WorldWideScience

Sample records for eligibiity decision red

  1. Real-Time Decision Making and Aggressive Behavior in Youth: A Heuristic Model of Response Evaluation and Decision (RED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2006-11-01

    Considerable scientific and intervention attention has been paid to judgment and decision-making systems associated with aggressive behavior in youth. However, most empirical studies have investigated social-cognitive correlates of stable child and adolescent aggressiveness, and less is known about real-time decision making to engage in aggressive behavior. A model of real-time decision making must incorporate both impulsive actions and rational thought. The present paper advances a process model (response evaluation and decision; RED) of real-time behavioral judgments and decision making in aggressive youths with mathematic representations that may be used to quantify response strength. These components are a heuristic to describe decision making, though it is doubtful that individuals always mentally complete these steps. RED represents an organization of social-cognitive operations believed to be active during the response decision step of social information processing. The model posits that RED processes can be circumvented through impulsive responding. This article provides a description and integration of thoughtful, rational decision making and nonrational impulsivity in aggressive behavioral interactions.

  2. Computational red teaming risk analytics of big-data-to-decisions intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abbass, Hussein A

    2015-01-01

    Written to bridge the information needs of management and computational scientists, this book presents the first comprehensive treatment of Computational Red Teaming (CRT).  The author describes an analytics environment that blends human reasoning and computational modeling to design risk-aware and evidence-based smart decision making systems. He presents the Shadow CRT Machine, which shadows the operations of an actual system to think with decision makers, challenge threats, and design remedies. This is the first book to generalize red teaming (RT) outside the military and security domains and it offers coverage of RT principles, practical and ethical guidelines. The author utilizes Gilbert’s principles for introducing a science. Simplicity: where the book follows a special style to make it accessible to a wide range of  readers. Coherence:  where only necessary elements from experimentation, optimization, simulation, data mining, big data, cognitive information processing, and system thinking are blend...

  3. Can Red Blood Cell Distribution Width be a Potential Marker in the Decision to Perform Tonsillectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Kars, Ayhan; Kara, Mustafa; Gozeler, Mustafa Sitki

    2018-02-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed at ear, nose, and throat clinics. Chronic recurrent tonsillitis, obstructive tonsillitis, and halitosis are among the most common indications for surgery. Determining whether the infection is chronic and the patient's annual number of infections are important in estimating the necessity for surgery to be performed due to infectious causes. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a numerical value present in normal complete blood count that provides information about erythrocytes and their dimensions. Studies in recent years have shown that RDW increases in chronic infections, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. This study investigated the changes in RDW in patients with chronic tonsillitis and the effect tonsillectomy has on this value by comparing RDW between patients scheduled for tonsillectomy and normal population and examining preoperative and postoperative changes in RDW. Sixty-three patients scheduled for tonsillectomy due to recurrent tonsillitis aged 4-14 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of 60 subjects comparable in terms of age and sex. Hemoglobin level and RDW were recorded by collecting 2 mlof blood before surgery and at 4 months postoperatively from all patients. Preoperative RDW was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Comparison of patients' preoperative and postoperative RDW revealed a significant decrease in RDW after surgery. As a biomarker showing chronic infection in patients with tonsillitis, RDW can provide support to the clinician in deciding on surgery. However, this has to be confirmed in further studies with greater participation.

  4. A study on beverage MNCs’ entry mode decisions and determinant factors in internationalization in China: Case studies of Coca-Cola and Red bull

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsuwan, Pantitra

    2015-01-01

    The economic reform and liberalized government regulations toward business operations in 1980s make China a new target of international investments by multinational corporations (MNCs). How to enter this growth market and what entry mode should be implemented remain inconclusive. This paper analyses how two beverage companies- Coca-Cola and Red Bull that are operating in China, evaluate the influences and implications of the factors on their entry mode decisions since they initially came to C...

  5. Effect of casino-related sound, red light and pairs on decision-making during the Iowa gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Bechara, Antoine; Vanavermaete, Nora; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Casino venues are often characterized by "warm" colors, reward-related sounds, and the presence of others. These factors have always been identified as a key factor in energizing gambling. However, few empirical studies have examined their impact on gambling behaviors. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of combined red light and casino-related sounds, with or without the presence of another participant, on gambling-related behaviors. Gambling behavior was estimated with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Eighty non-gamblers participants took part in one of four experimental conditions (20 participants in each condition); (1) IGT without casino-related sound and under normal (white) light (control), (2) IGT with combined casino-related sound and red light (casino alone), (3) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and in front of another participant (casino competition-implicit), and (4) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and against another participant (casino competition-explicit). Results showed that, in contrast to the control condition, participants in the three "casino" conditions did not exhibit slower deck selection reaction time after losses than after rewards. Moreover, participants in the two "competition" conditions displayed lowered deck selection reaction time after losses and rewards, as compared with the control and the "casino alone" conditions. These findings suggest that casino environment may diminish the time used for reflecting and thinking before acting after losses. These findings are discussed along with the methodological limitations, potential directions for future studies, as well as implications to enhance prevention strategies of abnormal gambling.

  6. Modeling the Habitat of the Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis Wintering in Cheorwon-Gun to Support Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Gul Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheorwon-gun is an important wintering area for the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis. Although eco-tourism has been recently proposed as a means to stimulate the local economy, it may have adverse effects on the crane. We believe a science-based conservation plan is needed to mitigate these negative effects. To this end, our study had three objectives: (1 to analyze the red-crowned crane habitat and its suitability in Cheorwon-gun, using field surveys and habitat modeling; (2 to check the feasibility of alternative habitat patches across demilitarized zones (DMZs; and (3 to propose a conceptual diagram that minimizes habitat loss during development activities. We aim to quantify habitat suitability, the farmland area needed to support existing crane populations in wintertime, disturbance caused by human activities, and vehicular spatial patterns. These data could be used in spatial planning. The framework of this study and the process of making a conceptual diagram could be applied to other areas where there is a conflict between development and habitat conservation.

  7. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  8. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  9. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  10. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  11. Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  12. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  13. Decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  14. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  15. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  16. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  17. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  18. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  19. Lógicas para la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia HUERTAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tim Berners-Lee y sus colegas del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C llamaron «Semantic Web» al que sería el siguiente estadio de desarrollo de la red (inevitablemente traducido al castellano como Web Semántica. La idea detrás de esta evolución de la red es extender con metadatos y reglas lógicas la red basada en el lenguaje html, con el objetivo de que la infraestructura resultante permita a las máquinas entender los datos de la red de la misma forma que los entendemos los humanos. Así, añadir lógica a la red permitiría a los ordenadores tomar decisiones, hacer inferencias y responder preguntas. En este texto se pretende revisar las lógicas que han sido propuestas para permitir esta nueva web inteligente y repasar las cuestiones teóricas y pragmáticas más importantes de la corta pero intensa historia de las lógicas para la red.ABSTRACT: Tim Berners-Lee and their colleagues of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C called «Semantic Web» the next development of the Web. The idea behind this evolution of the Web is to extend the present network based on the HTML language with metadata and logical rules, with the aim of the resulting infrastructure allowing machines to understand Web data in the same way that human beings understand them. Thus, adding logic to the Web would allow the computers to take decisions, to do inferences and to answer questions. In this paper it is intended to revise the logics that have been suggested to allow this new intelligent Web and to revise the most important theoretical and pragmatic questions of the short but intense history of logics for the Web.

  20. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.

  1. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  2. Synthesis of the ICT4RED initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available on Sustainability and how value is derived through improved decision-making. The issue of sustainability, and how it plays an important role in the ICT4RED initiative, is discussed. Total Cost of Ownership-, Cost utility- and Tablet selection-models, which were...&E), models, guidelines and tools. Arranged access to digital content on the content servers at each school which teachers and learners can download via Wi-Fi to their tablets. Access to McMillan and Pearson e-books. Developed processes...

  3. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  4. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  5. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  6. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  7. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  8. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  9. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  10. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Zielosko, Beata

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be 'over-fitted', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes

  11. Argentina's nuclear red herring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with Argentina's nuclear power programme over the last 30 years, including the country's efforts to be nuclear independent of the United States, as well as its aspirations to be a nuclear supplier to latin America. The latter policy on economic, rather than military grounds for nuclear weapons, has led to Argentina's decision to build a uranian enrichment plant. (U.K.)

  12. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  13. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  14. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  15. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.; Farmer, F.R.; Gaines, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Correspondence section of this issue of Nature three letters are published each of which has a bearing on the article by P. Taylor in the issue of 22 February. In that article Taylor calls for changes in the way decisions are taken on nuclear energy matters. The three articles are by H.J. Dunster of the UKAEA Health and Safety Executive, F.R. Farmer, Safety Adviser to the UKAEA, and M.J. Gaines, National Radiological Protection Board. (UK)

  16. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... by an interest in failure as one way of improving understanding of present-day decision making in organizations.......Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... deals not with traffic delays, but with failing decisions in organizations. The assumption of this chapter is that failing decisions today are as normal as delayed trains. Instead of being the exception, failure is part of the everyday reproduction of organizations – as an uncontrolled effect but also...

  17. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  18. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  20. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  1. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  2. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  3. Reprocessing decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The United States must decide whether to permit, delay, or prohibit the reprocessing and recycling of nuclear spent fuel. To permit reprocessing would allow recycle as early as 1985; to delay the decision for a later administration to deal with means spent fuel would mount up at nuclear reactor sites; to prohibit would eliminate recycling and mandate permanent storage. Bayesian decision analysis was used to examine reprocessing costs associated with risks and economic benefits. Three distinct categories of risk that are important in the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. These are: health, environment, and safety risks; nuclear theft and sabotage; and nuclear weapons proliferation risks. Results are discussed from comparing nine routes to weapons-usuable mterial available to nonweapons states that desire a nuclear capability. These are: production reactor and military reporcessor; research reacotr and military reprocessor; power plant plus military reprocessor or commercial reprocessor; enrichment (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic separation, or aerodynamic jet cascade); and accelerator. It was found that the commercial power reactor-commercial reprocessor route is comparatively unattractive to a nonweapons state. In summary, allowing nuclear fuel reprocessing to go forward in the United States can be expected to increase the costs to society by a maximum $360 million a year. This is approximately one-seventh of the expected benefit (reduced electricity bills) to be dderived by society from closing the fuel cycle. It appears that the permitting reprocessing now is logically preferable to delaying or prohibiting the technology, the author concludes

  4. Crossing Our Red Lines About Partner Engagement in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    market prices. The Tijuana, Sinaloa, Juarez and Gulf Cartels, La Familia Michoacana/Los Caballeros Templarios and Los Zetas are loosely federated...Develop and employ soft power.  Law 5: Cultivate community support or acquiescence. Ibid., 25-32. 6 It is true that a few cartels (e.g., La Familia ...against the Iranian nuclear program: Presidents of the US… don’t have… a bunch of little red lines that determine their decisions. What they have

  5. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  6. Science responses to IUCN Red Listing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jarić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is often advocated as a tool to assist decision-making in conservation investment and research focus. It is frequently suggested that research efforts should prioritize species in higher threat categories and those that are Data Deficient (DD. We assessed the linkage between IUCN listing and research effort in DD and Critically Endangered (CR species, two groups generally advocated as research priorities. The analysis of the change in the research output following species classification indicated a listing effect in DD species, while such effect was observed in only a minority of CR species groups. DD species, while chronically understudied, seem to be recognized as research priorities, while research effort for endangered species appears to be driven by various factors other than the IUCN listing. Optimized conservation research focus would require international science planning efforts, harmonized through international mechanisms and promoted by financial and other incentives.

  7. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Indicadores de desempenho e decisão sobre terceirização em rede pública de laboratórios Indicadores de desempeño y decisión sobre tercerización en red pública de laboratorios Performance indicators and decision making for outsourcing public health laboratory services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Borges dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    indicadores de desempenho econômicos elaborados mostram a necessidade de informatização da rede, antecedendo a decisão de terceirização.OBJETIVO: Elaborar indicadores de desempeño y tercerización en red de laboratorios clínicos, basados en sistemas de informaciones y registros administrativos públicos. MÉTODOS: La red tenía 33 laboratorios con equipos automatizados pero sin informatización, 90 puestos de colecta y 983 funcionarios, en el municipio de Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil. Se obtuvo las informaciones de registros administrativos del Sistema de Informaciones de Presupuestos Públicos para la Salud y del Sistema de Informaciones de Ambulatorios y Hospitales del Sistema Único de Salud. Los indicadores, de 2006 a 2008, se refieren a la producción, productividad, utilización y costos, elaborados con datos colectados como rutina. Las variaciones de la producción, costos y precios unitarios de las pruebas en el período se analizaron por índices de Laspeyres y de Paasche, específicos para medir la actividad de los laboratorios y por el Índice de Precios al Consumidor Amplio del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. RESULTADOS: La producción fue de 10.359.111 pruebas en 2008 (aumentó en 10,6% con relación a 2006 y la relación pruebas/funcionario creció 8,6%. Los gastos con insumos, salarios y prestamista por convenio aumentaron, respectivamente 2,3%, 45,4% y 18,3%. Las pruebas laboratoriales por consulta e internación crecieron 10% y 20%. Los costos directos totalizaron R$ 63,2 millones en 2008, con aumento de 22,2% en valores actualizados en el período. Los costos directos disminuidos por el dice de Precios al Consumidor Amplio (9,5% para el período muestran aumento del volumen de la producción de 11,6%. El índice de volumen específico para la actividad, que considera las variaciones de la mezcla de pruebas, mostró aumento de 18,5% en el precio unitario de la prueba y de 3,1% en el volumen de la producción. CONCLUSIONES: Los

  9. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  10. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  11. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  12. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  13. [Decision making in cariology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, E.H.A.M.; Liem, S.L.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2003-01-01

    By conducting an oral examination, during radiographic examination and in treatment planning procedures dentists make numerous decisions. A dentist will be required to make his decisions explicit. Decision trees and decision analyses may play an important role. In a decision analysis, the

  14. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  15. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  16. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  17. Decision Making and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cogni...

  18. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  19. Red de senderos universitarios inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Berrocal, I.J.; Romero, J.; Pérez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Proyecto de red de senderos universitarios inteligentes UR se inspira en tres realidades, la red de senderos europeos ya existentes y su importancia en el fomento de la actividad deportiva y los hábitos saludables, la creciente importancia de la implantación, intercambio y difusión de políticas y planes de acción en materia de sostenibilidad ambiental en el ámbito universitario europeo, y por último, el uso y desarrollo de infraestructuras y aplicaciones, cada vez más impresc...

