined as professional, Olympic, or National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate level. A hand search of the references of all key articles was performed to ensure inclusion of all relevant studies. Information regarding study design, types of athletes, level of sport, recovery time, return to sport, length of career after surgery, and career performance after surgery was extracted. Ten articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. These articles consisted of levels III and IV data and were graded based on the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale. Overall, the studies included in this review found that 75% to 100% of athletes were able to return to elite competition after operative treatment. In general, a higher proportion of baseball players returned to elite competition compared with other athletes. The reported recovery period after lumbar discectomy ranged from 2.8 to 8.7 months. The average career length after lumbar discectomy ranged from 2.6 to 4.8 years. Elite athletes reached an average of 64.4% to 103.6% of baseline preoperative statistics after lumbar discectomy

  16. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  17. Physical and physiological profile of elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Hachana, Younés; Franchini, Emerson; Mkaouer, Bessem; Chamari, Karim

    2012-10-01

    This review focuses on the most important physical and physiological characteristics of karate athletes from the available scientific research. It has been established that karate's top-level performers require a high fitness level. Top-level male karate athletes are typified by low body fat and mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype characteristics. Studies dealing with body composition and somatotype of females are scarce. Aerobic capacity has been reported to play a major role in karate performance. It prevents fatigue during training and ensures the recovery processes during rest periods between two subsequent bouts of fighting activity within a fight and between two consecutive matches. It has been established that there is no significant difference between male and female kata (forms) and kumite (sparring/combat) athletes with regard to aerobic performance. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to support these findings. Concerning anaerobic performance, there is a difference in maximal power explored by the force-velocity test between national and international level karatekas (karate practitioners) but, for the maximum accumulated oxygen deficit test there is no difference between them. Muscle explosive power plays a vital role in a karateka's capacity for high-level performance. However, it has been revealed that vertical jump performance, maximal power and maximal velocity differed between national- and international-level karatekas. Moreover, it has been reported that karate performance relies more on muscle power at lower loads rather than higher ones. Thus, karate's decisive actions are essentially dependent on muscle explosive power in both the upper and lower limbs. With regard to dynamic strength, limited research has been conducted. The maximal absolute bench press, half-squat one-repetition maximum and performance of isokinetic tasks differed significantly between highly competitive and novice male karatekas. Studies on female karate athletes do

  18. Determination and regulation of body composition in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonksen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games. This review covers the scientific knowledge about the development and regulation of body composition in humans but also considers the lessons learnt from evolution and breeding in animals. The importance of heredity has been documented in family and twin studies. The roles of growth hormone and sex steroids are reviewed. The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is considered as a model of the role of testosterone in development of body composition and also as evidence of the importance of other factors carried on the Y-chromosome that are of prime importance but have been systematically ignored. Finally the key factors determining body composition are considered and placed in a suggested order of importance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Brand; Markus Gerber; Johannes Beck; et al

    2011-01-01

    Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may ...

  20. Hydration status in elite wrestlers, judokas, boxers, and taekwondo athletes on competition day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-06-01

    Weight category athletes are known for practicing rapid weight loss before competition weigh-in. After weigh-in, athletes strive to restore euhydration and body mass through food and fluid intake. The aim of the current study was to assess prevalence of hypohydration at competition time among elite athletes' in four different combat sports, and how water intake and timing of official weigh-in were related to hydration status. Participants were 31 taekwondo practitioners and wrestlers who performed evening weigh-in (EWI) the night before competition day and had thus time for rehydration, and 32 boxers and judokas conducting competition day morning weigh-in (MWI). In total, 32% were female. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by refractometry on the competition day's first morning urine sample. Hypohydration was defined as USG ≥ 1.020 and serious hypohydration as USG > 1.030. Water intake was measured by means of dietary records. The prevalence of hypohydration was 89% in the morning of competition day. Serious hypohydration was also prevalent. This was found in over 50% of MWI athletes and in 42% of the EWI group. A higher water intake, from both fluids and solid foods, in the evening before competition day was not associated with a more favorable hydration status the following morning. In conclusion, neither weigh-in close to competition nor evening weigh-in with more time for rehydration seems to prevent hypohydration before competition.

  1. Utility of novel body indices in predicting fat mass in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Magalhães, João P; Minderico, Cláudia S; Thomas, Diana M; Sardinha, Luís B

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new body indices, including body adiposity (BAI), a body shape (ABSI), and body roundness (BRI) indices have been developed to estimate adiposity. The aim of this study was to compare percent fat mass (%FM) with novel indices in an elite athlete population. Using a cross-sectional design, %FM in 159 male and 50 female athletes using a four-component model was assessed. The %FM was compared with body mass index (BMI), BAI, ABSI, BRI, and with other %FM field methods (bioimpedance spectroscopy and skinfold prediction equation). These associations were determined using multilinear regression analysis, which resulted in predictive models of %FM in athletes. Cross-validation was performed using the prediction residual error sum of squares (PRESS) statistics method. Although higher associations than other indices were observed, BRI still presented low coefficients of determination (men: R(2) = 0.36; women: R(2) = 0.25) when comparing with other field methods (R(2) range, 0.33-0.75). Using BAI as the independent variable, the R(2) was 0.07 for men and 0.14 for women. ABSI did not result in a significant association with %FM in women (R(2) = 0.05) while in men a significant association was found (R(2) = 0.22). The BMI model resulted in a R(2) = 0.20 for men and R(2) = 0.22 for women. Waist circumference and the sum of skinfolds were the anthropometric variables with the highest association with adiposity. New alternatives were presented with higher coefficients of determination (PRESS R(2) ranged from 0.47 to 0.71). The newly developed body indices are limited in predicting %FM in elite athletes, particularly when compared with other commonly and readily available field methods like bioimpedance analysis or skinfold prediction models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep, training load and performance in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, J; Mariman, A; Boone, J; Delesie, L; Tobback, E; Vogelaers, D; Bourgois, J G

    2017-10-26

    Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain. Performance of WC competitors was evaluated through coach and WC qualification ranking. For the entire group, TST (effect sizes (ES) = -1.12, confidence intervals (CI) = -60:-47, P < .05) and SE (ES = -0.13, CI = -1.40:-0.10, P = .022) were shorter during week than weekend nights. TST and SE were highest in youngest gymnasts (P < .05). TL was lowest in under 13 and senior gymnasts (P < .05), while TL, monotony and strain were highest in junior gymnasts (P < .05). A negative regression was found between TST and TL the day after, while higher TL also led to lower TST the following night (P < .001). For the WC competitors, TST the night before the qualifications was shorter than the mean TST of the WC period (ES = -0.95, CI = -170:24, P = .030). TST correlated with coach ranking (r = -0.857, P = .014). Higher TL correlated with worse WC (r = 0.829, P = .042) and coach (r = 0.893, P = .007) ranking. This research in elite gymnasts indicated associations between decreased TST, augmented TL and inferior performance. Optimizing sleep and TL may therefore represent strategies to enhance performance.

  3. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role

  4. Parental influence on sport participation in elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, A D G; Maffulli, N

    2003-06-01

    To ascertain how talented young British swimmers, gymnasts, tennis and soccer players are introduced to their sport, and to identify how they are encouraged into intensive systematic training. Two hundred and eighty-two elite young athletes (aged 8 to 17 yrs) and their parents were interviewed in their homes to identify how and why they started intensive training. Of the 4 sports studied (soccer, gymnastics, tennis, and swimming), parents of swimmers were more likely introduce their children to the sport (70%), while parents of gymnasts (42%) were the least likely to do so. However, in this sports parents played a lesser role in the transition to intensive training (6% and 5%, respectively). Nearly half the soccer players (47%) became involved in the sport because of their own interest, with the majority making the transition to intensive training because of encouragement by a coach (65%). Self-motivation (27%) and parental influence (57%) brought children into tennis with 25% of the young athletes in the sample autonomously deciding to start intensive training. Children from the lower socio-economic classes were underrepresented, and the total number of 1-parent families (5.3%) was considerably less than current British national norms (16.1%). In Britain, young athletes' involvement in high level sport is heavily dependent on their parents, with sports clubs and coaches playing an important later role. In the present socio-economic and cultural situation, many talented youngsters with less motivated parents will not undertake sport. Talented youngsters from a poorer economic background will be heavily disadvantaged, especially in sports such as tennis.

  5. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  6. Acyl coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1 gene polymorphism (rs6552828 and elite endurance athletic status: a replication study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yvert

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the association between the rs6552828 polymorphism in acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACSL1 and elite endurance athletic status. We studied 82 Caucasian (Spanish World/Olympic-class endurance male athletes, and a group of sex and ethnically matched healthy young adults (controls, n=197. The analyses were replicated in a cohort of a different ethnic origin (Chinese of the Han ethnic group, composed of elite endurance athletes (runners [cases, n=241 (128 male] and healthy sedentary adults [controls, n=504 (267 male]. In the Spanish cohort, genotype (P=0.591 and minor allele (A frequencies were similar in cases and controls (P=0.978. In the Chinese cohort, genotype (P=0.973 and minor allele (G frequencies were comparable in female endurance athletes and sedentary controls (P=0.881, whereas in males the frequency of the G allele was higher in endurance athletes (0.40 compared with their controls (0.32, P=0.040. The odds ratio (95%CI for an elite endurance Chinese athlete to carry the G allele compared with ethnically matched controls was 1.381 (1.015-1.880 (P-value=0.04. Our findings suggest that the ACSL1 gene polymorphism rs6552828 is not associated with elite endurance athletic status in Caucasians, yet a marginal association seems to exist for the Chinese (Han male population.

  7. Mechanical Low Back Pain in Elite Track and Field Athletes: An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Bikos, Georgios; Meke, Maria; Tsifountoudis, Ioannis; Pyne, Dev; Korakakis, Vasileios

    2017-08-03

    The aim of the study was to gain information about the incidence of mechanical Low Back Pain (MLBP) injuries etiology in elite track and field athletes and to assess the recurrence rate. The prevalence and the etiology of Low Back Pain (LBP) in athletic populations at the elite level of competition lack of longitudinal studies focused on certain sport fields. The present study evaluates MLBP incidents in elite track and field athletes visiting National Track and Field Centre in Thessaloniki, Greece and classifies MLBP according to etiology. One hundred and thirty Elite Track and Field Athletes with MLBP injuries were included in a 20-year observational cohort study recording the initial MLBP etiology according to a classification system based on mechanical diagnosis. It was examined if age, gender and sport category predispose the incidence of the initial MLBP etiology and if they consist risk factors for MLBP recurrence. Discogenic MLBP in elite track and field athletes was significantly higher at 46.9% (α= 0.05) compared with the other MLBP etiologies under consideration. Secondary findings of the present study regarding the incidence of MLBP etiology categories did not reveal significant associations with gender, age and contest categories (α= 0.05). Additionally, recurrence pathophysiology showed that discogenic MLBP obtained high recurrence rates at 0.48 (14 athletes from 29 athletes recurred) compared with other etiologies, followed by back elements injury recurrence rate at 0.24 (7 athletes out of 29). The study provided us with evidence of higher incidence of discogenic etiology of MLBP in elite track and field athletes. Further research is suggested in the use of etiology related LBP classification system in order to evaluate causes, prevalence and epidemiology of MLBP in athletic populations of specific sport categories.

  8. Suitability of Bioelectrical Based Methods to Assess Water Compartments in Recreational and Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Júdice, Pedro B; Santos, Diana A; Magalhães, João P; Minderico, Cláudia S; Fields, David A; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2016-07-01

    It is important for highly active individuals to easily and accurately assess their hydration level. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) can potentially meet these needs but its validity in active individuals is not well established. We aim to validate total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) estimates obtained from 50 kHz BIA, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS), and BIA-based models against dilution techniques in 2 populations: active adults and elite athletes. Active males (N = 28, 20-39 years) involved in recreational sports and elite athletes (females: N = 57, 16-35 years; males: N = 127, 16-38 years) participated in this study. TBW and ECW were assessed with deuterium and bromide dilution, respectively. ICW was assessed as their difference. Body water compartments were also assessed by BIA (BIA-101), BIS (model 4200), and BIA-based equations. Small but significant differences were observed between alternative methods and the criterion in all subsamples. In female athletes, r(2) > 0.69, r(2) > 0.57, and r(2) > 0.65 were observed between methods in the TBW, ECW, and ICW estimates. In males, r(2) > 0.75, r(2) > 0.65, and r(2) > 0.68 were found between alternative and reference methods in the TBW, ECW, and ICW estimates, respectively, whereas for male recreational exercisers, r(2) > 0.58, r(2) > 0.73, and r(2) > 0.75 were observed. Pure errors ranged between 0.19 to 3.32 kg for TBW, 0.64 to 1.63 for ECW, and 1.98 to 2.64 in ICW. The highest limits of agreement (LoA) were observed in Van Loan and Mayclin equation and the BIA method, respectively, for TBW and ECW assessment and the lowest LoA were observed in BIS for both TBW and ECW estimates. The higher accuracy of BIS in predicting individual TBW, ECW, and ICW highlights its utility in water assessment of recreational and elite athletes.

  9. Strategies used by South African non-elite athletes to cope with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies that non-elite athletes use to overcome environmental factors during endurance events. A sample of 53 nonelite endurance athletes completed a questionnaire and interviews were conducted. The research focused on exploring individual experiences as well as ...

  10. Mortality and health-related habits in 900 Finnish former elite athletes and their brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2018-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, Pelite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Negotiation and Capital: Athletes' Use of Power in an Elite Men's Rowing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Laura; Jones, Robyn; Cassidy, Tania

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how power is given, acquired and used by athletes in the elite sporting context. It focuses on a top-level athlete's reactions to the behaviors of his coaches and how such actions contribute to the creation of a coaching climate, which both influences and "houses" coaching. The paper centers on Sean (a…

  12. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Doherty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: 1 The emergence of depression 2 The manifestation of symptoms of depression and 3 Adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies in the process of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g. athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport.

  13. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport.

  14. Lower limb clinical and radiographic osteoarthritis in former elite male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosifidis, Michael I; Tsarouhas, Alexander; Fylaktou, Asimina

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lower extremities clinical and radiographic OA in former elite male athletes and referents from the general population and to examine its association with the participants' demographic characteristics. Two hundred and eighteen former elite male athletes (soccer, volleyball, martial arts, track and field and basketball players, and skiers) and 181 male controls that reported no systematic athletic activity were examined by means of questionnaire, clinical and radiographic evaluation. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 40 years and a positive history of lower extremity surgery, bone or soft tissue trauma and inflammatory arthropathy. Overall, the prevalence of clinical OA between former elite athletes (15.6 %) and controls (14.4 %) was similar (n.s.). The prevalence of radiographic OA was significantly higher (p = 0.03) in former elite athletes (36.6 %) compared with controls (23.9 %). All the participants with clinical OA who underwent radiographic examination also had radiographic OA. The prevalence of clinical and radiographic OA was similar (n.s.) between former athletes of different sports. Age, body mass index (BMI) and occupation variably predicted the prevalence of hip, knee and ankle OA in both study groups. In the absence of major bone and soft tissue lower limb trauma during their athletic career, former elite athletes may not be at increased risk of developing clinical OA. Radiographic signs of OA present at a significantly higher incidence and possibly precede the clinical onset of OA. Age, BMI and occupation are identified as strong predictors of the development of OA in former elite athletes.

  15. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  16. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  17. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy, J. Robert Grove

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regular...

  18. Muscle and Tendon Adaptation in Adolescence: Elite Volleyball Athletes Compared to Untrained Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersmann, Falk; Charcharis, Georgios; Bohm, Sebastian; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2017-01-01

    Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL) architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls. Twenty-one adolescent volleyball athletes (A; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys, 9 girls) and 24 similar-aged controls (C; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys and girls, respectively) performed maximum isometric contractions on a dynamometer for the assessment of muscle strength and, by integrating ultrasound imaging, patellar tendon mechanical properties. Respective joint moments were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach and an electromyography-based estimation of antagonistic contribution. Additionally, the VL pennation angle, fascicle length and muscle-thickness were determined in the inactive state by means of ultrasound. Adolescent athletes produced significantly greater knee extension moments (normalized to body mass) compared to controls (A: 4.23 ± 0.80 Nm/kg, C: 3.57 ± 0.67 Nm/kg; p = 0.004), and showed greater VL thickness and pennation angle (+38% and +27%; p volleyball training provides a more efficient stimulus for muscle compared to tendon adaptation, which results in an increased demand placed upon the tendon by the working muscle in adolescent volleyball athletes. Besides implications for sport performance, these findings might have important consequences for the risk of tendon overuse injury.

  19. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  20. Gender verification of female Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B; Turner, Patricia L; Woods, Gary L

    2002-10-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Problems include invalid screening tests, failure to understand the problems of intersex, the discriminatory singling out of women based only on laboratory results, and the stigmatization and emotional trauma experienced by individuals screened positive. Genuine sex-impostors have not been uncovered by laboratory-based genetic testing; however, gender verification procedures have resulted in substantial harm to a number of women athletes born with relatively rare genetic abnormalities. Individuals with sex-related genetic abnormalities raised as females have no unfair physical advantage and should not be excluded or stigmatized, including those with 5-alpha-steroid-reductase deficiency, partial or complete androgen insensitivity, and chromosomal mosaicism. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for ending genetic screening of female athletes and in 1992 adopted an approach designed to prevent only male impostors from competing. The IAAF recommended that the "medical delegate" have the ultimate authority in all medical matters, including the authority to arrange for the determination of the gender of the competitor if that approach is judged necessary. The new policy advocated by the IAAF, and conditionally adopted by the International Olympic Committee, protects the rights and privacy of athletes while safeguarding fairness of competition, and the American Medical Association recommends that it become the permanent approach.

  1. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  2. Dietary supplementation habits and perceptions of supplement use among elite Finnish athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anni; Alaranta, Antti; Helenius, Ilkka; Vasankari, Tommi

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of dietary supplement (DS) use among elite Finnish athletes in 2002 and 2009. In 2009, the authors also wanted to examine the reasons for athletes' DS use, whether athletes feel they have experienced benefits from their supplement use, and whether athletes had had an opportunity to consult dietary specialists. Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2002 and 2009 among Finnish Olympic athletes. Data were collected using semistructured questionnaires, mainly in national team camps. The study population in 2002 was 446 athletes, and in 2009 it was 372. The number of DS users was high in both study years (81% in 2002 and 73% in 2009). Vitamin D consumption was low in both 2002 and 2009 (0.7% and 2.0%, respectively). An increase was found in consumption of omega-3 fatty acids between study years (11% in 2002 and 19% in 2009; p = .002), and their regular use nearly doubled (8% and 15%, p = .002). For vitamin and mineral users, the main reason for DS use was to prevent nutritional deficiencies, and for nutritional supplement users the main reason was recovery from exercise. Only 27% of all athletes and 30% of DS users had an opportunity to consult dietary specialists in 2009. This survey shows that supplementation rates among elite Finnish athletes are high and there may be over- and underuse of some micronutrient supplements. There is a need for professional nutritional counseling among national elite athletes.

