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Sample records for elf exposure measurement

  1. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, I. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Azoulay, A. [Supelec, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M. [Gaz de France (EDF/GDF), SEM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  2. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Measurements of ELF electromagnetic exposure of the general public from Belgian power distribution substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the exposure of the general public due to distribution substations of 11/0.22-0.4 kV is investigated. The substations are categorized according to their location (substations in buildings, detached substations, substations between two houses, and underground substations in the pavement), and eight relevant substations are selected to perform measurements of the electromagnetic fields. The purpose of this paper is to determine the "minimum distances" for the general public--defined as the distances outside which the field levels do not exceed a certain field value--of these substations. In total, 637 field measurements were performed: 358 measurements of the magnetic field and 279 measurements of the electric field in different locations. Measured momentary magnetic field values are within the range of 0.025 to 47.39 microT. Electric fields are within the range 0.1 to 536 V m(-1). Also, magnetic field measurements as a function of the height above the ground were performed. The maximal magnetic (values over one day) and electric fields for all the investigated substations were below 100 microT and 5 kV m(-1), respectively. For exposure over a year, all substations except one delivered values below 100 microT. For the substation producing a magnetic field above 100 microT, a minimum distance of about 0.5 m was obtained. When comparing the average exposure with the value of 0.4 microT, minimum distances of maximally 5.4 m (average day) and 7.2 m (average year) were obtained.

  4. Sources of Exposure to ELF Fields at Workplaces (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchia, P.

    1999-01-01

    In most workplaces people are exposed to a variety of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields. So-called 'electric jobs' have been identified, where the exposure is likely to significantly exceed average residential and occupational levels. The classification is, however, questionable, and no reliable exposure data may in general be associated with different jobs. Most recent epidemiological studies have been focused on areas where ELF fields are quite intense, sources are clearly identified, and actual field levels can be measured. Such areas include electric power generation, transmission and distribution, electric transport, and arc welding. In this paper, typical values of magnetic fields in these workplaces are presented and discussed. The time-weighted magnetic field values for the same jobs are not very consistent across the studies. This indicates that not only job titles, but also measurements of the magnetic field, are poor surrogates for the actual exposure, which is best assessed by the use of dosemeters. (author)

  5. ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderón, Carolina; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Taki, Masao; Wake, Kanako; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Maslanyj, Myron; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae Kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R.; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones. Four different communication systems were investigated: Global System for Mobile

  6. Rapporteur Report: Sources and Exposure Metrics for ELF Epidemiology (Part 1) (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.

    1999-01-01

    High quality epidemiological studies on the possible link between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and human health effects are of great importance for radiation protection in this area. The main sources of ELF fields are domestic appliances, different electrical energy distribution systems and all kinds of electrical machinery and devices at the workplace. In general, ELF fields present in the environment, show complex temporal patterns and spatial distributions, depending on the generating source. The complete characterisation of the different field sources often requires highly sophisticated instrumentation, and this is therefore not feasible within the scope of epidemiological studies. On average, individual exposure from ELF fields is low in both the working environment and in residential areas. Only at certain workplaces are people subject to significant ELF exposure with regard to biological effects. Different methods have been developed to determine levels of exposure received by study subjects, with the aim to rank exposed and non-exposed groups in epidemiological studies. These include spot measurements, calculations or modelling. The different methods used to estimate total exposure in epidemiological studies may result to a differing extent in a misclassification of the study subjects. Equally important for future studies is the selection of the appropriate exposure metric. The most widely used metric so far is the time-weighted average and thus represents a quasi standard metric for use in epidemiological studies. Beside, wire codes have been used for a long time in residential studies and job titles are often used in occupational studies. On the basis of the experience gained in previous studies, it would be desirable to develop standardised, state-of-the-art protocols to improve exposure assessment. New surrogates and metrics were proposed as the basis for further studies. But only few of these have recently undergone preliminary testing. A

  7. Residential exposure from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Shamesh Raj; Tukimin, Roha

    2018-01-01

    ELF EMF radiation have received considerable attention as a potential threat to the safety and health of people living in the vicinity of high voltage transmission lines, electric distribution substations, power stations and even in close proximity to electronics and electrical household appliances. The paper highlights the study on the ELF EMF safety assessment performed at residences comprising of an owner-occupied house, a completed vacant house and an under construction condominium. The objectives of this study were to determine the ELF EMF radiation exposure level from the high voltage transmission line, electric distribution substation, power station and electrical household appliances in the residences, and to assess the potential exposure received by the occupants at the assessed locations. The results were logged in the electric and magnetic field strength with the units of volt per meter (V/m) and miliGauss (mG) respectively. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines.

  8. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Melissa; Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Schmid, Christoph D.; Noreen, Faiza; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Schuermann, David; Schär, Primo

    2017-03-01

    Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Yet, underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Genome instability seems an unlikely reason as the energy transmitted by ELF-MF is too low to damage DNA and induce cancer-promoting mutations. ELF-MF, however, may perturb the epigenetic code of genomes, which is well-known to be sensitive to environmental conditions and generally deranged in cancers, including leukaemia. We examined the potential of ELF-MF to influence key epigenetic modifications in leukaemic Jurkat cells and in human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells undergoing in vitro differentiation into the neutrophilic lineage. During granulopoiesis, sensitive genome-wide profiling of multiple replicate experiments did not reveal any statistically significant, ELF-MF-dependent alterations in the patterns of active (H3K4me2) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks nor in DNA methylation. However, ELF-MF exposure showed consistent effects on the reproducibility of these histone and DNA modification profiles (replicate variability), which appear to be of a stochastic nature but show preferences for the genomic context. The data indicate that ELF-MF exposure stabilizes active chromatin, particularly during the transition from a repressive to an active state during cell differentiation.

  9. [FTIR spectra investigation of rat sensitive tissues exposure to ELF-EMF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gun; Yan, Ya-jing; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Yan; Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    Nonthermal effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) are related to changes in the microstructure of biological tissues after exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis method can effectively study the mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. The present paper studies the characteristics of sensitive tissues of rat after ELF-EMF exposure. FTIR analysis of sensitive tissues of control group and experimental group showed that 50 Hz, 0.75 mT ELF-EMF exposure for 20 days can affect molecular level of the rat testis, blood and brain. Experimental results show that regular changes in absorption peak positions and intensity in the spectra of sensitive tissue may be caused by exposure to ELF-EMF, therefore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective means to study mechanism of biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  10. Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure and natural killer activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Bargellini, Annalisa; Scaringi, Meri; Bravo, Giulia; Borella, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-MF) are possible carcinogens to humans and some data suggest that they can act as promoters or progressors. Since NK cells play a major role in the control of cancer development, an adverse effect on ELF-MF on NK function has been hypothesized. We examined NK activity in 52 workers exposed to different levels of ELF-MF in various activities. Individual exposure was monitored during 3 complete work-shifts using personal dosimeters. Environmental exposure was also monitored. ELF-MF levels in the workers were expressed as Time-Weighted Average (TWA) values. NK activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the whole group the median occupational TWA was 0.21 μT. According to the TWA levels, workers were classified as low exposed (26 subjects, TWA ≤ 0.2 μT) and higher exposed workers (26 subjects; TWA > 0.2 μT). In higher exposed workers, we observed a trend to reduce NK activity compared to low exposed, but the difference was not significant. Then we selected a subgroup of highest exposed workers (12 subjects; TWA > 1 μT); no difference was observed between low and highest exposed subjects in the main personal variables. Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 μT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field

  11. ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carolina; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Taki, Masao; Wake, Kanako; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Maslanyj, Myron; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones. Four different communication systems were investigated: Global System for Mobile (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and Wi-Fi Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). The magnetic fields produced by the phones during transmission were measured under controlled laboratory conditions, and an equivalent loop was fitted to the data to produce three-dimensional extrapolations of the field. Computational modelling was then used to calculate the induced current density and electric field strength in the brain resulting from exposure to these magnetic fields. Human voxel phantoms of four different ages were used: 8, 11, 14 and adult. The results indicate that the current densities induced in the brain during DECT calls are likely to be an order of magnitude lower than those generated during GSM calls but over twice that during UMTS calls. The average current density during Wi-Fi VoIP calls was found to be lower than for UMTS by 30%, but the variability across the samples investigated was high. Spectral contributions were important to consider in relation to current density, particularly for DECT phones. This study suggests that the spatial distribution of the ELF induced current densities in brain tissues is determined by the physical characteristics of the phone (in particular battery position) while the amplitude is mainly dependent on communication system, thus providing a feasible basis for assessing ELF exposure in the epidemiological study. The number of phantoms was not large enough to provide definitive evidence of an increase of induced current density with age, but the data that are available suggest that, if present, the effect is likely to be very small. Copyright © 2017

  12. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, N.

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors.

  13. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  14. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  15. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  16. Assessing occupational and domestic ELF magnetic field exposure in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study: Results of a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tongeren, M.; Mee, T.; Whatmough, P.; Broad, L.; Mashlanyj, M.; Allen, S.; Muir, K.; McKinney, P.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS) was examined. During the study, 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Exposure data were collected using EMDEX II dosemeters worn by the participants for 3-4 consecutive days. Data were collected over a total of 321 d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure. Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers (arithmetic mean, AM: 0.78 μT), secretaries (AM: 0.48 μT) and dentists (AM: 0.42 μT). Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. In summary, acceptably precise measures of ELF MF exposure are feasible at relatively moderate cost. The results were used to develop a protocol for data collection from subjects in the UKABTS. (authors)

  17. Design of exposure systems for ELF electric field bioeffects research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaune, W.T.; Decker, J.R.; Phillips, R.D.; Gillis, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two systems for exposure and sham-exposure of large numbers of rats and mice to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz electric fields have been constructed. The rat system contains four racks of four rectangular 1.0m x 2.2m exposure-electrodes that are stacked vertically with a separation between adjacent electrodes of 0.41 m. Any two of the four exposure racks may be energized to a maximum field strength of 150 kV/m. Each exposure electrode is equipped with 24 Lexan cages, each of which holds a single rat. The cage floor is a stainless steel screen that serves as one electrode. The system for watering animals is contained entirely within the electrode and does not protrude above the cage's floor, thereby preventing distortion of the exposure field and electrical shock or discharge as the animal drinks. The total capacity of the system is 288 rats. A similar system of two racks of five electrodes each is used to expose as many as 450 mice to fields at a maximum strength of 150 kV/m while sham exposing an equal number. Measurements of the electric field reveal an overall uniformity within 4% over the area to be occupied by experimental animals. The field inside a Lexan cage is reduced by about 3%. No corona-discharge has been detected. Measurements of ozone concentration in the rat and mouse exposure systems show no difference from background levels. Harmonic distortion has been eliminated by damping and filtering the high-voltage supply. Animals housed in close proximity are partially shielded from the electric field; the total body current in a rat model is reduced by 35 ± 5% when rats are placed in adjacent cages. (author)

  18. A Novel Detection Method for Underwater Moving Targets by Measuring Their ELF Emissions with Inductive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Lianping; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose a novel detection method for underwater moving targets by detecting their extremely low frequency (ELF) emissions with inductive sensors. The ELF field source of the targets is modeled by a horizontal electric dipole at distances more than several times of the targets’ length. The formulas for the fields produced in air are derived with a three-layer model (air, seawater and seafloor) and are evaluated with a complementary numerical integration technique. A proof of concept measurement is presented. The ELF emissions from a surface ship were detected by inductive electronic and magnetic sensors as the ship was leaving a harbor. ELF signals are of substantial strength and have typical characteristic of harmonic line spectrum, and the fundamental frequency has a direct relationship with the ship’s speed. Due to the high sensitivity and low noise level of our sensors, it is capable of resolving weak ELF signals at long distance. In our experiment, a detection distance of 1300 m from the surface ship above the sea surface was realized, which shows that this method would be an appealing complement to the usual acoustic detection and magnetic anomaly detection capability. PMID:28788097

  19. A Novel Detection Method for Underwater Moving Targets by Measuring Their ELF Emissions with Inductive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a novel detection method for underwater moving targets by detecting their extremely low frequency (ELF emissions with inductive sensors. The ELF field source of the targets is modeled by a horizontal electric dipole at distances more than several times of the targets’ length. The formulas for the fields produced in air are derived with a three-layer model (air, seawater and seafloor and are evaluated with a complementary numerical integration technique. A proof of concept measurement is presented. The ELF emissions from a surface ship were detected by inductive electronic and magnetic sensors as the ship was leaving a harbor. ELF signals are of substantial strength and have typical characteristic of harmonic line spectrum, and the fundamental frequency has a direct relationship with the ship’s speed. Due to the high sensitivity and low noise level of our sensors, it is capable of resolving weak ELF signals at long distance. In our experiment, a detection distance of 1300 m from the surface ship above the sea surface was realized, which shows that this method would be an appealing complement to the usual acoustic detection and magnetic anomaly detection capability.

  20. Assessment of every day extremely low frequency (Elf) electromagnetic fields (50-60 Hz) exposure: which metrics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souqes, M.; Lambrozo, J.

    2006-01-01

    Because electricity is encountered at every moment of the day, at home with household appliances, or in every type of transportation, people are most of the time exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) electromagnetic fields (50-60 Hz) in a various way. Due to a lack of knowledge about the biological mechanisms of 50 Hz magnetic fields, studies seeking to identify health effects of exposure use central tendency metrics. The objective of our study is to provide better information about these exposure measurements from three categories of metrics. We calculated metrics of exposure measurements from data series (79 very day exposed subjects), made up approximately 20,000 recordings of magnetic fields, measured every 30 seconds for 7 days with an E.M.D.E.X. II dosimeter. These indicators were divided into three categories : central tendency metrics, dispersion metrics and variability metrics.We use Principal Component Analysis, a multidimensional technique to examine the relations between different exposure metrics for a group of subjects. Principal component Analysis (P.C.A.) enabled us to identify from the foreground 71.7% of the variance. The first component (42.7%) was characterized by central tendency; the second (29.0%) was composed of dispersion characteristics. The third component (17.2%) was composed of variability characteristics. This study confirm the need to improve exposure measurements by using at least two dimensions intensity and dispersion. (authors)

  1. Elf measurements in Greece conducted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabetsos, E.; Filippopoulos, G.; Koutounidis, D.; Govari, Ch.; Skamnakis, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (E.E.A.E.) is the competent national authority for the protection of the general public and the environment from artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. To this end, E.E.A.E. carries out measurements in the vicinity of all kinds of facilities emitting E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields (e.g. power lines, high voltage substations) and RF electromagnetic fields (e.g. audio, radio and television antennas, mobile phone base stations, radar and satellite earth stations and other microwave communication systems), in order to monitor whether the general public exposure limits are being adhered to. Regarding the electromagnetic fields emitted by antenna stations, the safety limits in Greek legislation were recently set to 70% of the I.C.N.I.R.P. values and to 60% of them if the antenna station is closer than 300 m from the perimeter of day nurseries, schools, hospitals or elder-care facilities, while in the case of extremely low frequency fields, the limit values are set exactly the same as the reference levels in I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines. Regarding the levels of E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields in Greece E.E.A.E. has conducted many measurements around the elements of the electric grid where the main interest of the public is focused. Theoretical estimations and typical values based on actual measurements of the fields in the vicinity of the power lines used in Greece are presented. Measurement results in the vicinity of substations are also presented. In general, the levels of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the power grid elements are well below the established safety limits; whereas the levels of the electric field may reach values comparable to the safety limits very close to extremely high voltage lines. However, there is no case where the measured values of elf electric or magnetic fields were higher than the safety limits. There are a few exceptional cases where measurements of RF fields conducted by E.E.A.E. in the

  2. Experimental model for ELF-EMF exposure: Concern for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, C; Costantini, E; Kamal, M A; Reale, M

    2015-01-01

    Low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are abundantly present in modern society and in the last 20 years the interest about the possible effect of extremely low frequency (ELF) EMFs on human health has increased progressively. Epidemiological studies, designed to verify whether EMF exposure may be a potential risk factor for health, have led to controversial results. The possible association between EMFs and an increased incidence of childhood leukemia, brain tumors or neurodegenerative diseases was not fully elucidated. On the other hand, EMFs are widely used, in neurology, psychiatry, rheumatology, orthopedics and dermatology, both in diagnosis and in therapy. In vitro studies may help to evaluate the mechanism by which LF-EMFs affect biological systems. In vitro model of wound healing used keratinocytes (HaCaT), neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) as a model for analysis of differentiation, metabolism and functions related to neurodegenerative processes, and monocytic cell line (THP-1) was used as a model for inflammation and cytokines production, while leukemic cell line (K562) was used as a model for hematopoietic differentiation. MCP-1, a chemokine that regulates the migration and infiltration of memory T cells, natural killer (NK), monocytes and epithelial cells, has been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50 Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF.

  3. Measurement procedure to assess exposure to extremely low-frequency fields: A primary school case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Bahillo, A.; De la Rosa, R.; Carrera, A.; Duran, R. J.; Fernandez, P.

    2012-01-01

    How to correctly measure the exposure of general public to extremely low-frequency (ELF) radiation is a key issue for ELF epidemiological studies. This paper proposes a measurement procedure to accurately assess the exposure of people to electric and magnetic field in the frequency band from 5 Hz to 100 kHz in buildings and their premises. As ELF radiation could be particularly harmful to children, the measurement procedure is focused on exposure to ELF in schools. Thus, the students' exposure to ELF fields can be assessed by correlating the ELF measurements to the hours of school activity. In this paper, the measurement protocol was applied to study the ELF exposure on students from Garcia Quintana primary school in Valladolid, Spain. The campaign of measurements for ELF exposure assessment in this primary school was of great interest for the Regional Council of Public Health because of the social alarm generated by the presence of a significant number cancer cases in children. (authors)

  4. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Kock, Marjolijn D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function

  5. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  6. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias-Viñas David

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  7. On remote sensing of transient luminous events' parent lightning discharges by ELF/VLF wave measurements on board a satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeuvre, F.; Marshall, R.; PinçOn, J. L.; Inan, U. S.; Lagoutte, D.; Parrot, M.; Berthelier, J. J.