  20. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  1. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  2. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  3. Flood mitigation strategies for the Red River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, K.; Ekenberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    The increase of natural disasters and especially floods are escalating economical losses. Governments of both developed and developing countries are therefore concerned with increasing post-disaster liabilities in aiding recovery, repairing infrastructure damage and compensation of victims. In particular, governments of developing countries are ill prepared to cover the financial losses of disasters. Moreover, they often experience difficulties in raising funds for the recovery process. In this article, we identify possible policy strategies for coping with complex environmental and social decisions with flood risk involved; using The Red River Delta in Vietnam as a case for investigating various strategies. The paper is concluded with an outline of a model used for policy scenario simulations as well as some very preliminary results from evaluation of three possible policy strategies for The Red River Delta. (author)

  4. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  5. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  6. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring alternatives. The purpose of this monograph is to examine historical and...Planning and Orders Production, introduces red team principles into the army problem solving method.14 Additionally, TRADOC staffed and funded the...organization, incorporating alternative perspectives in an attempt to eliminate cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring

  7. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  8. Medical decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Scherer, L.; Keren, G.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the field of medical decision making. It distinguishes the levels of decision making seen in health-care practice and shows how research in judgment and decision making support or improve decision making. Most of the research has been done at the micro level,

  9. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  10. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  11. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  12. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  13. Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    A sound approach to rational decision making requires a decision maker to establish decision objectives, identify alternatives, and evaluate those...often violate the axioms of rationality when making decisions under uncertainty. The systematic description of such observations may lead to the...which leads to “anchoring” on the initial value. The fact that individuals have been shown to deviate from rationality when making decisions

  14. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    Full Text Available This issue of Kronos is dedicated to Terry Flynn, assistant curator at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, who was instrumental in the successful installing of 'Red Assembly' there in 2015. Friend, colleague, artist and inspiration. Hamba Kahle. The work that emerged from the encounter with Red, an art installation by Simon Gush and his collaborators, in the workshop 'Red Assembly', held in East London in August 2015, is assembled here in Kronos, the journal of southern African histories based at the University of the Western Cape, and previously in parallax, the cultural studies journal based at the University of Leeds published in May 2016. What is presented there and here is not simply more work, work that follows, or even additional works. Rather, it is the work that arises as a response to a question that structured our entire project: does Red, now also installed in these two journals, have the potential to call the discourse of history into question? This article responds to this question through several pairings: theft - gift; copy - rights; time - history; kronos - chronos. Here we identify a reversal in this installation of the gift into the commodity, and another with regard to conventional historical narratives which privilege the search for sources and origins. A difference between (the historian's search for origination and (the artist's originality becomes visible in a conversation between and over the historic and the artistic that does not simply try to rescue History by means of the work of art. It is in this sense that we invite the displacements, detours, and paths made possible through Simon Gush's Red, the 'Red Assembly' workshop and the work/gift of installation and parallaxing. To gesture beyond 'histories' is the provocation to which art is neither cause nor effect. Thinking with the work of art, that is, grasping thought in the working of art, has extended the sense of history's limit and the way the limit of history is

  15. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  16. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  17. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  18. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  19. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  20. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  1. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  2. Inertia and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency.

  3. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  4. Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United States, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct prediction rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.

  5. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  6. Shared Decisions That Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1993-01-01

    Advocates of participatory leadership, site-based management, and decentralization often assume that changing decision-making group composition will automatically improve the quality of decisions being made. Stakeholder satisfaction does not guarantee quality results. This article offers a framework for moving the decision-making discussion from…

  7. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  8. Red giants: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  9. Iridotomy with red krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassur, Y; David, R; Rosenblatt, I; Marmour, U

    1986-01-01

    Iridotomy with red krypton laser instead of blue-green argon laser was performed on 68 eyes with various types of angle-closure glaucoma. Patent iridotomy was obtained in all the eyes, mostly in one working session. In eight eyes secondary closure by pigment needed reopening with a few applications at the iridotomy site. There were no immediate or late complications of importance, the main advantage of the technique being the avoidance of the corneal epithelial and endothelial burns which commonly occur during argon laser iridotomy, particularly when the anterior chamber is shallow. PMID:3964628

  10. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  11. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...... students a variety of decision making skills as they prepare themselves to work in international companies. This is the task initiated in this book. It discusses how managers combine both rational and non-rational approaches and tools in their decision making processes, especially in international business...

  12. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  13. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  14. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  15. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  16. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  17. Regulatory decision making by decision analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has studied with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) the applicability of decision analytic approach to the treatment of nuclear safety related problems at the regulatory body. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in decision making has also been discussed. In the study, inspectors from STUK exercised with a decision analytic approach by reoperationalizing two occurred and solved problems. The research scientist from VTT acted as systems analysts guiding the analysis process. The first case was related to a common cause failure phenomenon in solenoid valves controlling pneumatic valves important to safety of the plant. The problem of the regulatory body was to judge whether to allow continued operation or to require more detailed inspections and in which time chedule the inspections should be done. The latter problem was to evaluate design changes of external electrical grid connections after a fire incident had revealed weakness in the separation of electrical system. In both cases, the decision analysis was carried out several sessions in which decision makers, technical experts as well as experts of decision analysis participated. A multi-attribute value function was applied as a decision model so that attributes had to be defined to quantify the levels of achievements of the objectives. The attributes included both indicators related to the level of operational safety of the plant such as core damage frequency given by PSA, and indicators related to the safety culture, i.e., how well the chosen option fits on the regulatory policy. (24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.)

  18. Info-gap decision theory decisions under severe uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, Yakov

    2006-01-01

    Everyone makes decisions, but not everyone is a decision analyst. A decision analyst uses quantitative models and computational methods to formulate decision algorithms, assess decision performance, identify and evaluate options, determine trade-offs and risks, evaluate strategies for investigation, and so on. This book is written for decision analysts. The term ""decision analyst"" covers an extremely broad range of practitioners. Virtually all engineers involved in design (of buildings, machines, processes, etc.) or analysis (of safety, reliability, feasibility, etc.) are decision analysts,

  19. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  20. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  1. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for estimating red cell survival of transfused red cells-validation using CR-51 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, H.; Kickler, T.; Smith, B.; LaFrance, N.

    1984-01-01

    The survival time of transfused red cells antigenically distinct from the recipient's red cells was determined using an indirect enzyme linked antiglobulin test. These results were then compared to those determined by Cr-51 labeling. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias and one patient (2 studies) with traumatic hemolytic anemia caused by a prosthetic heart valve were studied. Survival times were performed by transfusing a 5cc aliquot of Cr-51 labeled cells along with the remaining unit. One hour post transfusion, a blood sample was drawn and used as the 100% value. Subsequent samples drawn over a 2-3 week period were then compared to the initial sample to determine percent survival for both methods. The ELISA method for measuring red cell survival in antigenically distinct cells is in close agreement with the Cr-51 method. Although CR-51 labeling is the accepted method for red cell survival determination the ELISA method can be used when radioisotopes are unavailable or contraindicated or when the decision to estimate red cell survival is made after transfusion

  2. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  3. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  4. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  5. Ethical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolnai, László

    2011-01-01

    The self-centeredness of modern organizations leads to environmental destruction and human deprivation. The principle of responsibility developed by Hans Jonas requires caring for the beings affected by our decisions and actions. Ethical decision-making creates a synthesis of reverence for ethical norms, rationality in goal achievement, and respect for the stakeholders. The maximin rule selects the "least worst alternative" in the multidimensional decision space of deontologica...

  6. Handbook on Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi C

    2010-01-01

    The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c

  7. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  8. Organizational decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Grandori, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops a heuristic approach to organizational decision-making by synthesizing the classical, neo-classical and contingency approaches to organization theory. The conceptual framework developed also integrates the rational and cybernetic approaches with cognitive processes underlying the decision-making process. The components of the approach address the role of environment in organizational decision-maki...

  9. Evaluating psychodiagnostic decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Cilia L M; Harries, Clare; Bekker, Hilary L; Van Aarle, Edward J M

    2007-02-01

    Several frameworks can be used to evaluate decision making. These may relate to different aspects of the decision-making process, or concern the decision outcome. Evaluations of psychodiagnostic decisions have shown diagnosticians to be poor decision makers. In this essay we argue that this finding results from the evaluation of only one part of the diagnostic process. We put forward that evaluations are typically carried out by comparing clinicians' behaviour to one of several normative models, for example hypothetico-deductive reasoning. These models make strong assumptions about human reasoning capabilities, which make it almost impossible for people to measure up to them. The subsequent two parts of the psychodiagnostic process (causal explanation and treatment decisions), are typically not included in these evaluation studies. Treatment decisions are evaluated in effectiveness studies; that is, they are evaluated in terms of their outcomes, not in terms of the diagnosticians' decision processes. Psychodiagnosticians' causal explanation has hardly ever been the subject of evaluation. We argue that in order to achieve clinical excellence, this part of the psychodiagnostic process should also be well understood. In this essay we first describe evaluation of psychodiagnostic decision making. We then propose a framework to describe causal explanation, that is, a situation assessment in terms of a causal schema or a story or script. We identify and discuss the tools available for evaluating this part of the psychodiagnostic process.

  10. Decision analysis multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis

  11. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Decision Making in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  13. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  14. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  15. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  16. Moving Forward with Computational Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Teaming is used across both public and private sectors and is not the sole domain of the military. Red Team Consulting (2011) notes that “the use...open for review. Consider also the context of application. Oh (2009) explains how globalisation , the rise of emerging powers, environmental

  17. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  19. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected

  20. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  1. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  2. Human Red Cells With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified cells were used as hosts for the culture of P.falciparum in vitro. Results show that GPI-linked molecules on the red cell surface are not required for the efficient entry of the parasites, and that the PNH red cells are competent to sustain the growth of P.falciparum. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol ...

  3. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  4. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  5. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  6. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  7. Testing Decision Rules for Multiattribute Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%.

  8. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  9. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  11. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  12. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  13. Strategic decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision

  14. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  15. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  16. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  17. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  18. Regret in Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, T.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Decision research has only recently started to take seriously the role of emotions in choices and decisions. Regret is the emotion that has received the most attention. In this article, we sample a number of the initial regret studies from psychology and economics, and trace some of the complexities

  19. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (200...

  20. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  1. Designing for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  2. Delegating Decisions to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Suen, Wing

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of delegation with self-interested and privately informed experts. A team of experts with extreme but opposite biases is acceptable to a wide range of decision makers with diverse preferences, but the value of expertise from such a team is low. A decision maker wants to appoint experts who are less partisan than he is in order…

  3. Decision making and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Nelson, Wendy L; Han, Paul K; Pignone, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    We review decision making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Culinary Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Rob

    1987-01-01

    Advises directors of ways to include day care workers in the decision-making process. Enumerates benefits of using staff to help focus and direct changes in the day care center and discusses possible pitfalls in implementation of a collective decision-making approach to management. (NH)

  5. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  6. Judgment and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, B A; Schwartz, A; Cooke, A D

    1998-01-01

    For many decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory. In that framework, rationality is expressed as a single correct decision shared by experimenters and subjects that satisfies internal coherence within a set of preferences and beliefs. Outside of psychology, social scientists are now debating the need to modify rational choice theory with behavioral assumptions. Within psychology, researchers are debating assumptions about errors for many different definitions of rationality. Alternative frameworks are being proposed. These frameworks view decisions as more reasonable and adaptive that previously thought. For example, "rule following." Rule following, which occurs when a rule or norm is applied to a situation, often minimizes effort and provides satisfying solutions that are "good enough," though not necessarily the best. When rules are ambiguous, people look for reasons to guide their decisions. They may also let their emotions take charge. This chapter presents recent research on judgment and decision making from traditional and alternative frameworks.

  7. Reaching for the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  8. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  9. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  10. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  11. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  12. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  13. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  14. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  15. RED ONE kuvaajan työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Käki, Ossi

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni projektiosa, 30-minuuttinen lyhytelokuva Huomisen Muisto – Memory of Tomorrow kuvattiin RED ONE -kameralla vuosina 2008-2009. Opinnäytetyöni kirjallinen osuus tutkii miten RED ONE soveltuu kuvaajan työvälineeksi lyhytelokuvassa. Huomisen Muisto oli ensimmäinen Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa RED ONE:lla kuvattu elokuva ja koko tekninen workflow piti kehittää lähes nollasta. Paljon kuvan digitaalista jälkikäsittelyä sisältävänä science fiction -elokuvana Huomisen Muisto asetti i...

  16. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  17. Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color-meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person-based, as well as situation-based, factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Demand and supply of emergency help: an economic analysis of Red Cross services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Franz; Pruckner, Gerald Josef

    2006-08-01

    This paper analyzes supply and demand side characteristics of (voluntary) Red Cross services in Austria. The demand side analysis is based on a contingent valuation study on people's willingness to pay for emergency treatment, transportation services and disaster relief activities. The supply side is identified by a high percentage of volunteers in the Red Cross organization which makes the provision of emergency help at low cost possible. We find that aggregate benefits of Red Cross services exceed their cost of production. Policy conclusions are drawn with respect to future recruitment and funding: whereas intrinsic motivation is important for the decision to volunteer, and financial incentives play a minor role in general, the young Red Cross activists work voluntarily for self-realization reasons and to continue their education. Age-specific recruitment strategies accompanied by word-of-mouth advertising are recommended to address potential volunteers. As long as the volunteering character of Red Cross services will be maintained and cost of production will not go up an increase of funds does not seem necessary in the future. Moreover, a radical change in the structure of funding may crowd out both donations and voluntary labor supply.

  19. Decisive Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Henda, Noomene Ben; Mayr, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We consider qualitative and quantitative verification problems for infinite-state Markov chains. We call a Markov chain decisive w.r.t. a given set of target states F if it almost certainly eventually reaches either F or a state from which F can no longer be reached. While all finite Markov chains are trivially decisive (for every set F), this also holds for many classes of infinite Markov chains. Infinite Markov chains which contain a finite attractor are decisive w.r.t. every set F. In part...

  20. Emotion and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-03

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.