  3. Muscle and Tendon Adaptation in Adolescence: Elite Volleyball Athletes Compared to Untrained Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Mersmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls. Twenty-one adolescent volleyball athletes (A; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys, 9 girls and 24 similar-aged controls (C; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys and girls, respectively performed maximum isometric contractions on a dynamometer for the assessment of muscle strength and, by integrating ultrasound imaging, patellar tendon mechanical properties. Respective joint moments were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach and an electromyography-based estimation of antagonistic contribution. Additionally, the VL pennation angle, fascicle length and muscle-thickness were determined in the inactive state by means of ultrasound. Adolescent athletes produced significantly greater knee extension moments (normalized to body mass compared to controls (A: 4.23 ± 0.80 Nm/kg, C: 3.57 ± 0.67 Nm/kg; p = 0.004, and showed greater VL thickness and pennation angle (+38% and +27%; p < 0.001. Tendon stiffness (normalized to rest length was also significantly higher in athletes (A: 86.0 ± 27.1 kN/strain, C: 70.2 ± 18.8 kN/strain; p = 0.04, yet less pronounced compared to tendon force (A: 5785 ± 1146 N, C: 4335 ± 1015 N; p < 0.001, which resulted in higher levels of tendon strain during maximum contractions in athletes (A: 8.0 ± 1.9%, C: 6.4 ± 1.8%; p = 0.008. We conclude that athletic volleyball training provides a more efficient stimulus for muscle

  4. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  5. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  6. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers.

  7. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy.

  8. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  9. Gastrointestinal Conditions in the Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Barry Kent

    2017-10-01

    Exercise can have significant effects on gastrointestinal diseases. Regular, moderate exercise can impart beneficial effects for the intestinal microbiome, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and inflammatory bowel disease. High-intensity training or prolonged endurance training, on the other hand, can have negative effects on these same entities. Female athletes report a higher prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease, and furthermore, have gastrointestinal symptoms modulated by the menstrual cycle. Management of gastrointestinal problems in the athletic population is widespread and includes training adjustments, dietary measures, and medicine management of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  11. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfillment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of sports science or non-medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. A single questionnaire. The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short-term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for <1 week. This is at odds with currently available evidence of the diagnostic utility of these tests. Despite the current evidence base, individual factors in the athletes, coaches and doctors need to be considered when deciding on whether such testing has to be performed.

  12. Use of supplements by Japanese elite athletes for the 2012 Olympic Games in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akiko; Kamei, Akiko; Kamihigashi, Etsuko; Dohi, Michiko; Akama, Takao; Kawahara, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate supplement use among Japanese elite athletes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study using individual interviews during athletes' medical evaluations. One to 5 months before the Olympic Games in 2012, London, United Kingdom. Five hundred fifty-two Japanese athletes for the London Games, including candidates. Sex, sports, supplement category, and participation. Whether athletes used supplements, what products were used, the frequency and purposes of use, and from what sources athletes received information on supplements. All 552 athletes were interviewed by pharmacists regarding supplement use and agreed to the survey. Of them, 452 (81.9%) used 1 or more supplement products in the year before the study; a total of 952 different products (mean = 1.7, SD = 1.4) were used. The most commonly used supplement was amino acids (310 athletes; 56.2%), and 358 (38.7%) of the total products were amino acids. Of the athletes, 241 (43.7%) took at least 1 supplement daily, and of the supplements, 457 (49.4%) were taken daily. The most common purpose for supplement use was recovery from fatigue-327 (59.2%) athletes chose this answer, and 486 (52.5%) products were used for this purpose. Finally, regarding athletes' information sources on supplements, coaches, managers, and trainers were the most frequent advisors (275 athletes, 49.8%; 466 products, 50.4%). The results revealed widespread supplement use among Japanese elite athletes for the London Olympic Games. Education system was required not only for athletes but also for athletes' entourage, such as coaches, managers, trainers, and supplement companies. This study will provide basic data for establishing an education system that would better guide athletes' use of supplements.

  13. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  14. The role of the entourage on elite athletes developement and post-sport career preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Tshube, Tshepang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish elite athletes (from Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe) career path by tracing their experiences from initial involvement with sport to retirement from competitive sport. The study also provides an in-depth account of the role of entourage members on elite athletes’ careers particularly in post-sport career preparation. Lastly, the purpose of the study was to understand athletes’ preparation for retirement, psychological impacts of retir...

  15. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  16. Modern problems of perfection of elite light athletic sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection

    OpenAIRE

    Kolot A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244). Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of tech...

  17. Episodes of injuries and frequent usage of traditional Chinese medicine for Taiwanese elite wrestling athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chia, Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    Wrestling normally places extreme demands on the body and thus may cause various kinds of injuries. An in-depth understanding of the episodes of injured sites, types, timings, and treatment modalities would help participants be aware of wrestling-related injury occurrences so as to develop effective preventive measures. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the gender-specific injuries among elite wrestling athletes. Subjects were selected from the 2009 Taiwanese National Wrestling Sport Championship. Participants were adolescent wrestling athletes, ages 16-18, who must have received at least one bronze medal at national level tournaments in 2008. A total of 118 respondents, 96 males and 22 females, completed and returned the questionnaire in which demographic data and information about the types, sites, and timings of injuries suffered and treatment modalities adopted were elicited. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. The questionnaire results revealed a significantly higher injury rate for males than for females. The top three injured sites for males were waist (11.1%), ankle joint (10.1%) and finger (9.6%); while for females were ankle joint (13.6%), knee (12.5%) and waist (11.3%). Contusions were the most frequent type of injury: for males (73.5%) and for females (70.6%); followed by tendon inflammation for males (10.7%) and accumulated injuries for females (15.2%). During training and matching periods, the frequency of injuries for males (69.0%) is lower than that for females (81.8%). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with acupuncture and moxibustion was the most common treatment modalities used for males (51.8%) and for females (68.0%); followed by orthopedics: for males (29.5%) and for females (18.0%). The present study contributed as the first effort to reveal the potency of using TCM with acupuncture and moxibustion in wrestling competitions. To prevent possible brain and body injuries in wrestling, safety education, skills and rules, and

  18. Special problems of the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, N W; Warren, M P

    1994-02-01

    The number of women of all ages participating in physical activity is consistently increasing. Although there are numerous benefits to physical activity, specific problems may occur along the various stages of the female athlete's life, which need special attention. A remarkably late menarche, exaggerated beyond the expected genetic predisposition and a high prevalence of abnormal or absent menstrual cycles is seen in athletes, especially in dancers and long distance runners. Reproductive system dysfunction is associated with multiple factors, of which nutritional intake and caloric balance seem to be of a special importance. A high proportion of athletes suffer from pathological eating behaviours and there is an overlap between many features of anorexic patients and highly active athletes. The pathophysiology seen in most cases is hypo-oestrogenism due to suppression of the GnRH pulse generator. The mechanism(s) causing this reversible hypothalamic dysfunction are yet unknown. Of major concern are the skeletal abnormalities, including failure to reach peak bone mass, reduced bone density, scoliosis and stress fractures as a result of prolonged hypo-oestrogenism. Hormone replacement may be indicated in cases in which reduction of exercise or weight gain is not feasible or unsuccessful. Other populations that need special precautions are pregnant athletes and older women.

  19. Osteoarthritis is associated with symptoms of common mental disorders among former elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Nannet; Aoki, Haruhito; Gray, Janine; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Lambert, Mike; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim was to establish the association between osteoarthritis (OA) and the occurrence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD: distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use) in a group of former elite athletes (rugby, football, ice hockey, Gaelic sports and cricket). A secondary aim was to explore this association in the subgroups of sports. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on the baseline questionnaires from five prospective cohort studies conducted between April 2014 and January 2016 in former elite athletes of rugby, football, ice hockey, Gaelic sports and cricket. The presence of OA (diagnosed by a medical professional) was examined with a single question, and symptoms of CMD were evaluated through multiple validated questionnaires (4DSQ, GHQ-12, PROMIS, AUDIT-C). There was a significant association between OA and symptoms of distress (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.6), sleep disturbance (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1-2.3), adverse alcohol use (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2-2.6) and a comorbidity of symptoms of CMD (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.1) in former elite athletes. OA might be a risk factor for developing symptoms of CMD in former elite athletes. The clinical relevance of this study is that an interdisciplinary approach to the clinical care and support of former elite athletes after their careers is advocated as the interaction between the physical and mental health issues occurring on the long term is complex. Monitoring OA among former elite athletes should be empowered while strategies to prevent symptoms worsening should be developed and implemented. The self-awareness, prevention and care of mental health problems that might occur after a professional sports career should also be addressed. Level III.

  20. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  1. Isokinetic profile of wrist and forearm strength in elite female junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, T S; Roetert, E P; Riewald, S

    2006-05-01

    In tennis, injuries to the elbow and wrist occur secondary to the repetitive nature of play and are seen at increasingly young ages. Isokinetic testing can be used to determine muscular strength levels, but dominant/non-dominant and agonist/antagonist relations are needed for meaningful interpretation of the results. To determine whether there are laterality differences in wrist extension/flexion (E/F) and forearm supination/pronation (S/P) strength in elite female tennis players. 32 elite female tennis players (age 12 to 16 years) with no history of upper extremity injury underwent bilateral isokinetic testing using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Peak torque and single repetition work values for wrist E/F and forearm S/P were measured at speeds of 90 degrees/s and 210 degrees/s, with random determination of the starting extremity. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences between extremities for peak torque and single repetition work values. Significantly greater (pwrist E/F and forearm pronation strength was measured at both testing speeds. Significantly less (pwrist E/F and forearm pronation strength is common and normal in young elite level female tennis players. These strength relations indicate sport specific muscular adaptations in the dominant tennis playing extremity. The results of this study can guide clinicians who work with young athletes from this population. Restoring greater dominant side wrist and forearm strength is indicated after an injury to the dominant upper extremity in such players.

  2. Anthropometric and anaerobic fitness profile of elite and non-elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, S; Vaeyens, R; Philippaerts, R M; Redondo, J C; Cuadrado, G

    2009-12-01

    The main aim of the current study was to compare the anthropometrical and fitness profile of female soccer players by level and by playing positions. The second purpose was to explore correlations between kicking speed on the one hand and anthropometric features and explosive strength on the other. Female soccer players (N.=190) were tested divided in two groups: elite group (N.=100) and non-elite group (N.=90). Body mass, height, leg length, body composition, counter movement jump, drop jump and kicking speed with both legs were measured. After controlling for experience with multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), body mass, body fat and muscle mass differed significantly by level. MANCOVA also revealed that all the anthropometrical variables differed by playing position. However, MANCOVA did not show significant differences by level of play, neither for explosive strength nor for kicking speed but revealed significant differences among playing positions. There were significant positive correlations between body mass, height, leg length, muscle mass, counter movement jump height, drop jump height and experience on the one hand and kicking speed with dominant and non-dominant leg on the other for the elite and non-elite players. Elite players differ from their non-elite counterparts in terms of anthropometrical features, while explosive strength and kicking speed are not sensitive enough to distinguish between levels. On the other hand, the findings indicate few positional variations, and only goalkeepers, tend to have a specific anthropometric and fitness profile. Anthropometric variables, explosive strength and experience have an influence on kicking speed.

  3. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  4. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  5. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Ramos-Campo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n=15 players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n=14. Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60º • s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P≤0.05. However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° • s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games.

  6. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  7. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  8. Two distinct phenotypes of asthma in elite athletes identified by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Mariana; Stang, Julie; Horta, Luís; Stensrud, Trine; Severo, Milton; Mowinckel, Petter; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luís; Moreira, André; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of asthma in athletes have been insufficiently studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize asthma phenotypes in elite athletes using latent class analysis (LCA) and to evaluate its association with the type of sport practiced. In the present cross-sectional study, an analysis of athletes' records was carried out in databases of the Portuguese National Anti-Doping Committee and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. Athletes with asthma, diagnosed according to criteria given by the International Olympic Committee, were included for LCA. Sports practiced were categorized into water, winter and other sports. Of 324 files screened, 150 files belonged to asthmatic athletes (91 Portuguese; 59 Norwegian). LCA retrieved two clusters: "atopic asthma" defined by allergic sensitization, rhinitis and allergic co-morbidities and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels; and "sports asthma", defined by exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and airway hyperesponsiveness without allergic features. The risk of developing the phenotype "sports asthma" was significantly increased in athletes practicing water (OR = 2.87; 95% CI [1.82-4.51]) and winter (OR = 8.65; 95% CI [2.67-28.03]) sports, when compared with other athletes. Two asthma phenotypes were identified in elite athletes: "atopic asthma" and "sports asthma". The type of sport practiced was associated with different phenotypes: water and winter sport athletes had three- and ninefold increased risk of "sports asthma". Recognizing different phenotypes is clinically relevant as it would lead to distinct targeted treatments.

  9. The Female Athlete Triad: A Metabolic Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Anne B.

    2014-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome in which low energy availability triggers a broad range of endocrine mechanisms that conserve energy expenditure, and thereby impairs reproductive and skeletal health.  Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other physiological functions each day.  The specific kind of reproductive dysfunctions caused by low energy availability are functional hypothalamic menstrual disorders.  To ensure that ...

  10. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can ...

  11. Performance level and sexual harassment prevalence among female athletes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Knorre, Nada

    2010-01-01

    The results presented in this article are from a larger research project on issues related to women in sport in the Czech Republic. The article tries to answer research questions related to whether there are any relationships between the experience of sexual harassment among female athletes inside and outside sport, and at different sport performance levels. The sample, totalling 595 women, was divided into three performance groups: elite, competing and exercisers. No significant differences ...

  12. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Krzywanski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OHD < 30 ng/ml and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  13. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation

  14. Relationship of Sport Competitive Level on Dietary Intake, Body Composition and Somatotype between Elite and Amateur Female Volleyballers

    OpenAIRE

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Martínez Sanz, José Miguel; Calleja González, Julio; Seco, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy, macronutrients and body composition of Elite (EFVPs) and Amateur (AFVPs) Female Volleyballers and to analyze their dietetic-nutritional intakes and habits with those recommended for athletes. Twelve EFVPs and twelve AFVPs were considered for this study. A protocol from the International Society of Advancement of Kinanthropometry was followed to record anthropometric data. To calculate the nutritional intake and the size of food servings, the pa...

  15. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. Th...

  16. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  17. The current use, and opinions of elite athletes and support staff in relation to genetic testing in elite sport within the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, I; Patel, S; Williams, AG; Hennis, PJ

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the current use of genetic testing in UK elite sport and assess how genetic testing might be received by those employed in elite sport. Seventy-two elite athletes and 95 support staff at UK sports clubs and governing bodies completed an online survey of 11 questions concerning their experience of genetic testing and beliefs regarding the use of genetic testing in sport. Genetic testing related to sports performance and injury susceptibility is condu...

  18. Career paths and postretirement adjustment among spanish elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    López de Subijana Hernández, Cristina; Barriopedro Moro, Maria Isabel; Muniesa, Carlos Alberto; Gómez Ruano, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The study presented by Pallarés, Azocar, Torregrosa, Selva, and Ramis (2011) proposed three types of sport career paths: i) linear: where the athlete gives exclusive dedication to sport; ii) convergent: in which the athlete prioritises the sport career but he/she maintains another activity (i.e., study or work); and iii) parallel: where the athlete places equal importance on the sport career and the alternative activity. Particularly, the available research has been focused on how athletes wh...

  19. Olympism as Education: Analysing the Learning Experiences of Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchti, N.; Rynne, S. B.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Olympic athletes are potentially the most visible exponents of Olympic values. How athletes learn values, however, has not captured the attention of those responsible for Olympic documentation or pedagogues. This paper examines how aspects of Olympism became relevant for three former Olympians during their athletic careers. Interview material…

  20. Heart rate recovery in elite athletes: the impact of age and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzic Lazic, Jelena; Dekleva, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Leischik, Roman; Suzic, Slavica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Biljana; Nesic, Dejan; Lazic, Milivoje; Mazic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the rate of decline of HR from peak exercise to rates 1, 2 and 3 min after cessation of exercise (HRR1, HRR2 and HRR3). A significantly higher HRR1 was found in group A (29·5 ± 15·6 versus 22·4 ± 10·8, Pathletes. The HRR during 3 min postexercise should be reported for the purpose of better assessing functional adaptation to exercise among elite athletes as well as the age-associated differences in recovery. Higher values of HRR1 should be expected in older athletes, and HRR3 could be used as an index of aerobic capacity, irrespective of age. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of upper respiratory symptoms in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Amanda J; Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B; Callister, Robin; Hopkins, Will G; Fricker, Peter A

    2008-09-01

    To characterize the etiology of upper respiratory symptoms in elite athletes presenting to a sports physician for treatment. Prospective clinical and laboratory investigations. Sports medicine clinic. Seventy elite-level athletes. Physician-recorded symptoms and diagnosis; health/training questionnaires; laboratory investigations of respiratory pathogens, white blood cell differential counts, and immune parameters. Physicians characterized 89% of presentations as viral or bacterial upper respiratory tract infection. Only 57% of presentations were associated with an identified pathogen or other laboratory parameters indicative of infection. Demographic information, previous illness, and training history did not distinguish between presentations with or without objective measures of infection. Elevated white blood cell and neutrophil counts and lower vitamin D concentrations partially distinguished infectious episodes. The number of systemic symptoms/behaviors at presentation (cough, headache, earache, fatigue, fever/rigors, myalgia/arthralgia, or cessation of training before clinic attendance) had some predictive value for infection: odds ratio per symptom, 1.23 (90% confidence interval: 0.91 to 1.66); probability of infection, 48% with no symptoms to 77% with 6 symptoms. Laboratory investigation identified allergy in a considerable proportion of the cohort (39%). The discrepancy between physician and laboratory diagnosed infection in elite athletes highlights the need for consideration of alternate diagnostic options when evaluating upper respiratory symptoms in athletes. A considerable proportion of episodes of respiratory symptoms in athletes were not associated with identification of a respiratory pathogen; other potentially treatable causes of upper respiratory symptoms should be considered, particularly in athletes with recurrent symptoms.

  2. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk indicators (severe injury, surgery, life events, sport career dissatisfaction, social support) and the outcomes measures under investigation. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among 203 current and 282 former elite Dutch athletes (response rate: 28% among current athletes and 95% among former athletes). Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed. Prevalence (4-week) ranged from 6% for adverse alcohol use to 45% for anxiety/depression among current elite athletes, and from 18% for distress to 29% for anxiety/depression among former elite athletes. A higher number of past severe injuries, higher number of past surgeries, higher number of recent life events, higher level of career dissatisfaction and lower level of social support were related to the occurrence of symptoms of common mental disorders among both current and former elite athletes. On average, the 4-week prevalence of common mental disorders as shown in our study among current and former Dutch elite athletes were similar to the ones found among athletes from other sports disciplines and does compare with the lifetime prevalence estimates in the general population of the Netherlands.

  3. Position-specific anthropometry and throwing velocity of elite female water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Josue G; Vila, Ma Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Noguera, Marian M; Abraldes, J Arturo; Rodríguez, Nuria; Freeston, Jonathan; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted with the following aims: (a) to describe the effect of playing position on anthropometrics and throwing velocity in elite female water polo players and (b) to observe any relationships between anthropometric parameters and throwing velocity. To achieve these aims, we analyzed a total of 46 female elite players (age: 22.5 ± 5.1 years; height: 172.0 ± 6.9 cm, body mass: 67.4 ± 7.5 kg) members of the top 4 teams of the Spanish Honour Division women league (21 offensive wings players, 17 center, and 8 goalkeepers). Wings were significantly shorter and had smaller arm spans than goalkeepers and center players. Goalkeepers demonstrated longer forearm lengths than wing and center players. No other significant differences were evident between positions in terms of anthropometric, strength, or throwing velocity variables The somatotype of the offensive wing players was mesomorphic, whereas centers were endomorph (classified as endomesomorphic). Height, arm span, muscular mass, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, arm girth (relaxed and tensed), and forearm girth were related to throwing velocity. In conclusion, only a small number of anthropometric differences exist between players of different positions in elite female water polo. Shorter players with smaller arm spans may be better suited to the wings, whereas athletes with longer forearms may be better suited to the goalkeeper position. Taller, more muscular athletes with wider arm spans, broader humeri, and wider arms (relaxed and flexed) tended to throw with increased velocity. Trainers should focus on increasing the modifiable characteristics (muscle mass and arm girths) that contribute to throwing velocity in this population.