    2009-09-01

    First recordings of satellite ELF/VLF waveform data associated with transient luminous event (TLE) observations are reported from the summer 2005 campaign coordinated by Stanford University and Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement et de l'Espace (LPCE). TLEs are optically observed from the U.S. Langmuir Laboratory, while ELF/VLF waveform data are simultaneously recorded on board the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales microsatellite DEMETER and on the ground at Langmuir. Analyses of ELF/VLF measurements associated with sprite events observed on 28 July 2005 and 3 August 2005 are presented. Conditions to trace back the wave emissions from the satellite to the source region of the parent lightning discharge are discussed. The main results concern: (1) the identification from a low Earth orbit satellite of the 0+ whistler signatures of the TLE causative lightning; (2) the identification of the propagation characteristics of proton whistlers triggered by the 0+ whistlers of the causative lightning, and the potential use of those characteristics; (3) recognition of the difficulty to observe sprite-produced ELF bursts in the presence of proton-whistlers; (4) the use of geographical displays of the average power received by the DEMETER electric field antennas over the U.S. Navy transmitter North West Cape (NWC) located in Western Australia to evaluate VLF transmission cones which explain the presence (28 July events) or the absence (3 August events) of propagation links between sferics observed at ground and 0+ whistlers observed on DEMETER; and (5) owing to electron-collisions, an optimum transfer of energy from the atmosphere to the ionosphere for waves with k vectors antiparallel, or quasi-antiparallel, to Earth's magnetic field direction.

  8. NAS investigates ELF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, M.

    1997-01-01

    A report published in October 1996 by a committee appointed by the US National Research Council has concluded that 'no conclusive and consistent evidence shows that exposures to residential electric and magnetic fields produce cancer, adverse neurobehavioural effects, or reproductive and developmental effects'. However, the committee also noted that 'an association between residential wiring configurations ... and childhood leukemia persists in multiple studies, although the causative factor responsible for that statistical association has not been identified.' The committee was set up in 1991 at the request of the US Congress, and asked to concentrate on extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic field exposures found in residential settings. The expertise of its 16 members covered the wide range of disciplines necessary to evaluate the extensive research literature. Research into the possible health effects of ELF magnetic fields has been driven largely by epidemiology, and a comprehensive meta-analysis of 11 childhood leukemia studies forms a key part of the report. These studies have used several metrics to define 'exposure' of the study subjects to ELF fields. The meta-analysis combined the studies in a number of ways to evaluate their consistency and sensitivity to individual study results. (author). 1 ref

  9. Current densities in a pregnant woman model induced by simultaneous ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M

    2008-01-01

    The pregnant woman model SILVY was studied to ascertain to what extent the electric current densities induced by 50 Hz homogeneous electric and magnetic fields increase in the case of simultaneous exposure. By vectorial addition of the electric current densities, it could be shown that under worst case conditions the basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines are exceeded within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother, whereas in sole field exposure they are not. However, within the foetus the induced current densities do not comply with basic restrictions, either from single reference-level electric fields or from simultaneous exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Basic limits were considerably exceeded

  10. Alterations in adenylate kinase activity in human PBMCs after in vitro exposure to electromagnetic field: comparison between extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) and therapeutic application of a musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonietta; Battisti, Emilio; Vannoni, Daniela; Aceto, Emilia; Galassi, Gianmichele; Giglioni, Stefania; Tommassini, Valentina; Giordano, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20 volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes. Adenylate kinase activity was increased after ELF field exposure but decreased slightly after TAMMEF exposure. Neither of the two electromagnetic field affected the activities of the purine metabolism enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine kinase. We concluded that ELF fields may influence cellular electrical charge stability; stimulation of adenylate kinase activity could restore the cell to a state of equilibrium. In contrast, TAMMEF fields may be useful for maintaining and regulating the cellular electrical charge.

  11. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  12. The effect of continuous ELF-MFs on the level of 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Shiri, Leila; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Naghdi, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with a frequency of 10 Hz and an intensity of 690–720 μT on the level of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in adult male Wistar rats. A total of 24 adult Wistar male rats were used, and after exposure with an ELF-MF for 15 successive days, all rats in each test were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Then, they were placed in a stereotaxic frame for surgery and a microdialysis process. Dialysate samples were analyzed to measure the amount of 5-HIAA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. Results showed that ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 1 h daily, was not effective in altering the level of 5-HIAA. However, ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 3 h daily, decreased the level of the 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus. It can be concluded that ELF-MFs affect the serotonergic system and may be used to treat nervous system diseases. This study is an initial step towards helping cure depression using ELF-MFs

  13. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2) geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3) seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean. PMID:27258295

  14. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy. Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1 median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2 geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3 seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4 the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5 no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  15. ELF magnetic therapy and oxidative balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Francesco; Vallesi, Giuseppe; Rufini, Stefano; Gizzi, Stefania; Ercolani, Enrico; Rossi, Ruggero

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about the relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF and formation (or neutralization) of free radicals in the living cells is limited. Studies performed on animals and plants have shown conflicting effects on the relation between EMF and oxidative stress. Very few experiments have been performed on humans. The present study reports on the effects of an ELF magnetic therapy device (Seqex) on oxidative scale in humans. This device supplies complex magnetic signals with specific choices of frequency, intensity, and shape that are based on Liboff's ion cyclotron resonance hypothesis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were treated using the Seqex cycle. A quantitative determination of oxidative stress was obtained at three time points by measuring Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in peripheral blood before and after the cycle and one month following completion of the cycle. A highly significant reduction in mean MDA (53.8%, p = 0.0002) was found at the end of the treatment. One month later the mean MDA had again risen, but there was still a significant overall reduction of 15.6% (p = 0.010) compared to original values.

  16. Measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters and ELF electromagnetic emissions during a meteorological balloon flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Robert; Dujany, Matthieu; Berthomieu, Roland; Boissier, Mathilde; Bruneel, Pierre; Fischer, Lucie; Focillon, William; Gullo, Robin; Hubert, Valentin; Lafforgue, Gaétan; Loe-Mie, Marichka; Messager, Adrien; Roy, Felix; Auvray, Gérard; Bertrand, Fabrice; Coulomb, Romain; Deprez, Gregoire; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of electric field and atmospheric conductivity were performed onboard a small payload flown under a meteorological balloon during a fair weather period. This experiment is part of a project to study thunderstorms and TLE organized in the frame of the engineering cursus at Ecole Polytechnique. The payload is equipped with 4 electrodes to measure the 3 components of the DC and AC electric fields up to 3.2 kHz. Dedicated sequences of operation, when one electrode is operated in the relaxation mode, have been used to determine the positive and negative electrical conductivities. Altitude profiles of the DC vertical electric field and conductivities in agreement with expected fair weather parameters were obtained from ~ 3.5 to ~ 13 km before the failure of a battery. At an altitude of ~ 9 km slight disturbances in the electric field suggest the traversal of thin clouds with disturbed electrical characteristics. Schumann resonances were observed up to the fifth harmonics at levels that are typical of a quiet period over Europe with most thunderstorms located over remote longitudinal sectors. EM waves due the power lines at 50Hz are detected during the whole measuring period and their altitude and horizontal variations will be presented as a function of the position of the balloon over the ground power network. A surprising and interesting observation was made of a Russian transmitter at 82 Hz located in Murmansk region and used for sub-marine communications. We shall present an initial analysis of the amplitude and polarization of the corresponding signal.

  17. ELF-test less accurately identifies liver cirrhosis diagnosed by liver stiffness measurement in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Boland, G. J.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The enhanced liver fibrosis test (ELF-test) has been validated for several hepatic diseases. However, its performance in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients is uncertain. This study investigates the diagnostic value of the ELF test for cirrhosis identified by liver stiffness

  18. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  19. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  20. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of b...

  1. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  2. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  3. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kokate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  4. Transcript profiling of Elf5+/- mammary glands during pregnancy identifies novel targets of Elf5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee L Rogers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elf5, an epithelial specific Ets transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the pregnancy-associated development of the mouse mammary gland. Elf5(-/- embryos do not survive, however the Elf5(+/- mammary gland displays a severe pregnancy-associated developmental defect. While it is known that Elf5 is crucial for correct mammary development and lactation, the molecular mechanisms employed by Elf5 to exert its effects on the mammary gland are largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcript profiling was used to investigate the transcriptional changes that occur as a result of Elf5 haploinsufficiency in the Elf5(+/- mouse model. We show that the development of the mouse Elf5(+/- mammary gland is delayed at a transcriptional and morphological level, due to the delayed increase in Elf5 protein in these glands. We also identify a number of potential Elf5 target genes, including Mucin 4, whose expression, is directly regulated by the binding of Elf5 to an Ets binding site within its promoter. CONCLUSION: We identify novel transcriptional targets of Elf5 and show that Muc4 is a direct target of Elf5, further elucidating the mechanisms through which Elf5 regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland.

  5. TotalFinaElf Factbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2002. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  6. Photon tagging; considerations for an ELFE DESY proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Photon Tagging in the 5-15 GeV region is considered. The advantage of performing exclusive measurements in relation to obtainable photon flux in described. Finally some technical problems in relation to implementing a photon beam in the framework of the ELFE at DESY proposal are discussed. (author)

  7. Combined exposure of ELF magnetic fields and X-rays increased mutant yields compared with X-rays alone in pTN89 plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Shin; Nakahara, Takehisa; Sakurai, Tomonori; Komatsubara, Yoshiki; Miyakoshi, Junji; Isozumi, Yasuhito

    2005-01-01

    We have examined mutations in the supF gene carried by pTN89 plasmids in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to examine the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMFs) and/or X-rays to the plasmids. The plasmids were subjected to sham exposure or exposed to an ELFMF (5 mT), with or without X-ray irradiation (10 Gy). For the combined treatments, exposure to the ELFMF was immediately before or after X-ray irradiation. The mutant fractions were 0.94 x 10 -5 for X-rays alone, 1.58 x 10 -5 for an ELFMF followed by X-rays, and 3.64 x 10 -5 for X-rays followed by an ELFMF. Increased mutant fraction was not detected following exposure to a magnetic field alone, or after sham exposure. The mutant fraction for X-rays followed by an ELFMF was significantly higher than those of other treatments. Sequence analysis of the supF mutant plasmids revealed that base substitutions were dominant on exposure to X-rays alone and X-rays plus an ELFMF. Several types of deletions were detected in only the combined treatments, but not with X-rays alone. We could not find any mutant colonies in sham irradiated and an ELFMF alone treatment, but exposure to ELFMFs immediately before or after X-ray irradiation may enhance the mutations. Our results indicate that an ELFMF increases mutation and alters the spectrum of mutations. (author)

  8. Prenatal exposure to lead in France: Cord-blood levels and associated factors: Results from the perinatal component of the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood (Elfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Goria, Sarah; Berat, Bénédicte; Brunel, Serge; Pecheux, Marie; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Rambaud, Loïc; Wagner, Vérène; le Tertre, Alain; Fillol, Clémence; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Guldner, Laurence

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the ban on lead in gasoline on 2nd January 2000, the French population's exposure to lead has decreased in recent years. However, because of the acknowledged harmful cognitive effects of lead even at low levels, lead exposure remains a major public health issue. In France, few biomonitoring data are available for exposure to lead in pregnant women and newborn. The purpose of the perinatal component of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program was to describe levels of various biomarkers of exposure to several environmental pollutants, including lead, among mother-baby pairs. In this paper, we aimed to describe the distribution of cord blood lead levels (CBLL) in French mother-baby pairs, and to estimate the contribution of the main lead exposure risk factors to these levels. A total of 1968 mother-baby pairs selected from the participants of the perinatal component of the French HBM program were included in the study on lead. Lead levels were analyzed in cord blood collected at child delivery by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data collected included biological sample, socio-demographic characteristics, environmental and occupational exposure, and information on dietary factors. CBLL were quantified for 99.5% of the sample. The CBLL geometric mean was 8.30 μg/l (95% CI [7.94-8.68]) with a 95th percentile of 24.3 μg/l (95% CI [20.7-27.1]). Factors significantly associated with CBLL were tap water consumption, alcohol consumption, shellfish consumption, vegetable consumption, bread consumption, smoking, and the mother being born in countries where lead is often used. This study provides the first reference value for CBLL in a random sample of mother-baby pairs not particularly exposed to high levels of lead (24.3 μg/l). A substantial decrease in CBLL over time was observed, which confirms the decrease of exposure to lead among the general population. CBLL observed in this French study were in the range of those

  9. Interfacial effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EM-ELF) on the vaporization step of carbon dioxide from aqueous solutions of body simulated fluid (SBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruto, D T; Botter, R; Perfumo, F; Scaglione, S

    2003-05-01

    Spontaneous processes in an aqueous solution of body simulated fluid (SBF) were monitored in closed vessel for a period of 1 month at 310 K, at atm pressure, and initial pH of 7.2, both with and without exposure to a square pulsed extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EM-ELF) of 250 microT, repeated at 75 Hz. The most important findings are that the SBF surface tension (gamma), evaluated under the EM-ELF field, is lower than the corresponding value measured without EM-ELF at any time. Furthermore, the pH of the exposed SBF is always more basic than that of the unexposed solution. As a consequence, when the EM-ELF is applied, calcium phosphate salts do not precipitate from the SBF solution for a period as long as 30 days. Behind all these experimental evidences there is only one mechanism: the vaporisation from the SBF-air interface of the CO(2)(aq) dissolved into the aqueous electrolyte solution. Thermodynamic analysis of these results establish that, at any given time, the difference, Delta, between the measured surface tensions with and without EM-ELF applied, gives the work of the electromagnetic forces to change the extent at which the CO(2)(aq) adsorbs at the liquid-air interface. It has been demonstrated that the work supply per second and per unit of area by the electromagnetic forces, 3.73 x 10(-10) mJ/s cm(2), is very near to the experimental slope in the plot Delta vs. t 1.7 x 10(-10) mJ/s cm(2). This leads to the conclusion that the EM-ELF fields have an interfacial effect on the concentration value of the CO(2) (aq) at the SBF-air interface. Because of that, the EM-ELF field is enhancing the CO(2) vaporisation rate; thus any other steps, which are a consequence of this mechanism, are changing. These results allow explanation of previous experiments concerning the precipitation of calcium carbonate from flowing hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution in the temperature range 353-373 K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa under the effect of static magnetic

  10. ELF{trademark}: A new fluorogenic alkaline phosphatase substrate for nonisotopic mRNA in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, V.; Paragas, V.; Zhang, Y.Z. [Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Molecular Probes` researchers have developed a novel alkaline phosphatase substrate that gives rise to a bright yellow-green fluorescent precipitate at the site of enzymatic activity. We refer to this process as ELF, for Enzyme-Labeled Fluorescence. We found that the ELF substrate is an ideal tool for mRNA in situ hybridization. Not only are ELF signals much brighter than those generated using conventional fluorophores, resulting in film exposure times approximately one-fortieth as long as those needed for fluorescein-labeled probes or secondary detection reagents, but the ELF signal is also many-fold more photostable. The ELF signal develops in seconds to minutes, in contrast to radioactive detection, which requires days to weeks for adequate signal development. In addition, because the ELF precipitate has a Stokes shift of greater than 100 nm, we found that ELF signals can be easily distinguished from sample autofluorescence and from signals arising from other fluorescent probes or counterstrains. Also, unlike signals from chromogenic enzyme substrates, the fluorescent ELF signals are easily distinguished from pigmented tissues, even in zebrafish whole-mount embryos.

  11. Effects of tissue conductivity and electrode area on internal electric fields in a numerical human model for ELF contact current exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarao, H; Kuisti, H; Korpinen, L; Hayashi, N; Isaka, K

    2012-05-21

    Contact currents flow through the human body when a conducting object with different potential is touched. There are limited reports on numerical dosimetry for contact current exposure compared with electromagnetic field exposures. In this study, using an anatomical human adult male model, we performed numerical calculation of internal electric fields resulting from 60 Hz contact current flowing from the left hand to the left foot as a basis case. Next, we performed a variety of similar calculations with varying tissue conductivity and contact area, and compared the results with the basis case. We found that very low conductivity of skin and a small electrode size enhanced the internal fields in the muscle, subcutaneous fat and skin close to the contact region. The 99th percentile value of the fields in a particular tissue type did not reliably account for these fields near the electrode. In the arm and leg, the internal fields for the muscle anisotropy were identical to those in the isotropy case using a conductivity value longitudinal to the muscle fibre. Furthermore, the internal fields in the tissues abreast of the joints such as the wrist and the elbow, including low conductivity tissues, as well as the electrode contact region, exceeded the ICNIRP basic restriction for the general public with contact current as the reference level value.

  12. Short-term effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yemao; Liu, Xingfa; Zhang, Jiangong; Li, Ni

    2015-01-01

    With the development and widespread use of electromagnetic field (EMF) technology, recent studies are focusing on the effects of EMF on human health. Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to investigate the interaction between ELF-EMF exposure and memory impairment in rats. Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). Animals were exposed to 100 μT/50 Hz ELF-EMF or subjected to sham exposure when 12 weeks old. After 12 weeks, the Morris water maze (MWM) was used to test the changes in cognitive and memory ability. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) content in cortex, hippocampus and plasma were measured by ELISA assays. The morphology of neuron was detected by H&E staining. After exposure, the body weight of rats showed no difference compared with the control group. The application of ELF-EMF did not induce any cognitive and memory impairment compared with the sham-exposure group. The determination of Aβ showed no significant change between the two groups, and there was no histological change in ELF-EMF exposure group. The present study indicated that short-term exposure of 100 μT/50 Hz ELF-EMF had no effects on cognition and memory of rats, and did not alter the expression of Aβ and the neuron morphology. However, more comprehensive studies are still required to elucidate the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of ELF-EMF exposure on living organisms.