  1. Radwaste Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrom, G.; Vance, J.N.; Gelhaus, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Radwaste Decision Support System (RDSS) is to provide expert advice, analysis results and instructional material relative to the treatment, handling, transport and disposal of low-level radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. This functional specification addresses the following topics: Functions of the RDSS, Relationships and interfaces between the function, Development of the decisions and logic tree structures embodied in waste management, Elements of the database and the characteristics required to support the decision-making process, Specific User requirements for the RDSS, Development of the user interface, Basic software architecture, and Concepts for the RDSS usage including updating and maintenance

  2. Decision taking as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision taking can be performed as a service to other parties and it is amenable to outtasking rather than to outsourcing. Outtasking decision taking is compatible with selfsourcing of decision making activities carried out in preparation of decision taking. Decision taking as a service (DTaaS) is

  3. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  4. Implications of Decision Making Research for Decision Support and Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Jeffrey G.; Kelly, Richard T.; Moore, Ronald A.; Hutchins, Susan G.

    1998-01-01

    To appear in J. A. Cannon-Bowers & E. Salas (Eds.), Decision Making Under Stress: Implications for Training and Simulation. A prototype decision support system (DSS) was developed to enhance Navy tactical decision making based on naturalistic decision processes. Displays were developed to support critical decision making tasks through recognition-primed and explanation-based reasoning processes, and cognitive analysis was conducted of the decision making problems faced by Navy ...

  5. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  6. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  7. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  9. Medicare Appeals Council Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions of the Departmental Appeals Board's Medicare Appeals Council involving claims for entitlement to Medicare and individual claims for Medicare coverage and...

  10. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  11. Actions and Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de

    2017-01-01

    as Aristotelian syllogistic reasoning. Her constant analytical care to defend a philosophy of action against metaphysical assumptions and taken-for-granted “psychologisms” shows that an action-perspective is as analytic as ever one of decision-making. What differs is that the latter seems constantly attracted......How management philosophy is conceived depends on if pragmatism is acknowledged or not! After having been under the main domination of management science both research and education has until recently widened its scope from a decision-making to an action-perspective. It seems to be a recent...... reconnection to pragmatism that makes the 2011 Carnegie report propose to rethink management in liberal arts terms, whilst the vastly influential 1959 Carnegie Pierson report distanced itself from American pragmatism thus focusing on decisions and forgetting actions. Actions may contain decisions and choices...

  12. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...... applicable): The Model is based on case studies, but the limited scope of the length of the paper did not leave room to show the empirical evidence, but only the theoretical study. Originality / value of a paper: The model offers a new way of combining risk management with ethical decision-making processes...... by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses...

  13. Decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L.N.; Noe, E.; Langvad, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    system Crop Protection Online is widely used by advisors and as a learning tool for students. Although the system has been validated in many field trials over the years and has shown reliable results, the number of end-users among farmers has been relatively low during the last 10 years (approximately...... 1000 farmers). A sociological investigation of farmers' decision-making styles in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) system-orientated farmers, (b) experience-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required...... by these three groups to make their decisions varies and therefore different ways of using decision support systems need to be provided. Decision support systems need to be developed in close dialogue and collaboration with user groups....

  14. People and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Nancy D.; Glover, Kathy H.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that social studies classroom teachers should use the process of rational decision making to teach students how to think at higher intellectual levels, become more creative, clarify values, and increase moral development. Learning activities are described. (DB)

  15. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  16. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  17. sample data Red River_2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — OK Fish Kill data from Red River 2011-2013. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Jones-Lepp, T., V. Taguchi, W. Sovocool, D. Betowski, P....

  18. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  19. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  20. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing them to lose work or to have low self-esteem,” says Dr. Richard Gallo, a skin expert at the University of California, San Diego. “Many psychological problems are the consequence of having this red, puffy ...

  1. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  2. NOAA NCCOS: New England Red Tide Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alexandrium blooms are one of several algal bloom types often called "red tides," but more correctly referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Alexandrium produces...

  3. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  4. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  5. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  6. Strategic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision setting,consisting of a list of stakeholders with their capabilities, positions, and salience on each of the issues; (3) computer simulation. The computer simulation models incorporate only the main processe...

  7. Delegating Pricing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bhardwaj

    2001-01-01

    An outstanding problem in marketing is why some firms in a competitive market delegate pricing decisions to agents and other firms do not. This paper analyzes the impact of competition on the delegation decision and, in turn, the impact of delegation on prices and incentives. The theory builds on the simplest framework of competition in two dimensions: prices and (sales agents') effort. Specifically, we are interested in answering the following questions: (1) Does competition affect the price...

  8. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  9. Crisis decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holsti, O.R.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents evidence that the potential loss of control of events by officials who must operate under conditions that generate substantial stress is one of the central problems of crisis decision making. Examples of U.S. crises management and alliance management are reviewed, and possible tools for improving crisis management decisions are discussed. This article particularly focuses on crises which may lead to nuclear war

  10. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  11. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  12. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  13. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  14. Clinical implications of The Red Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Penny

    2012-09-01

    This presentation stresses the uniqueness of both the therapist's and patient's personal experience in clinical work and relates this to the significance of The Red Book as Jung's personal odyssey and for me personally as an analyst. I consider The Red Book's enduring relevance alongside recent psychological theories, neuroscience and early mystical writings, and conclude with a clinical vignette of a patient's response to a piece of choral music and subsequent use of active imagination. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUGGAN, RUTH A.; WOOD, BRADLEY

    1999-01-01

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper

  16. Judgment and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2010-09-01

    The study of judgment and decision making entails three interrelated forms of research: (1) normative analysis, identifying the best courses of action, given decision makers' values; (2) descriptive studies, examining actual behavior in terms comparable to the normative analyses; and (3) prescriptive interventions, helping individuals to make better choices, bridging the gap between the normative ideal and the descriptive reality. The research is grounded in analytical foundations shared by economics, psychology, philosophy, and management science. Those foundations provide a framework for accommodating affective and social factors that shape and complement the cognitive processes of decision making. The decision sciences have grown through applications requiring collaboration with subject matter experts, familiar with the substance of the choices and the opportunities for interventions. Over the past half century, the field has shifted its emphasis from predicting choices, which can be successful without theoretical insight, to understanding the processes shaping them. Those processes are often revealed through biases that suggest non-normative processes. The practical importance of these biases depends on the sensitivity of specific decisions and the support that individuals have in making them. As a result, the field offers no simple summary of individuals' competence as decision makers, but a suite of theories and methods suited to capturing these sensitivities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear utilities operate their plants at all times in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective, the regulatory body should strive to ensure that its regulatory decisions are technically sound, consistent from case to case, and timely. In addition, the regulator must be aware that its decisions and the circumstances surrounding those decisions can affect how its stakeholders, such as government policy makers, the industry it regulates, and the public, view it as an effective and credible regulator. In order to maintain the confidence of those stakeholders, the regulator should make sure that its decisions are transparent, have a clear basis in law and regulations, and are seen by impartial observers to be fair to all parties. Based on the work of a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) expert group, this report discusses some of the basic principles and criteria that a regulatory body should consider in making decisions and describes the elements of an integrated framework for regulatory decision making. (author)

  18. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  19. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  20. Constructing food choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-12-01

    Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.

  1. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  2. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  3. Helping decision makers frame, analyze, and implement decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2018-01-01

    All decisions have the same recognizable elements. Context, objectives, alternatives, consequences, and deliberation. Decision makers and analysts familiar with these elements can quickly see the underlying structure of a decision.There are only a small number of classes of decisions. These classes differ in the cognitive and scientific challenge they present to the decision maker; the ability to recognize the class of decision leads a decision maker to tools to aid in the analysis.Sometimes we need more information, sometimes we don’t. The role of science in a decision-making process is to provide the predictions that link the alternative actions to the desired outcomes. Investing in more science is only valuable if it helps to choose a better action.Implementation. The successful integration of decision analysis into environmental decisions requires careful attention to the decision, the people, and the institutions involved.

  4. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  5. Decisions and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    When we make decisions, we're not always in charge. One moment we hotheadedly let our emotions get the better of us; the next, we're paralyzed by uncertainty. Then we'll pull a brilliant decision out of thin air--and wonder how we did it. Though we may have no idea how decision making happens, neuroscientists peering deep into our brains are beginning to get the picture. What they're finding may not be what you want to hear, but it's worth listening. We have dog brains, basically, with human cortexes stuck on top. By watching the brain in action as it deliberates and decides, neuroscientists are finding that not a second goes by that our animal brains aren't conferring with our modern cortexes to influence their choices. Scientists have discovered, for example, that the "reward" circuits in the brain that activate in response to cocaine, chocolate, sex, and music also find pleasure in the mere anticipation of making money--or getting revenge. And the "aversion" circuits that react to the threat of physical pain also respond with disgust when we feel cheated by a partner. In this article, HBR senior editor Gardiner Morse describes the experiments that illuminate the aggressive participation of our emotion-driven animal brains in decision making. This research also shows that our emotional brains needn't always operate beneath our radar. While our dog brains sometimes hijack our higher cognitive functions to drive bad, or at least illogical, decisions, they play an important part in rational decision making as well. The more we understand about how we make decisions, the better we can manage them.

  6. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  7. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  8. Minimization of Decision Tree Average Depth for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2014-09-13

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of greedy algorithms for the minimization of average depth of decision trees for decision tables such that each row is labeled with a set of decisions. The goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of average depth of decision trees.

  9. Minimization of Decision Tree Average Depth for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of greedy algorithms for the minimization of average depth of decision trees for decision tables such that each row is labeled with a set of decisions. The goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of average depth of decision trees.

  10. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  11. Applications of decision theory to test-based decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Bayesian decision theory to solve problems in test-based decision making is discussed. Four basic decision problems are distinguished: (1) selection; (2) mastery; (3) placement; and (4) classification, the situation where each treatment has its own criterion. Each type of decision can be

  12. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  13. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  14. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  15. Collective Decision Making as the Actualization of Decision Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some characteristics and dilemmas of collective decision making. Collective decision making could be presented as the process of successive crystallization of dominant alternatives under the influence of different decision contexts from primary given decision potentials. This process is presented as the many-phased process of the acting of contextually dependent “energizing factors” of the collective decision making on the “attractiveness matrix” of outcomes of collective decisions. The attractiveness matrix determines the attractiveness for each alternative of decision, and the most attractive alternative in the given situation presents the rational decision in the given situation. In the final phase of decision making holds a context which gets a simplified attractiveness matrix. It corresponds to the common decision for one of the alternatives.

  16. The Effects Of Decision Framing Influences On Decision Performance

    OpenAIRE

    David Shelby Harrison; Sanela Porca

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two components of decision framing [commitment and verbalization] in decision optimization, and how information quality impacts framing effects on decision performance. The theory of cognitive dissonance predicts that commitment to a decision will foster insensitivity to alternative choices. We find that such bias can be beneficial in certain decision strategies, and more powerfully influential as information quality worsens. We used an interactive compu...

  17. Tactical decision making under stress (TADMUS) decision support system

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Jeffrey G.; Kelly, Richard T.; Moore, Ronald A.; Hutchins, Susan G.

    1996-01-01

    A prototype decision support system (DSS) was developed to enhance Navy tactical decision making based on naturalistic decision processes. Displays were developed to support critical decision making tasks through recognition-primed and explanation-based reasoning processes and cognitive analysis of the decision making problems faced by Navy tactical officers in a shipboard Combat Information Center. Baseline testing in high intensity, peace keeping, littoral scenarios indicated...

  18. Robust Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.

  19. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  20. Decisions without blinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Max H; Chugh, Dolly

    2006-01-01

    By the time Merck withdrew its pain relief drug Vioxx from the market in 2004, more than 100 million prescriptions had been filled in the United States alone. Yet researchers now estimate that Vioxx may have been associated with as many as 25,000 heart attacks and strokes. Evidence of the drug's risks was available as early as 2000, so why did so many doctors keep prescribing it? The answer, say the authors, involves the phenomenon of bounded awareness--when cognitive blinders prevent a person from seeing, seeking, using, or sharing highly relevant, easily accessible, and readily perceivable information during the decision-making process. Doctors prescribing Vioxx, for instance, more often than not received positive feedback from patients. So, despite having access to information about the risks, physicians may have been blinded to the actual extent of the risks. Bounded awareness can occur at three points in the decision-making process. First, executives may fail to see or seek out the important information needed to make a sound decision. Second, they may fail to use the information that they do see because they aren't aware of its relevance. Third, executives may fail to share information with others, thereby bounding the organization's awareness. Drawing on examples such as the Challenger disaster and Citibank's failures in Japan, this article examines what prevents executives from seeing what's right in front of them and offers advice on how to increase awareness. Of course, not every decision requires executives to consciously broaden their focus. Collecting too much information for every decision would waste time and other valuable resources. The key is being mindful. If executives think an error could generate almost irrecoverable damage, then they should insist on getting all the information they need to make a wise decision.

  1. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  2. Bayes multiple decision functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many ($M$) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix $\\mathbf{X}$. $M$ is typically large and $\\mathbf{X}$ will usually have $M$ rows associated with each of the $M$ decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and wi...

  3. Oil industry decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil and gas business is undergoing a significant restructuring. In order to maintain control of our own destiny and succeed in an increasingly competitive business environment, the industry must set goals which are consistent with its continued success and focus on those goals in every aspect of its strategic management. By applying an approach to decision making which focuses on the achievement of the key goals required for success at every decision point and systematic follow-up, a firm can greatly increase its ability to succeed in the business environment of the future

  4. Ethical factors influencing decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, S.

    1993-01-01

    Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de

  5. Responsive Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    , the aim of this study is to gain deeper insights into the complex and multifaceted decision processes that take place in large complex organizations operating in dynamic high-velocity markets. It is proposed that the ability to obtain faster, more accurate and updated insights about ongoing environmental......Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence...

  6. Spatial Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The satellite image processing is an important tool for decision making in domains like agriculture, forestry, hydrology, for normal activity tracking but also in special situations caused by natural disasters. In this paper it is proposed a method for forestry surface evaluation in terms of occupied surface and also as number of trees. The segmentation method is based on watershed transform which offers good performances in case the objects to detect have connected borders. The method is applied for automatic multi-temporal analysis of forestry areas and represents a useful instrument for decision makers.