  4. Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 1: Decision making under physical performance pressure in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Beth L; Warriner, Katie; Walsh, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate. A number of studies have shown that conditions of elevated pressure influence athletes' decision quality (Kinrade et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2016), response times (Hepler, 2015; Smith et al., 2016) and risk taking (Pighin et al., 2015). However, almost all of this work has been undertaken in nonelite athletes and participants who do not routinely operate under conditions of high stress. Thus, there is very little known about the influence of pressure on decision making in elite athletes. This study investigated the influence of physical performance pressure on decision making in a sample of world-class elite athletes. This allowed an examination of whether findings from the previous work in nonelite athletes extend to those who routinely operate under conditions of high stress. How this work could be applied to improve insight and understanding of decision making among sport professionals is examined. We sought to introduce a categorization of decision making useful to practitioners in sport: gunslingers, poker players, and chickens. Twenty-three elite athletes who compete and have frequent success at an international level (including six Olympic medal winners) performed tasks relating to three categories of decision making under conditions of low and high physical pressure. Decision making under risk was measured with performance on the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under

  5. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Andrade, Guilherme G. Bevilacqua, Danilo R. Coimbra, Fabiano S. Pereira, Ricardo Brandt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Participants (n = 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes, 214 (77.3% men and 63 (22.7% women completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS and reported their subjective sleep perception. Athletes with poor sleep quality reported higher scores for confusion compared to athletes with good sleep quality (p < 0.01, d = 0.43. In addition, athletes who lost their game at the time of evaluation showed higher tension (p < 0.01, d = 0.49 and confusion (p < 0.01, d = 0.32 levels compared to athletes who won their game. A regression analysis demonstrated that for each point increase in the confusion level, there was a 19.7% reduction in sleep quality. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. Further, our results indicated that the athletes’ mood associated with their success in the competitions. Therefore, in a competition, it is important that the athletes show good sleep quality, and use techniques and strategies to ease their mood variations.

  6. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Barbero-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET, until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR, VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b and running speeds (km • h -2 . During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1, 12.5±1.77 km • h -2 , 197±8 beats • min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km • h -2 , 199±8 beats • min-1 and 2.5±2.2 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p<0.0001 with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  7. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero-Alvarez, J C; Subiela, J V; Granda-Vera, J; Castagna, C; Gómez, M; Del Coso, J

    2015-12-01

    Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm) performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET), until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR), VO 2 , post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b) and running speeds (km · h -1 ). During the treadmill test, VO 2 max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml · kg -1 · min -1 , 12.5±1.77 km · h -1 , 197±8 beats · min -1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol · l -1 , respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km · h -1 , 199±8 beats · min -1 and 12.5±2.2 mmol · l -1 , respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p < 0.0001) with VO 2 max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  8. Skating start propulsion: three-dimensional kinematic analysis of elite male and female ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Jaymee R; Robbins, Shawn M K; Dixon, Philippe C; Renaud, Philippe J; Turcotte, René A; Wu, Tom; Pearsall, David J

    2017-09-01

    The forward skating start is a fundamental skill for male and female ice hockey players. However, performance differences by athlete's sex cannot be fully explained by physiological variables; hence, other factors such as skating technique warrant examination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the body movement kinematics of ice hockey skating starts between elite male and female ice hockey participants. Male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) elite ice hockey players performed five forward skating start accelerations. An 18-camera motion capture system placed on the arena ice surface captured full-body kinematics during the first seven skating start steps within 15 meters. Males' maximum skating speeds were greater than females. Skating technique sex differences were noted: in particular, females presented ~10° lower hip abduction throughout skating stance as well as ~10° greater knee extension at initial ice stance contact, conspicuously followed by a brief cessation in knee extension at the moment of ice contact, not evident in male skaters. Further study is warranted to explain why these skating technique differences exist in relation to factors such as differences in training, equipment, performance level, and anthropometrics.

  9. The influence of upper-body strength on flat-water sprint kayak performance in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2014-07-01

    Dry-land strength training is a fundamental component for elite kayak performance. The aims of this research were 3-fold: 1st, to determine the relationship between performance time and strength scores for elite kayakers; 2nd, to identify how strength changes (gains or losses) over 3 training y relate with changes in performance time for elite kayakers; and 3rd, to compare the progression in performance times for elite athletes with the top 3 performers from the national championships. The performance data for 15 elite male and 10 elite female kayakers were collected over 2 y. This group was reduced to 9 men and 8 women in the 3rd and final year. There were direct and significant correlations between strength scores and performance times across the 3 y. Bench-press 1RM increased by 34.8% for men and 42.3% for women. Over the 3 seasons, mean 1000-m time decreased by approximately 4.8%, 500-m times decreased by 7.3% (women), and 200-m times decreased by 9.1%. The women's 500-m changed from 11.9% difference from medalists to within 1.1% during the 3 y. During the 3 y of this study a change in 1-repetitionmaximum (1RM) bench press of 13% for men and 6.5% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%. For 1RM pull-up a change of 10% in men and 2.3% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%.

  10. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  11. Epidemiology of symptoms of common mental disorders among elite Gaelic athletes: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Tol, Johannes L.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders among elite Gaelic athletes is lacking. Consequently, this study aimed to (i) determine the prevalence, comorbidity and 6-month incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse

  12. Reconceptualising Elite Athlete Programmes: "Undoing" the Politics of Labelling in Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    High-performance sport is a big business, with nations such as Australia and New Zealand dedicating hundreds of millions of dollars in the development of facilities and in creating sporting centres of excellence. Historically, high-performance sport and elite athlete programmes (EAPs) were regulated to an extra-curricular space in schools or local…

  13. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, Sara Amalie; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained...

  14. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  15. Plantaris excision in the treatment of non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, James D F; Freeman, Richard; Pollock, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is a serious and frequently occurring problem, especially in elite athletes. Recent research has suggested a role for the plantaris tendon in non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. To assess whether excising the plantaris tendon improved the symptoms of Achilles tendinopathy in elite athletes. This prospective consecutive case series study investigated 32 elite athletes who underwent plantaris tendon excision using a mini-incision technique to treat medially located pain associated with non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scores (VAS) for pain and the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS) as well as time to return to sport and satisfaction scores were assessed. At a mean follow-up of 22.4 months (12-48), 29/32 (90%) of athletes were satisfied with the results. Thirty of the 32 athletes (94%) returned to sport at a mean of 10.3 weeks (5-27). The mean VAS score improved from 5.8 to 0.8 (p<0.01) and the mean FAOS improved in all domains (p<0.01). Few complications were seen, four athletes experienced short-term stiffness and one had a superficial wound infection. The plantaris tendon may be responsible for symptoms in some athletes with non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Excision carries a low risk of complications and may provide significant improvement in symptoms enabling an early return to elite-level sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  17. Some views of elite athletes on cooperation with the media and the media's influence on sports and private lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zadražnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, sport represents an element of the quality of life as it is often an indicator of a country's civilisational, societal and economic development. The public is mostly interested in elite sport which has effects for both society as well the lives of individuals as the public is not only interested in sports achievements but also in athlete's private lives. The border between the public and private is difficult to establish. The interlinked work of elite athletes and the media often results in misunderstandings as the media intrudes on the private lives of athletes, which in turn impacts both the private and professional lives of athletes. OBJECTIVE: The study's main purpose was to identify the attitude of elite athletes to the media and the influence of the media on the private and professional lives of athletes. The study also evaluated the qualities of an ideal journalist in the eyes of athletes. METHODS: Differences between more and less experienced elite athletes were studied on a sample of 67 Slovenian athletes from team sports. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The findings were further interpreted in line with the opinions of ten leading athletes from individual sports, which were collected through a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Differences between groups of more and less experienced athletes were detected in answers to the question, "When do athletes decide to cooperate with the media?" and "Have you already been offended by the media?". Elite athletes like to cooperate with the media and usually give information away freely. Similarly, journalists largely understand that athletes desire peace and quiet prior to a competition. Athletes perceive precision and verification of information as the most important qualities of journalists, while they consider some personal qualities and materialistic characteristics as less important. CONCLUSIONS: The study's results show that in the future athletes would

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN ELITE ATHLETES DURING NON STATION NARY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Korobeynikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heart rate variability during non stationary processes in athletes was studied. The 29 elite athletes were examined. The parameters of scattergram for analysis of non stationnary processes of heart rate regulation were used. The results are shows about of tendency for decrease of periodic and non periodic variations of cardiac intervals depending from characters of reaction of heart rate. The obtained result showed the aging increasing of tension of autonomic regulation of heart rate of athletes as fatigue or non adequate performance.

  19. Functional movement scores and longitudinal performance outcomes in elite track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Laymon, Abigail S; Arnold, Todd

    2014-03-01

    Subjects with scores on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) assessment of ≤14 or with at least 1 bilateral asymmetry have been shown to have greater future injury incidence than subjects with FMS scores >14 or no movement asymmetries. To determine if FMS injury risk factors extend to longitudinal competitive performance outcomes in elite track and field athletes. Elite track and field athletes were examined (N = 121), each completing an FMS before the 2011 competitive season. Best competition marks for the year were obtained from athletes' actual performances for 2010 and 2011. Performance change between 2010 and 2011 was examined in cohorts of FMS scores ≤14 (LoFMS) vs >14 (HiFMS), athletes with bilateral asymmetry in at least 1 of the 5 FMS movements vs athletes with no asymmetry, and athletes who scored 1 on the deep-squat movement vs athletes who scored 2 or 3. HiFMS had a significantly different change in performance from 2010 to 2011 (0.41% ± 2.50%, n = 80) compared with LoFMS (-0.51% ± 2.30%, P = .03, n = 41). Athletes with no asymmetries had a longitudinal improvement in performance (+0.60% ± 2.86%, n = 50) compared with athletes with at least 1 asymmetry (-0.26% ± 2.10%, P = .03, n = 71). Athletes who scored 1 on the deep-squat movement had a significantly different change in performance (-1.07 ± 2.08%, n = 22) vs athletes who scored 2 (0.13% ± 2.28%, P = .03, n = 87) or 3 (1.98% ± 3.31%, P = .001, n = 12). Functional movement ability, known to be associated with the likelihood of future injury, is also related to the ability to improve longitudinal competitive performance outcomes.

  20. Development management model of elite athletes in team sports games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, Marko; Trninić, Slavko; Papić, Vladan

    2009-06-01

    The scientific and expert approach to defining a model of managing the development of top-level athletes in team sports games is oriented toward the challenging values that mark a certain position and role in a team sports game. A hypothetical dynamic model of development management of top-level athletes in team sports games, which explicitly shows the order of procedures in the process of multidimensional development of athletes using the concepts of the dynamic systems theory has been suggested. The hypothetical model of management shows that the athlete's development is primarily under the influence of genetic potential, sports preparation process and the competition format, as well as the management of their lifestyle. In the process, the athlete's development is seen as a dynamic and plastic process under the influence of selective procedures and training programs that enable a continuous change in the level of the athlete's performance and sports preparation process.

  1. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  2. Protein Recommendations for Weight Loss in Elite Athletes: A Focus on Body Composition and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy; Phillips, Stuart M

    2017-11-28

    There exists a large body of scientific evidence to support protein intakes in excess of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (0.8g protein/kg/d) to promote the retention of skeletal muscle and loss of adipose tissue during dietary energy restriction. Diet-induced weight loss with as low as possible ratio of skeletal muscle to fat mass loss is a situation we refer to as high quality weight loss. We propose that high quality weight loss is often of importance to elite athletes in order to maintain their muscle (engine) and shed unwanted fat mass, potentially improving athletic performance. Current recommendations for protein intakes during weight loss in athletes are set at 1.6-2.4g protein/kg/d. However, the severity of the caloric deficit and type and intensity of training performed by the athlete will influence at what end of this range athletes choose to be at. Other considerations regarding protein intake that may help elite athletes achieve weight loss goals include the quality of protein consumed, and the timing and distribution of protein intake throughout the day. This review highlights the scientific evidence used to support protein recommendations for high quality weight loss and preservation of performance in athletes. Additionally, the current knowledge surrounding the use of protein supplements, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and other dietary supplements with weight loss claims will be discussed.

  3. Increased serum resistin in elite endurance athletes with high insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseghin, G; Burska, A; Lattuada, G; Alberti, G; Costantino, F; Ragogna, F; Oggionni, S; Scollo, A; Terruzzi, I; Luzi, L

    2006-08-01

    Resistin is an adipokine associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in animal models, but in humans its role remains uncertain. This study was undertaken to test whether serum resistin is related to insulin resistance and markers of low-grade inflammation in elite athletes taken as a model of extreme insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 23 elite athletes (sprinters, middle-distance and marathon runners) and in 72 sedentary men including lean and obese individuals with NGT, and obese individuals with IGT or new-onset type 2 diabetes, we assessed insulin sensitivity using a whole-body insulin-sensitivity index (WBISI) derived from a 3-h OGTT; energy homeostasis was also assessed by means of indirect calorimetry, along with circulating adipokines and low-grade pro-inflammatory cyto-chemokines. Professional athletes had increased WBISIs (prunners, but not in the sprinters when compared with the lean, young, sedentary individuals. Serum resistin concentration is increased in elite athletes, providing evidence against the notion that resistin levels reflect insulin resistance in humans, as seen in animal studies. Increased resistin was observed in aerobic-endurance, but not sustained-power athletes and this feature appeared to be independently associated with parameters of fatty acid metabolism.

  4. Comparison of immunohematological profile between endurance- and power-oriented elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Matias, Catarina N; Monteiro, Cristina P; Alves, Francisco; Reis, Joana F; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Martins, Fátima; Seixas, Maria T; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J

    2017-03-01

    There is general perception that elite athletes are highly susceptible to changes in immunohematological profile. The objective of this study was to compare immunohematological parameters of elite athletes of different aerobic and muscular strength sports and analyze changes over 2 months. Sixteen judoists and 14 swimmers were evaluated 2 months before (M1) and immediately prior to competition (M2). Hemogram and lymphocytes subpopulations were assessed with automatic counter and flow cytometry, respectively. Judoists had higher neutrophils and lower monocytes and eosinophils percentages than swimmers at M1 and M2. At M2 judoists had lower red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, and hematocrit than swimmers. At M2 judoists' hematocrit and CD16 decreased while swimmers' hemoglobin and hematocrit increased. In conclusion, neither sports characteristics nor intense training seem to displace the athletes' immunohematological profile out of the clinical range, despite the possibility of occurrence of microlesions that may stimulate production of leukocytes and reduction of RBC in judoists.

  5. Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of DE is rising amongst male athletes and black female athletes. Adolescent athletes ... intervals is promoted. To prevent voluntary dehydration regular ingestion of a flavoured carbohydrate-electrolyte drink is recommended at quantities individualized according to body weight losses surrounding the event.

  6. Time of day - effects on motor coordination and reactive strength in elite athletes and untrained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Piazza, Marina; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    the issue of time-of-day effects on performance is crucial when considering the goal of reaching peak results in sport disciplines. The present study was designed to examine time-of-day effects in adolescents on motor coordination, assessed with Hirtz's battery and neuromuscular components of strength, evaluated with reactive strength tests. forty-two elite female gymnasts, aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years (Mean ± SD), were recruited for the study. Fifty healthy female students (aged 12.8 ± 1.7 years) served as the control group. All participants underwent the testing sessions over two days at two different times of day in a randomized order. Oral temperature was measured at the two times of the day and a significant diurnal variation (p time of day, but significant differences were observed for reactive strength as assessed with the vertical jump tests (p time (F1.90 = 17.322 p time (F1.90 = 8.372; p time effect. The time-since-awakening influenced coordination performances in complex tasks more than reaction strength tests in simple tasks. The main outcome of the study was that we did not observe time-of-day effects on coordination skills in elite gymnasts and in untrained adolescents. The time of day in which athletes usually trained these skills could influence these results. Key pointsThe results obtained in this study suggested that the best time to perform a particular task depends specifically on the nature of the task, the precise size of the cognitive load and the level of practice of the participants.In the field of practice, it is incumbent for coaches to organise sports selection based on reactive strength, using the morning hours for untrained adolescents, when alertness and the benefits of sleeping could improve performance. Evening hours, conversely, should be used for elite gymnasts who specifically train at that time (specific "temporal training effect").These study results cannot give indications about the best time of the day to organize selection tests

  7. Profiling elite/high performance sport athletes with impairments at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, universities have increasingly become hubs for high performance sports, as student-athletes enter the latter phase of the long-term athlete development process (LTAD). Within the South African context, several universities have and continue to play a significant role in the training and preparation of numerous ...

  8. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  9. Use of Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Morbidity in Finnish Former Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2017-03-01

    The effect of a history of competitive sports on later use of alcohol and occurrence of alcohol-related diseases is poorly known. We investigated how a history of elite level sports was associated with alcohol consumption in middle-age and with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of alcohol-related diseases and deaths were followed using national registers from 1970 to 2008 among Finnish male former elite athletes (n = 2202) and matched controls (n = 1403) alive in 1970 (mean age = 45.1 yr). Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox proportional hazards model. In 1985, surviving participants questionnaire-reported their alcohol consumption and engagement in physical activity/sports. The risk of any alcohol-related diseases or deaths did not differ between former athletes and controls (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73-1.20, P = 0.59), although the risk was higher among both combat sports athletes and weightlifters compared with endurance sports athletes, shooters or jumpers, and hurdlers (P athletes consumed more alcohol (417 g·month, 95% CI = 386-447) compared with controls (397 g·month, 95% CI = 355-441) (P athletes than among controls (P athletes consumed more alcohol (P athletes and controls. Athletes no longer engaged in leisure-time sports consumed more alcohol than those who continued to be physically active (P athletes reported higher alcohol consumption than controls. There was no difference in alcohol-related morbidity, but the risk varied between different sports groups. Alcohol consumption after top sports career was greater if participation in leisure-time sports was discontinued.

  10. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-01-01

    .... Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group...

  11. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, K; Mourot, L; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-12-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic power. In the forest, the elites ran at a slightly higher percentage of their 2-km (∼3%) and 20-m (∼4%) road velocities. Although these differences did not exhibit traditional statistical significance, magnitude-based inferences suggested likely meaningful differences, particularly during 20-m sprinting. Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist in tailoring training and identifying individual strengths and/or weaknesses in an orienteer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  13. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  14. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences.