  13. Exposure of Surgeons to Magnetic Fields during Laparoscopic and Robotic Gynecologic Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Soo; Chung, Jai Won; Choi, Soo Beom; Kim, Deok Won; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji; Cho, Hee Young

    2015-01-01

    To measure and compare levels of extremely-low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure to surgeons during laparoscopic and robotic gynecologic surgeries. Prospective case-control study. Canadian Task Force I. Gynecologic surgeries at the Yonsei University Health System in Seoul, Korea from July to October in 2014. Ten laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries and 10 robotic gynecologic surgeries. The intensity of ELF-MF exposure to surgeons was measured every 4 seconds during 10 laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries and 10 robotic gynecologic surgeries using portable ELF-MF measuring devices with logging capability. The mean ELF-MF exposures were .1 ± .1 mG for laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries and .3 ± .1 mG for robotic gynecologic surgeries. ELF-MF exposure levels to surgeons during robotic gynecologic surgery were significantly higher than those during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery (p gynecologic surgery and conventional laparoscopic surgery, hoping to alleviate concerns regarding the hazards of MF exposure posed to surgeons and hospital staff. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational exposure of UK adults to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, T; Whatmough, P; Broad, L; Dunn, C; Maslanyj, M; Allen, S; Muir, K; McKinney, P A; van Tongeren, M

    2009-09-01

    Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in the UK general population is poorly documented. To assess levels of occupational exposure to ELF MF in the UK and evaluate the use of a rigid job-exposure matrix (JEM) to assign exposures to subjects in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS). Personal ELF MF measurements were carried out. Exposure traces were divided into occupational, travel and elsewhere periods, under differing exposure metrics. Exposure was classified by Standard Occupational Classification (2000), Standard Industrial Classification (1997), and a combined occupation-industry classification. Statistical analyses (mixed effects model) determined the contribution of occupational exposure to the 24 h cumulative exposure and the contribution of occupation and industry to total variance. Data were obtained from 317 individuals, comprising UKABTS subjects (n = 192), occupational proxies for UKABTS subjects (n = 101) and "interest" readings (n = 24). 236 individuals provided occupational data covering 117 different occupations. Average exposure was significantly higher at work than at home. Elevated average occupational exposure was found for welding trades, printers, telephonists and filing and other records assistants. The discrimination of a rigid JEM based on occupation can be improved by linking the classification with industry and by the use of contextual information. This report substantially expands information on adult exposure to ELF MF in the UK. The accuracy of exposure assessments based solely on job codes is improved by linking with either industry code or contextual knowledge of equipment and of power lines or substations in the work environment.

  15. What advice to give when ELF is classified as a possible human carcinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project to address the health issues associated with exposure to EMF. This Project is intended to provide independent scientific assessment of health effects from exposure to EMF (0-300 GHz); identify gaps in knowledge requiring further research in order to improve health risk assessments; encourage focused, high quality research; and conduct formal WHO/IARC/ICNIRP health risk assessments after key research has been completed. The International EMF Project is currently reviewing research results and conducting risk assessments of exposure to static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. WHO will be conducting an evaluation of all health effects from ELF field exposure during 2002-3. This paper summarizes what is known about ELF exposure on childhood leukaemia, what the IARC classification means and how some national authorities have responded. In addition, WHO recommendations are given to provide guidance to national authorities wanting to protect their populations against EMF exposure. Whenever electricity is conducted through transmission lines, distribution lines or is used in appliances, both electric and magnetic fields exist close to the lines or appliances. The power frequency used is 50 or 60 Hz. Use of electric power has become part of everyday life. However, questions have been raised as to whether these and other ELF fields are carcinogenic or can produce any other effects on health

  16. (B)ELF in multicultural student teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Komori-Glatz, Miya

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers agree that multicultural teams are a "double-edged sword" with the potential for high levels of creativity and production, but also conflict. This paper argues that effective communication is vital for developing "virtuous", rather than vicious, circles and that research into (B)ELF offers an insight into what effective communication in multicultural and multilingual teams can look like. The conceptual frame develops research into ELF and BELF by also drawing on organisationa...

  17. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  18. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) systems: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Claudio; Volpi, Nila; Franci, Daniela; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Guarna, Massimo; Montella, Antonio; Albanese, Antonietta; Battisti, Emilio; Fioravanti, Antonella; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by matrix degradation and changes in chondrocyte morphology and metabolism. Literature reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can produce benefits in OA patients, even if EMFs mechanism of action is debated. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from femoral heads were cultured in vitro in bidimensional (2-D) flasks and in three-dimensional (3-D) alginate beads to mimic closely cartilage environment in vivo. Cells were exposed 30 min/day for 2 weeks to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100 Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities, and waveforms. Cell viability was measured at days 7 and 14, while healthy-cell density, heavily vacuolized (hv) cell density, and cluster density were measured by light microscopy only for 3-D cultures after treatments. Cell morphology was observed for 2-D and 3-D cultures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chondrocyte exposure to TAMMEF enhances cell viability at days 7 and 14 compared to ELF. Light microscopy analysis showed that TAMMEF enhances healthy-cell density, reduces hv-cell density and clustering, compared to ELF. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed different morphology for 2-D (fibroblast-like) and 3-D (rounded shape) cultures, confirming light microscopy results. In conclusion, EMFs are effective and safe for OA chondrocytes. TAMMEF can positively interfere with OA chondrocytes representing an innovative non-pharmacological approach to treat OA.

  19. Inhibition of angiogenesis mediated by extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Delle Monache

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels is an essential therapeutic target in many diseases such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. In this regard, extremely low-frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMFs seem able to inhibit vessel growth when used in a specific window of amplitude. To investigate the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action of ELF-EMFs we tested the effect of a sinusoidal magnetic field (MF of 2 mT intensity and frequency of 50 Hz on endothelial cell models HUVEC and MS-1 measuring cell status and proliferation, motility and tubule formation ability. MS-1 cells when injected in mice determined a rapid tumor-like growth that was significantly reduced in mice inoculated with MF-exposed cells. In particular, histological analysis of tumors derived from mice inoculated with MF-exposed MS-1 cells indicated a reduction of hemangioma size, of blood-filled spaces, and in hemorrhage. In parallel, in vitro proliferation of MS-1 treated with MF was significantly inhibited. We also found that the MF-exposure down-regulated the process of proliferation, migration and formation of tubule-like structures in HUVECs. Using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we collected data about the possible influence of MF on the signalling pathway activated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. In particular, MF exposure significantly reduced the expression and activation levels of VEGFR2, suggesting a direct or indirect influence of MF on VEGF receptors placed on cellular membrane. In conclusion MF reduced, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of endothelial cells to form new vessels, most probably affecting VEGF signal transduction pathway that was less responsive to activation. These findings could not only explain the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action exerted by MFs, but also promote the possible development of new therapeutic applications for treatment of those diseases where excessive angiogenesis is involved.

  20. Evaluation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electromagnetic Fields and Their Probable Relationship with Hematological Changes among Operators in Heavy Metal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roknian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is important that biological and health effects from the induction of currents and fields in the body by extremely low frequency (ELF fields are fully explored to determine the effects produced at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intensity of ELF electromagnetic fields and its probable relationship with hematological changes among operators in a heavy metal industry site. This is a case study. In the present study, 205 workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF were working in four categories: (1 induction furnace workers, (2 induction hardening workers, (3 welders, (4 computer operators. Material and Methods: A variety of methods for exposure assessment have been devised and applied to epidemiological studies of the effects of EMF in occupational settings. The methods range from rather crude job-classification methods, to sophisticated job-exposure matrix (JEM modeling based on personal exposure measurements and reconstruction of past exposure. Monitoring procedures were carried out to measure the levels of exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields. The strength of the electric and magnetic fields were measured by a dosimetric method (NIOSH 203.Workers’ blood samples were collected and analyzed for identifying different blood parameters. The results of hematological changes of workers in their medical files were also used for evaluation. Results: Measurements showed a high strength of ELF field at the induction furnace workplace. Total electric field ranged from 2.3 to 2452.3 V/M and magnetic field from 1 to 325.1 μT. In other workshops including induction hardening, total electric field ranged from 2.45 to 68.5 V/M, magnetic field from 1.3 to 20.4 μT, total electric field from 1.02 to 11.23 V/M, magnetic field from 0.12 to 3.25 μT in the welding department and finally for computer operators this range was 20.1 to 186.2 V/M for electric field and 0.07 to 0

  1. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  2. A human source for ELF magnetic perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboff, A R

    2016-01-01

    Current models that frame consciousness in terms of electromagnetic field theory carry implications that have yet to be fully explored. Endogenous weak extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields are generated by ionic charge flow in axons, dendrites and synaptic transmitters. Because neural tissues are transparent to such fields, these provide the basis for the globally unifying qualities required to properly describe consciousness as a field. At the same time, however, an electromagnetic approach predicts partial transmission of this 1-100 nT field, suggesting external interactions similar to the various ELF magnetic perturbations that are linked to homeostatic and endocrine-related physiological effects. It follows that humans may represent an additional, previously unrecognized source of weak (1-10 nT) ambient ELF magnetic fields.

  3. Computational assessment of pregnant woman models exposed to uniform ELF-magnetic fields: compliance with the European current exposure regulations for the general public and occupational exposures at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo; Douglas, Mark; Capstick, Myles; Kuster, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The Recommendation 1999/529/EU and the Directive 2013/35/EU suggest limits for both general public and occupational exposures to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, but without special limits for pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of <10 %, (2) electric fields in fetuses are lower than the occupational limits, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of >40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages). (authors)

  4. TOTAL FINA ELF. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is the annual report 2002 of Total-Fina-Elf society, great company on the hydrocarbons market. According to the company objective (set the standard not only with the financial performance, but also with stringent requirements in terms of social and environmental responsibility), it presents the Chairman message, the corporate governance, the social and environmental responsibility, the future of energy, the human resources policy, the investor relations, the overview of Total-Fina-Elf fiscal year with financial information and 2002 industrial events. (A.L.B.)

  5. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  6. Nighttime exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia: an extended pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Linet, Martha S

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nighttime bedroom measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) may represent a more accurate reflection of exposure and have greater biologic relevance than previously used 24-/48-hour measurements. Accordingly, the authors extended a pooled...

  7. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Antonia; Tabrez, Shams; Pesce, Mirko; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Reale, Marcella

    2015-01-15

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. The molecular mechanism through which ELF-EMFs can influence cellular behavior is still unclear. A hypothesis is that ELF-EMFs could interfere with chemical reactions involving free radical production. Under physiologic conditions, cells maintain redox balance through production of ROS/RNS and antioxidant molecules. The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF-EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. In our study, the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was evaluated. A significant modulation of iNOS, CAT and Cyt P450 protein expression was recorded as a result of ELF-EMF exposure in both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and non-stimulated cell lines. Modulation in kinetic parameters of CAT, CYP-450 and iNOS enzymes in response to ELF-EMF indicates an interaction between the ELF-EMF and the enzymological system. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For perfectly localized orbitals, the basins of ELF are the domains in which the probability of finding a pair of electrons is maximal. Author Affiliations. Andreas Savin1. Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, CNRS and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4, Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France. Journal of Chemical Sciences.

  9. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  10. A review on electromagnetics (EM) exposure measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EM exposure in the range of non-ionizing radiations (NIR) which falls in the radio frequency up to 3GHz is mainly sourced from mobile phone base stations, broadcast towers and radar facilities. This reviews based on previous researcher obtained results and methods in order to determine the best technique to measure the ...

  11. Microbiological characterization of 3193 French dwellings of Elfe cohort children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, S; Reboux, G; Frossard, V; Scherer, E; Valot, B; Laboissière, A; Zaros, C; Vacheyrou, M; Gillet, F; Roussel, S; Raherison, C; Millon, L

    2015-02-01

    Although exposure to indoor microorganisms in early life has already been associated with respiratory illness or allergy protection, only a few studies have performed standardized samplings and specific microbial analysis. Moreover, most do not target the different groups of microorganisms involved in respiratory diseases (fungi, bacteria, dust mites). In our study, ten specific qPCR targets (6 fungal species, 1 family and 2 genera of bacteria, 1 house dust mite) were used to analyze the microorganism composition of electrostatic dust fall collector (EDC) from 3193 dwellings of the Elfe French cohort study. Multivariate analyses allowed us to show that the microbial composition of dwellings, assessed with simultaneous analysis of 10 microorganisms, can be characterized by four entities: three bacteria, house dust mite Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus, fungi Alternaria alternata, and five other molds. Some dwellings' intrinsic characteristics (occupational ratio, type of dwelling and presence of pets) clearly influence microorganism distribution, and six different profiles of dwellings, characterized by their composition in microorganisms, have been described across France. The use of these clusters seems promising in the evaluation of allergic risk. Allergic respiratory diseases will develop in the near future in some children of the Elfe cohort and will indicate to what extent our approach can be predictive of respiratory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Exposure Opportunities: Using Exogenous Measures in Assessing Effects of Media Exposure on Smoking Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of exposure has long been one of the most central and fundamental issues in communication research. While self-reported measures remain dominant in the field, alternative approaches such as exogenous or hybrid measures have received increasing scholarly attention and been employed in various contexts for the estimation of media exposure; however, systematic scrutiny of such measures is thin. This study aims to address the gap by systematically reviewing the studies which utilized exogenous or hybrid exposure measures for examining the effects of media exposure on tobacco-related outcomes. We then proceed to discuss the strengths and weaknesses, current developments in this class of measurement, drawing some implications for the appropriate utilization of exogenous and hybrid measures.

  13. Cytogenetic damage in adult and newborn mice exposed to Elf magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieradi, L.A.; Udroiu, I.; Chiuchiarelli, G.; Migliorini, D.; Cristaldi, M.; Tanzarella, C.

    2006-01-01

    Data obtained in newborn mice show that the chronic exposure during intra-uterine life to a 50 Hz, 650 μT E.L.F. magnetic field induce a genetic damage. Nevertheless, the increase of DNA strand break in brain and in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood and liver disagree with the data obtained by Abramsson-Zetterberg and Grawe (13) which did not find any genetic alterations in mice exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic field. In any case, along with other dissimilarities in the experimental design, the intensity of the field (14 μT) and the time of sampling (35 days) were different. It is important to underline the four-fold increase in C.R.E.S.T.+ micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes in the exposed group in comparison with the control group. Even though this value is quite low, it could indicate that E.L.F. magnetic fields may have different properties to damage the genome integrity. This stresses the need for further investigation on the possible link between electromagnetic fields and aneuploidy in order to elucidate the relationship with carcinogenesis. Preliminary data obtained with sperm abnormality assay show a significant increase of sperm abnormalities in mice exposed to E.L.F. magnetic fields and suggest a possible alteration to the spermatogenic process after exposure. This data agrees with data obtained by Tablado et al. (1998), in mice exposed continually for 35 days to a field of 1 T. Regarding the palatal ridges alterations assay, the results obtained show that the development of the secondary palate is not affected by E.L.F. magnetic field (50 Hz, 0,65 T). Nevertheless further studies at different frequency and intensity should be carried out to detect the possible epigenetic damage induced by E.L.F. exposure (Migliorini, 2005). With regard to the mechanism of action, it is generally believed that the damage induced by the magnetic field is an oxidative damage and that free radicals are involved. Some authors

  14. Cytogenetic damage in adult and newborn mice exposed to Elf magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieradi, L.A. [Istituto per lo Studio degli Ecosistemi, CNR, Rome (Italy); Udroiu, I.; Chiuchiarelli, G.; Migliorini, D.; Cristaldi, M. [Universite La Sapienza, Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo, Rome (Italy); Tanzarella, C. [Roma Univ., Dipt. di Biologia (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Data obtained in newborn mice show that the chronic exposure during intra-uterine life to a 50 Hz, 650 {mu}T E.L.F. magnetic field induce a genetic damage. Nevertheless, the increase of DNA strand break in brain and in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood and liver disagree with the data obtained by Abramsson-Zetterberg and Grawe (13) which did not find any genetic alterations in mice exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic field. In any case, along with other dissimilarities in the experimental design, the intensity of the field (14 {mu}T) and the time of sampling (35 days) were different. It is important to underline the four-fold increase in C.R.E.S.T.+ micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes in the exposed group in comparison with the control group. Even though this value is quite low, it could indicate that E.L.F. magnetic fields may have different properties to damage the genome integrity. This stresses the need for further investigation on the possible link between electromagnetic fields and aneuploidy in order to elucidate the relationship with carcinogenesis. Preliminary data obtained with sperm abnormality assay show a significant increase of sperm abnormalities in mice exposed to E.L.F. magnetic fields and suggest a possible alteration to the spermatogenic process after exposure. This data agrees with data obtained by Tablado et al. (1998), in mice exposed continually for 35 days to a field of 1 T. Regarding the palatal ridges alterations assay, the results obtained show that the development of the secondary palate is not affected by E.L.F. magnetic field (50 Hz, 0,65 T). Nevertheless further studies at different frequency and intensity should be carried out to detect the possible epigenetic damage induced by E.L.F. exposure (Migliorini, 2005). With regard to the mechanism of action, it is generally believed that the damage induced by the magnetic field is an oxidative damage and that free radicals are involved. Some authors

  15. Physics with a 15-30 GeV electron accelerator (ELFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.; Pire, B.

    1993-01-01

    Proposals for ELFE (Electron Laboratory For Europe), a 15-30 GeV high luminosity, continuous beam electron accelerator are discussed. These proposals form an extensive research program on exclusive reactions to probe the evolution of correlated quarks systems. Using the nucleus itself as a microscopic detector is one of the important ideas of this program. The same reaction is measured using nuclei of different sizes and thus the differences are observed in the evolution from quarks and gluons to hadrons in the nuclear medium. A brief overview of the physics with ELFE is presented. (R.P.) 1 tab

  16. Instrument for measurement of low exposure rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, A.; Lindhe, J.C.

    1974-02-01

    An instrument for measurement of exposure rates between 0.1 and 20 R/h was fabricated. The instrument will be used in connection wtth radiation therapy of gynecologic cancer. A lithium-drifted silicon detector is used. The registered pulse information is treated in the instrument so that the exposure rate may be read directly in R/h. The instrument accumulates pulses during one second, and the repetition time is one second, The error is plus or minus 10% at 0.1 R/h, plus or minus 3% at 1 R/h and less than plus or minus 1% at 10 R/h. The repetition time may be altered to 10 sec. at calibration. This means that it is possible to measure 0.01 R/h with the accuracy 10% and 0.1 R/h with the accuracy 3%. The stability with time and temperature, linearity, energy dependence, direction dependence and lifetime was investigated. (SW

  17. Propagation of whistler mode chorus to low altitudes: Spacecraft observations of structured ELF hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantolíK, O.; Chum, J.; Parrot, M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Pickett, J. S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2006-10-01

    We interpret observations of low-altitude electromagnetic ELF hiss observed on the dayside at subauroral latitudes. A divergent propagation pattern has been reported between 50° and 75° of geomagnetic latitude. The waves propagate with downward directed wave vectors which are slightly equatorward inclined at lower magnetic latitudes and slightly poleward inclined at higher latitudes. Reverse ray tracing using different plasma density models indicates a possible source region near the geomagnetic equator at a radial distance between 5 and 7 Earth radii by a mechanism acting on highly oblique wave vectors near the local Gendrin angle. We analyze waveforms received at altitudes of 700-1200 km by the Freja and DEMETER spacecraft and we find that low-altitude ELF hiss contains discrete time-frequency structures resembling wave packets of whistler mode chorus. Emissions of chorus also predominantly occur on the dawnside and dayside and have recently been considered as a possible source of highly accelerated electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt. Detailed measurements of the Cluster spacecraft at radial distances of 4-5 Earth radii show chorus propagating downward from the source region localized close to the equator. The time-frequency structure and frequencies of chorus observed by Cluster along the reverse raypaths of ELF hiss are consistent with the hypothesis that the frequently observed dayside ELF hiss is just the low-altitude manifestation of natural magnetospheric emissions of whistler mode chorus.