  7. Shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, William

    2009-01-01

    Shared decision-making has been called the crux of patient-centred care and identified as a key part of change for improved quality and safety in healthcare. However, it rarely happens, is hard to do and is not taught - for many reasons. Talking with patients about options is not embedded in the attitudes or communication skills training of most healthcare professionals. Information tools such as patient decision aids, personal health records and the Internet will help to shift this state, as will policy that drives patient and public involvement in healthcare delivery and training.

  8. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  9. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  10. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  11. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  12. The invasive Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) outcompetes native birds in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Martin; Vidal, Eric; Potter, Murray Alan; Sanchez, Thierry; Brescia, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    Invasive alien species are a major cause of biodiversity loss globally, but especially on islands where high species richness and levels of endemism accentuate their impacts. The Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer), a tropical passerine bird that has been introduced widely across locations of high conservation value, is considered an extreme pest. It is currently expanding its range in New Caledonia, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Decisive recommendations on management strategies are required urgently to inform local managers and policy makers, but they should be based on quantitative local evidence, not just on expert opinion. The Red-vented bulbul is widely blamed for its impacts on biodiversity, especially through competition. We used data from 2,472 point counts to explore the abundance relationships between the Red-vented bulbul and 14 other species of bird. Our results revealed a negative relationship between the occurrence of the bulbul and the mean abundance of nine species, all native (or endemic, n = 3) to the New Caledonia archipelago. In contrast, the abundance of other introduced species such as Acridotheres tristis (Common myna), Passer domesticus (House sparrow) and Spilopelia chinensis (Spotted dove) were not affected by the Red-vented bulbul. Moreover, temporal trends in the abundance of impacted species suggest that the Red-vented bulbul may cause niche contractions rather than mortality for native species in man-modified habitats. Monitoring and control of the Red-vented bulbul is recommended to prevent on-going impacts on native bird communities throughout New Caledonia, and its impact on native bird communities elsewhere should be quantified.

  13. The invasive Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer outcompetes native birds in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thibault

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are a major cause of biodiversity loss globally, but especially on islands where high species richness and levels of endemism accentuate their impacts. The Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer, a tropical passerine bird that has been introduced widely across locations of high conservation value, is considered an extreme pest. It is currently expanding its range in New Caledonia, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Decisive recommendations on management strategies are required urgently to inform local managers and policy makers, but they should be based on quantitative local evidence, not just on expert opinion. The Red-vented bulbul is widely blamed for its impacts on biodiversity, especially through competition. We used data from 2,472 point counts to explore the abundance relationships between the Red-vented bulbul and 14 other species of bird. Our results revealed a negative relationship between the occurrence of the bulbul and the mean abundance of nine species, all native (or endemic, n = 3 to the New Caledonia archipelago. In contrast, the abundance of other introduced species such as Acridotheres tristis (Common myna, Passer domesticus (House sparrow and Spilopelia chinensis (Spotted dove were not affected by the Red-vented bulbul. Moreover, temporal trends in the abundance of impacted species suggest that the Red-vented bulbul may cause niche contractions rather than mortality for native species in man-modified habitats. Monitoring and control of the Red-vented bulbul is recommended to prevent on-going impacts on native bird communities throughout New Caledonia, and its impact on native bird communities elsewhere should be quantified.

  14. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingolf P Rick

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals.

  15. Knowledge, decision making, and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems depend heavily upon the ability to make decisions. Decisions require knowledge, yet there is no knowledge-based theory of decision making. To the extent that AI uses a theory of decision-making it adopts components of the traditional statistical view in which choices are made by maximizing some function of the probabilities of decision options. A knowledge-based scheme for reasoning about uncertainty is proposed, which extends the traditional framework but is compatible with it

  16. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  17. Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.

  18. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Red textures and the work of juxtaposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Kratz

    Full Text Available Simon Gush's evocative work Red is an installation, an exhibit, a film, a website, and a provocation to think about what these different forms convey and do, and how they do so. What kinds of engagement, work and knowledge production are involved in curating, designing and creating work in different formats, each of which combines varied media and forms of expression? This article considers the design and interpretive possibilities of Red's different forms, paying particular attention to juxtaposition as a fundamental technique in designing and constructing exhibits, films and websites. The analysis examines the layerings, interactions, timings and textures involved and draws in other exhibitions to highlight the ways that Red and history museums approach their work and relations to time, history and historiography.

  20. Infrared Model Spectra for Evolving Red Supergiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The space and ground based infrared spectra of red supergiants are modeled and arranged in order of their evolutionary status with their theoretical model parameters. The chemical compositions of the dust shells around red supergiants are affected by the nuclear reaction and dredge-up processes of the cental stars. The processes are sensitively dependent on the initial mass, the initial chemical composition, and the evolutionary status. Miras, infrared carbon stars, and OH/IR stars have close link in their evolution in manu aspects, i,e., the chemical composition, the optical depths and the mass loss rates. The evolutionary tracks for the three classes of red supergiants on infrared two-color diagrams have been made from model calculations and IRAS observational data.

  1. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  2. Decision making in neonatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterlini, G; Tagliabue, P

    2010-06-01

    The field of neonatology presents a fascinating context in which hugely important decisions have to be made on the basis of physicians' assessments of the long term consequences of various possible choices. In many cases such assessments cannot be derived from a consensual professional opinion; the situation is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A sample of neonatologists in different countries received a questionnaire including vignette cases for which no clear consensus exists regarding the (probabilistic) prognosis. They were asked to (I) assess the probability of various outcomes (death, severe impairment) and (II) choose a treatment to be offered to the parents. Information on the physicians' professional and socio-demographic characteristics and their ethical "values" was also collected. The goal of this international survey is to understand the prognosis and to analyze decision making by professionals in the context of life and death in medicine. The availability of an identical technology in different social and institutional contexts should help identifying the convergences and differences under consideration. Seventy percent of those invited responded to the questionnaire (International 60-80%). Italian neonatologists seem to be quite pessimistic about the prognosis of infants at high risk of death or long term disabilities, they show a pro-life attitude, but in a certain proportion are willing to change their minds if requested by parents. Furthermore personal opinions predominate in the decision-making process and the contribution of team meeting and/or ethic consultation seem not significantly modify the decisions.

  3. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  4. The Bilingual Advertising Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between linguistic plurality and the rationale of advertising decisions. The article presents a simple model of sales to different language groups as a function of the level of advertising in each language, language attitudes, incomes, and an advertising response function. The model is intended as a benchmark, and several…

  5. Logistics strategic decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steadie Seifi, M.; Farahani, R.Z.; Rezapour, S.; Kardar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Logistics has an important economic role because it swallows the biggest part of capital and supports the flow and movement of many economic transactions. Therefore, designing the best logistics strategies is vital. In this chapter, we take a look at different kinds of logistics decisions,

  6. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  7. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  8. MULTICRITERIA DECISION-MAKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENDRIKS, MMWB; DEBOER, JH; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1992-01-01

    Interest is growing in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and a large number of these techniques are now available. The purpose of this tutorial is to give a theoretical description of some of the MCDM techniques. Besides this we will give an overview of the differences and similarities

  9. Continuous Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    typically either a corporate finance perspective such as net present value, an operations research perspective that treats the issue as a knapsack...117 6.6 +Resources Reactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 6.7 ++Resources Reactive with Pearson -Tukey...applying financial methods deals with a class of techniques known as real options methods. [11, 80] In a real options framework, “any corporate decision

  10. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  11. Making training decisions proactively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities

  12. Learning from Failed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences and dilemmas posed by learning issues for decision making are discussed. Learning requires both awareness of barriers and a coping strategy. The motives to hold back information essential for learning stem from perverse incentives, obscure outcomes, and the hindsight bias. There is little awareness of perverse incentives that…

  13. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  14. Radio universitaria: trabajo en red como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo en red es un concepto clave en la radio universitaria, tanto desde el punto de vista individual como del colectivo. A través de dos estudios de caso, enfocados en la radio universitaria de Italia y de Colombia, este artículo muestra cómo el trabajo en red ha sido decisivo para el fortalecimiento de su función, la ampliación de su impacto, la conformación de su identidad y el crecimiento de su visibilidad en las sociedades en las cuales desarrollan su labor.

  15. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  16. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  17. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  19. Recovery of rare earths from red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect for the recovery of rare earths from red mud, the bauxite tailings from the production of alumina is examined. The Jamaican red mud by far has the higher trace concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium. Scandium is also present. The dissolution of the rare earth is a major extraction problem because of the large volume of other materials. The recovery processes that have been proposed include the production of co-products such as iron, alumina, and titanium concentrates, with the rare earths going with the titanium. In this paper a critical examination of the possible processes are presented with the recommended research projects to be carried out

  20. Multicriteria decision analysis: Overview and implications for environmental decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Caroline M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Erickson, Jon D.; Messner, Frank; Ring, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Environmental decision making involving multiple stakeholders can benefit from the use of a formal process to structure stakeholder interactions, leading to more successful outcomes than traditional discursive decision processes. There are many tools available to handle complex decision making. Here we illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) outranking tool (PROMETHEE) to facilitate decision making at the watershed scale, involving multiple stakeholders, multiple criteria, and multiple objectives. We compare various MCDA methods and their theoretical underpinnings, examining methods that most realistically model complex decision problems in ways that are understandable and transparent to stakeholders.

  1. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  2. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T 1 , the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T 2 , the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  3. Assessment of Wearable Technology for Integrated Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    absorption of red  light by oxygen‐bound (or unbound)  hemoglobin   in the blood (see figure 9).  The measurement  is achieved by  shining both  red  light...Leadership  &  Education , Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF) assessment. There may, however, be a clear  value  in keeping these decision support tools closer...Soldier mission sets.  The “Signature TrRacking for Optimized  Nutrition  and traininG” (STRONG) Lab at Air Force Research Labs at Wright Patterson Air

  4. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  5. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  6. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  7. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  8. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  9. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  10. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  12. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  13. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  14. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  15. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  16. Science responses to IUCN Red Listing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaric, Ivan; Roberts, D.L.; Gessner, J.; Solow, A.R.; Courchamp, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, NOV (2017), č. článku e4025. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : data deficient * critically endangered * IUCN Red List * endangered species * extinction risk Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  17. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  18. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds ...

  19. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  20. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  1. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each other, as follows: (1) The Red Cross will use Form 3575, Change of Address Order, as a standard... disaster relief efforts, the Postal Service will establish a separate file of change of address forms... and complete the forms, it will distribute the forms to disaster victims who need them, and it will...

  2. Virtualización en red

    OpenAIRE

    Pallàs Blanco, Leopoldo

    2010-01-01

    En el TFC titulado "Virtualización en Red (agregación de enlaces multichasis)" se realizará tanto el análisis como la comparativa de distintas tecnologías actuales centradas en la agregación de enlaces entre equipos de comunicación.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  4. The Red Shoes : Motion picture (1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    Black Swan : A ballet dancer wins the lead in "Swan Lake" and is perfect for the role of the delicate White Swan - Princess Odette - but slowly loses her mind as she becomes more and more like Odile, the Black Swan. The Red Shoes : A young ballet dancer is torn between the man she loves and her pursuit to become a prima ballerina.

  5. Book Review: Greening in the Red Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. Falxa-Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of a crisis, local, often spontaneous stewardship of nature provides a source of social-ecological resilience to individuals, communities, and ecosystems. This is the concept behind Greening in the Red Zone, and one that may be intuitive to many working in urban forestry, community greening, or any of the local nonprofits or...

  6. Biology and ecology of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    Red alder is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest with a range stretching from coastal southeast Alaska to southern California and east to isolated populations in Idaho. Soil moisture during the growing season influences where it grows and its growth rates; it can tolerate poor drainage but not droughty, hot sites. Due to its tolerance of wet soil...

  7. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  8. Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Y. Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:526-532, 1968. 12. Bunn, H. F., Seal, U. S...and Scott, A. F. The role of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate in mediating hemoglobin function of mammalian red cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 241:498-519

  9. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-01-01

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a ∼ 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that ∼> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K (le) 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%

  10. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how...

  11. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  12. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red

  13. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized biomass of red microalgae. Extract A was obtained using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with G-25 ...

  14. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  15. Why Rudolph's nose is red: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ince (Can); A.-M. van Kuijen (Anne-Marijevan); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); K. Yuruk (Koray); L.P. Folkow (Lars P); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A.S. Blix (Arnoldus S)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of

  16. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  17. Decision Strategy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described.

  18. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Big Decisions, Big Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Bruzelius, Nils; Rothengatter, Werner

    2002-01-01

    major projects. The article describes lessons and recommendations on how to improve accountability in decision making on very large infrastructure investments in Denmark. The conventional approach to infrastructure investments is replaced by an alternative focusing on accountability. Redrawing...... and implementation is a highly stochastic one where things happen only with a certain probability and rarely turn out as originally intended. The failure to reflect the probabilistic reality of investment preparation and implementation is a central reason for the poor track record that can be documented for many...... the borderlines of private and public involvement, four specific measures to increase accountability are suggested and detailed: (1) Transparency, (2) Performance specifications, (3) Explication of regulatory regimes, and (4) Involvement of risk capital. The decision on whether or not to build a multi...

  20. Decision Strategy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described

  1. Decision making under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on ways of improving the reliability of products and systems in this country if we are to survive as a first-rate industrial power. The use of statistical techniques have, since the 1920s, been viewed as one of the methods for testing quality and estimating the level of quality in a universe of output. Statistical quality control is not relevant, generally, to improving systems in an industry like yours, but certainly the use of probability concepts is of significance. In addition, when it is recognized that part of the problem involves making decisions under uncertainty, it becomes clear that techniques such as sequential decision making and Bayesian analysis become major methodological approaches that must be utilized

  2. The Cesarean Decision Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puia, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134

  3. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  4. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  5. Heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    As reflected in the amount of controversy, few areas in psychology have undergone such dramatic conceptual changes in the past decade as the emerging science of heuristics. Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information. Because using heuristics saves effort, the classical view has been that heuristic decisions imply greater errors than do "rational" decisions as defined by logic or statistical models. However, for many decisions, the assumptions of rational models are not met, and it is an empirical rather than an a priori issue how well cognitive heuristics function in an uncertain world. To answer both the descriptive question ("Which heuristics do people use in which situations?") and the prescriptive question ("When should people rely on a given heuristic rather than a complex strategy to make better judgments?"), formal models are indispensable. We review research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care, and legal institutions. This research indicates that (a) individuals and organizations often rely on simple heuristics in an adaptive way, and (b) ignoring part of the information can lead to more accurate judgments than weighting and adding all information, for instance for low predictability and small samples. The big future challenge is to develop a systematic theory of the building blocks of heuristics as well as the core capacities and environmental structures these exploit.