  15. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of vitamin D muscle receptors in the last few years suggested a significant role in muscle tissue, pointing out athletes as a special group. Specific data are scarce. The main aim of the current paper was to provide, for the first time, comparable data about vitamin D status in elite Spanish athletes by sport, age, season and training environment. Four hundred and eight elite athletes with a mean age of 22.8 ± 8.4 years were recruited from the High-performance sport centre in Barcelona for this cross-sectional study. Athletes from 34 different sports modalities were analysed. Data were available for vitamin D status, training environment, seasonality and number of medical visits. All data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Mean 25(OH)D of all athletes was 56.7 ± 23.4 nmol/L. Approximately 82% of the athletes were below the optimal levels, (outdoors compared with those training indoor (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Elite adolescent athletes' use of dietary supplements: characteristics, opinions, and sources of supply and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Katharina; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Mayer, Jochen; Schnell, Alexia; Schneider, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The authors' aim was to examine the prevalence of (daily) dietary-supplement (DS) use among elite adolescent athletes and to differentiate use by different types of DS according to their function. Data were analyzed for associations between users of these DS types, sociodemographic, sport-specific characteristics, and opinion on the need for DS. In addition, sources of supply and information were examined. In the framework of the GOAL Study, 1,138 German elite adolescent athletes (14-18 yr) answered questions about DS. The data were analyzed to identify groups at risk for using DS after a classification by supplemental function. Of the young athletes, 91.1% reported DS use during the previous month. (Daily) DS use was significantly associated with sex, kind of sport, and the weekly duration of sporting activity. Furthermore, some athletes were required to use DS by their sporting organization. DS use was more likely in these athletes than in those whose sporting organizations had no such requirement. Overall, DS with short- and long-term supplemental function were mostly associated with the use of magnesium. However, DS with medium-term muscle-building function played an important role among daily users. The main source of information about DS was coaches; main source of supply was parents. Professional education is urgently needed, as 9 out of 10 athletes used DS, and strong positive opinions toward the use of DS were present, particularly in the DS users.

  17. [SLEEP OF ELITE YOUNG ATHLETE AT THE ACADEMY FOR SPORT EXCELLENCE AT THE WINGATE INSTITUTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot Mintzer, Dalya; Shargal, Eyal; Fuxman, Yair; Wissblat, Dorit; Baharav, Anda

    2016-06-01

    Sleep duration and quality have a critical role in cognitive and athletic performances. A relationship was demonstrated between sleep deprivation, reduced performance and elevated injury risk. The recommended sleep duration for teenagers is at least 9 hours a day but most sleep less. To estimate sleep duration among elite adolescent athletes at the Academy for Sport Excellence at the Wingate Institute, by quantifying the changes after joining the academy and the relation to school performances and the usage of medical services. Data from medical records, including sleep screening questionnaires and a number of the athletes' medical appointments were analyzed. Athletes reported that sleep duration was less than recommended before joining the academy. After joining the academy the average sleep duration decreased (7.37 vs 7.7 hours, P = 0.05) and daytime sleepiness was elevated (13/24 v 11/24 Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS), P = 0.002). Correlations between changes in sleep duration and changes in school achievements before and after joining the academy were demonstrated (P = 0.027). No correlation was found between sleep duration at the academy and usage of medical services. Elite adolescent athletes do not sleep enough and are tired during the day. Reduction in sleep duration and elevation in sleepiness were observed with the transition to practice, study and life at the Academy for Sport Excellence. In accordance with previous studies, our findings showed elite young athletes are in a state of continuous sleep deprivation that interferes with their school achievements. Further research is needed to evaluate the importance of sleep duration and quality in performance for the health of young athletes.

  18. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-08-09

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts.

  19. Judgment of actions in experts: a high-resolution EEG study in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Piazza, Marina; Pirritano, Mirella; Berlutti, Giovanna; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-04-01

    The present study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of sporting observed actions; (ii) in elite athletes, a good judgment of observed sporting actions is related to a low cortical activation. To address these issues, electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 15 elite rhythmic gymnasts and 13 non-gymnasts. They observed a series of 120 rhythmic gymnastic videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the artistic/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the videos indexed the cortical activation (event related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite rhythmic gymnasts compared to the non-gymnasts in occipital and temporal areas (ventral pathway) and in dorsal pathway. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), in the elite rhythmic gymnasts high-frequency alpha ERD was higher in amplitude with the videos characterized by a high judgment error than those characterized by a low judgment error; this was true in inferior posterior parietal and ventral premotor areas ("mirror" pathway). These results globally suggest that the judgment of observed sporting actions is related to low amplitude of alpha ERD, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency").

  20. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2017-10-20

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  1. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Trivers

    Full Text Available In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  2. Eating disorders in collegiate female athletes: factors that assist recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Cameselle, Jessyca N; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that assist female athletes' recovery from eating disorders. Forty-seven female collegiate athletes who experienced eating disorders responded to an open-ended question regarding factors that most helped their recovery. The most common factors were the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport, support from others, and shifts in values/beliefs. A unique finding was that the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport most frequently facilitated recovery. This knowledge can help treatment providers to foster athletes' motivation to recover and distinguishes athletes as a unique treatment population from non-athletes.

  3. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  4. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  5. A prospective cohort study on symptoms of common mental disorders among Dutch elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-11-01

    Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in elite sports is scarce. Consequently, the objectives of the study were to (i) establish the 12-month incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use, eating disorders) among Dutch elite athletes and (ii) explore their potential association with several stressors (being injured, recent life events, career dissatisfaction). A prospective cohort study with a 12-month follow-up period was conducted. The study used validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders (thus not clinically diagnosed) as well as several stressors; an electronic questionnaire was set up and repeatedly distributed. A total of 203 elite athletes gave their written informed consent to participate in the study, from which 143 completed the 12-month follow-up period (follow-up rate of 70%). Incidence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 6% for adverse alcohol use to 57% for symptoms of anxiety/depression. Over the follow-up period, around 17% of the participants reported two simultaneous symptoms of CMD, and around 19% reported three simultaneous symptoms of CMD. Inferences between some stressors and symptoms of CMD were found but none of the associations were statistically significant. Substantial 12-month incidence rates of symptoms of CMD (self-reported and not clinically diagnosed) were found among Dutch elite athletes (especially for anxiety/depression), appearing similar to the ones found among athletes from other sports disciplines and the Dutch general population. Also, inferences between some stressors and symptoms of CMD were found but none of the associations were statistically significant. Supportive and preventive measures directed towards symptoms of CMD should be developed to improve awareness and psychological resilience of athletes, which would likely improve their performance and quality-of-life.

  6. Variability of competitive performance of elite athletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the variability that athletes show from competition to competition provide information about the relative contributions of environmental and other factors affecting competitive performance. Smallest and other important thresholds for assessing changes in performance in competitions and field or laboratory tests can also be derived from estimates of variability. To systematically review estimates of within-athlete variability of competitive performance in various sports. We searched SPORTDiscus and Google Scholar for studies providing estimates of within-athlete variability between competitions. Estimates are reported here as coefficients of variation (CV) only for the best athletes. Some studies also combined within-athlete variability with between-athlete differences into a measure of predictability expressed as an intraclass correlation coefficient, reported here for the full field of competition. Skeleton and 1,000-m speed-skating times have the lowest within-athlete variability (CV of 0.15% and 0.4%, respectively), apparently because of the effect of the initial phase of the race on race dynamics. Times in sprint and endurance sports also have relatively low variability (0.6-1.4%), reflecting the predominant contribution of mean power output to performance. The power-velocity relationship tends to make CV for time smaller in sports performed against water or wind resistance, but this effect is offset by variability in the effects of wind and water on individual athletes. Sports requiring explosive power in a single effort, such as field events and weightlifting, have larger CVs for their performance measures (1.4-3.3%), likely reflecting substantial contributions of skill. Sports with the greatest within-athlete variability (~50%) were those with subjective scores (e.g. surfing). Predictability correlations ranged from 0.17 (half-pipe snowboarding) to 0.93 (cross-country skiing). There was little difference in variability or predictability between

  7. Morphological Differences of Elite Croatian Track-and-Field Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Vučetić, Vlatko; R. Matković, Branka; Šentija, Davor

    2008-01-01

    In this sudy we present the morphological characteristics of 54 Croatian national level track-and-field athletes. 21 anthropometric body measures were taken on a sample of 15 sprinters (S), 16 endurance sprinters (S4), 10 middle-distance runners (MD) and 13 long-distance runners (LD). Body fat percentage, body mass index and somatotype were also calculated. Canonical discriminative analysis showed significant difference between the athletes of various running events, in the measur...

  8. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  9. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  10. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  11. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  12. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy, J. Robert Grove

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217. The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures.

  13. T he Relationship between Perfectionism and Burnout in Junior - Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi AGHDASI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athlete burnout. The target population of research consisted of 168 elite handball players who participate in National Junior Championships. 123 athletes were selected randomly as the sample. We used a multi - section inventory to collect data, contained measures of multidimensional perfectionism, dispositional achievem ent goals, athlete burnout, perceived satisfaction with goal attainment and perceived coach satisfaction with goal attainment. In this study was used Pierson correlation and Hierarchical regression for the analysis of collected data. Regression analyses re vealed that socially prescribed perfectionism demonstrated a significant positive association, and self - oriented perfectionism a significant negative association with burnout dimensions. In conclusion, in this study were not supported the hypotheses of the moderating influence of Perceived satisfaction with goal attainment and achievement goal orientations on the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athlete burnout .

  14. Body Composition of Elite Female Players in Five Different Sports Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC variables in elite female athletes (age ± years: volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1, softball (23.6 ± 4.9, basketball (25.9 ± 4.2, soccer (23.2 ± 4.2 and handball (24.0 ± 3.5 players. Fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP, body cell mass (BCM, extracellular mass (ECM, their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α, and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05. Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01. The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer. The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer. Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  15. Prediction profiles for nutritional supplement use among young German elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Ulrich, Rolf; Niess, Andreas; Best, Raymond; Simon, Perikles; Striegel, Heiko

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional supplements (NS) are defined as concentrated sources of nutrients and other substances that have a nutritional or physiological effect and that are used in high frequency among athletes. The study aimed to create a prediction profile for young elite athletes to identify those athletes who have a higher relative risk for using NS. The second objective was to examine the hypothesis that the consumption of NS paves a gateway for the use of illicit drugs and doping substances. A self-designed anonymous paper-and-pencil questionnaire was used to examine the prevalence of NS consumption, doping, and illicit drug use in elite athletes with a mean age of 17 years (SD = 4 years). Logistic regression analysis was employed to assess whether NS consumption can be predicted by independent variables (e.g., biographical data, training characteristics, drug consumption behavior) to create the prediction profile for NS use. 55% and 5% of the athletes (n = 536) responded positively to having used NS and illicit drugs, respectively. Nutritional supplement consumption was positively correlated with age (OR: 1.92; CI: 1.21 to 3.05), the desire to enhance performance to become an Olympic or World Champion (OR: 3.72; CI: 2.33 to 6.01), and being educated about NS (OR: 2.76; CI: 1.73 to 4.45). It was negatively correlated with training frequency (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.35 to 0.86) and the use of nicotine (OR: 0.29; CI: 0.1 to 0.74) but did not correlate with illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. The present results show that NS are used on a large scale in elite sports. The prediction profile presented in this article may help to identify those athletes who have a high risk for using NS to plan potential education and prevention models more individually.

  16. Anthropometric and motor performance profile of elite futsal athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Avelar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p76 The purpose of the present study was to identify the anthropometric and motor performance profi le of futsal (indoor soccer athletes in the second and third-placed teams in the Parana state championships (Brazil. Anthropometric(body mass, stature and skinfolds thickness and motor performance (modified abdominal test, shuttle run, race of 30 m and 40 s measures were obtained from twenty-seven male athletes (24.7 ± 6.4 years; 73.6 ± 7.6 kg; 174.8 ± 6.6 cm. For data analysis, athletes were grouped according to game positions. ANOVA one-way was used for comparisons between different positions, followed by Scheffé’s post hoc test, with p < 0.05. Signifi cant differences were detected in body mass (midfielder < goalkeeper, p < 0.01, stature (midfielder < forward and goalkeeper, p < 0.01 and lean body mass (midfi elder < goalkeeper, p < 0.01. No significant differences in motor performance were detected between the athletes studied. The results of this study show that futsal athletes playing in different positions exhibit similar anthropometric and motor performance, in the majority of variables.

  17. Nutrition education intervention for college female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Doris A; Black, David R; Birnbaum, Rachel D

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention for college female athletes to improve nutrition knowledge, build self-efficacy with respect to making healthful dietary choices, and improve dietary intake. A pretest-posttest control group design was implemented. A women's soccer team (n =15) and a women's swim team (n = 15) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. The intervention focused on nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy in making healthful dietary choices, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and dietary practices. Independent variables were group assignment. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results between groups, and the Fisher exact probability test was used to detect differences between groups in the number of positive dietary changes. Treatment participants significantly improved nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (P nutrition education intervention research among athletes and demonstrates the ability to increase not only nutrition knowledge, which is typically reported, but also self-efficacy and improvement in overall positive dietary changes during an 8-week intervention.

  18. Perspectives of elite athletes with disabilities: problems and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Ian Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Disability sport, and especially elite disability sport, has been all but ignored in terms of academic research in this country. This thesis, therefore, is an attempt to begin redressing this situation. It focuses on the Great Britain Paralympic track and field squad, that competed in the Sydney Paralympic Games between 18th and 29th October 2000. Through a series of in-depth interviews, whic...

  19. Arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in elite athletes. American College of Cardiology, 16th Bethesda Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, A

    1998-01-01

    With the recent high visibility deaths of Hank Gathers and Reggie Lewis, two nationally recognized elite basketball players due to cardiovascular disease and arrhythmias, our awareness of the most optimal ways to manage athletes with known arrhythmias has become heightened. In making medical decisions we physicians come to rely in large measure on data, in addition to clinical acumen and experience. Unfortunately, we are at a disadvantage with respect to athletes since previously published data on the natural history and outcome of such individuals with known arrhythmias are sparse. Furthermore, the tragedies of Lewis, Gathers, Pete Maravich and others are also poignant reminders that the denominator of this equation is not defined and that we do not really know precisely how many athletes experience important arrhythmias, nor their relation to sports activity. In the decade since the 16th Bethesda Conference, an American College of Cardiology sponsored consensus panel that developed standards and recommendations for the disqualification from competition of athletes with known cardiovascular disease, little new data have been developed to make objective decisions in these areas (including arrhythmias) much easier. Nevertheless, while such decision-making in athletes involves situations that are relatively rare, the consequences of misjudgement are substantial. Unfortunately, to complicate matters, even if the precise likelihood of sudden death for a given athlete with arrhythmias were known, many (if not most) professional and elite college athletes might still regard any risk as acceptable and withdrawal from formal competition as highly unacceptable from a financial and psychological standpoint. In this review, consideration will be given to the state of our medical knowledge in these areas. Many controversies persist with regard to arrhythmias, most notably for the athlete who has Wolff-Parkinson-White, mitral valve prolapse, myocarditis, or complex ventricular

  20. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.

  1. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  2. Acculturation in elite sport: a thematic analysis of immigrant athletes and coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert Joel; McGannon, Kerry R; Battochio, Randy Cesar; Wells, Greg D

    2013-01-01

    To identify key issues concerning the acculturation of immigrant athletes in sport psychology, a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was conducted on focus group interview data from immigrant elite athletes relocated to Canada (n = 13) and coaches working with such athletes (n = 10). Two central themes were identified: (a) navigating two world views which referred to acculturation as a fluid process where athletes navigated between cultural norms of the home community and the host community, and (b) acculturation loads, which referred to whether immigrants and those in the host country shared acculturation (i.e., acculturation as a two-way process) or managed the load with or without support from others (i.e., acculturation as one-directional). Each of these central themes comprised sub-themes, which provided further insight into the experiences of acculturation for immigrant elite athletes. From the project, the authors recommend further research utilising case studies to provide a holistic description of the acculturation process from the vantage of various people within the sport context.

  3. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Dragoni, S. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Medicina dello Sport, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Static Balance and the Role of Vision in Elite Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami Raouf; Behm David G; Chtara Mokhtar; Othman Aymen Ben; Chaouachi Anis

    2014-01-01

    When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB) was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP) on a force pl...

  5. The prevalence and severity of health problems in youth elite sports: a 6-month prospective cohort study of 320 athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseid, C H; Myklebust, G; Fagerland, M W; Clarsen, B; Bahr, R

    2017-12-27

    Little is known regarding the overall health of youth elite athletes. Our aim was to describe the prevalence and severity of health problems in a cohort of youth elite athletes representing a variety of endurance, team and technical sports. Elite sport athletes (N=260, 16.2 yrs) from different Sport Academy High Schools in Norway, and a group of their teammates (N=60, 16.4 yrs) attending regular high schools, were included in the study. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) questionnaire on health problems was used to self report injuries and illnesses for 26 weeks. At any given time, an average of 43% [95% CI: 37-49%] of the elite sport athletes had some form of health problem and 25% [20-31%] had substantial health problems. The prevalence of health problems was similar between the elite team sport athletes versus their teammates, except for substantial injuries (22% [16-30%] vs. 10% [5-20%]). Endurance sport athletes reported more illnesses (23% [15-35%]) than technical and team sport athletes (10% [5-20%] and 8% [4-14%]). In contrast, technical and team sport athletes reported more injuries (36% [95% CI: 25-48] and 37% [95% CI 29-45]) compared to endurance sport athletes (15% [8-25%]). The total impact of health problems was roughly split in thirds between overuse injuries (37%), acute injuries (34%) and illnesses (30%). This is the first prospective study to present self-reported injury and illness data in a large heterogeneous group of youth elite athletes, documenting a substantial impact of both injuries and illnesses on the health of this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune response to two hours of rowing in elite female rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, D C; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S L; Fagoaga, O R; Henson, D A; Shannon, M; Davis, J M; Austin, M D; Hisey, C L; Holbeck, J C; Hjertman, J M; Bolton, M R; Schilling, B K

    1999-10-01

    The influence of carbohydrate (C) versus placebo (P) beverage consumption on the immune and hormonal responses to normal rowing training sessions was measured in 15 elite female rowers residing at the U.S. Olympic Training Center. In a randomized, counterbalanced design, the athletes received C or P beverages (double-blind) before, during, and after two 2-hour bouts of rowing (one day apart). Blood samples were collected before, and 5-10 minutes and 1.5 hours after rowing. Metabolic measures indicated that training was performed at moderate intensities, with some high intensity intervals interspersed throughout the sessions (mean oxygen uptake of 2,307+/-169 m x min(-1), 57% of VO2max). Glucose and insulin were significantly lower after two hours of rowing with ingestion of P compared to C. The patterns of change in cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine did not differ between C and P rowing trials. Blood neutrophil cell counts and the neutrophililymphocyte ratio were significantly higher following P versus C rowing sessions. The patterns of change in blood lymphocyte and lymphocyte subset counts, and lymphocyte proliferative responses did not differ between P and C trials, except for a slight difference in NK cell counts and activity. In summary, minimal changes in blood hormonal and immune measures were found following two-hour bouts of training in elite female rowers. Carbohydrate compared to placebo ingestion attenuated the moderate rise in blood neutrophil counts, but had slight or no effects on other immune parameters.