  18. Successful ELF Communications and Implications for ELT: Sequential Analysis of ELF Pronunciation Negotiation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yumi

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of nonnative English speakers who speak English as a lingua franca (ELF) in their graduate student dormitory in the United States, a community of practice (Wegner, 2004) comprised almost entirely of second language users. Using a sequential analysis (Koshik, 2002; Markee, 2000; Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974;…

  19. Expressing Disagreement in ELF Business Negotiations: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorge, Anne Kari

    2012-01-01

    English spoken by those who do not share their first language is increasingly referred to as English lingua franca (ELF). For ELF speakers, it can be a challenge to express conflicting opinions, as a common language and/or cultural background cannot be taken for granted. This is recognized by writers of business English textbooks, who provide…

  20. Conceptualising English as a lingua franca (ELF) as a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After briefly sketching the recent research undertakings into English as a lingua franca (ELF) as well as the specificities of English-medium tertiary education in mainland Europe, the paper argues for a conceptual framework of ELF as classroom language that combines sociolinguistic, sociocultural and discursive ...

  1. ELF radiation from the Tromsoe super heater facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.

    1991-01-01

    Direct comparisons have been made of the ionospheric ELF radiation produced by the new (1 GW ERP) and old (250 MW ERP) antennas of the Tromsoe heater system, but no significant differences in the ELF signal strength have been detected. This initially surprising result is shown to require a value of unity for the index relating the received ELF signal strength to HF power input to the antenna. A series of experiments performed solely to derive more accurate values for this power index provided values ranging from 0.74 to 0.97, dependent on the ELF frequencies generated. It has been suggested that ELF radiation from the normal Tromsoe heater facility should be limited by saturation effects, even when operating well below the maximum HF power density (3mW/m 2 in the D-region). No evidence for such saturation effects has been found even at power densities greater than 10mW/m 2

  2. Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carolina; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Findlay, Richard; Maslanyj, Myron; Conil, Emmanuelle; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Although radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones have received much attention, relatively little is known about the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields emitted by phones. This paper summarises ELF magnetic flux density measurements on global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones, conducted as part of the MOBI-KIDS epidemiological study. The main challenge is to identify a small number of generic phone models that can be used to classify the ELF exposure for the different phones reported in the study. Two-dimensional magnetic flux density measurements were performed on 47 GSM mobile phones at a distance of 25 mm. Maximum resultant magnetic flux density values at 217 Hz had a geometric mean of 221 (+198/-104) nT. Taking into account harmonic data, measurements suggest that mobile phones could make a substantial contribution to ELF exposure in the general population. The maximum values and easily available variables were poorly correlated. However, three groups could be defined on the basis of field pattern indicating that manufacturers and shapes of mobile phones may be the important parameters linked to the spatial characteristics of the magnetic field, and the categorization of ELF magnetic field exposure for GSM phones in the MOBI-KIDS study may be achievable on the basis of a small number of representative phones. Such categorization would result in a twofold exposure gradient between high and low exposure based on type of phone used, although there was overlap in the grouping. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Field Measurements of Inadvertent Ingestion Exposure to Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; MacCalman, Laura; Semple, Sean; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-11-10

    The determinants of inadvertent occupational ingestion exposure are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of available exposure measurement data. In this study, perioral exposure wipes were used as a surrogate for inadvertent ingestion exposure to measure exposure to eight metals (chromium, nickel, aluminium, cobalt, lead, arsenic, manganese, and tin) among 38 workers at 5 work sites in the UK. This work was done alongside a previously reported observational study of hand/object-to-mouth contact frequency. Systematic wipes of the perioral area, and of both hands were taken with proprietary cellulose wipes pre-moistened with deionized water. Measurements were taken at the beginning, middle and end of the shift. Mixed-effect models of exposure measurements were built with area of skin sampled, time during shift, and job group entered as fixed effects and worker identification as a random effect. Linear regression modelling was used to study the effect of hand/object-to-mouth contact frequency on perioral exposure, adjusting for the measured exposure on the hand and observed respirator use. Hand and perioral exposure measurements were correlated with one another (r = 0.79) but mass per unit area exposure was significantly higher on the perioral area than on the hands for seven of the metals (at P exposure, but hand exposure was significantly positively related to perioral exposure and workers who used respirators had significantly higher perioral exposure than those who did not. The results suggest the levels of exposure on the hand and respirator use are important determinants of potential inadvertent ingestion exposure. The results did not demonstrate a relationship between perioral exposure and hand-to-mouth contact frequency. Perioral wipe sampling may be a useful surrogate measure for exposure by the inadvertent ingestion route, but further research is required to confirm the link between perioral levels and actual exposure, measured using biological

  4. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  5. Lung glutathione adaptive responses to cigarette smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier Steve

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking tobacco is a leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but although the majority of COPD cases can be directly related to smoking, only a quarter of smokers actually develop the disease. A potential reason for the disparity between smoking and COPD may involve an individual's ability to mount a protective adaptive response to cigarette smoke (CS. Glutathione (GSH is highly concentrated in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF and protects against many inhaled oxidants. The changes in GSH that occur with CS are not well investigated; therefore the GSH adaptive response that occurs with a commonly utilized CS exposure was examined in mice. Methods Mice were exposed to CS for 5 h after which they were rested in filtered air for up to 16 h. GSH levels were measured in the ELF, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, plasma, and tissues. GSH synthesis was assessed by measuring γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL activity in lung and liver tissue. Results GSH levels in the ELF, plasma, and liver were decreased by as much as 50% during the 5 h CS exposure period whereas the lung GSH levels were unchanged. Next, the time course of rebound in GSH levels after the CS exposure was examined. CS exposure initially decreased ELF GSH levels by 50% but within 2 h GSH levels rebound to about 3 times basal levels and peaked at 16 h with a 6-fold increase and over repeat exposures were maintained at a 3-fold elevation for up to 2 months. Similar changes were observed in tissue GCL activity which is the rate limiting step in GSH synthesis. Furthermore, elevation in ELF GSH levels was not arbitrary since the CS induced GSH adaptive response after a 3d exposure period prevented GSH levels from dropping below basal levels. Conclusions CS exposures evoke a powerful GSH adaptive response in the lung and systemically. These data suggests there may be a sensor that sets the ELF GSH adaptive response to prevent GSH levels from dipping

  6. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  7. Is there ELF in ELT coursebooks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vettorel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore whether well-attested findings in the fields of World Englishes (WE and of English as a lingua franca (ELF have determined a shift in perspective in the overall approach to English language teaching (ELT, and how far this shift has permeated teaching materials and coursebooks. The research study was carried out in Italy, a country where ELT coursebooks have often played a relevant role in introducing innovations in language teaching methodology. The research design included a corpus of ten coursebooks that have been published and adopted in Italian secondary schools in the last 6 years. The coursebooks were evaluated in terms of the presence or absence of references to WE and/or ELF, of awareness-raising activities, of the promotion of using English outside the school environment and of the use of effective English communication and intercultural strategies among nonnative speakers. Findings show that there have been no significant changes in the inclusion of WE- and ELForiented materials and related tasks, apart from the area of promotion of cultural and intercultural awareness.

  8. Genotoxicity and ELF-magnetic fields: a review through the micronucleus assay; Genotoxicidad y campos magneticos-ELF: una revision a traves del ensayo de micronucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Andreu-Galvez, M.; Sanchez-Villalobos, J. M.; Achel, D. G.; Olmos, E.; Martinez-Hernandez, C. M.

    2012-07-01

    Thirty for (34) published studies, conducted from 1994 to the present to evaluate the genotoxic effect of magnetic fields using ELF-EMF and diagnostic resonance on humans by the micronucleus assay have been reviewed. some characteristics of the assay methods, their significance to genotoxicity and basic interpretations of the results of these assays are discussed. of the studies analysed 70.5% implicated genotoxic effects induced by these magnetic fields: 52.9% were due to exposure to magnetic fields only and 17,6% by exposure to magnetic fields in combination with some treatment types, resulting in additive or synergistic effect. Evidence exist to support the notion that exposure of humans to magnetic fields stimulates genotoxic effects, although the actual mechanisms of action or even the true human health consequences resulting from these exposure still remain unclear. (Author) 80 refs.

  9. Television Exposure Measures and the Cultivation Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin

    1990-01-01

    Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…

  10. ELF/VLF signatures of sprite-producing lightning discharges observed during the 2005 EuroSprite campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, E.; Price, C.; Yair, Y.

    2009-01-01

    %) an ELF transient was not associated with sprite occurrence, suggesting that long continuing current of tens of ms may not always be a necessary condition for sprite production, a finding which influences the estimation of the global sprite rate based on Schumann resonance (SR) measurements....

  11. Combining expert ratings and exposure measurements: a random effect paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P; Sauleau, E A; Bourgkard, E; Moulin, J-J

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a paradigm for combining ordinal expert ratings with exposure measurements while accounting for a between-worker effect when estimating exposure group (EG)-specific means for epidemiological purposes. Expert judgement is used to classify the EGs into a limited number of exposure levels independently of the exposure measurements. The mean exposure of each EG is considered to be a random deviate from a central exposure rating-specific value. Combining this approach with the standard between-worker random effect model, we obtain a nested two-way model. Using Gibbs sampling, we can fit such models incorporating prior information on components of variance and modelling options to the rating-specific means. An approximate formula is presented estimating the mean exposure of each EG as a function of the geometric mean of the measurements in this EG, between and within EG standard deviations and the overall geometric mean, thus borrowing information from other EGs. We apply this paradigm to an actual data set of dust exposure measurements in a steel producing factory. Some EG-specific means are quite different from the estimates including the ratings. Rating-specific means could be estimated under different hypotheses. It is argued that when setting up an expert rating of exposures it is best done independently of existing exposure measurements. The present model is then a convenient framework in which to combine the two sources of information.

  12. ELF electromagnetic fields and neurodegenerative disease. Report of an Advisory Group on Non-ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There are continuing concerns about the possible health effects that may arise as a consequence of exposure to electromagnetic fields and radiations (EMFs). In relation to exposures to power frequency (extremely low frequency, ELF) electromagnetic fields, the principal concern has been the possibility that they may be implicated in the development of cancer. In developing its advice for the Board of NRPB on the possible health effects of electromagnetic fields, the Advisory Group has reviewed a number of studies that have examined associations between Alzheimer's disease, motor neuron disease and Parkinson's disease and exposure to electromagnetic fields. These diseases may be classed as neurodegenerative disease as all involve the death of neurons, although their aetiology is different. This report examines first the biological basis of these neurodegenerative diseases, the location of the nerve cells implicated in their development, and the pathological changes that become manifest as they develop. lt then reviews the relevant epidemiological studies. These have examined the possibility of a relationship with exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields, particularly as a consequence of work involving the use of electricity (eg electric power line/cable workers, welders, electricians and dressmakers)

  13. Assessment of levels of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields to workers in television stations in Accra-Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, S.

    2012-01-01

    The growing number of television (TV) stations in the country and the increasing use of RF and ELF technology have led to the heightened worker concern of the potential health risk that may exist. Despite these concerns, very little is known about the occupational exposure to RF and ELFs in Ghana. A survey of the RF and ELF radiation at two TV stations were made in Accra, Ghana. The primary objective of this study was to determine the level of RF and ELF exposure to workers in the TV stations. A spectrum analyser, a bi-conical antenna (30 - 300MHz), a log periodic antenna (200MHz - 2.0GHz) and an EMFields Professional ELF survey meter with sensitivity of 10Hz - 2000Hz ± 3dB were used. Results obtained indicated that the RF power density ranged between 2.6mW/m 2 and 455.6mW/2 2 in GTV and between 0.97mW/m 2 and 181.4mW/m 2 in Metro TV. These levels of occupational exposure were within acceptable levels recommended by ICNIRP. ELF measurement results showed that the average electric field ranged between 0.1200V/m and 1150V/m in GTV and between 0.0006V/m and 0.0709V/m in Metro TV. The computed induced currents from ELFs for a male worker ranged between 1.8617E-05mA and 0.01784mA in GTV and between 0.0009mA and 0.1099mA in Metro TV. Results from analysis of questionnaires administered to workers to elicit response on common symptoms they experience at the workplace showed that a higher percentage of workers in the studio and technical section experience some biological effects or symptoms of RF and ELF as compared to workers in administration. The electric field levels recorded in this work are comparable to similar studies conducted elsewhere.(au)

  14. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  15. Estimators for longitudinal latent exposure models: examining measurement model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N; Kim, Sehee; Sammel, Mary D

    2017-06-15

    Latent variable (LV) models are increasingly being used in environmental epidemiology as a way to summarize multiple environmental exposures and thus minimize statistical concerns that arise in multiple regression. LV models may be especially useful when multivariate exposures are collected repeatedly over time. LV models can accommodate a variety of assumptions but, at the same time, present the user with many choices for model specification particularly in the case of exposure data collected repeatedly over time. For instance, the user could assume conditional independence of observed exposure biomarkers given the latent exposure and, in the case of longitudinal latent exposure variables, time invariance of the measurement model. Choosing which assumptions to relax is not always straightforward. We were motivated by a study of prenatal lead exposure and mental development, where assumptions of the measurement model for the time-changing longitudinal exposure have appreciable impact on (maximum-likelihood) inferences about the health effects of lead exposure. Although we were not particularly interested in characterizing the change of the LV itself, imposing a longitudinal LV structure on the repeated multivariate exposure measures could result in high efficiency gains for the exposure-disease association. We examine the biases of maximum likelihood estimators when assumptions about the measurement model for the longitudinal latent exposure variable are violated. We adapt existing instrumental variable estimators to the case of longitudinal exposures and propose them as an alternative to estimate the health effects of a time-changing latent predictor. We show that instrumental variable estimators remain unbiased for a wide range of data generating models and have advantages in terms of mean squared error. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Protective measures during construction against radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, thoron as well as their daughter products have an cancerogeneous effect on the human respiratory tracts. In this respect protective measures in the area of construction are of great importance. This article deals with constructional solutions which consist of different individual measures. Sources of radon are outside air, water, fuels, building materials as well as the building ground. Possible protective measures are divided into area-related (floor structure, intermediate floors, exterior walls of cellar, foundation slab, building ground), line-related (joints, cracks, wall ducts) as well as supplementary measures (tightly closing doors, arrangement of natural cross-ventilation and vertical ventilating shafts). (BWI) [de

  17. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cellular effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Maria T; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Indovina, Pietro L

    2009-04-01

    The major areas of research that have characterised investigation of the impact of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on living systems in the past 50 years are discussed. In particular, selected studies examining the role of these fields in cancer, their effects on immune and nerve cells, and the positive influence of these ELF fields on bone and nerve cells, wound healing and ischemia/reperfusion injury are explored. The literature indicates that there is still no general agreement on the exact biological detrimental effects of ELF fields, on the physical mechanisms that may be behind these effects or on the extent to which these effects may be harmful to humans. Nonetheless, the majority of the in vitro experimental results indicate that ELF fields induce numerous types of changes in cells. Whether or not the perturbations observed at the cellular level can be directly extrapolated to negative effects in humans is still unknown. However, the myriad of effects that ELF fields have on biological systems should not be ignored when evaluating risk to humans from these fields and, consequently, in passing appropriate legislation to safeguard both the general public and professionally-exposed workers. With regard to the positive effects of these fields, the possibility of testing further their efficacy in therapeutic protocols should also not be overlooked.

  19. Eruption of Permanent Dentition in Rhesus Monkeys Exposed to ELF (extremely Low Frequency) Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    biological effects of the electric end inag- netic fields of such a system. This study was designed to evaluate ELF field effects on the growth and...As in the first ELF study, thu monkeys were housed in non-conducting Plexiglas (R) chambers (2). The animale were added to the study over -a period...study initiated to determine the biological effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields associated with a submarine communications system ELF-exposed

  20. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Lianne; Burnett, Richard T; Szpiro, Adam A; Kim, Sun-Young; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Brunekreef, Bert

    2012-06-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital status. In such studies, control for individual-level confounders such as smoking is important, as is control for area-level confounders such as neighborhood socio-economic status. In addition, there may be spatial dependencies in the survival data that need to be addressed. These issues are illustrated using the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention II cohort. Exposure measurement error is a challenge in epidemiology because inference about health effects can be incorrect when the measured or predicted exposure used in the analysis is different from the underlying true exposure. Air pollution epidemiology rarely if ever uses personal measurements of exposure for reasons of cost and feasibility. Exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology comes in various dominant forms, which are different for time-series and cohort studies. The challenges are reviewed and a number of suggested solutions are discussed for both study domains.