  6. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  7. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  8. Glacial conditions in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Eelco J.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, results from previous studies on planktonic foraminifera, δ18O, and global sea level are combined to discuss climatic conditions in the Red Sea during the last glacial maximum (18,000 B.P.). First, the influence of 120-m sea level lowering on the exchange transport through the strait of Bab-el-Mandab is considered. This strait is the only natural connection of the Red Sea to the open ocean. Next, glacial Red Sea outflow salinity is estimated (about 48 parts per thousand) from the foraminiferal record. Combined, these results yield an estimate of the glacial net water deficit, which appears to have been quite similar to the present (about 2 m yr-1). Finally, budget calculation of δ18O fluxes suggests that the glacial δ18O value of evaporation was about 50% of the present value. This is considered to have resulted from substantially increased mean wind speeds over the glacial Red Sea, which would have caused a rapid drop in the kinematic fractionation factor for 18O. The sensitivity of the calculated values for water deficit and isotopic fractionation to the various assumptions and estimates is evaluated in the discussion. Improvents are to be expected especially through research on the glacial salinity contrast between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. It is argued, however, that such future improvement will likely result in a worsening of the isotopic discrepancy, thus increasing the need for an additional mechanism that influenced fractionation (such as mean wind speed). This study demonstrates the need for caution when calculating paleosalinities from δ18O records under the assumption that the modern S∶δ18O relation has remained constant through time. Previously overlooked factors, such as mean wind speed, may have significantly altered that relation in the past.

  9. Changing Times, Complex Decisions: Presidential Values and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Anne M.; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to delve more deeply into the thought processes of the key decision makers at community colleges and understand how they make decisions. Specifically, this article focuses on the role of the community college president's personal values in decision making. Method: We conducted interviews with 13…

  10. The Self in Decision Making and Decision Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Lee Roy; Mitchell, Terence R.

    Since the early 1950's the principal prescriptive model in the psychological study of decision making has been maximization of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU). This SEU maximization has come to be regarded as a description of how people go about making decisions. However, while observed decision processes sometimes resemble the SEU model,…

  11. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients.

  12. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology

  13. Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food composition of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes populations in different habitats in Egypt is ..... The dietary choices of small carnivores such as the Red Fox will depend primarily ... Similarly, feeding on carrion would be most cost effective. The.

  14. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  15. Studies on cytotoxicity and antitumor screening of red and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... 2Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem – 636 007, Tamilnadu, India. ... namely red and black coloured seeds (red form) and the ... development induced by Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites.

  16. Emotions, Mood and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Virlics

    2014-01-01

    Decisions are made according to a complex cognitive and emotional evaluation of the situation. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect of mood on risky investment decision making by using a mood induction procedure. The paper investigates how happy and sad mood affects risky investment decision making and whether there is a difference between the perception of fix investments and monetary investments. The analysis has been conducted focusing on individual investment decisions. Data for ...

  17. Moral and Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    rational ones (i.e. Kohlberg’s influential model of decision making ). However, non- rational elements, such as affect, risk perception, risk preference...dread or anxiety) play a strong role in many types of decisions , and that the addition of decision makers’ emotions to models of choice may make ...White, 1994) agree that emotions are an integral part of ethical decision making as well. Emotions arise in the context of interpersonal

  18. Salience Theory of Judicial Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Bordalo; Nicola Gennaioli; Andrei Shleifer

    2015-01-01

    We present a model of judicial decision making in which the judge overweights the salient facts of the case. The context of the judicial decision, which is comparative by nature, shapes which aspects of the case stand out and draw the judge’s attention. By focusing judicial attention on such salient aspects of the case, legally irrelevant information can affect judicial decisions. Our model accounts for a range of recent experimental evidence that bears on the psychology of judicial decisions...

  19. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  20. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  1. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  2. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  3. Comparative Study of Betacyanin Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yi Yi; Dykes, Gary; Lee, Sui Mae; Choo, Wee Sim

    2017-03-01

    Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach. Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had 23.5 and 121.5 % more betacyanin content, respectively, than those without sub-fractionation. Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0.78-3.13 mg/mL) demonstrated a better antimicrobial activity profile than that of red pitahaya (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against nine Gram-positive bacterial strains. Similarly, the red spinach fraction (MIC values: 1.56-3.13 mg/mL) was more active than the red pitahaya fraction (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against five Gram-negative bacterial strains. This could be because of a higher amount of betacyanin, particularly amaranthine in the red spinach.

  4. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  5. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision...

  6. Induction of Ordinal Decision Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the problem of monotone decision trees from the point of view of the multicriteria decision aid methodology (MCDA). By taking into account the preferences of the decision maker, an attempt is made to bring closer similar research within machine learning and MCDA.

  7. An introduction to decision theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    This up-to-date introduction to decision theory offers comprehensive and accessible discussions of decision making under ignorance and risk, the foundations of utility theory, the debate over subjective and objective probability, Bayesianism, causal decision theory, game theory and social choice

  8. Robustness Regions for Dichotomous Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijn, Pieter; Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1981-01-01

    In the case of dichotomous decisions, the total set of all assumptions/specifications for which the decision would have been the same is the robustness region. Inspection of this (data-dependent) region is a form of sensitivity analysis which may lead to improved decision making. (Author/BW)

  9. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  10. Microfoundations of strategic decision effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.G.; Van Santen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    How do organizations make effective strategic decisions? In this study we build on research on the microfoundations of strategy and strategic decision-making to study the underpinnings of strategic decision effectiveness. We argue that the process-effectiveness link can be more fully understood if

  11. Diseño de una red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Labella Sanz, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Disseny d'una xarxa WAN, formada per una xarxa d'Accés HFC, una xarxa de Commutació ATM i una xarxa de Transport SDH. Diseño de una red WAN, formada por una red de Acceso HFC, una red de Conmutación ATM y una red de Transporte SDH. WAN network design consisting of a HFC access network, an ATM switching network and a SDH transport network.

  12. Experience Reverses the Red Effect among Chinese Stockbrokers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychologi...

  13. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  14. Decisions at hand: a decision support system on handhelds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, B; Porenta, A; Vidmar, G; Aoki, N; Bratko, I; Beck, J R

    2001-01-01

    One of the applications of clinical information systems is decision support. Although the advantages of utilizing such aids have never been theoretically disputed, they have been rarely used in practice. The factor that probably often limits the utility of clinical decision support systems is the need for computing power at the very site of decision making--at the place where the patient is interviewed, in discussion rooms, etc. The paper reports on a possible solution to this problem. A decision-support shell LogReg is presented, which runs on a handheld computer. A general schema for handheld-based decision support is also proposed, where decision models are developed on personal computers/workstations, encoded in XML and then transferred to handhelds, where the models are used within a decision support shell. A use case where LogReg has been applied to clinical outcome prediction in crush injury is presented.

  15. Decision and Inhibitory Trees for Decision Tables with Many-Valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Decision trees are one of the most commonly used tools in decision analysis, knowledge representation, machine learning, etc., for its simplicity and interpretability. We consider an extension of dynamic programming approach to process the whole set

  16. Maxillofacial and mandibular phenotypes in the skulls of red Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined phenotypic expressions in the anatomy of the mandible and maxillofacial region of the Red Sokoto and Sahel goats in Nigeria. The infraorbital foramen was placed above premolar two (PM2) in Red Sokoto but above premolar one (PM1) in Sahel. The Red Sokoto displayed interdigital septa (ruggae) ...

  17. EST data - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...st.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/red/LATEST/red_est.zip File size: 629 KB Simple search U...ase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us EST data - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  1. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  2. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  3. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  4. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert C.; Chen, Ru; Chen, Changsheng

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward

  5. External PCR, ASN's decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French law imposes in some situations the presence of a person skilled in radiation protection (PCR). This article describes the cases when this person must belong to the staff of the enterprise or when this person may be sub-contracted. For instance in most nuclear facilities the PCR must be on the payroll, for enterprises dedicated to nuclear transport the PCR's job can be sub-contracted. A decision given by the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority) sets the minimal requests (in terms of training, job contract, activities) of the sub-contracted PCR. (A.C.)

  6. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  7. An overview of decision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper has been written to provide a non-technical overview of modern decision theory and to identify some of the major ways in which decision theory is relevant to the nuclear waste issue. It concludes that the use of decision theory in the nuclear waste issue should be further developed, and more sophisticated tools should be made used of. In particular, the application of models for uncertainty and for collective decision-making is warranted, and the same applies to models that include the earlier phases of the decision-making process. (92 refs.)

  8. An LWR design decision Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.; Rees, D.C.; Young, J.

    1982-01-01

    While all parties involved in nuclear plant regulation endeavor to make decisions which optimize the considerations of plant safety and financial impacts, these decisions are generally made without the benefit of a systematic and rigorous approach to the questions confronting the decision makers. A Design Decision Methodology has been developed which provides such a systematic approach. By employing this methodology, which makes use of currently accepted probabilistic risk assessment techniques and cost estimation, informed decisions may be made against a background of comparisons between the relative levels of safety and costs associated with various design alternatives

  9. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershberg, Roald E

    1998-01-01

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium λ 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  10. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershberg, Roald E [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchnyi, Crimea (Ukraine)

    1998-08-31

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium {lambda} 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  11. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  13. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bü ttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schä tzle, Simone; Wö rheide, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  14. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  15. Improvements to the Red List Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    Full Text Available The Red List Index uses information from the IUCN Red List to track trends in the projected overall extinction risk of sets of species. It has been widely recognised as an important component of the suite of indicators needed to measure progress towards the international target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, further application of the RLI (to non-avian taxa in particular has revealed some shortcomings in the original formula and approach: It performs inappropriately when a value of zero is reached; RLI values are affected by the frequency of assessments; and newly evaluated species may introduce bias. Here we propose a revision to the formula, and recommend how it should be applied in order to overcome these shortcomings. Two additional advantages of the revisions are that assessment errors are not propagated through time, and the overall level extinction risk can be determined as well as trends in this over time.

  16. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  17. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  18. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  19. Decision and Inhibitory Rule Optimization for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-01-01

    ‘If-then’ rule sets are one of the most expressive and human-readable knowledge representations. This thesis deals with optimization and analysis of decision and inhibitory rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. The most important

  20. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  1. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described

  2. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, B

    2000-07-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described.

  3. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  4. [Red lip defects. Reconstructive techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Stricker, M; Duroure, F

    2002-10-01

    The attractive color of the red lip must be the object of very meticulous reconstruction in their form and pigmentation. This can be done only by using the buccal mucosa. The graf is less indicated. There are multiple local flaps that have been proposed using the same lip, the jugal mucosa and the tongue. The authors will show the principal procedures found in the literature.

  5. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  6. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Botden, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in many economically developed countries as well as in emerging economies.1 It has become a global epidemic problem, with type 2 diabetes,...

  7. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  8. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  9. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  10. Red junglefowl have individual body odors

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminat...

  11. Diseño de red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Spadaro, Gustavo Fabián

    2012-01-01

    Diseño de una Red WAN, para un operador de nivel internacional, con cobertura mundial, para brindar servicios de VPN, internet para empresas. Disseny d'una Xarxa WAN, per a un operador de nivell internacional, amb cobertura mundial, per brindar serveis de VPN, internet per a empreses. WAN Network Design for an international operator with global coverage, to provide VPN services, Internet for companies.

  12. The Red Book and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygott, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Jung's work is fundamentally an experience, not an idea. From this perspective, I attempt to bridge conference, consulting room and living psyche by considering the influence of the 'Red Book' on clinical practice through the subtle and imaginal. Jung's journey as a man broadens out to have relevance for women. His story is individual but its archetypal foundation finds parallel expression in analytic practice today. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  14. 'My kidneys, my choice, decision aid': supporting shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortnum, Debbie; Smolonogov, Tatiana; Walker, Rachael; Kairaitis, Luke; Pugh, Debbie

    2015-06-01

    For patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) a decision of whether to undertake dialysis or conservative care is a critical component of the patient journey. Shared decision making for complex decisions such as this could be enhanced by a decision aid, a practice which is well utilised in other disciplines but limited for nephrology. A multidisciplinary team in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) utilised current decision-making theory and best practice to develop the 'My Kidneys, My Choice', a decision aid for the treatment of kidney disease. A patient-centred, five-sectioned tool is now complete and freely available to all ANZ units to support the ESKD education and shared decision-making process. Distribution and education have occurred across ANZ and evaluation of the decision aid in practice is in the first phase. Development of a new tool such as an ESKD decision aid requires vision, multidisciplinary input and ongoing implementation resources. This tool is being integrated into ANZ, ESKD education practice and is promoting the philosophy of shared decision making. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  15. Humans Optimize Decision-Making by Delaying Decision Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Grinband, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Why do humans make errors on seemingly trivial perceptual decisions? It has been shown that such errors occur in part because the decision process (evidence accumulation) is initiated before selective attention has isolated the relevant sensory information from salient distractors. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that subjects increase accuracy by prolonging the decision process rather than delaying decision onset. To date it has not been tested whether humans can strategically delay decision onset to increase response accuracy. To address this question we measured the time course of selective attention in a motion interference task using a novel variant of the response signal paradigm. Based on these measurements we estimated time-dependent drift rate and showed that subjects should in principle be able trade speed for accuracy very effectively by delaying decision onset. Using the time-dependent estimate of drift rate we show that subjects indeed delay decision onset in addition to raising response threshold when asked to stress accuracy over speed in a free reaction version of the same motion-interference task. These findings show that decision onset is a critical aspect of the decision process that can be adjusted to effectively improve decision accuracy. PMID:24599295

  16. Decision Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Dabo Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

  17. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  18. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. - Highlights: •First assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia •Rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections •Assessment of 28S 'C-Region' for demosponge barcoding •Data for a future comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea

  19. Alcohol, red wine and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, S D; Jones, P J

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the existing literature concerning the effects and mechanisms of action of red wine consumption vs. other alcoholic beverages on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of particular interest is the form and quantity of alcohol consumed. This relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is well supported by epidemiologic studies, which have suggested that different forms of alcohol alter the relative risk values for mortality from CVD. Although not without exception, current evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests a protective effect against the development of CVD with moderate consumption of red wine. The exact nature of the protective effect remains to be established. However, mechanisms including LDL oxidation and alterations in hemostatic variables are being increasingly recognized as contributory. Key components of red wine thought to be responsible for the protective effects include phenolic compounds and alcohol content. Despite the research presented, some questions relating to the current recommendations regarding moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health remain. However, collectively, the literature aids in understanding some of the ways in which alcoholic beverages and their components affect the health of our population.