  7. The Female Athlete Triad: A Metabolic Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B. Loucks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The Female Athlete Triad (Triad is a syndrome in which low energy availability triggers a broad range of endocrine mechanisms that conserve energy expenditure, and thereby impairs reproductive and skeletal health.  Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other physiological functions each day.  The specific kind of reproductive dysfunctions caused by low energy availability are functional hypothalamic menstrual disorders.  To ensure that affected athletes receive appropriate care, endocrine tests are required to diagnose these disorders by the exclusion of other types of menstrual disorders unrelated to the Triad.  In addition, low energy availability impairs skeletal health by uncoupling bone turnover, in which the rate of bone resorption increases while the rate of bone formation declines.  The result is a progressive loss or failure to accrue bone mass, which increases the risks of stress fractures and osteoporosis.  Low energy availability originates in one or more of three sources:  restrictive eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa; intentional efforts to lose body weight or body fat to improve athletic performance or appearance; and the inadvertent suppression of appetite by exercise and diets containing a high percentage of carbohydrates.  It is necessary to know the origin of low energy availability in a particular athlete in order to intervene effectively with her.  The key behavior modification for preventing and treating the Triad is to increase energy availability, either by increasing dietary energy intake, reducing exercise energy expenditure, or both.  Guidelines for doing so are provided. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5

  8. Parameters of anaerobic physiological profile of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anaerobic capacity is much less evaluated in literature compared to aerobic component. Anaerobic performance of athletes can be measured using different motoric tests, lasting 20 to 30 seconds, one of them being the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the work performed and power generated by athletes and non-athletes during a 30-second high intensity exercise, as well as to compare explosive characteristics of subjects using a new parameter of WAnT, named explosive power, or slope of power. Methods. All parameters of anaerobic power were investigated in 152 subjects classed into different groups depending on their physical fitness and sport specialties as follows: non-athletes (n=31, rowers (n=26, volleyball players (n=37, handball players (n=34 and judo players (n=24. The WAnT, as well as basic anthropometric measurements, was administrated to all participants. Results. Values of anaerobic parameters were higher in the group of athletes compared to physically inactive subjects. The highest values of the WAnT parameters were registered in the group of volleyball players (AP=1006 W; relative AP=11.4 W/ kg, AC=19.8 kJ, compared to athletes of other sport disciplines (volleyball, rowing and judo. The new parameter of the WAnT, explosive power, also showed highest values in volleyball players (EP=154 W/s; relative EP=1.74 W/s/kg. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. The results of laboratory tests can provide useful information on improvements in training processes. The new parameter of the WAnT could be implemented in further analyses of explosive characteristics of muscle contraction.

  9. Excelência no desporto: Para uma compreensão da "arquitectura" psicológica dos atletas de elite/Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological "architecture" of elite athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D S Matos; J F A Cruz; L S Almeida

    2011-01-01

    .... Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture...

  10. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome in football players: case series of 26 elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Kudaş, Savaş; Dönmez, Gürhan; Işık, Çetin; Çelebi, Mesut; Çay, Nurdan; Bozkurt, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe a clinical treatment algorithm for posterior ankle impingement (PAI) syndrome in professional football players.Methods: A case series of 26 elite professional football players diagnosed and treated for posterior ankle impingement syndrome were included for the study. All of the athletes received conservative treatment with physical therapy modalities initially. If the first line medical treatment and rehabilitation was ineffective to alleviate the symptoms, ultrasound-g...

  11. Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consume a diet moderate to high (±50%) daily energy intake (TE)) in micronutrient dense carbohydrate-rich foods, 12 - 15% TE of protein-rich foods and ±30% TE from healthy dietary fats. Iron and calcium are most likely to be low in the diets of young elite athletes. A daily iron intake of 8.0 mg in children 9 - 13 years and ...

  12. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  13. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Scott C; McKean, Kelly A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2007-11-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during a non-contact athletic maneuver. Identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in female athletes may help with the development of preventive training programs aimed at reducing injury rates. Differences between genders in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular patterns will be identified in an adolescent soccer population during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two elite adolescent soccer players (21 male and 21 female) performed an unanticipated side-cut maneuver, with the 3-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic lower limb data being analyzed using principal component analysis. The female athletes had higher gastrocnemius activity, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and a mediolateral gastrocnemius activation imbalance that was not present in the male athletes during early stance to midstance of the side-cut. Female athletes demonstrated greater rectus femoris muscle activity throughout stance, and the only hamstring difference identified was a mediolateral activation imbalance in male athletes only. Female athletes performed the side-cut with less hip flexion and more hip external rotation and also generated a smaller hip flexion moment compared with the male athletes. This is the first study to identify gender-related differences in gastrocnemius muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting maneuver. The increased and imbalanced gastrocnemius muscle activity, combined with increased rectus femoris muscle activity and reduced hip flexion angles and moments in female subjects, may all have important contributing roles in the higher noncontact ACL injury rates observed in female athletes.

  14. CAFFEINE INTAKE ENHANCES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN SUB-ELITE BUT NOT IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Smolka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution is to evaluate the influence of caffeine (CAF ingestion on maximal power output (MPO during endurance performance. Two groups of men – 10 sub-elite cyclists and 8 elite cyclists completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Over the course of three days participants completed three identical experimental tests (60min cycling time trial on 70 % VO2max followed by test to exhaustion. Three experimental meals - a combination of 500ml water, a gel supplement and a specific dose of CAF: a placebo (PLA, no caffeine, CAF2 (2 mg / kg body weight (BW and CAF7 (7 mg / kg BW were administered 45min prior to the start of the experimental tests. Subjective RPE values were determined using the Borg 20-category scale. The results show significant differences between MPOPLA and MPOCAF7 and between MPOCAF2 and MPOCAF7 with p = 0.018 and p = 0.019, respectively, in the sub-elite cyclists group only. The mean MPO during experimental test in sub-elite cyclists, but not in elite cyclists, was significantly enhanced following caffeine ingestion (p = 0.05. These findings indicate that caffeine intake at recommended levels is not associated with improved performance in a professional level cyclist. The results of the comparison of the experimental situations using the Borg scale are not persuasive. We found a significant difference (0.008356 between the PLA and CAF2 experimental measurements (p < 0.05. The level of substantive significance was assessed using Cohen’s coefficient effect and only a small “size of effect” (0.19 was found. It is therefore not possible to determine whether the Borg scale might be used to define the effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance, due to the multifactorial effects of caffeine.

  15. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  16. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Collegiate Athletic Trainers' Confidence in Helping Female Athletes With Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine college athletic trainers' confidence in helping female athletes who have eating disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING: We mailed a 4-page, 53-item survey to head certified athletic trainers at all National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA and IAA institutions (N = 236). A 2- wave mailing design was used to increase response rate. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 athletic trainers returned completed surveys for a response rate of 77%. Eleven institutions either did not identify their head athletic trainer or did not have an identifiable mailing address. Two surveys were undeliverable because of incorrect mailing addresses. MEASUREMENTS: The survey consisted of 4 subscales: (1) efficacy expectation, (2) outcome expectation, (3) outcome value, and (4) experience in dealing with eating disorders. Content validity was established by review from a national panel of experts. Reliability ranged from.66 to.73 for the subscales. RESULTS: Although virtually all athletic trainers (91%) had dealt with a female athlete with an eating disorder, only 1 in 4 (27%) felt confident identifying a female athlete with an eating disorder, and only 1 in 3 (38%) felt confident asking an athlete if she had an eating disorder. One in 4 athletic trainers (25%) worked at an institution that did not have a policy on handling eating disorders. Almost all athletic trainers (93%) felt that increased attention needs to be paid to preventing eating disorders among collegiate female athletes. CONCLUSIONS: Collegiate athletic programs are encouraged to develop and implement eating-disorder policies. Continuing education on the prevention of eating disorders among athletes is also strongly recommended.

  18. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  19. Risk of Disordered Eating Among Division I Female College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    WELLS, ELIZABETH K.; CHIN, ALEXANDRA D.; TACKE, JENNIFER A.; BUNN, JENNIFER A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of disordered eating (DE) among female athletes in lean and non-lean sports using the ATHLETE survey. The ATHLETE survey is divided into six different constructs, and a high score indicates a high risk for DE. Eighty-three varsity female athletes from eight Campbell University sports teams completed the survey and a medical history form anonymously. The sports were divided into sports that traditionally have a high risk for DE (lean sports) and...

  20. [Anorexia athletica's place in female sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflelou, S

    2009-01-01

    This work analyzes the links between eating disorders and intensive exercise training and tries to define the anorexia athletica's place in this context. Through a review of the literature, we examined the arguments favoring the hypothesis of a "princeps" disorder, which would orientate girls towards some sports, and the arguments, which emphasize the capacity of some sports to lead to the apparition of these eating disorders. The description of a clinical case allows the evocation of the complexity of this relationship showing that intensive exercise training may be a facilitatory factor as well as a limitatory factor of the severity of the anorexia nervosa. In this situation, it seems interesting to use the anorexia athletica's concept to improve coach and doctor's vigilance around the young female athlete. Lastly, we propose to replace the concept of sport by "exercise practice" where the intensity, the sport "centration", the weight stress became risk factors and to define populations at risk (adolescents, females). Based on these data, prevention actions should be started in populations particularly exposed.

  1. Morphological differences of elite Croatian track-and-field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetić, Vlatko; Matković, Branka R; Sentija, Davor

    2008-09-01

    In this study we present the morphological characteristics of 54 Croatian national level track-and-field athletes. 21 anthropometric body measures were taken on a sample of 15 sprinters (S), 16 endurance sprinters (S4), 10 middle-distance runners (MD) and 13 long-distance runners (LD). Body fat percentage, body mass index and somatotype were also calculated. Canonical discriminative analysis showed significant difference between the athletes of various running events, in the measures of body volume and body fat, while no significant difference was found in the variables of longitudinal and transversal dimensions of the skeleton. ANOVA and Student t-test for independent samples showed statistically significantly higher thigh and lower leg circumference in sprinters, as well as greater upper arm skinfold in middle-distance runners. The mesomorphic component is a dominant characteristic of somatotype of the runners in all events, whereas the ectomorphic component is the least marked.

  2. of iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malczewska-Lenczowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH and reticulocytes (CHr, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr, the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm and reticulocytes (HYPOr with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm and reticulocytes (LowCHr with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm were determined. Subjects with ferritin <30 ng/ml were classified as having stage I (pre-latent iron deficiency (ID. The second stage (latent ID was diagnosed when low ferritin was accompanied by elevated sTfR and/or elevated TIBC values. The frequency of ID (without anaemia symptoms was high, amounting to 60% (stage I in 45%, stage II in 15% of subjects. In subjects with stage I ID significant changes in haematological variables concerned mainly reticulocytes: CHCMr (p<.001, CHr (p<.05, LowCHr (p<.05, HYPOr (p<.001 in comparison to normal iron stores. In athletes with latent ID, there were also significant changes (p<.001 in many indices of mature red blood cells, i.e. haemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, CH, %LowCHm, as well as %MICROm (p<.01 in relation to the group without iron deficiency. The main finding of this study was that the diminished or exhausted iron stores had already caused changes in reticulocytes

  3. Habits of fluid and electrolytes intake in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dehydration develops when the body fluid losses exceed fluid intake. It may occur during exercise, heat stress, restricted fluid intake, or any combination of these. Marginal dehydration (loss of > 2% body weight can compromise aerobic exercise performance, particularly in hot weather conditions, and may disturb fluid and electrolyte balance. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity, type and dynamic of fluid intake during athletic performance in endurance sports (football and basketball in two age categories: juniors (under the age of 18 and seniors (over the age of 18.Methods: Research included 100 athletes playing in Premier League in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We formed groups by sport type (football and basketball and age (<18 and ≥18 years. Questionnaire with questions about the fluid intake habits was used for data collection.    Results: There were 53 football players and 47 basketball players. All the participants were male. Average age of the participants was 19.3 ± 4.58. Habit of weighing before and after training was present in less than 44% of players among all the groups. Seniors were more frequently measuring their weight compared to junior players (p=0.01. Basketball players and players younger than 18 years were most frequently taking more than 2L of water per day. Most of the players, regardless of sport type or age group were not taking at least ½ L of isotonic fluid before the training. Signs of dehydration were more frequently observed in players under 18 years old, with most frequent sign being dry throat and sudden fatigue.Conclusion: Water and electrolytes intake before, during and after training of the athletes were inadequate regardless of type of sports and the age of athletes.

  4. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    ) and 14 SFHA athletes from national teams and competitive clubs participated. Methods included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA);; resting metabolic rate and work efficiency; exercise capacity; knee muscular strength (KMS) and knee muscular endurance (KME); reaction time (RT); blood.......001) but higher cortisol levels (564 ±111 vs. 400 ±140 nmol/L, pbody weight (55.0 ±5.8 vs. 60.6 ±7.1 kg, p

  5. [Protein supplement consumption and its possible association with kidney damage in Mexican elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Alan; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Vital-Flores, Socorro; Berebichez-Fridman, Roberto; Aguilar-Mendoza, Juan Pablo; Lara-Villalón, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein supplements are one of the most used ergogenic supplements by elite athletes. Nonetheless, it has been postulated that the use of these type of supplements may cause chronic renal failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of the consumption of protein supplements in the renal function of elite athletes of the Mexican Olympic Training Center. 74 athletes provided urine samples in order to quantify urinary proteins. Some of them were excluded since they had conditions that could cause proteinuria or alter the quality of the samples. Those that were not excluded were divided into two groups: the experimental group, which included those individuals that had the antecedent of consuming protein supplements, and the control group, that encompassed those individuals that did not had the antecedent of consuming protein supplements. Of the 74 analyzed athletes, 44 were excluded, 11 individuals were included in the experimental group, and 19 in the control group. Microproteinuria was encountered in only one urine sample (control group), and it was determined that there was no significant differences between both groups. From the gathered results it can be concluded that protein supplements do not affect renal function. Nonetheless, in the future protein supplements should be evaluated in groups with pathologies or conditions that may compromise renal function.

  6. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Floris Wardenaar; Naomi Brinkmans; Ingrid Ceelen; Bo Van Rooij; Marco Mensink; Renger Witkamp; Jeanne De Vries

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requireme...

  7. Prevalence of abnormal electrocardiograms in Swiss elite athletes detected with modern screening criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Tilman; Trachsel, Lukas Daniel; Schneiter, Simon; Menafoglio, Andrea; Albrecht, Silvia; Pirrello, Tony; Eser, Prisca; Roten, Laurent; Gojanovic, Boris; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-19

    Sudden cardiac arrest in athletes is a rare but dramatic event. The value of a routine electrocardiogram (ECG) during preparticipation screening (PPS) remains controversial, partly because of the relatively high number of false positive findings. Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal ECGs in consecutive Swiss elite athletes, overall and with regard to different sports classes, using modern screening criteria. We analysed the 12-lead resting ECGs of high-level elite athletes (age ≥14 years) recorded at the Swiss Olympic Medical Centre Magglingen between 2013 and 2016 during routine PPS. The overall prevalence of abnormal ECGs was evaluated and compared in accordance with the original and revised Seattle criteria. Sports disciplines were categorised according to their static (estimated percentage of maximal voluntary contraction, I-III) and dynamic (estimated percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, A-C) components, and the prevalence of abnormal ECGs compared between sports classes by Fisher's exact test (with alpha set at 0.05). ECGs from 287 consecutive athletes were analysed (64.1% male; 99.7% Caucasian; median age 20.4 ± 4.9 years; median weekly training volume 17.7 ± 7.1 hours). Based on original Seattle criteria, eight (2.8%) ECGs were classified as abnormal: three T-wave inversion (TWI), one Q-wave duration >40 ms, two QRS left axis deviation, two Q-wave amplitude >3 mm. The use of the revised Seattle criteria reduced the number of abnormal ECGs to four (1.4%): three TWI, one Q-wave duration >40 ms. Further cardiological work-up revealed an underlying structural heart disease in only one of these four athletes (inferolateral TWI on ECG), consisting of very localised mid-wall fibrosis suggestive of former myocarditis. There was a significant difference in occurrence of abnormal ECGs between the different sports categories (p = 0.018). All four abnormal ECGs according to the revised Seattle criteria occurred in the high dynamic sport classes

  8. Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, P

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches...

  9. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  10. Exercise-induced bronchospasm among healthy elite cross country skiers and non-athletic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjantähti, H; Laitinen, J; Parkkari, J

    2005-10-01

    Regular exercise in cold, dry air is believed to be a predisposing factor for exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of EIB among previously healthy elite cross country skiers and their non-athletic control subjects. Twenty healthy elite cross country skiers and 18 non-asthmatic controls were challenged by a standardized free exercise test. Thereafter, subjects' respiratory function was followed by flow-volume spirometry up to 30 min. EIB was defined in the post-exercise spirometry as at least one of the following: a >or=10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), a >or=20% decrease in mean maximal expiratory flow (MMEF) or a >or=25% decrease in peak expiratory flow rate (PEF). EIB was found in two skiers and one control according to FEV1, for seven skiers and two controls according to MMEF. Two skiers and one control had exercise-induced asthma (EIA) according to both parameters. The largest decrease in PEF was 13%, that did not result in additional diagnoses. All nine of the subjects with a positive test result reported asthma-like symptoms (dyspnea, cough or increased mucus excretion) after the exercise challenge. Accordingly, seven previously healthy skiers (35%) and two controls (11%) were diagnosed as having EIB. In addition, three skiers of the original cohort were excluded because of an earlier asthma diagnosis, making the total asthma prevalence 10/23 (42%) among the elite skiers. It was concluded that EIB is more common in elite cross country skiers than in non-athletic controls. The bronchoconstriction induced by exercise is usually mild or moderate, and flow-volume spirometry with sensitive flow parameters is needed for it to be diagnosed. Even a mild asthma decreases minute ventilation and maximal performance of winter sport athletes. Therefore, skiers with long-term respiratory symptoms or decreased performance should be studied for EIA and treated adequately.

  11. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  12. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  13. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  14. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, N S; Gibbs, E L; Matheson, G O

    2017-03-01

    Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e.g., illness and injury risk, and weight maintenance) have all been shown to be negatively affected by insufficient sleep or experimentally modeled sleep restriction. However, healthy adults are notoriously poor at self-assessing the magnitude of the impact of sleep loss, underscoring the need for increased awareness of the importance of sleep among both elite athletes and practitioners managing their care. Strategies to optimize sleep quality and quantity in athletes include approaches for expanding total sleep duration, improving sleep environment, and identifying potential sleep disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dental trauma incidence and mouthguard use in elite athletes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeci, Ayşe Diljin; Eroglu, Erdal; Baydar, Metin Lütfi

    2005-04-01

    Contact sports may lead to dental trauma, which often can be reduced with appropriate preventive measures. While numerous studies exist on this topic for several countries throughout the world, there is a lack of comprehensive descriptive studies in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of dental injuries associated with three different sports among Turkish elite athletes, who do not contact (volleyball), contact directly (taekwondo) or indirectly (handball) with competition rivals. Additionally, awareness and use of mouthguards were also compared. Thus, during the 2003 and 2004 Turkish National Championships in three sports, 50 taekwondo, 62 handball and 50 volleyball male athletes were interviewed by questionnaire. Results showed that taekwondo and handball athletes experienced significantly more dental trauma than volleyball athletes (P handball (26%) and four of the volleyball athletes (8%) experienced at least one type of dental injury. Awareness of mouthguards as a preventive measure against dental trauma was significantly higher among taekwondo and handball athletes (P < 0.05), although a very small percentage in either of these sports actually wore a mouthguard (10 and 0%, respectively). Trauma incidence between direct contact with rival competitors and indirect contact with rival competitors was not significantly different. The incidence of dental trauma in contact sports shows that the awareness and use of mouthguards must be intensified. Mouthguard use should be made compulsory, especially in those sports with high risk for dental trauma.

  16. Short-Term Heart Rate Recovery is Related to Aerobic Fitness in Elite Intermittent Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M; Brickson, Stacey L; Prawda, Evan R; Sanfilippo, Jenifer L

    2017-04-01

    Watson, AM, Brickson, SL, Prawda, ER, and Sanfilippo, JL. Short-term heart rate recovery is related to aerobic fitness in elite intermittent sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1055-1061, 2017-Although heart rate recovery (HRR) has been suggested as a measure of fitness, minimal data exist among athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine if HRR is related to aerobic fitness in elite athletes and whether this relationship is influenced by sex or body composition. Eighty-four collegiate athletes (45 male athletes) underwent body fat percentage (BF%) determination by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and maximal treadmill testing followed by 5 minutes of recovery. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and heart rate (HRmax) were determined, and HRR was calculated as a percentage of HRmax at 10 seconds, 30 seconds, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after test completion. After stratifying by sex, participants were grouped as high fit or low fit based on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max median split. Heart rate recovery was compared between sexes and fitness level at each time point. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of HRR using V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, BF%, and sex as covariates. Heart rate recovery did not differ significantly between sexes and was faster among high-fit participants at 10 and 30 seconds, but at no other time. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with HRR at 10 and 30 seconds (r = -0.34, p athletes.