  1. ELFE: New machine proposed for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of non-perturbative QCD (the physics of quark and gluon interactions at large coupling) is one of the most challenging problems of modern physics. The two phenomena of quark confinement, which binds quarks permanently inside hadrons, and the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, which gives us pion physics and more massive constituent quarks of low energy QCD, define the interface of nuclear and particle physics. The Electron Laboratory for Europe project - ELFE - is the European machine initiative proposed as the optimum experimental tool to study this ''Confinement Physics'', which is virgin territory for both particle and nuclear physicists. Until recently, lack of data in the confinement domain had led to slow theoretical progress in understanding the quark structure of nuclear and hadronic matter. This situation has improved considerably, with new discoveries in high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments together with important advances in large acceptance detector technology and continuous electron beams at low energies. At high energies, the CERN muon beam experiments in deep inelastic scattering (probing the remote interior of nucleons) opened an exciting new window on nucleon structure with the discovery of three unexpected effects: the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) nuclear and spin effects, and the observation of a surprisingly large difference between the the number of anti-up and anti-down quarks in nucleons. In 1983, the EMC nuclear effect showed that the quark structure of the free nucleon is modified in the nuclear environment. The EMC spin effect (or proton spin problem) is the discovery that it looks as though quark spin contributes only 22% of that of the nucleon (July 1994, page 19)

  2. Measuring and modeling exposure from environmental radiation on tidal flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.J.; Hess, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the shielding effects of the tide cycle, a high pressure ion chamber was used to measure the exposure rate from environmental radiation on tidal flats. A theoretical model is derived to predict the behavior of exposure rate as a function of time for a detector placed one meter above ground on a tidal flat. The numerical integration involved in this derivation results in an empirical formula which implies exposure rate ∝tan-1(sint). We propose that calculating the total exposure incurred on a tidal flat requires measurements of only the slope of the tidal flat and the exposure rate when no shielding occurs. Experimental results are consistent with the model

  3. Long-term trends in the recreational shore-fishery for elf Pomatomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of the elf fishery was amended in 2005 to reduce fishing mortality and enhance egg production, following an assessment in 1997, which considered the elf stock to be overexploited and in need of rebuilding. A compromise was reached whereby the bag limit was reduced from five to four elf per angler per day, ...

  4. Multiflash whistlers in ELF-band observed at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiflash whistler-like event in the ELF-band, observed during March 1998 at low latitude station Jammu, is reported. The most prominent feature of these events is the multiflash nature along with the decrease in frequency within a very short span of time resembling similar to terrestrial whistlers. The events have a significantly smaller time duration (0.5–3.5 s than those reported earlier from high, mid and low latitudes and also display a diurnal maximum occurring around 09:30 h (IST. There have been similar reportings from other latitudes, but whistlers in the ELF-band with a multiflash nature along with a precursor emission have never been reported. Lightning seems to be the dominant source for the ELF whistlers reported here.

  5. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels Among Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Nils Testrup; Omland, Øyvind; Kromhout, Hans; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-08-01

    The high burden of exposure to organic dust among livestock farmers warrants the establishment of effective preventive and exposure control strategies for these workers. The number of intervention studies exploring the effectiveness of exposure reduction strategies through the use of objective measurements has been limited. To examine whether dust exposure can be reduced by providing feedback to the farmers concerning measurements of the exposure to dust in their farm. The personal dust levels of farmers in 54 pig and 26 dairy cattle farms were evaluated in two measurement series performed approximately 6 months apart. Detailed information on work tasks and farm characteristics during the measurements were registered. Participating farms were randomized a priori to a control (n = 40) and an intervention group (n = 40). Shortly after the first visit, owners of intervention farms only received a letter with information on the measured dust concentrations in the farm together with some general advises on exposure reduction strategies (e.g. use of respirators during certain tasks). Relationships between measured dust concentrations and intervention status were quantified by means of linear mixed effect analysis with farm and worker id as random effects. Season, type of farming, and work tasks were treated as fixed effects. Changes in exposure over time were explored primarily at a farm level in models combined, as well as separate for pig and cattle farmers. After adjustment for fixed effects, an overall reduction of 23% in personal dust exposures was estimated as a result of the intervention (P = 0.02). Exposure reductions attributable to the intervention were similar across pig and cattle farmers, but statistically significant only for pig farmers. Intervention effects among pig farmers did not depend on the individuals' information status; but among cattle farmers a significant 48% reduction in exposure was found only among individuals that reported to have been

  6. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  7. Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV1-17 and Ogo 6 satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mozer, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV1-17 satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of 1969 with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere. The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon. Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude

  8. Effect and its threshold of ELF magnetic fields on gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yiti; Hu Genlin; Zeng Qunli; Jiang Huai; Xu Zhengping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and carcinogenesis. Methods: The fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique was used to determine the effect of ELF magnetic fields and its threshold on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Results: FRAP analysis indicated that 0.4 mT ELF or more could inhibit GJIC, and 0.2 mT ELF or more could enhance the inhibition of GJIC by TPA. Conclusion: ELF magnetic fields might act as a cancer promoter or work in synergy with other cancer promoters

  9. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  10. Optimization of VLf/ELF Wave Generation using Beam Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A novel optimized beam painting algorithm (OBP) is used to generate high amplitude very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) waves in the D-region of the ionosphere above the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory. The OBP method creates a phased array of sources in the ionosphere by varying the azimuth and zenith angles of the high frequency (HF) transmitter to capitalize on the constructive interference of propagating VLF/ELF waves. OBP generates higher amplitude VLF/ELF signals than any other previously proposed method. From April through June during 2014, OBP was performed at HAARP over 1200 times. We compare the BP generated signals against vertical amplitude modulated transmissions at 50 % duty cycle (V), oblique amplitude modulated transmissions at 15 degrees zenith and 81 degrees azimuth at 50 % duty cycle (O), and geometric (circle-sweep) modulation at 15 degrees off-zenith angle at 1562.5 Hz, 3125 Hz, and 5000 Hz. We present an analysis of the directional dependence of each signal, its polarization, and its dependence on the properties of the different source region elements. We find that BP increases the received signal amplitudes of VLF and ELF waves when compared to V, O, and GM methods over a statistically significant number of trials.

  11. Performance Evaluation Of The Elf In Rural Life Agricultural Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the performance of farmers in the ELF Petroleum Nigerian Limited Extension Programme in Ogba/ Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were obtained with an interview schedule from eighty (80) randomly selected farmers who participated in the programme. Mean score ...

  12. Conflict or Cooperation: The Use of Backchannelling in ELF Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorge, Anne Kari

    2010-01-01

    The international business community relies heavily on English Lingua Franca (ELF) as a shared means of communication, and English business language programmes thus feature prominently within the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Business ESP programmes, however, have little focus on active listening, which previous research has…

  13. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, secondhand smoke (SHS exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL, and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9 and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7 after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054, disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063, and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking.

  14. About possibility to locate an EQ epicenter using parameters of ELF/ULF preseismic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Schekotov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A relation between parameters of preseismic ULF/ELF emissions and EQ is studied. The magnetic data measured at Karymshino station (Kamchatka, Russia along with data on local seismic activity during eight years of observations (2001–2008 are taken for the analysis. Source azimuth is detected in different techniques, based on the analysis of the total field and its polarized pulsed component. The latter technique shows a better accuracy in the source azimuth detection. The errors of the method are associated with existence of non-seismic sources and with use of one-point observation. The second error can be eliminated by development of multi-point observations.

  15. Similar Data Retrieval from Enormous Datasets on ELF/VLF Wave Spectrum Observed by Akebono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kasahara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by the Akebono spacecraft. Second, an algorithm for similar data retrieval is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed algorithm works well for the retrieval of the VLF spectrum with a small amount of CPU load.

  16. Miniature nanoparticle sensors for exposure measurement and TEM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierz, Martin; Meier, Dominik; Steigmeier, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles in workplaces may pose a threat to the health of the workers involved. With the general boom in nanotechnology, an increasing number of workers is potentially exposed, and therefore a comprehensive risk management with respect to nanoparticles appears necessary. One (of many) components of such a risk management is the measurement of personal exposure. Traditional nanoparticle detectors are often cumbersome to use, large, heavy and expensive. We have developed small, reliable and easy to use devices that can be used for routine personal exposure measurement in workplaces. (paper)

  17. ELF wave production by an electron beam emitting rocket system and its suppression on auroral field lines - Evidence for Alfven and drift waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.; Abe, Y.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Orthogonal probes on a free-flying plasma diagnostics payload are used to study ELF electric disturbances in the auroral ionosphere that are due to the injection of powerful electron beams. Frequency spectrograms are presented for various pitch angles, pulsing characteristics, and other properties of the injected beams; the large scale DC ionospheric convection electric field is measured, together with auroral particle precipitation, visual auroral forms, and ionospheric parameters. In view of the experimental results obtained, it is postulated that the observed ELF waves are in the Alfven and drift modes, and are generated by the positive vehicle potential during beam injection.

  18. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Missense ELF2 Variant in a CANVAS Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hena; Requena, Teresa; Frejo, Lidia; Cobo, Marien; Gallego-Martinez, Alvaro; Martin, Francisco; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2018-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. We present a British family with presumed autosomal dominant CANVAS with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Exome sequencing identified a rare missense variant in the ELF2 gene at chr4:g.140058846 C > T, c.10G > A, p.A4T which segregated in all affected patients. By using transduced BE (2)-M17 cells, we found that the mutated ELF2 (mt-ELF2) gene increased ATXN2 and reduced ELOVL5 gene expression, the causal genes of type 2 and type 38 spinocerebellar ataxias. Both, western blot and confocal microscopy confirmed an increase of ataxin-2 in BE(2)-M17 cells transduced with lentivirus expressing mt-ELF2 (CEE-mt- ELF2 ), which was not observed in cells transduced with lentivirus expressing wt-ELF2 (CEE-wt-ELF2). Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in the number and size of lipid droplets in the CEE-mt- ELF2 -transduced BE (2)-M17 cells, but not in the CEE-wt-ELF2-transduced BE (2)-M17. Furthermore, changes in the expression of ELOVL5 could be related with the reduction of lipid droplets in BE (2)-M17 cells. This work supports that ELF2 gene regulates the expression of ATXN2 and ELOVL5 genes, and defines new molecular links in the pathophysiology of cerebellar ataxias.

  20. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppard, L.; Burnett, R.T.; Szpiro, A.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Jerrett, M.; Pope, C.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180

    2012-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution.

  1. ACREM: A new air crew radiation exposure measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.; Kerschbaumer, S.; Schmitzer, C.; Strachotinsky, C.; Grosskopf, A.; Winkler, N.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation has already been discovered in 1912 by the Austrian Nobel Laureate Victor F. Hess. After Hess up to now numerous measurements of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays in different altitudes have been performed, however, this has not been taken serious in view of radiation protection.Today, with the fast development of modern airplanes, an ever increasing number of civil aircraft is flying in increasing altitudes for considerable time. Members of civil aircrew spending up to 1000 hours per year in cruising altitudes and therefore are subject to significant levels of radiation exposure. In 1990 ICRP published its report ICRP 60 with updated excess cancer risk estimates, which led to significantly higher risk coefficients for some radiation qualities. An increase of the radiation weighting factors for mean energy neutron radiation increases the contribution for the neutron component to the equivalent dose by about 60%, as compared to the earlier values of ICRP26. This higher risk coefficients lead to the recommendation of the ICRP, that cosmic radiation exposure in civil aviation should be taken into account as occupational exposure. Numerous recent exposure measurements at civil airliners in Germany, Sweden, USA, and Russia show exposure levels in the range of 3-10 mSv/year. This is significantly more than the average annual dose of radiation workers (in Austria about 1.5 mSv/year). Up to now no practicable and economic radiation monitoring system for routine application on board exits. A fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, active in-flight dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is discussed in this paper

  2. Standardizing measurement, sampling and reporting for public exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br

    2008-11-15

    UNSCEAR assesses worldwide public exposure from natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation based on information submitted to UNSCEAR by United Nations Member States and from peer reviewed scientific literature. These assessments are used as a basis for radiation protection programs of international and national regulatory and research organizations. Although UNSCEAR describes its assessment methodologies, the data are based on various monitoring approaches. In order to reduce uncertainties and improve confidence in public exposure assessments, it would be necessary to harmonize the methodologies used for sampling, measuring and reporting of environmental results.

  3. Exposure assessment of arc welders to extremely low frequency magnetic field: its relationship with the secretion of paratormone hormone and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohalah Hajizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field has been interested in many studies due to possible effects on human physical-mental health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess arc welders’ exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field and to determine its relationship with the secretion of paratormone (PTH hormone and mood states. Material and Method: The present study has been conducted among 35 healthy production workers (as exposed group and 35 healthy administrative personnel (as unexposed group. After checking the work activities of participants according to the guide recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, ELF magnetic fields were measured using an ELF measurement device in the regions including trunk, head, and neck. The plasma levels of PTH hormone of both groups were evaluated by the Electrochemiluminescence method. Stress-Arousal Checklist (SACL was used to assess the mode states of subjects in both groups. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Result: There was a significant difference between the exposed and unexposed groups with respect to the exposure level to ELF magnetic fields (P-value<0.0001. Mean PTH hormone level in exposed group (34.54 pg/ml was lower than unexposed ones (37 pg/ml, however these mean values weren’t significantly different (P-value=0.67. Score of “stress” subscale related to the “pleasure” and score of “arousal” subscale  related to the “activities and alertness” in the unexposed group were significantly higher than those in exposed group (p<0.0001. Regarding the relationship between exposure level to ELF electromagnetic field and scores of  stress, arousal, and PTH hormone level in the two groups, it should be stated that only a significant and positive association was found between the average exposure to ELF magnetic fields and PTH levels in the exposed group (P-value<0.009, r=0

  4. Intensity variation of ELF hiss and chorus during isolated substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, R.M.; Fiske, K.F.; Church, S.R.

    1974-01-01

    Electromagnetic ELF emissions (100-1000 Hz) observed on the polar-orbiting OGO-6 satellite within three hours of the dawn-dusk meridian consistently exhibit a predictable response to isolated substorm activity. Near dawn, the emissions intensify during the substorm and then subside following the magnetic activity; the waves are most intense at L greater than 4, exhibit considerable structure and have been primarily identified as chorus. At dusk, the response is entirely different; the wave intensity falls to background levels during substorm activity but subsequently intensifies, usually reaching levels well in excess of that before the disturbance. The emissions near dusk extend to low L, are relatively featureless, and have been identified as plasmaspheric hiss. These features are interpreted in terms of changes in the drift orbits of outer-zone electrons which cyclotron resonate with ELF waves. (U.S.)

  5. Measurement of radiation exposures to the radiotherapists in the brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Mizoe, Junetsu

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposures to the radiotherapists during brachytherapy with Iridium and Cesium were measured. For which TLD and pocket chamber were used. The materials were 30 patients, 14 of whom were treated by Iridium, and other 16 patients were treated by Cesium, from November 1983 to June 1984. The procedures of brachytherapy were divided into three parts: preparation, insertion, and withdrawal. In the Iridium therapy, 7 patients were treated for lesions in bile duct and in the Cesium therapy 13 patients were treated for lesions in head and neck. In the Iridium therapy the mean radiation exposures to the chest were 12.3 mrem, 177 mrem to the fingers, 9.6 mrem to the abdomen, 13.6 mrem to the head. In the Cesium therapy the mean radiation exposures to the chest were 49.4 mrem. 292 mrem to the fingers, 18.3 mrem to the abdomen, 49.4 mrem to the head. Thus, radiation exposures in the Iridium therapy were lower than those in the Cesium therapy in each sites of measurement. This could be because, in the Iridium therapy, afterloading procedure were used and the energy of Iridium gammar-ray is lower then that of Cesium gammar-ray and protection boards could be more effective in the Iridium therapy, than in the Cesium therapy. We analized radiation exposures according to the amount of sources, which are divided into two groups, 10 - 39 Cs. Eq. mCi (3.7 x 10 - 1.4 x 10 Cs. Eq. Bq) and 40 - 80 Cs. Eq. mCi (1.5 x 10 - 3.0 x 10 Cs. Eq. Bq). In the source runging 40 - 80 Cs. Eq. mCi, radiation exposures to the fingers in the Iridium therapy were almost the same as those in the Cesium therapy. When head and neck were treated radiation exposures to the fingers in the Iridium therapy were higher than those in the Cesium therapy. Therefore more effort should be pain to reduce radiation exposures to the fingers in the iridium therapy, especialy in assembling procedure. (author)

  6. Effects of 100-μT extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on hematograms and blood chemistry in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yemao; Zhang, Jiangong; Liu, Xingfa; Ruan, Guoran; Chaugai, Sandip; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) affect health or not. Here, we constructed a 100-μT/50 Hz electromagnetic field atmosphere. A total of 128 rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the ELF EMF group and the sham group. The ELF EMF group was exposed to 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF for 20 h per day for three months; at the same time the other group was exposed to a sham device without ELF EMF. During the three months, the weight was recorded every 2 weeks, and the water intake and food intake of the animals were recorded weekly. The hematologic parameters were detected before and after the exposure, whereas blood chemistry analysis was performed every 4 weeks. The general condition of the exposed rats was not affected by ELF EMF. Compared with the sham group, the hematograms were not significantly altered in the ELF EMF group. Similarly, the blood chemistry (including lipid profile, blood glucose, liver function and renal function of rats) from the ELF EMF group showed no difference compared with rats from the control group during the three months exposure. The present study indicated that short-term exposure of 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF may not affect hematograms and blood chemistry in rats. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  7. Implantable magnetic relaxation sensors measure cumulative exposure to cardiac biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yibo; Pong, Terrence; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Huang, Paul L; Cima, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Molecular biomarkers can be used as objective indicators of pathologic processes. Although their levels often change over time, their measurement is often constrained to a single time point. Cumulative biomarker exposure would provide a fundamentally different kind of measurement to what is available in the clinic. Magnetic resonance relaxometry can be used to noninvasively monitor changes in the relaxation properties of antibody-coated magnetic particles when they aggregate upon exposure to a biomarker of interest. We used implantable devices containing such sensors to continuously profile changes in three clinically relevant cardiac biomarkers at physiological levels for up to 72 h. Sensor response differed between experimental and control groups in a mouse model of myocardial infarction and correlated with infarct size. Our prototype for a biomarker monitoring device also detected doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and can be adapted to detect other molecular biomarkers with a sensitivity as low as the pg/ml range.