  20. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-12-12

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected sediment samples from brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. The taxonomic analysis showed the diversity and abundance of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OUT). Recently we established in the laboratory a microdroplet technology to encapsulate single cells. This technology enables us to analyze single-cell genomes and perform the high-throughput screening. The genomes of both cultivable and uncultivable organisms can be analyzed. We envision the collection of complimentary data, obtained by various techniques, such as single-cell genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics. That will enable us not only to understand the environment and microorganism communities but also will allow to discover the previously unknown genes, pathways, and whole genomes. These data will facilitate the enhancement of biological and chemical producers, and pave the way for bioprospecting.

  1. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  2. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  3. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  4. Red Dragon drill missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).

  5. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  6. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  7. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  8. Decision and Inhibitory Rule Optimization for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-04-25

    ‘If-then’ rule sets are one of the most expressive and human-readable knowledge representations. This thesis deals with optimization and analysis of decision and inhibitory rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. The most important areas of applications are knowledge extraction and representation. The benefit of considering inhibitory rules is connected with the fact that in some situations they can describe more knowledge than the decision ones. Decision tables with many-valued decisions arise in combinatorial optimization, computational geometry, fault diagnosis, and especially under the processing of data sets. In this thesis, various examples of real-life problems are considered which help to understand the motivation of the investigation. We extend relatively simple results obtained earlier for decision rules over decision tables with many-valued decisions to the case of inhibitory rules. The behavior of Shannon functions (which characterize complexity of rule systems) is studied for finite and infinite information systems, for global and local approaches, and for decision and inhibitory rules. The extensions of dynamic programming for the study of decision rules over decision tables with single-valued decisions are generalized to the case of decision tables with many-valued decisions. These results are also extended to the case of inhibitory rules. As a result, we have algorithms (i) for multi-stage optimization of rules relative to such criteria as length or coverage, (ii) for counting the number of optimal rules, (iii) for construction of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems, (iv) for construction of graphs describing relationships between two cost functions, and (v) for construction of graphs describing relationships between cost and accuracy of rules. The applications of created tools include comparison (based on information about Pareto optimal points) of greedy heuristics for bi-criteria optimization of rules

  9. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decision and Inhibitory Trees for Decision Tables with Many-Valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2018-06-06

    Decision trees are one of the most commonly used tools in decision analysis, knowledge representation, machine learning, etc., for its simplicity and interpretability. We consider an extension of dynamic programming approach to process the whole set of decision trees for the given decision table which was previously only attainable by brute-force algorithms. We study decision tables with many-valued decisions (each row may contain multiple decisions) because they are more reasonable models of data in many cases. To address this problem in a broad sense, we consider not only decision trees but also inhibitory trees where terminal nodes are labeled with “̸= decision”. Inhibitory trees can sometimes describe more knowledge from datasets than decision trees. As for cost functions, we consider depth or average depth to minimize time complexity of trees, and the number of nodes or the number of the terminal, or nonterminal nodes to minimize the space complexity of trees. We investigate the multi-stage optimization of trees relative to some cost functions, and also the possibility to describe the whole set of strictly optimal trees. Furthermore, we study the bi-criteria optimization cost vs. cost and cost vs. uncertainty for decision trees, and cost vs. cost and cost vs. completeness for inhibitory trees. The most interesting application of the developed technique is the creation of multi-pruning and restricted multi-pruning approaches which are useful for knowledge representation and prediction. The experimental results show that decision trees constructed by these approaches can often outperform the decision trees constructed by the CART algorithm. Another application includes the comparison of 12 greedy heuristics for single- and bi-criteria optimization (cost vs. cost) of trees. We also study the three approaches (decision tables with many-valued decisions, decision tables with most common decisions, and decision tables with generalized decisions) to handle

  11. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  12. red - an R package to facilitate species red list assessments according to the IUCN criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red – IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO, Area of Occupancy (AOO, mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.

  13. red - an R package to facilitate species red list assessments according to the IUCN criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red - IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO), Area of Occupancy (AOO), mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.

  14. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). et al.

    2016-05-30

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (σz=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  15. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  16. Perceived Organizational Red Tape and Organizational Performance in Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2018-01-01

    The claim that perceived organizational red tape hampers public services has become a central theme in public administration research. Surprisingly, however, few scholars have empirically examined the impact of perceived red tape on organizational performance. This study empirically analyzes how...... perceived organizational red tape among managers and frontline staff relates to objectively measured performance. The data consists of survey responses from teachers and principals at Danish upper secondary schools combined with grade-level administrative performance data. Based on theories of red tape...... and motivation crowding, we hypothesize that perceived organizational red tape reduces performance within such organizations. The empirical result is a small, negative relationship between staff perception of red tape and performance, and no relationship between manager-perceived red tape and performance....

  17. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  18. Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis entitled “Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences” is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision support in the context of transport infrastructure assessments. Despite the fact that large amounts...... is concerned with the insufficiency of conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and proposes the use of MCDA as a supplementing tool in order to also capture impacts of a more strategic character in the appraisals and hence make more use of the often large efforts put in the preliminary examinations. MCDA...... and rail to bike transport projects. Two major concerns have been to propose an examination process that can be used in situations where complex decision problems need to be addressed by experts as well as non-experts in decision making, and to identify appropriate assessment techniques to be used...

  19. Decision support in vaccination policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piso, B; Wild, C

    2009-10-09

    Looking across boarders reveals that the national immunization programs of various countries differ in their vaccination schedules and decisions regarding the implementation and funding of new vaccines. The aim of this review is to identify decision aids and crucial criteria for a rational decision-making process on vaccine introduction and to develop a theoretical framework for decision-making based on available literature. Systematic literature search supplemented by hand-search. We identified five published decision aids for vaccine introduction and program planning in industrialized countries. Their comparison revealed an overall similarity with some differences in the approach as well as criteria. Burden of disease and vaccine characteristics play a key role in all decision aids, but authors vary in their views on the significance of cost-effectiveness analyses. Other relevant factors that should be considered before vaccine introduction are discussed to highly differing extents. These factors include the immunization program itself as well as its conformity with other programs, its feasibility, acceptability, and equity, as well as ethical, legal and political considerations. Assuming that the most comprehensive framework possible will not provide a feasible tool for decision-makers, we suggest a stepwise procedure. Though even the best rational approach and most comprehensive evaluation is limited by remaining uncertainties, frameworks provide at least a structured approach to evaluate the various aspects of vaccine implementation decision-making. This process is essential in making consistently sound decisions and will facilitate the public's confidence in the decision and its realization.

  20. Customer Decision Support Systems: Resources for Student Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utilize to support their education-related decision making. Finally, the authors discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks such resources engender from a student perspective and conclude with directions for future research.

  1. Determining Optimal Decision Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we start from the calculation of the product cost, applying the method of calculating the cost of hour- machine (THM, on each of the three cutting machines, namely: the cutting machine with plasma, the combined cutting machine (plasma and water jet and the cutting machine with a water jet. Following the calculation of cost and taking into account the precision of manufacturing of each machine, as well as the quality of the processed surface, the optimal decisional version needs to be determined regarding the product manufacturing. To determine the optimal decisional version, we resort firstly to calculating the optimal version on each criterion, and then overall using multiattribute decision methods.

  2. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decision logics in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauwerky, F.

    1979-01-01

    Decisions in planning procedures can generally, at least for beam therapy to deep seated tumors, be based on a self-consistent system of criteria of optimization, namely: 1. The absorbed dose to the target volume must be applied as uniformly as possible. 2. Absorbed doses to organs (volumes) at risk must be as low as possible, at least below an accepted limit. 3. Radiation effects to outside volumes must be kept as low as possible. Whereas these criteria, as being reduced to the simplest possible requirements, have to be regarded as the stable elements, the radiotherapy parameters, such as geometric arrangements, special techniques, absorbed dose contributions to reference points or systems, have to be taken as the variables within decision processes. The properties of the criteria which have widely proved to be valuable in routine clinical practice, have been investigated in relation to the theoretical system of axioms as it is e.g. offered by Karl Popper's general logics of scientific research. An axiomatic system, as it is demanded (after Popper) must be a) free of discrepancies, i.e. self-consistent (not any sentence can be derived), b) independent, that is, one axiom cannot be derived from another one within the system, c) sufficient for deduction of statements needed, d) necessary, that is complete. All these requirements are fitting also to the offered system of radiotherapy optimization criteria. It has been demonstrated, that Popper's axiomatic system can be regarded as to be the general case for all scientific fields of application, the set of optimization criteria being a special system for radiation therapy, which would have been derivable from Popper's theory. Also practical use could be demonstrated. (orig./ORU) [de

  5. The Decision Disconnect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Marie Ridgley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available If the practice of ethics amongst the members of an enterprise and their ideal identity conflict with those of the governing membership in structure, assumptions, dynamic or learning, then we have a decision disconnect that will constrain the success of that enterprise: a governance issue. Understanding the pervasive role of ethics in leading ICT in the enterprise is vital for effective practice of enterprise ICT governance. Hitherto there has been comparatively little critical attention paid to the problem of understanding how the value systems that shape decision-making comprehensively impact the appropriate practice of governance and management in ICT. In this paper, I argue that the value systems at play within the enterprise are central and intrinsic drivers for shaping control and influence. I conclude with a framework for making sense of the complex relationship between ethics, governance and the enterprise, to assist the practitioner in focusing on those planning factors that may be moderated for effective governance. I draw on the findings from the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics’ (in partnership with the Australian Computer Society examination of ethics and regulation in the ICT industry (Lucas and Weckert, 2008 to highlight the particular problem of ethics and governance of ICT people. This paper is significant as the unambiguous establishment of the criticality of value systems in the practice of governance in the enterprise, and particularly the ICT enterprise. The proposed framework provides a systems-thinking basis for practitioners to explicitly plan and design for the dynamic interrelationship of values, people, process, and purpose in enterprise governance. The framework advocates recognition, planning and design for requisite diversity for all system components.

  6. Mechanisms of immune red cell destruction, and red cell compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratty, G.

    1983-01-01

    The immune destruction of red cells can occur as a complement-mediated intravascular process, or extravascularly, where the red cells are destroyed by macrophages following interaction with cell-bound IgG1, IgG3, and/or C3b. Many of the factors that affect this in vivo destruction are not taken into account during in vitro pretransfusion compatibility testing. At present, even by use of more elaborate tests, it is difficult to accurately predict the fate of a transfused unit of blood. By using some simple information, such as antibody specificity and thermal range, it is sometimes possible to predict the outcome of transfusing a unit of blood that is incompatible in vitro. At other times it may be necessary to utilize 51 Cr-labeled red cells to determine the risk of transfusing such units. Because of the paucity of reported clinical correlations, macrophage/monocyte monolayer assays are of little practical value at present

  7. Can Lutjanus purpureus (South red snapper be "legally" considered a red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red snappers (Lutjanus purpureus in Brazil and Lutjanus campechanus in USA and Gulf of Mexico are both under clear effect of overfishing. Because of their high morphological similarity it has already been suggested that they could possibly be considered as a single species. To investigate the degree of similarity and the genetic structure of red snapper populations we constructed a common dataset of partial D-loop mtDNA sequences of L. purpureus from Brazil (Amapá, Pará and Maranhão and L. campechanus from the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses surprisingly depicted high similarity between L. campechanus and L. purpureus, compatible with the hypothesis of a single species of red snapper for the Western Atlantic Ocean. These preliminary but very curious findings open an important discussion regarding the legislation involved on the capture of this overexploited fish resources as well as regarding their taxonomy.

  8. Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Dawn; Légaré, France; Col, Nananda F; Bennett, Carol L; Barry, Michael J; Eden, Karen B; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Lyddiatt, Anne; Thomson, Richard; Trevena, Lyndal; Wu, Julie H C

    2014-01-28

    Decision aids are intended to help people participate in decisions that involve weighing the benefits and harms of treatment options often with scientific uncertainty. To assess the effects of decision aids for people facing treatment or screening decisions. For this update, we searched from 2009 to June 2012 in MEDLINE; CENTRAL; EMBASE; PsycINFO; and grey literature. Cumulatively, we have searched each database since its start date including CINAHL (to September 2008). We included published randomized controlled trials of decision aids, which are interventions designed to support patients' decision making by making explicit the decision, providing information about treatment or screening options and their associated outcomes, compared to usual care and/or alternative interventions. We excluded studies of participants making hypothetical decisions. Two review authors independently screened citations for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. The primary outcomes, based on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS), were:A) 'choice made' attributes;B) 'decision-making process' attributes.Secondary outcomes were behavioral, health, and health-system effects. We pooled results using mean differences (MD) and relative risks (RR), applying a random-effects model. This update includes 33 new studies for a total of 115 studies involving 34,444 participants. For risk of bias, selective outcome reporting and blinding of participants and personnel were mostly rated as unclear due to inadequate reporting. Based on 7 items, 8 of 115 studies had high risk of bias for 1 or 2 items each.Of 115 included studies, 88 (76.5%) used at least one of the IPDAS effectiveness criteria: A) 'choice made' attributes criteria: knowledge scores (76 studies); accurate risk perceptions (25 studies); and informed value-based choice (20 studies); and B) 'decision-making process' attributes criteria: feeling informed (34 studies) and feeling clear about values (29

  9. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  10. [Interoception and decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Hideki

    2015-02-01

    We sometimes make decisions relying not necessarily on deliberative thoughts but on intuitive and emotional processes in uncertain situations. The somatic marker hypothesis proposed by Damasio argued that interoception, which means bodily responses such as sympathetic activity, can be represented in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and can play critical roles in decision-making. Though this hypothesis has been criticized in its theoretical and empirical aspects, recent studies are expanding the hypothesis to elucidate multiple bodily responses including autonomic, endocrine, and immune activities that affect decision-making. In addition, cumulative findings suggest that the anterior insula where the inner model of interoception is represented can act as an interface between the brain and body in decision-making. This article aims to survey recent findings on the brain-body interplays underlying decision-making, and to propose hypotheses on the significance of the body in decision-making.