  17. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2017-09-21

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  18. Harassment, sexual abuse, and safety of the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenridge, C

    2000-04-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sports are discussed in relation to how female athletes might improve their personal safety to guard against such practices. The origins of sport research on this theme are traced, and the processes of sexual harassment and abuse are identified. Risk factors for the coach, the athlete, and the sport are presented, and, finally, sources of prevention measures for coaches, athletes, parents, and clubs are provided.

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995?August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...

  20. Off-ice fitness of elite female ice hockey players by team success, age, and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Lynda B; Murray, Teena M; Gao, Yong

    2013-04-01

    This study examined off-ice fitness profiles of 204 elite female ice hockey players from 13 countries who attended a high-performance camp organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) in Bratislava, Slovakia, in July of 2011. Athletes were tested using standardized protocols for vertical jump (centimeters), long jump (centimeters), 4-jump average (centimeters), elasticity ratio (4-vertical jump average/vertical jump), pull-up or inverted row (n), aerobic fitness (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), body mass (kilograms), and body composition (% fat). These variables were examined relative to team success in major international hockey competition (group 1: Canada and USA, group 2: Sweden and Finland, group 3: All other participating countries), age group (Under 18 and Senior/Open Levels), and player position (forwards, defenders, and goalies). The athletes from countries with the best international records weighed more, yet had less body fat, had greater lower body muscular power and upper body strength, and higher aerobic capacity compared with their less successful counterparts. Compared with the younger athletes, athletes from the senior-level age group weighed more and had higher scores for lower body power, pull-ups, and aerobic capacity. There were no significant differences in anthropometric or fitness data based on player position. This study is the first to report the physical characteristics of a worldwide sample of elite female ice hockey players relative to team performance, age, and player position. Coaches should use these data to identify talent, test for strengths and weaknesses in conditioning programs, and design off-ice programs that will help athletes match the fitness profiles of the most successful teams in the world.

  1. An 18-month Follow-up of Anger in Female Karate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ziaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of anger scores in female karate athletes during 18 months, and to compare anger scores in adolescents who continue or stop training karate.Method:The sample consisted of 18 female elite karate athletes, practicing modern style of karate. To measure anger and its subscales, participants were asked to complete “Adolescent Anger Rating Scale” (AARS questionnaire in both stages of the study. Athletes were divided in to two groups of “stayer” (n=12 and “quitter” (n=6 if they continued practicing karate or stopped it, respectively. In order to study the changes of anger score with time, paired T test was used.Results:In analysis of changes in anger scores with time, there was a statistically significant increase in instrumental anger (p=0.001 and non-significant increase in other anger scores among 14-year-old girls who continued practicing karate.Conclusion :Increased instrumental anger in female karate athletes could be due to the impact of participation in a combative sport. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously due to limitations of the study.

  2. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes : Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-trained elite athletes differ from the general population in being considerably more physically active and by other lifestyle characteristics including intensive training routines and periodisation of their training programs. Hence, adequate intake of energy and

  3. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  4. The Prevalence of Grass Pollen-Related Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in Elite Amateur Irish Athletes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grace, M

    2016-09-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR\\/C), has been shown to impact upon athletic performance. The championships of the unique, amateur Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football (collectively known as GAA) take place during the prime pollen months of summer. Elite GAA players must perform optimally when most exposed to pollen. Elite GAA subjects (n=254) underwent skin prick testing to 6 aeroallergens and completed a validated questionnaire (AQUA), producing a score indicating likelihood of having allergy. The prevalence of allergy (positive to at least one aeroallergen on SPT and positive AQUA score) was 27.1% (n=69). Sixteen and a half percent (n=42) of the subjects tested had grass pollen AR\\/C while 22% (n=54) had house dust mite AR\\/C, though none were on standard medical therapies or had used allergen-specific immunotherapy. Grass pollen AR\\/C prevalence appears as common in elite Irish athletes as it is in other countries. It appears to be mild rather than well controlled in these subjects.

  5. Comparison of athlete-coach perceptions of internal and external load markers for elite junior tennis training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis. Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P internal-load monitoring may help coach-athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.

  6. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Athletes completed a demographic, health and sport questionnaire; pathogenic body weight control questionnaire; menstrual history questionnaire; four 24-hour dietary recalls and one three-day diet and exercise record form. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual ...

  7. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-22

    Aug 22, 2012 ... (EDI-DT), EDI Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD), and EDI Bulimia (EDI-B), have been shown to predict the development of eating disorders and have been used as selection criteria when investigating the prevalence of eating disorders in athletes.14 The cognitive dietary restraint subscale consists out of 21 ...

  8. Dieting to win or to be thin? A study of dieting and disordered eating among adolescent elite athletes and non-athlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, M; Bratland-Sanda, S; Eriksson, A K; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of dieting, reasons for dieting and prevalence of disordered eating among adolescent elite athletes and age-matched controls, and to examine the differences between athletes competing in leanness and non-leanness sports. First-year students of 16 different Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (athlete group, n = 682) and two randomly selected ordinary high schools from a county representative of the general Norwegian population (control group, n = 423) were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. A total of 606 athletes and 355 controls completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 89% and 84%, respectively. The questionnaire contained questions regarding training patterns, menstrual status and history, dieting, use of pathogenic weight control methods and the drive for thinness (DT) and body dissatisfaction (BD) subscales from the Eating Disorders Inventory. Disordered eating, defined as meeting one or more of the following criteria: DT score > or =15 (girls) and > or =10 (boys), BD score > or =14 (girls) and > or =10 (boys), body mass index or =3 previous efforts to lose weight, use of pathogenic weight control methods and self-reported menstrual dysfunction. A higher prevalence of control subjects were dieting and classified with disordered eating compared with the athletes. An improvement of appearance was a more common reason for dieting among controls compared with athletes. No differences in dieting or disordered eating were found between leanness and non-leanness sports athletes. Self-reported disordered eating is more prevalent among controls than adolescent elite athletes, and losing weight to enhance performance is an important reason for dieting among adolescent elite athletes.

  9. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  10. Comparison of static balance and the role of vision in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chtara, Mokhtar; Ben Othman, Aymen; Chaouachi, Anis

    2014-06-28

    When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB) was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP) on a force platform during a 30 s bipedal quiet standing posture in 4 conditions: firm surface with opened and closed eyes, foam surface with opened and closed eyes. Three-factor ANOVA indicated a significant main effect for groups (F=21.69, df=2, pstatic balance than sprinters and jumpers (p=0.001). The comparison of sprinters and jumpers did not reveal significant differences (p>0.05). The nature of the sport practiced and the absence of visual control are linked to modify static balance in elite athletes. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are recommended to use a variety of exercises to improve balance, including both exercises with opened and closed eyes on progressively challenging surfaces in order to make decisions about tasks and sensory availability during assessment and training.

  11. A population study of urine glycerol concentrations in elite athletes competing in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian N; Madsen, Myke; Sharpe, Ken; Nair, Vinod; Eichner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an endogenous substance that is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited threshold substances due to its potential use as a plasma volume expansion agent. The WADA has set the threshold for urine glycerol, including measurement uncertainty, at 1.3 mg/mL. Glycerol in circulation largely comes from metabolism of triglycerides in order to meet energy requirements and when the renal threshold is eclipsed, glycerol is excreted into urine. In part due to ethnic differences in postprandial triglyceride concentrations, we investigated urine glycerol concentrations in a population of elite athletes competing in North America and compared the results to those of athletes competing in Europe. 959 urine samples from elite athletes competing in North America collected for anti-doping purposes were analyzed for urine glycerol concentrations by a gas chromatography mass-spectrometry method. Samples were divided into groups according to: Timing (in- or out-of-competition), Class (strength, game, or endurance sports) and Gender. 333 (34.7%) samples had undetectable amounts of glycerol (result in a reasonable detection window for urine samples collected in-competition for all genders and sport classes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Static Balance and the Role of Vision in Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Raouf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP on a force platform during a 30 s bipedal quiet standing posture in 4 conditions: firm surface with opened and closed eyes, foam surface with opened and closed eyes. Three-factor ANOVA indicated a significant main effect for groups (F=21.69, df=2, p0.05. The nature of the sport practiced and the absence of visual control are linked to modify static balance in elite athletes. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are recommended to use a variety of exercises to improve balance, including both exercises with opened and closed eyes on progressively challenging surfaces in order to make decisions about tasks and sensory availability during assessment and training.

  13. Self-reported sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-03-08

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While actigraphy-based studies revealed suboptimal sleep in athletes, information on their subjective experience of sleep is scarce. Relatively unexplored is also the extent to which athletes' sleep is adversely affected by environmental conditions and daytime behaviours, that is sleep hygiene. This study aimed to provide insight in sleep quantity, quality and its putative association with sleep hygiene. Participants were 98 elite (youth) athletes competing at the highest (inter-)national level. Sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene were assessed once covering a 1-month period by using established (sub)clinical questionnaires, and repeatedly during 7 consecutive days. Sleep quality was generally healthy, although 41% of all athletes could be classified as 'poor sleeper', and 12% were identified as having a sleep disorder. Daily self-monitoring revealed sleep durations of 8:11 ± 0:45 h, but elevated wake after sleep onset of 13 ± 19 min. Sleep quality, feeling refreshed, and morning vigor were moderate at best. Regarding sleep hygiene, general measures revealed irregular sleep-wake patterns, psychological strain and activating pre-sleep behaviours. At the daily level, blue-light exposure and late-evening consumption of heavy meals were frequently reported. General sleep hygiene revealed significant associations with sleep quality (0.45  0.50; P sleep onset. Subtle improvements in sleep seem possible, and optimizing sleep hygiene, such as regular sleep-wake patterns and reducing psychological strain, may facilitate this sleep upgrading process. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses.

  15. Comparison of Bod Pod and DXA in female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Tasha P; Fafara, Laura; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the reliability and validity of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) compared with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Hologic QDR 4500A (Waltham, MA) in female collegiate athletes. Forty-seven females representing various Division II collegiate sports and 24 controls participated in the current study. All women underwent both methods of testing within a 30-min period. Comparison of means indicated that the ADP and DXA are not different when measuring body fat (BF%) in the athletes (ADP = 22.5 +/- 5.5%, DXA = 22.0 +/- 4.7%P = 1.0). Furthermore, this study determined that ADP is a reliable measure of body fat (BF%; r = 0.96, P < 0.001; 0.97, P < 0.001) in collegiate female athletes and nonathletes, respectively. The results from this study indicate that ADP is a valid measure of body composition in female athletes and nonathletes when compared with DXA.

  16. Too little sleep and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of sustaining a new injury in adolescent elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about health variables and if these variables could increase the risk of injuries among adolescent elite athletes. The primary aim was to present overall data on self-perceived stress, nutrition intake, self-esteem, and sleep, as well as gender and age differences, on two occasions among adolescent elite athletes. A secondary aim was to study these health variables as potential risk factors on injury incidence. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 340 adolescent elite athletes on two occasions during a single school year: autumn semester and spring semester. The results show that during autumn semester, the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish was not met for 20%, 39%, and 43% of the adolescent elite athletes, respectively. The recommended amount of sleep during weekdays was not obtained by 19%. Multiple logistic regression showed that athletes sleeping more than 8 h of sleep during weekdays reduced the odds of injury with 61% (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.99) and athletes reaching the recommended nutrition intake reduced the odds with 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.91). Our findings suggest that nutrition intake and sleep volume are of importance in understanding injury incidence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Jumping and Hopping in Elite and Amateur Orienteering Athletes and Correlations to Sprinting and Running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Jensen, Kurt; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations...... to road, path, and forest running and sprinting performance, as well as running economy, velocity at anaerobic threshold, and VO2peak from treadmill assessments. RESULTS: During SJs and CMJs, elites demonstrated superior relative peak forces, time-to-peak forces, and pre-stretch augmentation albeit lower......-stretch augmentation and forest running velocities. Pre-stretch augmentation and time-to-peak forces were moderately correlated to VO2peak. Correlations between running economy and jumping or hopping were small or trivial. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our elites exhibited superior stretch-shortening cycle utilization...

  19. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  20. ACTN3 R577X Gene Variant Is Associated With Muscle-Related Phenotypes in Elite Chinese Sprint/Power Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruoyu; Shen, Xunzhang; Wang, Yubin; Voisin, Sarah; Cai, Guang; Fu, Yongnan; Xu, Wangyu; Eynon, Nir; Bishop, David J; Yan, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Yang, R, Shen, X, Wang, Y, Voisin, S, Cai, G, Fu, Y, Xu, W, Eynon, N, Bishop, DJ, and Yan, X. ACTN3 R577X gene variant is associated with muscle-related phenotypes in elite Chinese sprint/power athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1107-1115, 2017-The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) has been shown to influence athletic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of this polymorphism in elite Chinese track and field athletes, and to explore its effects on athletes' level of competition and lower-extremity power. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotypes and allele frequencies in 59 elite sprint/power athletes, 44 elite endurance athletes, and 50 healthy controls from Chinese Han origin. We then subcategorized the athletes into international level and national level and investigated the effects of ACTN3 genotype on lower-extremity power. Genotype distribution of the sprint/power athletes was significantly different from endurance athletes (p = 0.001) and controls (p elite Chinese sprint/power athletes. Including relevant phenotypes such as muscle performance in future studies is important to further understand the effects of gene variants on elite athletic performance.

  1. The use of recovery modalities by elite South African team athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 890 elite South African team sport players (507 males; 383 females) completed a questionnaire, specifically designed for the study. Results showed that recovery modalities are used to varying degrees by players from the four different sport codes, as well as from different levels of participation. The postmatch ...

  2. Use of supplements by young elite Japanese athletes participating in the 2010 youth Olympic games in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akiko; Kamei, Akiko; Kamihigashi, Etsuko; Dohi, Michiko; Komatsu, Yutaka; Akama, Takao; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of supplement use among young elite Japanese athletes. Survey study. 2010 Youth Olympic Games, Singapore. Data were collected from individual interviews during medical evaluations of 75 athletes selected for the Japanese national team. Main outcome measures included the use of supplements, products used, frequency of use, purpose of use, and relationships between supplement use and athlete attitudes toward a balanced diet. All 75 athletes agreed to participate in this study, and individual interviews by pharmacists made it possible to collect complete answers from all athletes. Of these athletes, 47 (62.7%) used 1 or more supplement products (average number of products used, 1.1 ± 1.3). The most popular supplement was amino acids, which were used by 33 athletes (44.0%). Of the supplements used, 28 (32.6%) were taken every day, whereas 28 (32.6%) were used only on special occasions. Moreover, 34 of the supplement products (39.5%) were taken to enhance recovery from fatigue, whereas 19 (22.1%) were used to improve athletic performance. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant relationship between supplement use and attitudes toward a balanced diet. The results revealed widespread supplement use among young elite athletes in the Japanese national team for the Singapore Youth Olympic Games in 2010. Moreover, these athletes apparently used supplements without considering the effects of their normal diets.

  3. Reliability and validity of a dual-task test for skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Dai, Jing; Chen, I-Fan; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The dual-task methodology, conducting two tasks simultaneously, may provide better validity than the traditional single-task tests in the environment that is closely related to real sport competitions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a dual-task test that aims to measure the reaction time and skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. The dual-task results were compared to those in the single-task movements with various levels of complexity. The single-task movements A, B, and C were composed of one, three, and five roundhouse kicks, respectively. The dual-task movement D was composed of movement C and a push of a button in response to a light stimulus as the secondary task. The subjects were 12 elite and 12 sub-elite male taekwondo athletes. The test included four movements with five repeats of each movement in a randomized order. Each subject conducted the same test on two consecutive days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed moderate-to-high correlation in the premotor time (ICC =0.439-0.634 in elite and ICC =0.681-0.824 in sub-elite), motor time (ICC =0.861-0.956 in elite and ICC =0.721-0.931 in sub-elite), and reaction time (ICC =0.692 in elite and ICC =0.676 in sub-elite) in the secondary task in both groups. The elite athletes had significantly faster premotor time than their sub-elite counterparts in all the four movements (all Pelite group (0.248±0.026 seconds) was 33.0% faster than the sub-elite group (0.370±0.081 seconds) (P<0.001). This study shows that the test developed in this study has reasonable reliability and validity in both single- and dual-task methods. In addition, the dual-task method may be a more appropriate way to assess the reaction time and skill proficiency in taekwondo athletes.

  4. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  5. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  6. Body physique and dominant somatotype in elite and low-profile athletes with different specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, Boris; Zuoza, Aurelijus; Zuozienė, Ilona; Alekrinskis, Aleksandras; Nash, Derek; Scherbina, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Somatotyping is helpful in sports in which the body shape could influence the resulting performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of high profile Lithuanian athletes in kayaking, basketball and football and to compare between disciplines and with low level sportsmen of the same age. A total of 72 young male sportsmen aged from 18 to 24 years were divided into three groups (kayakers, basketball and football players). Each group contained almost equal numbers of low level and elite, international level sportsmen. Anthropometric measurements of the players were used to establish somatotypes. The greatest difference was observed in the mesomorphic component of elite kayakers compared to the low profile sportsmen. Mesomorphy could also be used to predict sport ability. The range of mesomorphy for elite footballers was from 0 to 4.6, for basketball players from 4.6 to 5.9, and for kayaking, from 5.9 and higher. Individual groups of elite sportsmen displayed different modes of somatotype. The kayakers were predominantly endomorphic; the basketball players mostly endomorphic and the footballers most often ectomorphic. No distinguishable patterns of somatotype were displayed by the low level sportsmen. Morphometric characteristics of the athlete's body and the fractional somatotype can be used as guiders and markers of the chosen sport and method of training. The results emphasize the necessity for a specific somatotype to reach a high profile in the selected area of sport and thus support morphometric oriented studies. Further studies could elucidate differentiation by age and sex. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  8. Menstrual irregularity and musculoskeletal injury in female high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Carr, Kathleen E; Loud, Keith J; McGuine, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. High schools. The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006-2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. The prevalences of M I and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1 %, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥ 22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted.

  9. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  10. Exploratory factor analysis of the functional movement screen in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Wang, Xiong; Chen, Xiaoping; Dai, Boyi

    2015-01-01

    The functional movement screen is developed to examine individuals' movement patterns through 7 functional tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal consistency and factor structure of the 7 tasks of the functional movement screen in elite athletes; 290 elite athletes from a variety of Chinese national teams were assessed using the functional movement screen. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for the scores of the 7 tasks. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the factor structure of the functional movement screen. The mean and standard deviation of the sum score were 15.2 ± 3.0. A low Cronbach's alpha (0.58) was found for the scores of the 7 tasks. Exploratory factor analysis extracted 2 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, and these 2 factors explained 47.3% of the total variance. The first factor had a high loading on the rotatory stability (loading = 0.99) and low loadings on the other 6 tasks (loading range: 0.04-0.34). The second factor had high loadings on the deep squat, hurdle step and inline lunge (loading range: 0.46-0.61) and low loadings on the other 3 tasks (loading range: 0.12-0.32). The 7 tasks of the functional movement screen had low internal consistency and were not indicators of a single factor. Evidence for unidimensionality was not found for the functional movement screen in elite athletes. More attention should be paid to the score of each task rather than the sum score when we interpret the functional movement screen scores.