  8. Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields in Hamedan High Electrical Power Stations and their Effects on Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani Shahna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF electric and magnetic fields induced by electrical equipment is a significant issue in the environment and at the workplace due to their potential health effects on public health. The purpose of this study was assessment of the electric and magnetic fields intensities and determination of mental and psychological effects of occupational exposure in the high voltage electric power stations in the city of Hamadan, Iran. Material and Methods: The intensities of the magnetic and electric fields were measured at eight high voltage electric power stations at three different intervals of sources using an HI-3604 instrument. A two-part questionnaire was used to assess mental and psychological effects of the exposure to these fields. Two groups of control and case workers including 30 samples were selected to determine the exposure effects. Results: The results of field measurements showed the highest average electric field intensity was related to the CVT unit with 3110 V/m at a 2 m distance from the source and the lowest average was related to the control room with 1.35 V/m next to the source. Also, the highest and lowest magnetic field intensities were close to the transformator 2 and the battery room (50.42 and 1.31 mG, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The intensities of electric and magnetic fields in the selected stations are lower than the ACGIH and ICNIRP standard levels for occupational exposures. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of these fields was nonlinear around the sources and the effects observed on exposed workers were non-thermal.

  9. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  10. The fear of food measure: a novel measure for use in exposure therapy for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Byrne, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Exposure therapy for mealtime anxiety has preliminarily been effective at increasing food intake and decreasing anxiety in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). To enhance our knowledge of exposure therapy for AN researchers and clinicians need a comprehensive measure that assesses outcomes relevant to exposure therapy for AN. In the current four studies we developed Fear of Food Measure (FOFM) that assesses three cognitive and behavioral outcomes: trait anxiety about eating, food avoidance behaviors, and feared concerns related to eating. In a community (N = 399) and undergraduate female sample (N = 203) the FOFM exhibited a good three-factor structure and convergent and divergent validity. In a sample of women (N = 72) we showed that the anxiety about eating subscale significantly predicted in vivo food intake over and above other established predictors of eating (e.g., restraint). In a clinical sample diagnosed with an eating disorder (N = 41) we showed that anxiety about eating was associated with food intake and anxiety during an exposure meal and that all subscales of the FOFM significantly decreased over the course of a four-session exposure intervention. Finally, we found that participants diagnosed with an eating disorder had higher levels of fear of food than did matched controls (N = 23). The FOFM is a psychometrically valid measure that can assess if patients are improving while undergoing exposure therapy and could be used to pinpoint problematic behaviors that can be addressed in exposure therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  12. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies

  13. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  14. Accurate assessment of exposure using tracer gas measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, Wojciech; Bivolarova, Mariya; Zavrl, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Room airflow interaction, particularly in the breathing zone, is important to assess exposure to indoor air pollution. A breathing thermal manikin was used to simulate a room occupant with the convective boundary layer (CBL) generated around the body and the respiratory flow. Local airflow against...... the face of the manikin was applied to increase the complexity of the airflow interaction. CO2 was released at the armpits and N2O at the groin to simulate the respective bio-effluents generated at these two body sites. The tracer gas concentration at the mouth/nose of the manikin was measured with gas...

  15. An Analysis of Chinese Students' Perception and Production of Paired English Fricatives: From an ELF Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Xiao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    English has assumed a new role in international communication in recent decades, that is, as a Lingua Franca (ELF) among speakers with different first languages. This study attempts to investigate and analyze Chinese university students' perception and production of paired English fricatives from the perspective of ELF. By using a listening…

  16. Humidity correction in the standard measurement of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibaraki, Yasuyuki; Katoh, Akira

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the humidity correction to be made in the standard measurement of the exposure to the measured ionization current in the humid air for the purpose of excluding the influence of the water vapour that is not included in the definition of the exposure. First, formulae giving the humidity correction factors for a parallel plate free air chamber and a cavity chamber have been derived respectively in the case where the contributions of air and water vapour to the ionization are independent. Next, in the case where the contributions are not independent, i.e., the Jesse effect is taken into account, a formula to obtain the W-value for humid air has been derived on the basis of the Niatel's experimental result. Using this formula, formulae to obtain the humidity correction factors for the free air chamber and the cavity chamber are derived. The humidity calculated by the latter formulae show good agreements with the results by Niatel and Guiho, respectively. (author)

  17. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program. Small vertebrate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Donald L.; Hill, Richard W.; Hill, Susan D.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships tor possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of small mammals and nesting birds conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored organismal and population aspects of vertebrates in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the Michigan antenna. They examined the reproductive, developmental, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of representative vertebrate species. Studied species were the deer mouse, chipmunk, tree swallow, and blackcapped - chickadee. Investigators had also monitored ecological aspects of the mammalian community until 1988 when this study element was discontinued due to highly variable results. In a different project, ornithologists from the University of Minnesota-Duluth monitored the ecological characteristics of the bird community near the ELF System. The MSU research team used several statistical tests to examine data; however, nested analysis of variance was the most often used test. Based on the results of their study, they conclude that the EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan did not affect small vertebrates.

  18. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  19. The Nature Contact Questionnaire: a measure of healthy workplace exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Chen, W William; Dodd, Virginia; Weiler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and promoting healthy workplaces is an important and growing area of interest in occupational health. Nature contact is a central component to the study of and promotion of healthy places. Previous findings suggest that nature contact influences health via stress appraisal process. Currently, there are no known comprehensive valid and reliable measures of nature contact, which presents obstacles to research and worksite health promotion. This study was designed to develop and test an instrument to measure nature contact at work, entitled the Nature Contact Questionnaire (NCQ), 16-item self-reported checklist to measure actual exposure. A sample of 503 (30% response rate) office staff completed the questionnaire. Office staff were sent an email with a link to the electronic survey twice, two weeks apart. Content and construct validity (KMO=0.68), internal consistency (Alpha=0.64), and test-retest reliability (r=0.85, pnature contact, which allows research to compare forms of nature contact to best inform practice and design of healthy places.

  20. A Comparison of Survey Measures and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes several adverse physical health outcomes. Conceptual differences in survey measures of 'psychosocial' (SHS exposure from smokers in an individual's life) and 'physical' (environments where an individual is exposed to SHS) SHS exposure exist. Few studies have examined the association between psychosocial and physical SHS exposures measures in comparison to biomarkers of SHS exposure. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was examined among a convenience sample of 20 adults. Data included survey items on SHS exposure and hair nicotine and saliva cotinine levels. Spearman analysis was used to assess correlations among variables. Medium and strong correlations were found among SHS exposure measures with the exception of saliva cotinine levels. Strong correlations were found among and between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. Hair nicotine levels had medium strength associations with only perceived frequency of SHS exposure. As psychosocial measures of exposure were associated with biomarkers, such measures (particularly perceived frequency of SHS exposure) should be added to surveys in addition to physical SHS exposure measures to enhance accuracy of SHS measurement. Future explorations with robust sample sizes should further examine the strength of relationship between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels among Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; B??nl??kke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Nils Testrup; Omland, ??yvind; Kromhout, Hans; Schl??nssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The high burden of exposure to organic dust among livestock farmers warrants the establishment of effective preventive and exposure control strategies for these workers. The number of intervention studies exploring the effectiveness of exposure reduction strategies through the use of

  2. Generation of Elf5-Cre knockin mouse strain for trophoblast-specific gene manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shuangbo; Liang, Guixian; Tu, Zhaowei; Chen, Dunjin; Wang, Haibin; Lu, Jinhua

    2018-04-01

    Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells. To analyze the specificity and efficiency of Cre recombinase activity in Elf5-Cre mice, we mated Elf5-Cre mice with Rosa26 mT/mG reporter mice, and found that Elf5-Cre transgene is expressed specifically in the trophoectoderm as early as embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5). By E12.5, the activity of Elf5-Cre transgene was detected exclusively in all derivatives of trophoblast lineages, including spongiotrophoblast, giant cells, and labyrinth trophoblasts. In addition, Elf5-Cre transgene was also active during spermatogenesis, from spermatids to mature sperms, which is consistent with the endogenous Elf5 expression in testis. Collectively, our results provide a unique tool to delete specific genes selectively and efficiently in trophoblast lineage during placentation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic ELF/VLF wave emissions and electron precipitation by DEMETER satellite: A case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Titova, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2013), s. 4523-4533 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasi-periodic ELF/VLF emission s in the magnetosphere * wave-particle interactions * demeter spacecraft measurements * whistler-mode waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50179/abstract

  4. A graphical tool to evaluate temporal coverage of occupational history by exposure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.; Fransman, W.; Miller, B.; Burstyn, I.; Heederik, D.; Hurley, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In occupational epidemiology, differences in the temporal coverage of the exposure history by available exposure measurement data may affect the uncertainty of exposure estimates. In the reporting of results of studies, greater attention should be paid to the extent to which exposure

  5. A graphical tool to evaluate temporal coverage of occupational history by exposure measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Fransman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000461; Miller, B.; Burstyn, I.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Hurley, F.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In occupational epidemiology, differences in the temporal coverage of the exposure history by available exposure measurement data may affect the uncertainty of exposure estimates. In the reporting of results of studies, greater attention should be paid to the extent to which exposure

  6. Exposure Research Going Mobile: A Smartphone-Based Measurement of Media Exposure to Political Information in a Convergent Media Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, J.; Albaek, E.; H. de Vreese, C.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n...... platform modes. The study furthermore confirms limitations of mere usage time measurements of social media platforms in effects research and explores a range of actual content types that citizens encounter in social networks. It recommends more frequent use of mobile exposure measurements and argues...... for a content-related assessment of social media use in effects research. © 2016 Taylor & Francis....

  7. Exposure research going mobile: A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in a convergent media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, J.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n

  8. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  9. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.

    2012-12-01

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis is applied to observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. In 2012, a variety of ELF/VLF wave generation techniques were employed to identify the dominant source altitude for each case. Observations were performed for beat-wave modulation, AM modulation, STF modulation, ICD modulation, and cubic frequency modulation, among others. For each of these cases, we identify the dominant ELF/VLF source altitude and compare the experimental results with theoretical HF heating predictions.

  10. Red Sprites as the source of ELF emission from lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, J.

    2013-12-01

    Jagdish Rai Invertis University, NH-24, Bareilly, India and Manoj K. Paras Department of Applied Sciences, DIT University, Dehradun, India. ABSTRACT Rai (1974) discussed the possibility of upper atmospheric lightning discharges. These discharges were observed experimentally by sertman et al (1995), Lyons (1996), Stenback- Nielsen and Mc Harg (2008) and many others. Cummer et al (1998) and Cummer (2003) observed that the radiation from red sprites lie in the ELF range. From the knowledge of velocity and current expressions obtained by Paras and Rai (2011) for red sprites, authors obtained the frequency spectrum of emitted radiation. The radiation lies mainly in ELF range and peaks around 40Hz. A comparative study of radio emissions from red sprite and return stroke- lateral corona current system shows that the power radiated from the former is higher than the later. When subjected to the propagation in earth -ionosphere waveguide, authors find that the Schumann resonances are caused by red sprites and not by return strokes. References:- 1. Cummer, S.A., U.S. Inan, T.F. Bell and C.P. Barrington-Leigh, 1998, ELF radiation produced by electrical currents in sprites, Geophys. Res. Letters 25, 8. 2. Cummer, S.A. 2003, Current moment in sprite producing lightning , J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 65, 499-908. 3. Lyons W.A., 1996 Sprite observations above the U.S. high plains in relation to their parent thunderstorm systems, J. Geophys. Res. D101, 29641. 4. Paros M.K. and J. Rai, 2011 Electric and magnetic fields from return stroke- lateral corona system and red sprites J. Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, 3. 5. Rai J., 1974 some studies on lighting, Ph.D. Thesis Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. 6. Sentman D.D., E.M. Wescott, D.L. Osborne, D.L. Hampton and M.J. Heazener, 1995, Preliminary results from the sprites 94 Campaign, Red Sprites, Geophy. Res. Letters, 22, 1205. 7. Stenback- Nielson H.C. and Mc Harg M.G., 2008, High time resolution sprite imaging

  11. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  12. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

  13. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesneli, N. Berna; Tesneli, Ahmet Y.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m -1 and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m -1 and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m -1 and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council. (authors)

  14. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Price

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightning produces electromagnetic fields and waves in all frequency ranges. In the extremely low frequency (ELF range below 100 Hz, the global Schumann Resonances (SR are excited at frequencies of 8 Hz, 14 Hz, 20 Hz, etc. This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. First some historical context to SR research is given, followed by some theoretical background and examples of the extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of lightning-related studies in recent years, ranging from estimates of the spatial and temporal variations in global lighting activity, connections to global climate change, transient luminous events and extraterrestrial lightning. Both theoretical and experimental results of the global resonance phenomenon are presented. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon.

  16. Exposure to power frequency magnetic fields suppresses X-ray-induced apoptosis transiently in Ku80-deficient xrs5 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Furong; Nakahara, Takehisa; Yoshida, Masami; Honda, Naoko; Hirose, Hideki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields can affect cells, Ku80-deficient cells (xrs5) and Ku80-proficient cells (CHO-K1) were exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields. Cell survival, and the levels of the apoptosis-related genes p21, p53, phospho-p53 (Ser 15 ), caspase-3 and the anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 were determined in xrs5 and CHO-K1 cells following exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields and X-rays. It was found that exposure of xrs5 and CHO-K1 cells to 60 Hz ELF electromagnetic fields had no effect on cell survival, cell cycle distribution and protein expression. Exposure of xrs5 cells to 60 Hz ELF electromagnetic fields for 5 h after irradiation significantly inhibited G 1 cell cycle arrest induced by X-rays (1 Gy) and resulted in elevated bcl-2 expression. A significant decrease in the induction of p53, phospho-p53, caspase-3 and p21 proteins was observed in xrs5 cells when irradiation by X-rays (8 Gy) was followed by exposure to 5 mT ELF magnetic fields. Exposure of xrs5 cells to the ELF electromagnetic fields for 10 h following irradiation significantly decreased X-ray-induced apoptosis from about 1.7% to 0.7%. However, this effect was not found in CHO-K1 cells within 24 h of irradiation by X-rays alone and by X-rays combined with ELF electromagnetic fields. Exposure of xrs5 cells to 60 Hz ELF electromagnetic fields following irradiation can affect cell cycle distribution and transiently suppress apoptosis by decreasing the levels of caspase-3, p21, p53 and phospho-p53 and by increasing bcl-2 expression

  17. Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderón, Carolina; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Findlay, Richard; Maslanyj, Myron; Conil, Emmanuelle; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae Kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R.; Taki, Masao; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Although radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones have received much attention, relatively little is known about the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields emitted by phones. This paper summarises ELF magnetic flux density measurements on global system for mobile

  18. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. C.; Chen, C. C.; Tu, W.; Cheng, Y. T.; Tseng, F. G.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells.

  19. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y C; Chen, C C; Cheng, Y T; Tu, W; Tseng, F G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells

  20. Supplemental Reactor Physics Calculations and Analysis of ELF Mk 1A Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Michael A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    These calculations supplement previous the reactor physics work evaluating the Enhanced Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel (ELF) Mk 1A element. This includes various additional comparisons between the current Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and LEU along with further characterization of the performance of the ELF fuel. The excess reactivity to be held down at BOC for ELF Mk 1A fuel is estimated to be approximately $2.75 greater than with HEU for a typical cycle. This is a combined effect of the absence of burnable poison in the ELF fuel and the reduced neck shim worth in LEU fuel compared to HEU. Burnable poison rods were conceptualized for use in the small B positions containing Gd2O3 absorber. These were shown to provide $2.37 of negative reactivity at BOC and to burn out in less than half of a cycle. The worth of OSCCs is approximately the same between HEU and ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. This was evaluated by rotating all banks simultaneously. The safety rod worth is relatively unchanged between HEU and ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. However, this should be reevaluated with different loadings. Neutron flux, both total and fast (>1 MeV), is either the same or reduced upon changing from HEU to ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. This is consistent with the well-established trend of lower neutron fluxes for a given power in LEU than HEU.The IPT loop void reactivity is approximately the same or less positive with ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuel than HEU in the representative loading evaluated.

  1. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the validity of hair nicotine as a biomarker for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although most biomarkers of tobacco-smoke exposure have a relatively short half-life, hair nicotine can measure several months of cumulative SHS exposure. A cross-sectional study of hospitality-industry workers. Hair samples were obtained from 207 bar and restaurant workers and analyzed by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method. Self-reported tobacco use and sources of SHS exposure were assessed. Higher hair-nicotine levels were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day among smokers and a greater number of SHS-exposure sources among nonsmokers. Number of SHS exposure sources, gender, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and type of establishment predicted hair-nicotine levels. Hair nicotine is a valid measure of SHS exposure. It may be used as an alternative biomarker to measure longer term SHS exposure.

  2. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Povarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (Povarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  3. Relative potency as a means of evaluating ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C.E.; Glass, L.R.