  11. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  12. Quantitative decisions in drug development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang-Stein, Christy

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a high-level treatise of evidence-based decisions in drug development. Because of the inseparable relationship between designs and decisions, a good portion of this book is devoted to the design of clinical trials. The book begins with an overview of product development and regulatory approval pathways. It then discusses how to incorporate prior knowledge into study design and decision making at different stages of drug development. The latter include selecting appropriate metrics to formulate decisions criteria, determining go/no-go decisions for progressing a drug candidate to the next stage and predicting the effectiveness of a product. Lastly, it points out common mistakes made by drug developers under the current drug-development paradigm. The book offers useful insights to statisticians, clinicians, regulatory affairs managers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry who have a basic understanding of the drug-development process and the clinical trials conducted to support dru...

  13. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  14. Collaborative Decision Making in METOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    desired effect (Eagly, & Chaiken, 1993). Arguably, artificial intelligence is representative of the best of approaches in rational decision - making ...2001), The quantum of social action and the function of emotion in decision - making , Emotional and Intelligent II: The Tangled Knot of Social...Collaborative decision making in METOC W.F. Lawless Paine College, Departments of Mathematics and Psychology Augusta, GA 30901-3182 ph: 706

  15. FINANCING DECISION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREI STANCULESCU; DAN NICOLAE IVANESCU; PETRE BREZEANU

    2011-01-01

    This paper sustains the existence of a biunivocal link between a company’s financing decision and the corporate governance. On the one hand, the financing decision has an impact on corporate performance, which has been confirmed. According to the agency theory, the financing decision will contribute to solving interest conflicts between shareholders and managers. On the other hand, the corporate governance mechanism provides the proper contractual framework for attracting financing resources....

  16. Red, orange and green Caesarean sections: a new communication tool for on-call obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Olivier; Sayegh, Isabelle; Decullier, Evelyne; Dupont, Corinne; Clément, Henri-Jacques; Berland, Michel; Rudigoz, René-Charles

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a novel communication tool, related to the degree of urgency for Caesarean sections (CSs), on the decision-to-delivery interval for emergency CS. Red CS are very urgent cases corresponding to life-threatening maternal or foetal situations, orange CS are urgent cases and green CS are non-urgent intrapartum CS. We carried out this cohort study in a French maternity hospital. The study included all emergency Caesarean sections during two 6-month periods, before and after introduction of the code. We compared the decision-to-delivery interval of the two study periods. Our study included 174 emergency CS. The mean decision-to-delivery interval after introduction of the code was 31.7 min, significantly shorter (p=0.02) than the 39.6 min interval before introduction of the colour code. Except for the preparation time, each time interval decreased. This included transporting the patient into the operating theatre, and the incision-to-delivery time interval. This study suggests that the use of the three-colour code could significantly shorten the decision-to-delivery interval in emergency CS. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this result.

  17. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  18. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  19. Human Errors in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Shahriari; Aliandrina, Dessy; Feng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify human errors in decision making process. The study was focused on a research question such as: what could be the human error as a potential of decision failure in evaluation of the alternatives in the process of decision making. Two case studies were selected from the literature and analyzed to find the human errors contribute to decision fail. Then the analysis of human errors was linked with mental models in evaluation of alternative step. The results o...

  20. Decision Making in the Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that

  1. Classification for Inconsistent Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Decision trees have been used widely to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples with equal values of conditional attributes but different labels, then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. Three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) have been considered to handle such inconsistency. The decision tree model has been used to compare the classification results among three approaches. Many-valued decision approach outperforms other approaches, and M_ws_entM greedy algorithm gives faster and better prediction accuracy.

  2. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  3. Classification for Inconsistent Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    Decision trees have been used widely to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples with equal values of conditional attributes but different labels, then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. Three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) have been considered to handle such inconsistency. The decision tree model has been used to compare the classification results among three approaches. Many-valued decision approach outperforms other approaches, and M_ws_entM greedy algorithm gives faster and better prediction accuracy.

  4. Uncertainty modeling and decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    We first formulate the problem of decision making under uncertainty. The importance of the representation of our knowledge about the uncertainty in formulating a decision process is pointed out. We begin with a brief discussion of the case of probabilistic uncertainty. Next, in considerable detail, we discuss the case of decision making under ignorance. For this case the fundamental role of the attitude of the decision maker is noted and its subjective nature is emphasized. Next the case in which a Dempster-Shafer belief structure is used to model our knowledge of the uncertainty is considered. Here we also emphasize the subjective choices the decision maker must make in formulating a decision function. The case in which the uncertainty is represented by a fuzzy measure (monotonic set function) is then investigated. We then return to the Dempster-Shafer belief structure and show its relationship to the fuzzy measure. This relationship allows us to get a deeper understanding of the formulation the decision function used Dempster- Shafer framework. We discuss how this deeper understanding allows a decision analyst to better make the subjective choices needed in the formulation of the decision function

  5. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  6. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  7. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  8. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  9. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Collective animal decisions: preference conflict and decision accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa

    2013-12-06

    Social animals frequently share decisions that involve uncertainty and conflict. It has been suggested that conflict can enhance decision accuracy. In order to judge the practical relevance of such a suggestion, it is necessary to explore how general such findings are. Using a model, I examine whether conflicts between animals in a group with respect to preferences for avoiding false positives versus avoiding false negatives could, in principle, enhance the accuracy of collective decisions. I found that decision accuracy nearly always peaked when there was maximum conflict in groups in which individuals had different preferences. However, groups with no preferences were usually even more accurate. Furthermore, a relatively slight skew towards more animals with a preference for avoiding false negatives decreased the rate of expected false negatives versus false positives considerably (and vice versa), while resulting in only a small loss of decision accuracy. I conclude that in ecological situations in which decision accuracy is crucial for fitness and survival, animals cannot 'afford' preferences with respect to avoiding false positives versus false negatives. When decision accuracy is less crucial, animals might have such preferences. A slight skew in the number of animals with different preferences will result in the group avoiding that type of error more that the majority of group members prefers to avoid. The model also indicated that knowing the average success rate ('base rate') of a decision option can be very misleading, and that animals should ignore such base rates unless further information is available.

  12. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  13. Decision Exploration Lab : A Visual Analytics Solution for Decision Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeksema, Bertjan; Baudel, Thomas; Telea, Alex; Crisafulli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present a visual analytics solution designed to address prevalent issues in the area of Operational Decision Management (ODM). In ODM, which has its roots in Artificial Intelligence (Expert Systems) and Management Science, it is increasingly important to align business decisions with business

  14. Decision Making Styles and Progress in Occupational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the role of rational, intuitive, and dependent decisional strategies in facilitating decisions about postcollege occupation among college students (N=71). Results indicated that the use of a dependent decision-making style was the single most powerful predictor of progress. (LLL)

  15. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-12-15

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions.

  16. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  17. Thrombocytopenia responding to red blood cell transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Ahmad A.; Awidi, Abdalla; Rasul, Kakil I.; Al-Homsi, Ussama

    2004-01-01

    Three patients with severe symptomatic iron defficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia had a significant rise in the platelet count a few days following packed red blood cell transfusion. Pretransfusion platelet count of of patient one was 17x10/L. 22x10/Lin patient two and 29x10/L in patient three. On the 6th day of post tranfusion, the platelet count rose to 166x10/Lin patient one, 830x10/L in patient two and 136x10/L in patient three. The possible mechcnism behind such an unreported observation are discussed. (author)

  18. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  19. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  20. Ciudad Mercado, infraestructura en red. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Los mercados de abastos de Madrid atraviesan uno profunda crisis que conlleva su decadencia arquitectónica. Si bien han sido una pieza el clave en la construcción social y urbana de Madrid. no son considerados una infraestructura, lo cual repercute en el tipo y calidad de intervenciones a los que se los somete. Recuperar su condición infraestructura, supone pensar en los mercados como red, enfocándose en las interacciones que plantean con el entorno a múltiples escalas. Éstas, pueden deber...

  1. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  2. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  3. Use of red ochre by early Neanderthals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Kellberg

    2012-01-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute t...... dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record)....

  4. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  5. Arsenobetaine in the red crab, Chionoecetes opilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuto, S.; Stockton, R.A.; Irgolic, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The meat of the red crab, Chionoecetes opilio, caught near the central coast the Japan Sea, was extracted with methanol. The arsenic compounds were isolated from this extract and purified by anion and cation exchange chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Three arsenic compounds were detected. The major arsenic compound, identified as arsenobetaine by TLC, proton NMR spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography with an atomic absorption spectrometer as an arsenic-specific detector, accounted for 90% of the total arsenic in the crab meat. The other two arsenic compounds could not be identified because of insufficient amounts available for analysis.

  6. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  7. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  8. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  9. North American montane red foxes: expansion, fragmentation, and the origin of the Sacramento Valley red fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sacks; Mark J. Statham; John D. Perrine; Samantha M. Wisely; Keith B. Aubry

    2010-01-01

    Most native red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the western contiguous United States appear to be climatically restricted to colder regions in the major mountain ranges and, in some areas, have suffered precipitous declines in abundance that may be linked to warming trends. However, another population of unknown origin has occurred in arid habitats in the...

  10. Comparative characterization of extractives in Alaskan Yellow, Eastern Red, and Western Red Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Doreen Mann; Gabriel Epstein; Phoebe Wagner; Brett Hinkforth; Jun Hyunji

    2017-01-01

    Softwoods, more specifically Cedars, are a set of tree species known to have extractive components with many different biological activities. Research has shown that certain compounds in Cedars are able to resist various forms of attack (microbial, fungal, insect, etc.). Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar, Cupressus/Chamacyparis...

  11. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Red cell concentrate storage and transport temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, V; Cardigan, R; Thomas, S

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the current U.K. guidelines for storage and transport of red cell concentrates (RCC) in saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol (SAGM). The guidelines stipulate storage at 2-6 °C but allow exposure to between 1-10 °C core temperature in a single occurrence of less than 5 h and a surface temperature of 2-10 °C for no more than 12 h during transportation. Twenty RCC units in SAGM were selected on the day of blood collection (day 0) and in vitro quality was tested pre- and post-temperature deviation at 10 °C and up to day 42 of storage. Each group of 10 RCC units was incubated for either 12 h or for both 5 and 12 h. Haemolysis was below the 0·8% U.K. limit at day 42 in all units, although there was an unexpected trend towards lower haemolysis in packs incubated for 5 and 12 h rather than just 12 h alone. Supernatant potassium was significantly higher than reference data on day 35 (P levels of adenosine triphosphate and, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate to reference data from previous studies, throughout storage. These results suggest that exposure to 10 °C for 12 h or for 5 and 12 h did not adversely affect in vitro red cell quality for the remainder of the components shelf life. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  15. Group Decisions in Value Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with a technique to expedite group decision making during the selection of technical solutions for value management process. Selection of a solution from a set of alternatives is facilitated by evaluating using multicriteria decision making techniques. During the process, every possible solution is rated on criteria of function and cost. Function deals more with quality than with quantity, and cost can be calculated based on the theoretical time value of money. Decision-making techniques based on satisfying games are applied to determine the relative function and cost of solutions and hence their relative value. The functions were determined by function analysis system technique. Analytical hierarchy process was applied to decision making and life-cycle cost analysis were used to calculate cost. Cooperative decision making was shown to consist of identifying agreement options, analyzing, and forming coalitions. The objective was attained using the satisfying game model as a basis for two main preferences. The model will improve the value of decision regarding design. It further emphasizes the importance of performance evaluation in the design process and value analysis. The result of the implementation, when applied to the selection of a building wall system, demonstrates a process of selecting the most valuable technical solution as the best-fit option for all decision makers. This work is relevant to group decision making and negotiation, as it aims to provide a framework to support negotiation in design activity.

  16. Decision Making: The Underdeveloped Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Business educators should give students specific training in a methodology which will enable them to make logical, systematic, and rational decisions. Kepner-Tregoe Analysis (KTA), a decision making model, is described and illustrated with an example of a student buying his first car. (SC)

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Kustubayeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental research of the connection between the efficiency of decision making and emotional intelligence are presented in the article. The empirical data indicate that the ability to regulate emotion is an important indicator of the efficiency of decision making in the conditions of psychological experiment.

  18. Boosted decision trees and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coadou, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Decision trees are a machine learning technique more and more commonly used in high energy physics, while it has been widely used in the social sciences. After introducing the concepts of decision trees, this article focuses on its application in particle physics. (authors)

  19. The Decision to Publish Electronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gary

    1983-01-01

    Argues that decision to publish a given intellectual product "electronically" is a business decision based on customer needs, available format alternatives, current business climate, and variety of already existing factors. Publishers are most influenced by customers' acceptance of new products and their own role as intermediaries in…

  20. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  1. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  2. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design....../methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  3. The Structure of Medical Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel C.; Reventlow, Susanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ) an individual for a population-based intervention. Analysis of these situations facilitates examination of intuitive probabilistic reasoning. Drawing on evidence in related literature, we discuss some implications of decision-makers imposing the wrong structure or probabilistic reasoning when making medical......Increasingly, medical choices involve deciding whether to look for evidence of undetected, asymptomatic conditions, or increased risk of future conditions (i.e. screening). Those who screen at sufficiently high risk face decisions about interventions to prevent or postpone the onset of possible......, but not certain, future symptomatic conditions. Other preventive decisions include whether or not to accept population-based intervention, such as vaccination. Using decision trees, we model the normative structures and associated uncertainties that underlie five medical decision situations, each of which...

  4. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  5. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  6. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  7. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary ...

  8. RED AND PROCESSED MEAT AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    ATALIĆ, BRUNO; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; MIŠKULIN, MAJA; LUČIN, ANA

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...