  11. Initial systemic inflammatory state perturbs exercise training adaptations in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yu Chen

    Full Text Available This study examined ten-week TKD-specific training effects on aerobic capacity, body composition, hormone responses and hematological parameters in elite TKD athletes with varied initial inflammatory states.Twenty-two elite college TKD athletes were divided into two groups according to their initial neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (NLR values: Low NLR (N = 11, 9M/2F, age: 21.6 ± 1.0 yrs; NLR: 1.3 ± 0.2 and High NLR (N = 11, 8M/3F, age: 22.0 ± 0.7 yrs, NLR: 2.5 ± 1.3, and participated in a 10-week TKD-specific training program. Aerobic capacity, body composition, hormonal responses and hematological parameters were measured at baseline and 10-weeks after TKD training.VO2max and shuttle run distance were significantly increased in both groups after training. However, the degree of improvement was greater in the Low NLR group than in the High NLR group. After 10-weeks of exercise training, the High NLR group presented markedly higher fat mass percentage and visceral fat area and significantly lowers DHEA-S to cortisol ratio (D/C ratio than the Low NRL group. The post-training NLR was negatively correlated with the D/C ratio. Neutrophil counts and NLR were still significantly higher in the High NLR group after training.This study provides new evidence that young elite TKD athletes with slightly high baseline systemic inflammatory state appear to perturb adaptations to exercise training.

  12. RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway: genetic associations with stress fracture period prevalence in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Stellingwerff, Trent; Ranson, Craig; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2015-02-01

    The RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway is important in the regulation of bone turnover, with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within this pathway associated with bone phenotypic adaptations. To determine whether four SNPs associated with genes in the RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway were associated with stress fracture injury in elite athletes. Radiologically confirmed stress fracture history was reported in 518 elite athletes, forming the Stress Fracture Elite Athlete (SFEA) cohort. Data were analysed for the whole group and were sub-stratified into male and cases of multiple stress fracture groups. Genotypes were determined using proprietary fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR assays. SNPs rs3018362 (RANK) and rs1021188 (RANKL) were associated with stress fracture injury (Pstress fracture group and 2.8% of the non-stress fracture group were homozygote for the rare allele of rs1021188. Allele frequency, heterozygotes and homozygotes for the rare allele of rs3018362 were associated with stress fracture period prevalence (Pstress fracture whilst 2.5% of the non-stress fracture group were homozygous. In cases of multiple stress fractures, homozygotes for the rare allele of rs1021188 and individuals possessing at least one copy of the rare allele of rs4355801 (OPG) were shown to be associated with stress fracture injury (Pstress fracture injury. The association of rs3018362 (RANK) and rs1021188 (RANKL) with stress fracture injury susceptibility supports their role in the maintenance of bone health and offers potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mesut Çelebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  14. Is excessive running predictive of degenerative hip disease? Controlled study of former elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, B.; Knobloch, M; Tschopp, A; Jucker, A.; Howald, H.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effects of regular long distance running on the state of the hips in later life. DESIGN--Retrospective study of a cohort of elite athletes and a group of normal, healthy, untrained controls examined 15 years after initial testing. SETTING--Research project at school for physical education and sports. SUBJECTS--27 Former long distance runners (mean age 42), nine former bobsleigh riders (mean age 42), and 23 normal, healthy, untrained men (mean age 35) who had been e...

  15. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Nilstad, Agnethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Holme, Ingar Morten K.; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of lower extremity injuries in female soccer players is high, but the risk factors for injuries are unknown. Purpose: To investigate risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Players in the Norwegian elite female soccer league (N = 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests before the 2009 competitive soccer season. The screening included tests assessi...

  16. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Overreaching in 114 Elite Female Chinese Wrestlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; He, Zihong; Zhao, Jiexiu; Tao, Dalang; Xu, Kuiyuan; Midgley, Adrian; McNaughton, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Context: Successful training involves structured overload but must avoid the combination of excessive overload and inadequate recovery. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), and overtraining syndrome in elite female wrestlers during their normal training and competition schedules and to explore the utility of blood markers for the early detection of overreaching. Classification of FOR, NFOR, and overtraining syndrome was based on the European Congress of Sports Medicine position statement. Design: Case series. Setting: China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Over an 8-year period, 114 wrestlers from the women's Asian wrestling team were monitored to help identify if and when they experienced FOR, NFOR, or overtraining syndrome. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol were measured throughout the period to identify whether wrestlers were outside the reference intervals (constructed from normal recovery data) during periods of overreaching and not overreaching. Results: Among the 114 athletes, there were 13 (3.6%) instances of FOR, 23 (6.4%) instances of NFOR, and 2 (0.6%) instances of overtraining syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity for FOR was 38%, 15%, 45%, and 18% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity for NFOR was 29%, 33%, 26%, and 35% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Specificity was 79%, 88%, 90%, and 82% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Post hoc analysis showed no mean differences in creatine kinase (F = 0.5, P = .47), hemoglobin (F = 3.8, P = .052), testosterone (F = 0.2, P = .62), or cortisol (F = 0.04, P = .85) between monitoring periods when wrestlers were and were not diagnosed with FOR and NFOR. Conclusions: Coaches and sports scientists should not

  17. Personality of Elite Male and Female Chess Players and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstadt-Klein, Sabine; Grimm, Oliver; Kirsch, Peter; Bilalic, Merim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas a lot of studies examine cognitive processes in chess players, personality profiles of elite chess players are still not described well. The aim of this study was to examine personality of strong chess experts and its influence on chess skill. We tested elite male and female chess players with Freiburg Personality Inventory Revised…

  18. Comparing interventions with youth and senior elite athletes: Insights from expert sport psychology practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Louise Kamuk; Henriksen, Kristoffer; Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    Meaningful sport psychology practice requires a context-sensitive approach. Competitive youth sport and senior elite (professional) sport can be seen as two different contexts that require different applied approaches; however we know little about the differences, and we are in lack of studies...... that directly compare interventions from these two contexts (Henriksen, Larsen, Storm & Ryom, 2014). Literature on applied sport psychology with senior athletes is far richer than corresponding literature on working with youth athletes. The objectives were: (1) to identify key themes that expert practitioners...... used to communicate their experiences of sport psychology interventions, and to integrate them into an empirical framework, and (2) to explore the experiences of these practitioners in their successful and less successful interventions in youth and senior sports using the framework. Twelve...

  19. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  20. Eating attitudes and food intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters: a cross sectional study

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    Dwyer Johanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40, provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70% did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg, with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients.

  1. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

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    Gołaś Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg. The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM, anterior deltoid (AD, as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong. The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002 between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007, 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016 and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032. The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to

  2. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Stastny, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to

  3. Efficacy of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplements for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Tang, Jonathan C Y; Bradley, Warren J; Sparks, Andy S; Fraser, William D; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-02-01

    Supplementation with dietary forms of vitamin D is commonplace in clinical medicine, elite athletic cohorts, and the general population, yet the response of all major vitamin D metabolites to high doses of vitamin D is poorly characterized. We aimed to identify the responses of all major vitamin D metabolites to moderate- and high-dose supplemental vitamin D3. A repeated-measures design was implemented in which 46 elite professional European athletes were block randomized based on their basal 25[OH]D concentration into two treatment groups. Athletes received either 35,000 or 70,000 IU·wk vitamin D3 for 12 wk, and 42 athletes completed the trial. Blood samples were collected for 18 wk to monitor the response to supplementation and withdrawal from supplementation. Both doses led to significant increases in serum 25[OH]D, and 1,25[OH]2D3. 70,000 IU·wk also resulted in a significant increase of the metabolite 24,25[OH]2D at weeks 6 and 12 that persisted after supplementation withdrawal at week 18, despite a marked decrease in 1,25[OH]2D3. Intact parathyroid hormone was decreased in both groups by week 6 and remained suppressed throughout the trial. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation (70,000 IU·wk) may be detrimental for its intended purposes because of increased 24,25[OH]2D production. Rapid withdrawal from high-dose supplementation may inhibit the bioactivity of 1,25[OH]2D3 as a consequence of sustained increases in 24,25[OH]2D that persist as 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D concentrations decrease. These data imply that lower doses of vitamin D3 ingested frequently may be most appropriate and gradual withdrawal from supplementation as opposed to rapid withdrawal may be favorable.

  4. Differences in 100-m sprint performance and skeletal muscle mass between elite male and female sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Dankel, Scott J; Buckner, Samuel L; Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Mouser, J Grant; Bell, Zachary W; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2018-01-10

    The sex difference in 100-m sprint performance between the world's best athletes is approximately 10%. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle mass (SM) relative to body mass may be a major factor contributing to this difference. The aim of this study was to examine the sex difference in absolute and relative SM and sprint performance in male and female sprinters. We analyzed the SM of male (n=37) and female (n=26) 100-m sprinters; the sample was divided into two subgroups within each sex according to personal best 100-m time: 10.00- 10.90 s (M10; n=22) and 11.00-11.70 s (M11; n=15) for males and 11.00-11.90 s (F11, n=14) and 12.00-13.50 s (F12, n=12) for females. SM was estimated from ultrasound-measured muscle thickness (MT) using prediction equations. There was an approximate 10% difference in 100-m sprint time between sexes, whereas absolute and relative values of SM for female sprinters were 70-71% and 79-84% of the male sprinters, respectively. No differences were observed within each male/female subgroup for fat-free mass, absolute and relative SM, excepting that leg SM index of M10 was higher than M11. The 100-m time was not different (0.27 s, p=0.051) between M11 and F11 subgroups, but absolute and relative values of SM and MT were higher and percent body fat was lower in the M11 than in the F11 subgroup. Our results suggest that differences in muscle mass may not play a large role in determining successful performance in elite male and female sprinters.

  5. Body composition and muscle strength predictors of jumping performance: differences between elite female volleyball competitors and nontrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćopić, Nemanja; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Ivanović, Jelena; Nešić, Goran; Jarić, Slobodan

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the role of various anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical variables in performance of rapid movements have generally revealed inconsistent findings. Within this study, we tested the hypotheses that (a) both body composition and leg extensor strength variables would reveal significant relationship with jumping performance, whereas (b) the same relationships would be stronger in physically active nonathletes than in the elite athletes proficient in vertical jumping. Top-level female volleyball players (VP; N = 35) and physically active female nonathletes (PA; N = 21) were tested on maximum vertical jumps performed with and without arm swing, as well as on body composition (percent fat and muscle) and leg press strength (maximum force and the rate of force development). The results revealed significant relationships between the jumping performance and body composition variables that appeared to be higher in PA (r = 0.65-0.76; all p strength variables were mainly significant (r = 0.23-0.68) and similar in 2 groups. We conclude that not only the leg extensor strength but also the body composition variables could be valid predictors of jumping performance and, possibly, other rapid movements. Moreover, the body composition variables that have been mainly neglected in the literature could be particularly strong predictors of performance of jumping in nonathletes, as compared with relatively homogeneous populations of elite athletes.

  6. Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koury, Josely C; de Olilveria, Astrogildo V; Portella, Emílson S; de Olilveria, Cyntia F; Lopes, Gustavo C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocytes; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

  7. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15-75%, dental erosion 36-85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The contribution of anthropometric characteristics to performance scores in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, A L; Lefevre, J; Beunen, G; Malina, R M

    1999-12-01

    Aims of this study were: a) to identify anthropometric variables correlated with gymnastic performance, and b) to predict performance scores from a combination of anthropometric dimensions. correlational analysis and a stepwise multiple regression were used. Subjects were participants at the 24th World Championships Artistic Gymnastics, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in 1987. A total of 168 female gymnasts (mean age: 16.5 +/- 1.8 years) were investigated. Each gymnast participated in all events. An extensive battery of anthropometric dimensions was taken on each athlete. The somatotype was estimated. Skeletal maturation of the hand-wrist was assessed. Competition scores for the four individual gymnastic events (balance beam, floor exercise, vault, uneven bars) and a composite score for each gymnast were the dependent variables. Moderately high, significant correlations (p gymnastics performance scores, r varying from -0.38 to -0.60, for biceps skinfold and the score on balance beam, and for endomorphy and the total score, respectively. The correlations suggest that gymnasts with more subcutaneous fat and higher endomorphy have lower performance scores. About 32% to 45% of the variance in gymnastic performance scores could be explained by anthropometric dimensions and/or derived variables, but endomorphy and chronological age are the most important predictors. There is a relatively strong relationship between several anthropometric variables and gymnastic performance in a sample of elite female gymnasts, but the associations are not sufficiently high to predict performance scores on an individual basis.

  9. Perceived Sleep Quality, Mood States, and Their Relationship With Performance Among Brazilian Elite Athletes During a Competitive Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Andrade, Alexandro

    2017-04-01

    Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?"). Evaluations of mood state and sleep quality were performed up to 60 minutes before national and international sports competitions began. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including logistic regression) were used to evaluate the relationship of sleep quality and mood states with performance (i.e., winning or losing). Athletes typically had good sleep quality and mood states similar to the Iceberg profile (i.e., high vigor and low tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and mental confusion). The Wald test revealed that sleep, anger, tension, and vigor predicted athletes' performance. Specifically, poor sleep quality and low vigor and anger decreased the odds of winning, whereas higher tension increased these odds. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated that the results were sufficiently generalizable. Overall, we observed a significant relationship between sleep and mood states, which in turn both significantly influenced athletes' sports performance. Thus, coaching staff and athletes should monitor athletes' sleep quality before competitions to ensure athletes are in the optimal condition for performance.

  10. Reliability of a novel testing protocol to assess upper-body strength qualities in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kieran P; Haff, G Gregory; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an isometric-bench-press (IBP) test performed across 4 elbow angles and a ballistic bench throw (BBT) using a relative load, as well as evaluating the reliability of the dynamic strength index (DSI: BBT peak force/IBP peak force). Twenty-four elite male athletes performed the IBP and a 45% 1-repetition-maximum BBT on 2 separate days with 48 h between testing occasions. Peak force, peak power, peak velocity, peak displacement, and peak rate of force development (PRFD) were assessed using a force plate and linear position transducer. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), coefficient of variation (%CV) and typical error. Performance measures in the BBT, such as peak force, peak velocity, peak power, and peak displacement, were considered reliable (ICC = .85-.92, %CV = 1.7-3.3), while PRFD was not (ICC = .43, %CV = 4.1). Similarly, for the IBP, peak force across all angles was considered reliable (ICC = .89-.97, %CV = 1.2-1.6), while PRFD was not (ICC = .56-.65, %CV = 0.5-7.6). The DSI was also reliable (ICC = .93, %CV = 3.5). Performance measures such as peak force in the IBP and BBT are reliable when assessing upper-body pressing-strength qualities in elite male athletes. Furthermore, the DSI is reliable and could potentially be used to detect qualities of relative deficiency and guide specific training interventions.

  11. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  12. Modern problems of perfection of elite light athletic sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection

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    Kolot A.V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.

  13. Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard; Melzer, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the effects of a goal-setting intervention on fear of failure in young elite athletes. Using the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation as a theoretical vantage point, a goal-setting intervention using mastery-approach goals and existing goalsetting recommendat......This study reports the effects of a goal-setting intervention on fear of failure in young elite athletes. Using the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation as a theoretical vantage point, a goal-setting intervention using mastery-approach goals and existing goalsetting....... It was used to measure fear of failure at baseline, at the end of intervention and at follow-up, 12 weeks after intervention had ended. Results showed that in the goal-setting group, fear of failure decreased significantly from baseline to end of intervention, but increased again from end of intervention...... to follow-up. This indicates that fear of failure is an achievement motive disposition that can be changed through certain achievement experiences. Implications for practice and future research are discussed....

  14. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    Full Text Available Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S, and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004, increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004, reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043, increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001, decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001, and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005. The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049 but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044 and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045. We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss

  15. Somatotype and size of elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J E L; Ackland, T R; Kerr, D A; Stapff, A B

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the somatotype and size of elite female basketball players in terms of playing position and team performance. Anthropometry and somatotype data were collected on 168 players from 14 countries before the Women's World Basketball Championship, Australia, 1994. There were 64 guards (mean +/- s: age 25.4 +/- 3.3 years, height 1.72 +/- 0.06 m, mass 66.1 +/- 6.2 kg, somatotype = 2.9-3.9-2.6), 57 forwards (age 25.2 +/- 3.8 years, height 1.81 +/- 0.06 m, mass 73.3 +/- 5.9 kg, somatotype = 2.8-3.5-3.2) and 47 centres (age 24.1 +/- 3.1 years, height 1.90 +/- 0.06 m, mass 82.6 +/- 8.2 kg, somatotype = 3.2-3.1-3.4). Mean somatotypes by position were significantly different (F = 7.73, P somatotypes by position and team placing, but the combination of height, mass and ectomorphy provide the best differentiation by position.

  16. The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacciotti Sarita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts’ anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i a common physique and (ii the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review. Most studies identified similar physiques based on: physical traits (small size and low body mass, a body type (predominance of ecto-mesomorphy, body composition (low fat mass, and maturity status (late skeletal maturity as well as late age-at-menarche. However, there was no consensus as to whether these features predicted competitive performance, or even differentiated between gymnasts within distinctive competitive levels. In conclusion, gymnasts, as a group, have unique pronounced characteristics. These characteristics are likely due to selection for naturally-occurring inherited traits. However, data available for world class competitions were mostly outdated and sample sizes were small. Thus, it was difficult to make any conclusions about whether physiques differed between particular competitive levels.

  17. Height velocity and skeletal maturation in elite female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Theodoropoulou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Benardot, D; Leglise, M; Dimopoulos, J C; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts performing under conditions of high intensity are exposed to particularly high levels of psychological stress and intense physical training, factors that can contribute to the observed delay in skeletal maturation and pubertal development, and alter optimal growth. The study was conducted in the field, during the International, European, and World Rhythmic Sports Gymnastics Championships of the years 1997-2000, and included 104 elite female rhythmic gymnasts, aged 12-23 yr. The study included height and weight measurements, estimation of body fat and skeletal maturation, and registration of parental height. Height, weight, target height, and predicted adult height were expressed as the SD score of the mean height and weight for age, according to Tanner's standards. Gymnasts were taller and thinner than average for age, with height velocity SD score for each age group above the 50th percentile for all age groups (n = 140, mean = 1.9 +/- 2.5). Interestingly, although height velocity in normal girls comes to an end by the age of 15, in our examined rhythmic gymnasts it continues up to the age of 18. There was a delay of skeletal maturation of 1.8 yr (n = 72, r = 0.730, P rhythmic gymnasts compensate for their loss of pubertal growth spurt by a late acceleration of linear growth. Despite the delay in skeletal maturation, genetic predisposition of growth is not only preserved, but even exceeded.

  18. The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts' anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i) a common physique and (ii) the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review. Most studies identified similar physiques based on: physical traits (small size and low body mass), a body type (predominance of ecto-mesomorphy), body composition (low fat mass), and maturity status (late skeletal maturity as well as late age-at-menarche). However, there was no consensus as to whether these features predicted competitive performance, or even differentiated between gymnasts within distinctive competitive levels. In conclusion, gymnasts, as a group, have unique pronounced characteristics. These characteristics are likely due to selection for naturally-occurring inherited traits. However, data available for world class competitions were mostly outdated and sample sizes were small. Thus, it was difficult to make any conclusions about whether physiques differed between particular competitive levels.