    1990-09-01

    In the 1970's, a variety of developments took place to heightened public and scientific interest in electromagnetic fields. During this time, biological studies of nonionizing electromagnetic fields were taking place, but no clear evidence of risks to public health was identified. Then came the surprising epidemiological finding suggesting that 60 Hz magnetic fields may be related to some childhood leukemias. Our particular interest at ORNL was how to interpret the available data with respect to human exposures to the nearly ubiquitous fields. A review of the available data showed that consistent biological effects were difficult to identify. Classical toxicological tests used in chemical risk assessment had not been performed with Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fields but rather a wide range of mechanistic studies had been pursued. To evaluate the level of anticipated hazard or risk there was neither a mechanistic understanding nor a consistent phenomenological outcome. A risk evaluation normally requires one or the other of these two types of information. Two quite different approaches were pursued: meta-analysis and relative potency. The first of these is a method to combine data from similar experiments to enhance the relative statistical power of a collection of small sample size studies, and will not be discussed further. The second, relative potency, will be the focus of this paper. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF EXPOSURES TO AIR POLLUTANTS, METALS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating children's health risks requires knowledge and understanding of routes and pathways of exposures to environmental agents of concern and information on concentrations of these chemicals in the relevant media or in personal air samples. This presentation summarizes the p...

  5. Measuring Haitian children's exposure to chikungunya, dengue and malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, Mathieu JP; Moss, Delynn M; Feeser, Karla R; Streit, Thomas G; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Whitney, Matthew; Russell, Brandy J; Johnson, Barbara W; Basile, Alison J; Goodman, Christin H; Barry, Amanda K; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To differentiate exposure to the newly introduced chikungunya virus from exposure to endemic dengue virus and other pathogens in Haiti. Methods We used a multiplex bead assay to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to a recombinant chikungunya virus antigen, two dengue virus-like particles and three recombinant Plasmodium falciparum antigens. Most (217) of the blood samples investigated were collected longitudinally, from each of 61 children, between 2011 and 2014 but an...

  6. To which mixtures are French pregnant women mainly exposed? A combination of the second French total diet study with the EDEN and ELFE cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, T; Forhan, A; Sirot, V; Kadawathagedara, M; Heude, B; Hulin, M; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Botton, J; Charles, M A; Crépet, A

    2018-01-01

    Pregnant women and their unborn child are exposed to a large number of substances during pregnancy. Some of these substances may cross the placenta, resulting in exposure of the foetus. There is growing evidence that certain substances could interact to produce a mixture effect. It is therefore essential to identify the main mixtures mothers are exposed to. This study aimed to identify the major mixtures French pregnant women included in EDEN and ELFE cohorts were exposed to, on the basis of the 441 substances analysed in the second French total diet study. Exposure systems and the composition of substances were identified from co-exposures using sparse non-negative matrix under-approximation to generate the main mixtures. Individuals were clustered to define clusters with similar co-exposure profiles. Six clusters associated with eight mixtures were identified. For example in ELFE, cluster 2 comprising 10% of the population was characterised by mixtures "Pest-1" mainly contains pesticides and "TE-F-PAH″ contains trace elements, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Five other clusters were also described with their associated mixtures. Similar results were observed for EDEN. This study helps to prioritise mixtures for which it is crucial to investigate possible toxicological effects and to recommend epidemiological studies concerning health effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Guxens, Mònica; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Calvente, Irene; Fernández, Marta; Birks, Laura; Struchen, Benjamin; Vrijheid, Martine; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández, Mariana F; Torrent, Maties; Ballester, Ferrán; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; González, Julián; Röösli, Martin; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-18

    Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models) and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements) were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks). Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Radiofrequency (RF) exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap) are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children and adolescents, this will enable to evaluate the complex

  8. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood Project, a prospective cohort study. Methods/Design Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks. Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF and Radiofrequency (RF exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. Discussion Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children

  9. Proteomics of human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Claudio; Battisti, Emilio; Albanese, Antonietta; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Gagliardi, Assunta; Landi, Claudia; Carta, Serafino; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disease, characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix and alterations in chondrocyte metabolism. Some authors reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can positively interfere with patients affected by OA, even though the nature of the interaction is still debated. Human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from the femoral heads of OA-patients undergoing to total hip replacement, were cultured in vitro and exposed 30 min/day for two weeks to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100 Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities and waveforms. Sham-exposed (S.E.) cells served as control group. Cell viability was measured at days 2, 7 and 14. After two weeks, cell lysates were processed using a proteomic approach. Chondrocyte exposed to ELF and TAMMEF system demonstrated different viability compared to untreated chondrocytes (S.E.). Proteome analysis of 2D-Electrophoresis and protein identification by mass spectrometry showed different expression of proteins derived from nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles. Function analysis of the identified proteins showed changes in related-proteins metabolism (glyceraldeyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase), stress response (Mn-superoxide-dismutase, heat-shock proteins), cytoskeletal regulation (actin), proteinase inhibition (cystatin-B) and inflammation regulatory functions (S100-A10, S100-A11) among the experimental groups (ELF, TAMMEF and S.E.). In conclusion, EMFs do not cause damage to chondrocytes, besides stimulate safely OA-chondrocytes and are responsible of different protein expression among the three groups. Furthermore, protein analysis of OA-chondrocytes treated with ELF and the new TAMMEF systems could be useful to clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms of OA by identifying biomarkers of the disease.

  10. Elderly Exposure to Air Pollutants : Measuring, assessing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Silva, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis focuses on the estimation of the human exposure to air pollutants, and gives special attention to one of the most susceptible groups in the general population - elders. To fulfil the goal the work was conducted following the risk assessment paradigm and, consequently, was divided into 5

  11. Consequences of exposure measurement error for confounder identification in environmental epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Non-differential measurement error in the exposure variable is known to attenuate the dose-response relationship. The amount of attenuation introduced in a given situation is not only a function of the precision of the exposure measurement but also depends on the conditional variance of the true...... exposure given the other independent variables. In addition, confounder effects may also be affected by the exposure measurement error. These difficulties in statistical model development are illustrated by examples from a epidemiological study performed in the Faroe Islands to investigate the adverse...

  12. New Ecuadorian VLF and ELF receiver for study the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ericson; Montenegro, Jefferson; Vasconez, Michael; Vicente, Klever

    Crucial physical phenomena occur in the equatorial atmosphere and ionosphere, which are currently understudied and poorly understood. Thus, scientific campaigns for monitoring the equatorial region are required in order to provide the necessary data for the physical models. Ecuador is located in strategic geographical position where these studies can be performed, providing quality data for the scientific community working in understanding the nature of these physical systems. The Quito Astronomical Observatory (QAO) of National Polytechnic School is moving in this direction by promoting research in space sciences for the study of the equatorial zone. With the participation and the valuable collaboration of international initiatives such us AWESOME, MAGDAS, SAVNET and CALLISTO, the Quito Observatory is establishing a new space physics division on the basis of the International Space Weather Initiative. As part of this project, in the QAO has been designed a new system for acquisition and processing VLF and ELF signals propagating in the ionosphere. The Labview Software is used to filtering, processing and conditioning the received signals, avoiding in this way 60 percent of the analog components present in a common receiver. The same software have been programmed to create the spectrograms and the amplitude and phase diagrams of the radio signals. The data is stored neatly in files that can be processed even with other applications.

  13. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. Surface ozone exposures measured at clean locations around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefohn, A S; Krupa, S V; Winstanley, D

    1990-01-01

    For assessing the effects of air pollution on vegetation, some researchers have used control chambers as the basis of comparison between crops and trees grown in contemporary polluted rural locations and those grown in a clean environment. There has been some concern whether the arbitrary ozone level of 0.025 ppm and below, often used in charcoal-filtration chambers to simulate the natural background concentration of ozone, is appropriate. Because of the many complex and man-made factors that influence ozone levels, it is difficult to determine natural background. To identify a range of ozone exposures that occur at 'clean' sites, we have calculated ozone exposures observed at a number of 'clean' monitoring sites located in the United States and Canada. We do not claim that these sites are totally free from human influence, but rather than the ozone concentrations observed at these 'clean' sites may be appropriate for use by vegetation researchers in control chambers as pragmatic and defensible surrogates for natural background. For comparison, we have also calculated ozone exposures observed at four 'clean' remote sites in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and at two remote sites (Whiteface Mountain, NY and Hohenpeissenberg, FRG) that are considered to be more polluted. Exposure indices relevant for describing the relationship between ozone and vegetation effects were applied. For studying the effects of ozone on vegetation, the higher concentrations are of interest. The sigmoidally-weighted index appeared to best separate those sites that experienced frequent high concentration exposures from those that experienced few high concentrations. Although there was a consistent seasonal pattern for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) sites indicating a winter/spring maximum, this was not the case for the other remote sites. Some sites in the continental United States and southern Canada

  15. Statistical variation in experiments for measurements of human UV exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R. A.; Wong, Cho-Fai; Thomas, B. W.

    1994-07-01

    Human exposure to solar UVR can be assessed by using multi-site passive dosimeters such as the polycarbonate CR-39. The variation in dosimeter response (absorbance) for ten sets of ten simultaneously exposed, then processed, badges was less than 6%. Possible sources of this variation include inaccuracies inherent in the dosimeter badge fabrication and calibration, and variation in experimental conditions during badge exposure and processing. Inherent inaccuracies may be minimized through use of homogeneous material, suitable backing substrate and by developing fabrication and cleaning techniques for the badge. Calibration of dosimeters may require use of both solar and lamp sources, with errors caused by seasonal changes in spectral content and proportion of direct to diffuse light. Regular spectroradiometric calibration of dosimeters is necessary to reduce errors of up to 50% which are introduced by seasonal effects. Experimental conditions during exposure depend on the activity of the wearer on the site of badge attachment and on its attitude to direct sunlight. Etchant concentration increased approximately 1% for each 100 badges processed. Other etching parameters such as etch time and temperature were varied +/- 10% from the standard values, and produced changes of 36% and 77% respectively.

  16. Measurement system for the determination of the individual exposure of low frequency electric and magnetic fields on humans (personal dosimeter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, E.

    1998-07-01

    The current doctorate introduces a free body electronic personal dosimeter for measuring the vector components of ELF-fields. In contrast to a conventional field strength meter not the undisturbed fields are used as a measure, but the inhomogeneous fields near the human body, measured over a long time (dosimetric concept). Based on an analytical and numerical 'dosimetric' model, the field signal together with the frequency information can be transformed for further evaluation in the average inner body current density. Here the current density is considered as a dose relevant measure. According to demands in industrial safety, requirements for a dosimeter are derived and developmental goals defined. These goals are realized by investigations and proficiency testings of electric and magnetic highly sensitive field sensors, the development of low-power electronics with good performance and the implementation of digital data processing on different platforms. The characterization of the influence of possible environmental variables on the realized prototype, the determination of the technical characteristics under various boundary conditions and an error analysis are further important parts of this work. The calibration of the INPEDO (individual personal dosimeter) measurement system in special calibration facilities (three axis Helmholtz coils for the magnetic and parallel plates according to the IEEE833-standard for the electric field) as well as first measurements taken under real operating conditions conclude this report. (orig.) [de

  17. Measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and particle associated PAH in three UK regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborit, Juana Mari Delgado; Aquilina, Noel J; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-06-15

    Personal exposures to 15 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 100 adult nonsmokers living in three UK areas, namely London, West Midlands, and rural South Wales, were measured using an actively pumped sampler carried around by the volunteers for 5/1 (VOC/PAH) consecutive 24-h periods, following their normal lifestyle. Results from personal exposure measurements categorized by geographical location, type of dwelling, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are presented. The average personal exposure concentration to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo(a)pyrene representing the main carcinogenic components of the VOC and PAH mixture were 2.2 +/- 2.5 microg/m3, 0.4 +/- 0.7 microg/m3, and 0.3 +/- 0.7 ng/m3 respectively. The association of a number of generic factors with personal exposure concentrations was investigated, including first-line property, traffic, the presence of an integral garage, and ETS. Only living in houses with integral garages and being exposed to ETS were identified as unequivocal contributors to VOC personal exposure, while only ETS had a clear effect upon PAH personal exposures. The measurements of personal exposures were compared with health-based European and UK air quality guidelines, with some exceedences occurring. Activities contributing to high personal exposures included the use of a fireplace in the home, ETS exposure, DIY (i.e., construction and craftwork activities), and photocopying, among others.

  18. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  19. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  20. Chaos control and synchronization of two neurons exposed to ELF external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiang; Zhang Ting; Che Yanqiu

    2007-01-01

    Chaos control and synchronization of two unidirectional coupled neurons exposed to ELF electrical field via nonlinear control technique is investigated. Based on results of space-time characteristics of trans-membrane voltage, the variation of cell trans-membrane voltage exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field is analyzed. The dynamical behaviors of the modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model are identified under the periodic ELF electric field using both analytical and numerical analysis. Then, using the results of the analysis, a nonlinear feedback linearization control scheme and a modified adaptive control strategy are designed to synchronize the two unidirectional coupled neurons and stabilize the chaotic trajectory of the slave system to desired periodic orbit of the master system. The simulation results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed algorithms

  1. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  2. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  3. Measurement of Foreign Exchange Exposure on the Turkish Private Banks’ Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Canbas; Murat Doganlar; Yildirim B.Onal

    2002-01-01

    All performance criteria of the banks are affected by the exchange rate fluctuations through foreign currency transactions and operations. However, exchange rate fluctuations -even without such activities can influence the banks through their affect on foreign competition, foreign loan demand and other banking conditions. Exchange rate exposure is classified as operation, transaction, and accounting exposures. Most of the studies, which measure these exposures, focused on the affect of the ex...

  4. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  5. Measuring Haitian children's exposure to chikungunya, dengue and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Mathieu Jp; Moss, Delynn M; Feeser, Karla R; Streit, Thomas G; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Whitney, Matthew; Russell, Brandy J; Johnson, Barbara W; Basile, Alison J; Goodman, Christin H; Barry, Amanda K; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    To differentiate exposure to the newly introduced chikungunya virus from exposure to endemic dengue virus and other pathogens in Haiti. We used a multiplex bead assay to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to a recombinant chikungunya virus antigen, two dengue virus-like particles and three recombinant Plasmodium falciparum antigens. Most (217) of the blood samples investigated were collected longitudinally, from each of 61 children, between 2011 and 2014 but another 127 were collected from a cross-sectional sample of children in 2014. Of the samples from the longitudinal cohort, none of the 153 collected between 2011 and 2013 but 78.7% (48/61) of those collected in 2014 were positive for IgG responses to the chikungunya virus antigen. In the cross-sectional sample, such responses were detected in 96 (75.6%) of the children and occurred at similar prevalence across all age groups. In the same sample, responses to malarial antigen were only detected in eight children (6.3%) but the prevalence of IgG responses to dengue virus antigens was 60.6% (77/127) overall and increased steadily with age. Spatial analysis indicated that the prevalence of IgG responses to the chikungunya virus and one of the dengue virus-like particles decreased as the sampling site moved away from the city of Léogâne and towards the ocean. Serological evidence indicates that there had been a rapid and intense dissemination of chikungunya virus in Haiti. The multiplex bead assay appears to be an appropriate serological platform to monitor the seroprevalence of multiple pathogens simultaneously.

  6. Measuring exposure to protobacco marketing and media: a field study using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Setodji, Claude M; Shadel, William G

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students' exposure to protobacco marketing and media. College students (n = 134; ages 18-24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth.

  7. How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: using an ARIMA time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Entink, Rinke H.; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each other but show a pattern of autocorrelation. This article addresses the statistical difficulties when analyzing real-time measurements for exposure assessment to manufactured nano objects. To account for autocorrelation patterns, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are proposed. A simulation study shows the pitfalls of using a standard t-test and the application of ARIMA models is illustrated with three real-data examples. Some practical suggestions for the data analysis of real-time exposure measurements conclude this article.

  8. Bubble chamber film exposure for measurement by HPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, A.J.

    1978-03-01

    It is not easy for HPD measuring machines to detect tracks of low contrast in film from bubble chambers with bright-field illumination. Some of the basic aspects and limitations are considered in this paper. (author)

  9. Artifact rejection of distortion product otoacoustic emissions measured after sound exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study [3] distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured both before and after a moderate sound exposure, which caused a reduction of DPOAE levels. After the exposure DPOAEs had often levels below the noise floor. In the present paper it is discussed, whether...

  10. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have indicated an association between prenatal smoking exposure and children's motor difficulties. However, results are inconsistent and exposure is most often self-reported. Studies indicate that measurement of serum cotinine can result in a more accurate status of smo...

  11. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period.

  12. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sound exposure measurements using hearing-aid technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Boelt; Drastrup, Mads; Morales, Esteban Chávez

    2016-01-01

    scenarios. The purpose of this work is to document the use of a modified behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing-aid as a portable sound pressure level (SPL) meter. In order to obtain sound level measurements with a BTE device comparable to sound field values that can be used with existing risk assessment strategies...... at the BTE position on a head and torso simulator (HATS) were measured and combined with the A-weighting filter, frequency weigted sound field values. The compensation filters improved the accuracy of the BTE devices especially in laboratory conditions. Field tests corroborate the necessity of both diffuse...

  14. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Lyseen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure.

  15. Issues with using radiological exposures as a company performance measure in a low dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Collective and maximum individual doses are two measures commonly used as an indicator for measuring Company performance. There is often an expectation for year on year improvements by optimisation of exposures through improved working methods and modernisation of facilities. Eventually a level of exposure can be reached that is no longer easy to measure which makes meaningful trend analysis difficult. The paper discusses the issues that arose at AWE where the majority of exposures are close the limit of detection for the TLD system used. It details the investigation that was carried out when recorded doses where observed to unexpectedly increase significantly. The paper shows the significant effect of a small change in the background radiation levels that are subtracted for each individual dose measurement. Also discussed is the effect of using TLD dosimeter readers that have undergone recent maintenance and are therefore assessing slightly increased exposures. Compounding the apparent increase in gamma dose a slight change in the manufacturing process for the plastic neutron film in the neutron dosimeters also gave an increased neutron exposure measurement which is detailed. The paper concludes with describing the changes that have been made to better ensure reproducibility of the exposure measurements so that any improvements in Company performance can be shown. It also questions the use of Collective Dose as a performance measure which is commonly misused across the industry. (author)

  16. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letertre, Thierry; Toffano, Zeno; Monebhurrun, Vikass

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  17. Awareness of workers on Hazards Exposure and Safety Measure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of workers in an Aluminium industry located in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, was carried out to determine the level of awareness to hazards and the use of preventive and protective measures put in place to control these hazards. Questionnaires were administered to all the staff of the company ...