  9. Simulating Coral Reef Connectivity in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yixin

    2018-05-01

    Connectivity is an important component of coral reef studies for its role in the enhancement of ecosystem resilience. Previous genetic structure and physical circulation studies in the Red Sea reveal a homogeneity within the coral reef complexes in the central and northern parts of the basin. Yet, genetic isolation and relatively low connectivity has been observed in the southern Red Sea. Raitsos et al. (2017) recently hypothesized that coral reefs in the southern Red Sea are more connected with regions outside the basin, rather than with the central and northern Red Sea. Using a physical circulation approach based on a 3-D backward particle tracking simulation, we further investigate this hypothesis. A long-term (> 10 years), very high resolution (1km) MITgcm simulation is used to provide detailed information on velocity in the complex coastal regions of the Red Sea and the adjacent narrow Bab-El-Mandeb Strait. The particle tracking simulation results support the initial hypothesis that the coastal regions in the southern Red Sea exhibit a consistently higher connectivity with the regions outside the Bab-El-Mandeb Strait, than with the central and northern Red Sea. Substantially high levels of connectivity, facilitated by the circulation and eddies, is observed with the coastal regions in the Gulf of Aden. A strong seasonality in connectivity, related to the monsoon-driven circulation, is also evident with the regions outside of the Red Sea. The winter surface intrusion plays a leading role in transporting the particles from the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean into the Red Sea, while the summer subsurface intrusion also supports the transport of particles into the Red Sea in the intermediate layer. In addition, the connectivity with the central and northern Red Sea is more affected by the intensity of the eddies. Evidence also suggests that potential connectivity exists between the coastal southern Red Sea and the coasts of Oman, Socotra, Somalia, Kenya

  10. Application of various technological processes in red clover seed processing

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Marković, Jordan; Radivojević, Gordana; Anđelković, Bojan; Barać, Saša

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the processing of natural red clover seed on the processing equipment using different technological methods. Red clover seed, for the establishment and crop utilization, must be of high purity, germination, and high genetic values. These requirements are achieved by processing, or removing impurities and poor quality seeds. Red clover seed processing involves a number of operations, of which the most important are: cleaning, packaging, labeling and storage. ...

  11. Time to decision: the drivers of innovation adoption decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganek, Andrew Paul; (Dave) Haseman, William; Ramamurthy, K.

    2014-03-01

    Organisations desire timeliness. Timeliness facilitates a better responsiveness to changes in an organisation's external environment to either attain or maintain competitiveness. Despite its importance, decision timeliness has not been explicitly examined. Decision timeliness is measured in this study as the time taken to commit to a decision. The research objective is to identify the drivers of decision timeliness in the context of adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA), an innovation for enterprise computing. A research model rooted in the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework is proposed and tested with data collected in a large-scale study. The research variables have been examined before in the context of adoption, but their applicability to the timeliness of innovation decision-making has not received much attention and their salience is unclear. The results support multiple hypothesised relationships, including the finding that a risk-oriented organisational culture as well as normative and coercive pressures accelerates decision timeliness. Top management support as well as the traditional innovation attributes (compatibility, relative advantage and complexity/ease-of-use) were not found to be significant when examining their influence on decision timeliness, which appears inconsistent with generally accepted knowledge and deserves further examination.

  12. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  13. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tyson Chatagnier; Alex Mintz; Yair Samban

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizat...

  14. Decision-making: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    SM Turpin; MA Marais

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares a number of theoretical models of decision-making with the way in which senior managers make decisions in practice. Six prominent decision-makers were interviewed about their own decision-making style, as well as their use of decision support technology. Significant variation was found in personal decision-making styles. However, some central themes emerged, such as the importance of sensitivity to the decision-making context, attention to the presentation of information, ...

  15. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2012-01-30

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology, reproductive biology and resource partitioning, subjects that are virtually absent in the Red Sea elasmobranch literature. This review provides the first comprehensive summary of elasmobranch biology in the Red Sea with the aim of facilitating research in a region that remains remarkably under-studied. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  17. Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs in nanotoxicity assays, the adsorption of phenol red (a pH indicator for culture medium by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and three kinds of carbon blacks (CBs with nanosize, and its effects on cytotoxicity were studied. Results indicated that the phenol red adsorbed and delivered into cells by CBs was responsible for the toxicity to Hela cells in the medium without serum. The cellular uptake of phenol red was verified using 125I-labeling techniques. The size-dependent cytotoxicity of CBs was found to closely correlate to adsorption of phenol red, cellular uptake of phenol red-CB complexes and the amount of phenol red delivered into the cells by CBs. Although the CBs were either nontoxic or slightly toxic, as vehicles of phenol red, they played an essential role in the cytotoxicity induced by phenol red. However, MWNTs showed an intrinsic cytotoxicity independent of phenol red. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.

  18. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  19. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  1. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green) impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect), but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  2. Antimicrobial and Anti-biofilm Activities of Betacyanin Fractions from Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius)

    OpenAIRE

    YI YI YONG

    2018-01-01

    This thesis examines the ability of betacyanin, a natural red-violet pigment from red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius)in inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause diseases and bacteria attached to surfaces such as glass, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene, and silicone rubber. Extraction was optimized to produce a betacyanin fraction and various assays were carried out to identify the best betacyanin formulation against a polymi...

  3. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  4. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  5. Dynamics of individual perceptual decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K.; Lu, Yue M.; Karmali, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decision making is fundamental to a broad range of fields including neurophysiology, economics, medicine, advertising, law, etc. Although recent findings have yielded major advances in our understanding of perceptual decision making, decision making as a function of time and frequency (i.e., decision-making dynamics) is not well understood. To limit the review length, we focus most of this review on human findings. Animal findings, which are extensively reviewed elsewhere, are included when beneficial or necessary. We attempt to put these various findings and data sets, which can appear to be unrelated in the absence of a formal dynamic analysis, into context using published models. Specifically, by adding appropriate dynamic mechanisms (e.g., high-pass filters) to existing models, it appears that a number of otherwise seemingly disparate findings from the literature might be explained. One hypothesis that arises through this dynamic analysis is that decision making includes phasic (high pass) neural mechanisms, an evidence accumulator and/or some sort of midtrial decision-making mechanism (e.g., peak detector and/or decision boundary). PMID:26467513

  6. Clinical factors and the decision to transfuse chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Shreay, Sanatan; Gitlin, Matthew; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cell transfusion was previously the principle therapy for anemia in CKD but became less prevalent after the introduction of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. This study used adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis to identify preferences and predictors of transfusion decision-making in CKD. A computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint survey was administered between June and August of 2012 to nephrologists, internists, and hospitalists listed in the American Medical Association Masterfile. The survey quantified the relative importance of 10 patient attributes, including hemoglobin levels, age, occult blood in stool, severity of illness, eligibility for transplant, iron indices, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, cardiovascular disease, and functional status. Triggers of transfusions in common dialysis scenarios were studied, and based on adaptive choice-based conjoint-derived preferences, relative importance by performing multivariable regression to identify predictors of transfusion preferences was assessed. A total of 350 providers completed the survey (n=305 nephrologists; mean age=46 years; 21% women). Of 10 attributes assessed, absolute hemoglobin level was the most important driver of transfusions, accounting for 29% of decision-making, followed by functional status (16%) and cardiovascular comorbidities (12%); 92% of providers transfused when hemoglobin was 7.5 g/dl, independent of other factors. In multivariable regression, Veterans Administration providers were more likely to transfuse at 8.0 g/dl (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 18.4). Although transplant eligibility explained only 5% of decision-making, nephrologists were five times more likely to value it as important compared with non-nephrologists (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 11.1). Adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis was useful in predicting influences on transfusion decisions. Hemoglobin level, functional status, and cardiovascular comorbidities

  7. Decision rule classifiers for multi-label decision tables

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Azad, Mohammad; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository and KEEL Repository show that rule heuristics taking into account both coverage and uncertainty perform better than the strategies taking into account a single criterion. © 2014 Springer International

  8. Noncytotoxic orange and red/green derivatives of DsRed-Express2 for whole-cell labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glick Benjamin S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell labeling is a common application of fluorescent proteins (FPs, but many red and orange FPs exhibit cytotoxicity that limits their use as whole-cell labels. Recently, a tetrameric red FP called DsRed-Express2 was engineered for enhanced solubility and was shown to be noncytotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. Our goal was to create derivatives of this protein with different spectral properties. Results Building on previous studies of DsRed mutants, we created two DsRed-Express2 derivatives: E2-Orange, an orange FP, and E2-Red/Green, a dual-color FP with both red and green emission. We show that these new FPs retain the low cytotoxicity of DsRed-Express2. In addition, we show that these new FPs are useful as second or third colors for flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion E2-Orange and E2-Red/Green will facilitate the production of healthy, stably fluorescent cell lines and transgenic organisms for multi-color labeling studies.

  9. Spatial attention during saccade decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikaitis, Donatas; Klapetek, Anna; Deubel, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral measures of decision making are usually limited to observations of decision outcomes. In the present study, we made use of the fact that oculomotor and sensory selection are closely linked to track oculomotor decision making before oculomotor responses are made. We asked participants to make a saccadic eye movement to one of two memorized target locations and observed that visual sensitivity increased at both the chosen and the nonchosen saccade target locations, with a clear bias toward the chosen target. The time course of changes in visual sensitivity was related to saccadic latency, with the competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets resolved faster before short-latency saccades. On error trials, we observed an increased competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets. Moreover, oculomotor selection and visual sensitivity were influenced by top-down and bottom-up factors as well as by selection history and predicted the direction of saccades. Our findings demonstrate that saccade decisions have direct visual consequences and show that decision making can be traced in the human oculomotor system well before choices are made. Our results also indicate a strong association between decision making, saccade target selection, and visual sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that saccadic decisions can be tracked by measuring spatial attention. Spatial attention is allocated in parallel to the two competing saccade targets, and the time course of spatial attention differs for fast-slow and for correct-erroneous decisions. Saccade decisions take the form of a competition between potential saccade goals, which is associated with spatial attention allocation to those locations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Visual histories of decision processes for collaborative decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Remembering, understanding and reconstructing past activities is a necessary part of any learning, sense-making or decision making process. It is also essential for any collaborative activity. This dissertation investigates the design and evaluation of systems to support decision remembering, understanding and reconstruction by groups and individuals. By conducting three qualitative case studies of small professional groups, we identify the critical activities where history functionality is n...

  11. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a p...

  12. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a funct...

  13. Red man syndrome caused by vancomycin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; VanBeek, Marta J; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2018-04-01

    Red man syndrome (RMS) is a well-known hypersensitivity reaction caused by intravenous administration of vancomycin, with symptoms ranging from flushing, erythematous rash, pruritus, mild to profound hypotension, and even cardiac arrest. RMS has not previously been described from local application of vancomycin powder in a surgical wound, a technique increasingly utilized for infection prophylaxis in many surgical disciplines including neurosurgery. We describe the first reported case of RMS as a result of local intra-wound application of vancomycin powder for infection prophylaxis. A 73-year-old male with a history of Parkinson's disease underwent 2-stage deep brain stimulation implantation surgeries. Vancomycin powder was applied locally in the surgical wounds for infection prophylaxis during both of the surgeries. The patient developed a well-demarcated, geometric erythematous pruritic rash following the second surgery that was clinically diagnosed as RMS and resolved without sequelae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The RED extinction model. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulda, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bragg diffraction in nearly perfect crystals is treated within the framework of the random elastic deformation (RED) model. Similar to the previous applications it is again assumed that each individual reflection event takes place within an elastically deformed domain and hence may be described by either an exact or a quasiclassical solution to the Takagi-Taupin equations. But because of the high degree of perfection and/or small thickness of the crystal the interaction is confined to one single domain so that the total reflected intensity is obtained just by summing up the contributions from the whole ensemble of domains characterized by different values of the deformation gradient and thickness. The present approach profoundly differs from Kato's statistical dynamical theory which starts with the averaging procedure within the Takagi-Taupin equations before solving them. (orig.)

  15. Metabolism of radiocaesium in red grouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.; Horrill, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Red grouse eat a natural diet mostly of heather, a dwarf shrub which accumulates radiocaesium. Captive grouse were fed a diet, comprising 60% heather contaminated with Chernobyl radiocaesium, containing about 1500 Bq kg -1 of radiocaesium. Intake and excretion of radiocaesium reached equilibrium after 20-23 days and its biological half-life was 10-11 days, with about 23% of the radiocaesium in the diet being absorbed by the bird. Transfer coefficients for both captives and wild birds were about 10 days kg -1 . Radiocaesium activity concentrations in wild birds reflected those in their diet and it is suggested that the sampling of birds shot for sport could form an efficient means of monitoring radiocaesium levels in heather-dominated uplands in the UK. (Author)

  16. The evolution of red supergiants to supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasor, Emma R.; Davies, Ben

    2017-11-01

    With red supergiants (RSGs) predicted to end their lives as Type IIP core collapse supernova (CCSN), their behaviour before explosion needs to be fully understood. Mass loss rates govern RSG evolution towards SN and have strong implications on the appearance of the resulting explosion. To study how the mass-loss rates change with the evolution of the star, we have measured the amount of circumstellar material around 19 RSGs in a coeval cluster. Our study has shown that mass loss rates ramp up throughout the lifetime of an RSG, with more evolved stars having mass loss rates a factor of 40 higher than early stage RSGs. Interestingly, we have also found evidence for an increase in circumstellar extinction throughout the RSG lifetime, meaning the most evolved stars are most severely affected. We find that, were the most evolved RSGs in NGC2100 to go SN, this extra extinction would cause the progenitor's initial mass to be underestimated by up to 9M⊙.

  17. The Swedish decision to withdraw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, G.

    1988-01-01

    A referendum in Sweden in 1980 regarding the future use of nuclear energy resulted in a Parliamentary decision not to build reactors beyond the twelve units already licensed and to decommission them all by the year 2010. The author analyses this decision and the 1980 Act implementing it, pointing out that during preparation of the latter, the Government stated that some compensation would be granted for a forced premature decommissioning, although the Act is silent in this respect. He discusses the legal basis on which a nuclear operator could base a claim and concludes that any compensation will finally depend on a decision by Parliament. (NEA) [fr

  18. Decision support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1989-05-01

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  19. Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As

  20. Moral and Ethical Decision Making: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-08

    exploration and elaboration of both rational and intuitive decision making processes. In addition, emotions may also play an important role in...More specifically, it suggests that both rational and intuitive decision making processes are likely to play an important role in ethical decision ...and military literature related to ethical decision making more generally. Specifically, it suggests that both rational and intuitive decision making