  19. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. PMID:27621677

  20. A Profile of the College Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C G; Strickland, R W

    1983-03-01

    The number of women participating in collegiate sports has more than doubled in the last five years and is believed to be more than 10 million. Women compete in 77 collegiate championships in 18 sports, and athletic scholarships for women are increasing.

  1. Athlete's heart patterns in elite rugby players: effects of training specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Laurent; Kervio, Gaëlle; Corneloup, Luc; Vincent, Marie-Pierre; Baudot, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Jean-Louis; Merle, Francis; Gencel, Laurent; Carré, François

    2013-02-01

    Athlete's heart patterns have been widely described. However, to our knowledge, few studies have focused on professional rugby players, who train differently according to their field position. To describe electrocardiographic and echocardiographic patterns observed in elite rugby players according to their field position. One hundred and thirty-five professional rugby players at the end of the competitive season were included. According to a modified Pelliccia's classification, 68.1% of electrocardiograms were normal or had minor abnormalities, 27.2% were mildly abnormal and 3.7% were distinctly abnormal. Heart rate was higher in scrum first-row players (P<0.05). Absolute and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameters (LVIDd; absolute value 59.3±4.7 mm) exceeded 65 mm and 32 mm/m2 in 13% and 1.5% of players, respectively. Indexed LVIDd values were higher in back players (P<0.001). Left ventricular interventricular septum and posterior wall thicknesses (absolute values 9.4±1.7 mm and 9.2±1.6 mm, respectively) exceeded 13 mm in 3.7% of players. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was noted in 3.7% of players. Except for one Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, players with significant ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities showed no cardiovascular event or disease during follow-up. Thus, elite rugby players present similar heart patterns to elite athletes in other sports. Major electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities are quite rare. Eccentric cardiac remodelling is more frequent in back players. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Anorexia, bulimia, and the female athlete triad: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Felicia A; Warren, Michelle P

    2010-03-01

    The female athlete triad is an increasingly prevalent condition involving disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. An athlete can suffer from all 3 components of the triad, or just 1 or 2 of the individual conditions. The main element underlying all the aspects of the triad is an adaptation to a negative caloric balance. Screening for these disorders should be an important component of an athlete's care. Prevention and treatment should involve a team approach, including a physician, a nutritionist, and a mental health provider. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An investigation of leg and shoulder muscle strength ratios of elite female volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    AKARCESME, Cengiz; AKTUG, Zait Burak; AKA, Hasan; IBIS, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Providing muscular strength balance is an important factor in both improving sport performance and preventing sports injuries. The aim of the current study is to determine the leg and shoulder muscle strength ratios of elite female volleyball players. 14 elite voluntary female volleyball players were included in the study. Dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) knee and shoulder muscle strength ratios of volleyball players who participated in the study were determined by isokinetic dynamometer at ...

  4. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome in football players: Case series of 26 elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaş, Savaş; Dönmez, Gürhan; Işık, Çetin; Çelebi, Mesut; Çay, Nurdan; Bozkurt, Murat

    2016-12-01

    To describe a clinical treatment algorithm for posterior ankle impingement (PAI) syndrome in professional football players. A case series of 26 elite professional football players diagnosed and treated for posterior ankle impingement syndrome were included for the study. All of the athletes received conservative treatment with physical therapy modalities initially. If the first line medical treatment and rehabilitation was ineffective to alleviate the symptoms, ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection was proposed and thereafter the patients underwent posterior ankle arthroscopy if the complaints are still unresolved. The pain scores (AOFAS, VAS), and time to return to play were the main outcome measures. The complaints of 18 (69.2%) players were subsided with non-surgical treatment whereas three of acute cases and five of the chronic cases did not respond to medical treatment and arthroscopic surgery was performed for eight athletes. Eighteen players returned to training for a mean time of 36.3 days (24-42 days) after conservative treatment. The patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery returned to training for a mean time of 49.8 days (42-56 days) after the surgery. All athletes returned to their previous level of competition after treatment without any complications or recurrence in a mean follow-up 36.5 months (19-77 months). Non-surgical treatment modalities were effective in 2/3 of posterior ankle impingement syndrome in elite football players. On the other hand, posterior ankle arthroscopy is safe and effective treatment option for posterior ankle impingement syndrome if the conservative treatment fails. Level IV, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  6. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk

  7. Positron emission tomographic evaluation of regulation of myocardial perfusion in physiological (elite athletes) and pathological (systemic hypertension) left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Wachtell, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion (MP) may differ in physiologic and pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We compared MP in LVH in elite athletes and patients with hypertension with healthy, age-matched subjects. We included 12 rowers with LVH, 19 patients with hypertension with LVH, and 2 age...

  8. The stress test: Does what doesn't kill me, make me a super-elite athlete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian H

    2017-01-01

    Super-elite athletes succeed in part because: (a) previous hardship builds resilience, (b) success breeds success, and (c) they can rename anxiety as excitement. It is unlikely that most of their outstanding success is due to psychodynamic compensatory mechanisms. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors contributing to the quality of the transition out of elite sports in Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Schmid, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    of commonly assumed resources and barriers related to the transition (Park, Lavallee, & Tod, 2013).Design and methods Former international elite athletes from Switzerland (n = 231), Denmark (n = 86), and Poland (n = 84) from 35 different sports completed an online questionnaire in their native language. Mean...

  10. Effects of a school-based relaxation intervention on recovery in young elite athletes in high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud Eske; Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the control...

  11. Profile of the female athlete triad among elite Kenyan endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women participating in endurance sports are at risk of presenting with low energy availability (EA), menstrual dysfunction (MD), and low bone mineral density ... EEE was determined after isolating and deducting energy expended in exercise or physical activity above lifestyle from the total energy expenditure output as ...

  12. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  13. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament tear prevention in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Holly J; Giza, Eric R; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of implementing neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs in female athletes and their ability to decrease the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The relationship of sex, age, and training on the incidence of ACL injury is pivotal in developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program to decrease ACL injuries occurring in female athletes. Based on the 2-year results, ACL incidence has remained consistently lower in the intervention group versus the control group. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program may have a direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries incurred by female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiologic and biomechanic studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention that will effectively decrease ACL injuries in this high-risk population.

  15. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P < 0.001), whereas imprecise actions decreased (28% ± 7% vs 14% ± 9%, P < 0.001) when compared with the placebo drink. Commercially available energy drinks can significantly improve physical performance in female volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  16. Growth retardation in artistic compared with rhythmic elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Markou, Kostas B; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Benardot, Dan; Leglise, Michel; Vagenakis, Apostolos G

    2002-07-01

    We studied 129 female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 142 female artistic gymnasts (AG) who participated in the 1999 Gymnastics World Championship for RG in Osaka, Japan, and the 1999 and 2001 Gymnastics World Championships for AG in Tianjin, China (n = 48), and Ghent, Belgium (n = 94), respectively. RG were taller than average, with a mean height SD score above the 50th percentile, whereas AG were relatively short, with a mean height SD score below the 50th percentile. Both RG and AG followed their respective reported target height SD score, which was above the 50th percentile for the RG and below the 50th percentile for the AG. The RG followed a growth pattern that was higher than their reported target height, whereas AG exhibited a negative growth pattern. RG and AG weighed less than the population mean, with the mean weight for age below the 50th percentile for both groups. RG were taller than AG (t = 17.15; P < 0.001), with a higher reported target height SD score (t = 6.44; P < 0.001), a greater Delta height-reported target height (t = 2.74; P < 0.001), and a lower mean body fat (t = -11.83; P < 0.001) and body mass index (t = -10.73; P < 0.001) than AG. AG started their training at an earlier age than RG (t = 4.13; P < 0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, actual height SD score was independently influenced positively by weight SD score for both RG (b = 0.421; t = 4.317; P < 0.001) and AG (b = 1.404; t = 16.514; P = <0.001), and by reported target height only for RG (b = 0.299; t = 3.139; P = 0.002), and negatively by body mass index only for AG (b = -0.80; t = -9.88; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in elite female AG, a deterioration of growth potential was observed, whereas in RG the genetic predisposition to growth was preserved.

  17. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  18. Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological “architecture” of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a brief overview of the literature around the field of excellence, focused on the sport's context. Thus, the main approaches to the study of excellence were presented and then some important factors in its development and maintenance were sought considering a set of social and personal dimensions. Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture". The characterization of these athletes included a number of consensual factors and strategies, such as high levels of motivation, commitment, concentration, and self-confidence, as well as the use of adaptive coping strategies, self-regulation, goal-setting and mental imagery. Although these results show some consistency in terms of research, it is still unsolved the issue of the weight and importance of each one of these factors and how such factors are combined in order to "produce" excellent performances.

  19. Flu vaccination in elite athletes: A survey among Serie A soccer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Odone, Anna; Miduri, Alessia; Cella, Paola; Pasquarella, Cesira; Gozzini, Armando; Tamburrino, Pasquale; Castellacci, Enrico

    2016-09-13

    Scant data is available on immunization policies and practices among professional athletes. Following up on a recent review on the topic, we conducted a survey among Italian Serie A soccer teams during the influenza season 2015-16, to explore vaccination practices and attitudes as well as influenza vaccine uptake. The survey covered a sample of over 600 professional athletes from 20 teams and was carried out in collaboration with the Italian Association of Physicians of Professional Football Teams (L.A.M.I.CA.). For each team, the head of the medical staff was interviewed (structured telephone interviews, 100% response rate). Seasonal influenza vaccine was actively offered in 75% of Serie A teams with a median coverage rate of 40% (range 0%-100%). Vaccines are often administered after matches or training sessions. We report vaccine hesitancy associated with fear of adverse events, poor communication and other selected determinants. Vaccination in elite athletes, if correctly managed, represents a powerful, cost-effective and long lasting preventive tool. In times where vaccines are losing public confidence, our findings are a useful basis to inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of interventions to promote prevention in sports medicine.

  20. Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascombe, B J; Karunaratna, M; Cartoon, J; Fergie, B; Goodman, C

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63/72; 87.5+/-12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female (31/36; 86.1+/-13.9%) and male (32/36; 88.9+/-11.1%) athletes. Kayakers (6.0+/-2.9) consumed a higher number of nutritional supplements than swimmers (4+/-2.2), field hockey (1.5+/-1.0), rowing (2.4+/-1.4), waterpolo (2.3+/-2.4), athletics (2.5+/-1.9) and netball (1.7+/-1.0) athletes. The athletes believed that nutritional supplements are related to performance enhancements (47/72; 65.3%), positive doping results (45/72; 62.5%), and that heavy training increases supplement requirements (47/72; 65.3%). The cohort was equivocal as to their health risks (40/72; 55.6%) or their need with a balanced diet (38/72; 52.8%). The most popular supplements were minerals (33/72; 45.8%), vitamins (31/72; 43.1%), other (23/72; 31.9%), iron (22/72; 30.6%), caffeine (16/72; 22.2%), protein (12/72; 16.7%), protein-carbohydrate mix (10/72; 13.9%), creatine (9/72; 12.5%) and glucosamine (3/72; 4.2%). The majority of supplementing athletes (n=63) did not know their supplements active ingredient (39/63; 61.9%), side effects (36/63; 57.1%) or mechanism of action (34/63; 54.0%) and admitted to wanting additional information (36/63; 57.0%). Only half of the athletes knew the recommended supplement dosages (33/63; 52.4%). The performance enhancing perception may explain the large proportion of athletes that reported using nutritional supplements, despite over half of the athletes believing that supplements are not required with a balanced diet and can cause positive doping violations. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Dual Career Environments for Elite Athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas

    in a deductive-inductive way using Schein’s (2010) cultural framework. Official documents about dual career programs and the national elite sports systems served as a further data sources. Results: Besides the differences in higher educational support for athletes and availability of career programs, we observed...... of dual career athletes. Methods: In each country, four semi-structured interviews with key informants involved in dual career were used to discuss benefits, obstacles, and best practices of the national dual career settings and programs. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed...... trajectories were proposed to dual career athletes as the desired way how to combine elite sport and education. Based on the results of our cross-cultural comparison, we assert that culture is not only an influential but also a constituting factor in the development of dual career opportunities. Conclusions...

  2. Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife A.; MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; O’Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J.; Igou, Eric R.; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes. PMID:27540370

  3. Environmental influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife A. Donnelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognised, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes.

  4. Sprint start kinematics during competition in elite and world-class male and female sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, Simone; Merni, Franco; Bartolomei, Sandro; Di Michele, Rocco

    2017-07-01

    The start kinematics has been reported to differ between male and female sprinters. This study aimed to determine whether kinematic differences between the sexes are attributable to an effect of sex per se, or rather to the absolute performance level of the sprinters, quantified by the 100-m time. A total of 20 sprinters (10 M, 10 F), including world-class and elite athletes, were assessed. Start phases from the "set" position to the first two steps were analysed. Linear regression analyses showed a few significant differences between sexes when taking into account the effect of performance level: M had shorter pushing phase duration, higher horizontal velocity at block clearing, and shorter contact times of the first two steps. Conversely, the performance level affected most of the examined parameters: faster sprinters showed the centre of mass (CM) closer to the ground and a more flexed front knee in the "set" position, longer pushing phase duration, lower vertical velocity of the CM at block clearing, and longer contact times and shorter flight times in the first two steps. These findings suggest that the start kinematics is only partially affected by the sex of sprinters, whereas a bigger role is played by their performance level.

  5. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaverova Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women’s Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8 or the Women’s National Handball Team (NT, n=9. The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric and 60°/s (eccentric. The Mann- Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02. However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  6. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverova, Zuzana; Dirnberger, Johannes; Lehnert, Michal; Belka, Jan; Wagner, Herbert; Orechovska, Karolina

    2015-12-22

    Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women's Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8) or the Women's National Handball Team (NT, n=9). The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric) and 60°/s (eccentric). The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD) for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02). However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  7. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Connick, Emma M. Beckman, Sean M. Tweedy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years and female athletes (aged 20-64 years were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class and between (inter-class the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05. Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05. This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups.

  8. elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-05-01

    As usual, there are a lot of questions, much more than the answers. The questions are urgent and uneasy. Well, the greater the journal’s chances to become interesting, comprehensive and elite, in a good sense.

  9. The Post Title IX Female Athlete in the Media. Things are Changing, but How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Mary Jo

    1989-01-01

    Gender role conformity restricts the sport participation of females. Research examining media images and messages regarding the female athlete is reviewed. It reveals two themes: female athletes and sports events are underreported and underrepresented throughout the mass media, and stereotypic presentation of female athletes trivializes the…

  10. Risk of Disordered Eating Among Division I Female College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Elizabeth K; Chin, Alexandra D; Tacke, Jennifer A; Bunn, Jennifer A

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of disordered eating (DE) among female athletes in lean and non-lean sports using the ATHLETE survey. The ATHLETE survey is divided into six different constructs, and a high score indicates a high risk for DE. Eighty-three varsity female athletes from eight Campbell University sports teams completed the survey and a medical history form anonymously. The sports were divided into sports that traditionally have a high risk for DE (lean sports) and those with a low risk (non-lean sports). The lean sports included: cheerleading, cross country/track and field, swimming, and volleyball. The non-lean sports included: basketball, golf, soccer, and softball. The total mean score of the ATHLETE survey for the lean sports was 100.1 ± 17.4, compared to the non-lean sports scoring 90.1 ± 16.9, p = 0.011. The two constructs that showed significant difference between lean and non-lean sports were Social Pressure on Body Shape (lean: 12.2 ± 3.9, non-lean: 9.4 ± 4.6, p = 0.005) and Team Trust (lean: 7.4 ± 3.3, non-lean: 5.6 ± 2.2, p = 0.004). The results indicate that lean sports exhibited a higher risk for development of DE compared to athletes participating in non-lean sports. It appears that the primary influence of DE in these female athletes came from external social pressures that may therefore dictate their exercise and nutritional habits.

  11. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luca Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, A P; Cordasco, F A

    2001-01-01

    With the participation of women in athletics growing rapidly over the last two decades, a disturbing gender-specific pre-disposition has emerged regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries of the knee. Female athletes have a two- to eightfold higher incidence of ACL injury than their male counterparts. It is estimated that 38,000 women sustain ACL tears per year. The majority of ACL injuries in female athletes occur through noncontact mechanisms, most often during deceleration activities, such as landing from a jump or cutting. The risk factors for noncontact ACL injuries can be categorized as intrinsic (anatomic and hormonal) and extrinsic (environmental and biomechanical). This article will discuss these risk factors that are thought to contribute to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women, the development of prevention strategies, and the outcomes of ACL reconstruction in women.

  13. Aerobic training program for the enhancements of HR and VO2 off-kinetics in elite judo athletes.

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    Bonato, M; Rampichini, S; Ferrara, M; Benedini, S; Sbriccoli, P; Merati, G; Franchini, E; La Torre, A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiologic and performance changes with the addition of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to a traditional judo programme. Nine elite judokas (6 males and 3 females; age: 20±4 yrs; body mass: 69±2 kg; height: 172±7 cm; judo practice time: 13±6 yrs; weekly training volume: 13±5 hours, mean±SD) were recruited to perform a 12-week specific aerobic training program, which consisted of 2 session/week of 30-min continuous run at 60% at Vmax and one session/week of high-intensity interval training 15x1-min at 90% of Vmax with 1 min of active recovery at 60% of Vmax. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a graded maximal exercise Test to measure maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), ventilatory threshold (VT), maximal velocity (Vmax), heart rate (HR) and V̇O2 off kinetics. V̇O2 and HR recovery kinetics were evaluated on a breath-by-breath basis using a single component exponential function. Anaerobic capacity during specific movements was assessed with the Special judo fitness Test (SJFT). The maximal speed reached during the maximal aerobic power test significantly increaseed (P=0.04), but V̇O2max did not change. τ of HR and of V̇O2 recovery significantly decreased by 17.3% (P=0.04) and 22.0% (Ptraining. The aerobic fitness of elite judokas may be improved by adding aerobic routines to the normal training enhancing the recovery capacity.

  14. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg(-1) of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg(-1) bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg(-1). However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  15. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in elite power athletes during maximal weight-lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, R D; McConathy, W J; Smith, G H; East, J W; Rudder, L

    2000-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) has been shown to significantly increase during dynamic exercise (running) secondary to increases in cardiac output. Static exercise (weight-lifting) induces supraphysiological arterial pressures up to 450/380 mmHg, and thus may alter CBFV. Catastrophic brain injuries such as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage and retinal detachment have been associated with weight-lifting. A recent study has shown that intra-ocular pressure (IOP), which is an indirect measure of intracranial pressure, elevates to pathophysiologic levels during weight-lifting. Recent CBFV studies instituting Valsalva have demonstrated decreases in CBFV from 21%-52%. To date, no studies have examined CBFV during maximal weight-lifting to elucidate the cerebrovascular responses to extreme pressure alterations. We recruited nine elite power athletes, including a multi-world record holder in powerlifting, for a transcranial Doppler study of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity at rest and during maximal weight-lifting. All subjects' resting blood flow velocities were within normal ranges (mean 64.4 +/- 9.5 cm sec2). Blood flow velocities were significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased in all subjects during maximal lifting (mean 48.4 +/- 10.1 cm sec2). Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse linear relationship in the net change of blood velocities from rest to maximal lift for each subject (r = 0.8585, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that blood flow velocities are significantly decreased during heavy resistance training. The drop in CBFV during weight-lifting was significantly less than previous Valsalva studies, which likely reveals the cardiovascular, baroreflex, and cerebrovascular system adaptations occurring in these elite power athletes.