  18. Non-ionizing radiation exposure: electric field strength measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... up to 3GHz, connected to spectrum analyzer. In this research, the measured values are compared with the international standard recommended by ICNIRP then were also compared with previous study from several locations around Malaysia. The result shows an increase in the values of electromagnetic field radiation.

  19. Exposures to limescale removers and pH measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rícarová, B.; Kotasová, I.; Šenholdová, Z.; Pelclová, D.; Rakovcová, H.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 573-574 ISSN 0731-3810. [European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. International Congress /26./. 19.04.2006-22.04.2006, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : limescale removers * pH measurements Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. ELISA MEASUREMENT OF STACHYLYSIN IN SERUM TO QUANTIFY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO THE INDOOR MOLD STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem- To develop a measurable indicator of human exposure to Stachybotys chartarum. Methods- Antibodies were produced against the hemolytic agent stachylysin obtained from the mold S. chartarum. These antibodies were used to develop two enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass...

  1. Direct observation measurement of drowning risk exposure for surf beach bathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Triggs, Tom

    2009-07-01

    Because not all persons bathe at surf beaches, drowning rates based on resident population are likely to be underreported. To facilitate more precise drowning risk exposure data, this study aimed to develop a reliable direct observation measure of frequency and duration for surf beach bather exposure to water, by gender and age group. Bathers were defined as persons entering the water to wade, swim or surf with equipment. Observed bathers were systematically selected entering the water in daylight hours at six patrolled or unpatrolled beaches over 10 days. Variables measured were: weather and water conditions, water entries, duration of water exposure, water exposure location and person factors. The dataset comprised 204 (69.6%) males and 89 (30.4%) females, with males more likely to be in an older age group (psurfing equipment, and mainly used a surf zone located farther from the shore in deeper water (psurf zone occupied (based on water depth and distance from shore); and surf equipment used. The study provides new information about water exposure for bathers at surf beaches and new methods for measuring exposure to drowning risk. The findings suggest that overrepresentation of adolescent and adult males in surf beach drowning statistics is in part a product of greater total exposure to the water plus more frequent exposure to deeper water and bathing farther from shore.

  2. Exposure measurement in the neighboring hospital beds during an x-ray procedure in hospitalization unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Rafael E.; Capeleti, Felipe F.; Cabete, Henrique V.

    2017-01-01

    There are lots of discussion about the exposure in hospitalization units in Brazil, especially around labor legislation and economic advantages of unhealthiness. With the attention focused on hospitalized patients, there were measured the exposure in neighboring beds of the patient submitted to an X-ray procedure with a mobile X-ray system that could be used to illustrate the discussion with consistent values. The most common X-ray procedure made in hospitalization units are chests images with techniques between 70 to 120 kV and 5 to 20 mAs. The measurement was made during routine exposure and simulations using a scattering phantom with Radcal AccuPro electrometer and 1800cc ionization chamber in a private hospital and a philanthropic hospital, both in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The ionization chambers are placed at 2 meters distance of the patient exposed of both sides during the routine procedure. During the simulation, a nylon phantom of 20 centimeters thick and 30 x 30 cm² size was placed on the bed, a typical exposure technique was used and the exposure was measured surrounding the phantom at 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 meters distance for scattered radiation characterization. Initial results showed that the neighboring exposure at about 2 meters distance from the exposed patient bed have low values, even when exposure is integrated during the length of hospital stay. Therefore, the exposure in hospitalization units are very low compared to the exams doses. (author). (author)

  3. Exposure measurement in the neighboring hospital beds during an x-ray procedure in hospitalization unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Rafael E.; Capeleti, Felipe F.; Cabete, Henrique V., E-mail: rafael.goto@fcmsantacasasp.edu.br, E-mail: felipe.capeleti@fcmsantacasasp.edu.br, E-mail: henrique@gmpbrasil.com.br [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); GMP Consultoria em Radioprotecao e Fisica Medica e Assessoria LTDA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    There are lots of discussion about the exposure in hospitalization units in Brazil, especially around labor legislation and economic advantages of unhealthiness. With the attention focused on hospitalized patients, there were measured the exposure in neighboring beds of the patient submitted to an X-ray procedure with a mobile X-ray system that could be used to illustrate the discussion with consistent values. The most common X-ray procedure made in hospitalization units are chests images with techniques between 70 to 120 kV and 5 to 20 mAs. The measurement was made during routine exposure and simulations using a scattering phantom with Radcal AccuPro electrometer and 1800cc ionization chamber in a private hospital and a philanthropic hospital, both in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The ionization chambers are placed at 2 meters distance of the patient exposed of both sides during the routine procedure. During the simulation, a nylon phantom of 20 centimeters thick and 30 x 30 cm² size was placed on the bed, a typical exposure technique was used and the exposure was measured surrounding the phantom at 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 meters distance for scattered radiation characterization. Initial results showed that the neighboring exposure at about 2 meters distance from the exposed patient bed have low values, even when exposure is integrated during the length of hospital stay. Therefore, the exposure in hospitalization units are very low compared to the exams doses. (author). (author)

  4. Residential characteristics and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from bedroom measurements in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Blettner, M; Schüz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess total exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in bedrooms and the contribution of different radioservices (FM radio, analogue TV and DVB-T, TETRA, GSM900 downlink, GSM1800 downlink, UMTS downlink, DECT, and wireless LAN and blue tooth...... Antennessa(®) EME Spy 120 dosimeters in 1,348 households in Germany; 280 measures were available for each frequency band per household. Mean electrical field strengths and power flux densities were calculated. Power flux densities allow the calculation of proportions of different radioservices on total...... exposure. Exposure was often below the detection limit (electrical field strength: 0.05 V/m) of the dosimeter. Total exposure varied, depending on residential characteristics (urban vs. rural areas and floor of a building the measurement took place). Major sources of exposure were cordless phones (DECT...

  5. Joint nonparametric correction estimator for excess relative risk regression in survival analysis with exposure measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yun; Cullings, Harry; Song, Xiao; Kopecky, Kenneth J

    2017-11-01

    Observational epidemiological studies often confront the problem of estimating exposure-disease relationships when the exposure is not measured exactly. In the paper, we investigate exposure measurement error in excess relative risk regression, which is a widely used model in radiation exposure effect research. In the study cohort, a surrogate variable is available for the true unobserved exposure variable. The surrogate variable satisfies a generalized version of the classical additive measurement error model, but it may or may not have repeated measurements. In addition, an instrumental variable is available for individuals in a subset of the whole cohort. We develop a nonparametric correction (NPC) estimator using data from the subcohort, and further propose a joint nonparametric correction (JNPC) estimator using all observed data to adjust for exposure measurement error. An optimal linear combination estimator of JNPC and NPC is further developed. The proposed estimators are nonparametric, which are consistent without imposing a covariate or error distribution, and are robust to heteroscedastic errors. Finite sample performance is examined via a simulation study. We apply the developed methods to data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in which chromosome aberration is used to adjust for the effects of radiation dose measurement error on the estimation of radiation dose responses.

  6. Estimating relative risk of a log-transformed exposure measured in pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily M.; Plowden, Torie C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2016-01-01

    Pooling biospecimens prior to performing laboratory assays is a useful tool to reduce costs, achieve minimum volume requirements, and mitigate assay measurement error. When estimating the risk of a continuous, pooled exposure on a binary outcome, specialized statistical techniques are required. Current methods include a regression calibration approach, where the expectation of the individual-level exposure is calculated by adjusting the observed pooled measurement with additional covariate data. While this method employs a linear regression calibration model, we propose an alternative model that can accommodate log-linear relationships between the exposure and predictive covariates. The proposed model permits direct estimation of the relative risk associated with a log-transformation of an exposure measured in pools. PMID:27530506

  7. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 17 crew of 1.3 R was calculated from the specific activities of Na-24 in their postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of K-42, Cr-51, Co60, and Sb-124, introduced by injection into the astronauts, are extremely high in these specimens. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 levels are also reported and appear to be normal. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Fe, Co, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, As, Sb, Se, Br, Sc, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, and Th were measured in urine specimens from the Apollo 17 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. Strontium, barium, gold, cadmium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, terbium, thorium, and tin are reported for the first time. The concentrations or excretion rates of bromine and the alkali metals exhibit singificantly reduced postflight levels and are generally lower than values observed for previous missions. Chromium concentrations reflect radiochromium injections.

  8. Considering New Perspectives in ELT in Colombia: From EFL to ELF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando Macías, Diego

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the characteristics of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as an alternative to English Language Teaching (ELT) in Colombia. It focuses initially on the role played by English in the country and on what the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) model has offered the teaching of English. This is followed by considerations…

  9. ELF on a Mushroom: The Overnight Growth in English as a Lingua Franca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to curtail native-speaker dominance of global English, and in recognition of the growing role of the language among non-native speakers from different first-language backgrounds, some academics have been urging the teaching of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). Although at first this proposal seems to offer a plausible alternative to…

  10. Innovative use of ICT in schools based on the findings in ELFE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiksson, Ulf; Jedeskog, Gunilla; Plomp, T.

    2008-01-01

    The European e-Learning Forum for Education (ELFE) is a project initiated by the ETUCE (European Trade Union Committee on Education). An important objective of the project has been to study good experiences with implementing the use of ICT in schools. This objective has been broken down in seven

  11. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Intercultural Awareness and the Iowa Air National Guard Elf One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    as many spouses & kids over 12 that can make it. We feel K they too will find the briefings informative. In any event, complete the enclosed...standard postal ner- vices. Your APO mailing address will be: (Your Grade/Name) Det 1 Elf 1 ( DHA ) APO NY 09616 ("IN-THEATER", IF HAILED IN USAFE) * Saudi

  12. Teaching ELF as a Motivation Source for Learners: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyan, Emrah; Tunaz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if teaching ELF would help students change their beliefs about language and language learning. Firstly, students were interviewed in person, and they were found to have a lack of motivation and negative attitudes towards learning English with standard norms. It was also noticed that the students are not…

  13. Angola. Petroleum discovery by Elf on the block number 17 in deep water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the petroleum discovery in deep water in Angola. The drilling was executed by 1365 meters deep and gave a petroleum of good quality. The Elf company emphasizes that it is its third discovery in deep water in the Guinea gulf after Nkossa and Moho in Congo. (N.C.)

  14. ELF and VLF signatures of sprites registered onboard the low altitude satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Błęcki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of ELF and VLF signature of sprites recorded on the low altitude satellite DEMETER during thunderstorm activity. At an altitude of ~700 km, waves observed on the E-field spectrograms at mid-to-low latitudes during night time are mainly dominated by up-going 0+ whistlers. During the night of 20 July 2007 two sprites have been observed around 20:10:08 UT from the observatory located on the top of the mountain Śnieżka in Poland (50°44'09" N, 15°44'21" E, 1603 m and, ELF and VLF data have been recorded by the satellite at about 1200 km from the region of thunderstorm activity. During this event, the DEMETER instruments were switched in the burst mode and it was possible to register the wave forms. It is shown that the two sprites have been triggered by two intense +CG lightning strokes (100 kA occurring during the same millisecond but not at the same location. Despite the distance DEMETER has recorded at the same time intense and unusual ELF and VLF emissions. It is shown that the whistler wave propagates from the thunderstorm regions in the Earth-ionosphere guide and enters in the ionosphere below the satellite. They last several tens of milliseconds and the intensity of the ELF waveform is close to 1 mV/m. A particularly intense proton whistler is also associated with these emissions.

  15. Fostering awareness of the pedagogical implications of World Englishes and ELF in teacher education in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vettorel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education represents an essential step to raise awareness of the sociolinguistic changes brought about by the current pluralization of English and by its lingua franca role. Within the pre-service teacher education programs run at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Verona, Italy, part of the English language course focused on issues related to World Englishes (WE and English as a lingua franca (ELF, aiming at fostering awareness of and active reflection upon their pedagogical implications. After taking into consideration recent developments in WE- and ELF-aware teacher education, we will report on findings from a research study involving trainee teachers attending the aforementioned courses for English in academic years 2012-13 to 2014-15. The main aim of the study has been to investigate whether, how and to what extent trainee teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and reasoning about a WE and ELF-informed perspective in teaching practices may undergo a change after attending these courses. Drawing upon different sets of data (questionnaires, reflections in e-learning discussion forums, interviews and final reports, the trainees’ increased awareness of and readiness to include a WE- and ELF-informed didactic approach after attending the course will be discussed, together with implications for foreign language teacher education.

  16. Cluster observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Platino

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available It is now well known that amplitude modulated HF transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate ELF/VLF signals using the so-called "electrojet antenna". Although most observations of the generated ELF/VLF signals have been made on the ground, several low and high-altitude satellite observations have also been reported (James et al., 1990. One of the important unknowns in the physics of ELF/VLF wave generation by ionospheric heating is the volume of the magnetosphere illuminated by the ELF/VLF waves. In an attempt to investigate this question further, ground-satellite conjunction experiments have recently been conducted using the four Cluster satellites and the HF heater of the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility in Gakona, Alaska. Being located on largely closed field lines at L≈4.9, HAARP is currently also being used for ground-to-ground type of ELF/VLF wave-injection experiments, and will be increasingly used for this purpose as it is now being upgraded for higher power operation. In this paper, we describe the HAARP installation and present recent results of the HAARP-Cluster experiments. We give an overview of the detected ELF/VLF signals at Cluster, and a possible explanation of the spectral signature detected, as well as the determination of the location of the point of injection of the HAARP ELF/VLF signals into the magnetosphere using ray tracing.

  17. The Energy Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans under The Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhua; Yu, Hui; Sun, Yongyan; Yang, Chuanjun; Lian, Huiyong; Cai, Peng

    2015-02-01

    A literal mountain of documentation generated in the past five decades showing unmistakable health hazards associated with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) exposure. However, the relation between energy mechanism and ELF-EMF exposure is poorly understood. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at intensities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mT, respectively. Their metabolite variations were analyzed by GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics. Although minimal metabolic variations and no regular pattern were observed, the contents of energy metabolism-related metabolites such as pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, and L-malic acid were elevated in all the treatments. The expressions of nineteen related genes that encode glycolytic enzymes were analyzed by using quantitative real-time PCR. Only genes encoding GAPDH were significantly upregulated (P enzyme activity of GAPDH was increased (P < 0.01), whereas the total intracellular ATP level was decreased. While no significant difference in lifespan, hatching rate and reproduction, worms exposed to ELF-EMF exhibited less food consumption compared with that of the control (P < 0.01). In conclusion, C. elegans exposed to ELF-EMF have enhanced energy metabolism and restricted dietary, which might contribute to the resistance against exogenous ELF-EMF stress.

  18. Sickness absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricite de France (EDF) workers exposed to ELF-EMF: the substation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Dab, W.; Lambrozo, J.; Chevalier, A.; Coing, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are suspected of many health effects, including cancers, immunity and fertility disorders, congenital malformations, suicides and depression.... Although the results of all studies are contradictory and no biological mechanism has been found, populations are concerned about this matter. This study analyzes the absence from work of some EDF employees who are a priori the most professionally exposed to ELF EMF. Absence from work is taken as an health indicator. Although it is not specific, it can be predictive of serious health problems. The specific context of EDF has made it possible to collect and analyze the medical aspect of absence from work, that is rare in France. We were interested with employees working with high voltage (over 90 kV). Three job categories have been selected: live line workers, substation maintenance workers and substation exploitation workers (called in the company the ATEX). The first group concerned the live linemen and the results were exposed previously. It appeared they had more accidents at work, but this was more related to the job of lineman rather than to the EMF exposure. Nevertheless, substation workers have an exposure less intensive but longer than live linemen. We present here the result about the absenteeism of the substation workers, maintenance and exploitation. (author)

  19. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometric measures in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent chemicals that may affect growth early in life. The authors estimated the associations between maternal plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA and infants' weight, length, and body mass index development during the first year....... Multiple linear regression models were used for analyses, and maternal PFOS and PFOA concentrations (ng/mL) were inversely related to children's weight in the first year of life: adjusted regression coefficients: -1.1 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.6, 2.3) at 5 months and -5.8 g (95% CI: -10.4, -1.......2) at 12 months for PFOS; -10.6 g (95% CI: -30.2, 8.9) at 5 months and -19.7 g (95% CI: -45.9, 6.5) at 12 months for PFOA. A similar pattern was observed for body mass index measurements, and no associations with length were found. After sex stratification, the inverse associations with weight and body...

  20. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses to the crews of the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions of 142 + or - 80, 340 + or - 80, and 210 + or - 130 mR respectively were calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in the postflight urine specimens of the astronauts. The specific activity of Fe-59 was higher in the urine than in the feces of the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts, and a possible explanation is given. The concentrations of K-40, K-42, Cr-51, Co-60, and Cs-137 in the urine are also reported for these astronauts. The radiation doses received by pilots and navigators flying high altitude missions during the solar flare of March 27 to 30, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated from the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum and demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fe, Co, Ag, Zn, Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Br were measured in the urine specimens from the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. The mercury and arsenic levels were much higher than expected.

  1. The agreement of Elf-EDF cooperation shows well the increasing interest of petroleum managers for the electric area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF), the french electric power company, signed an agreement with Elf Aquitaine, french petroleum company to favour the realizations of joint operations to produce abroad electricity from petroleum. This cooperation allows to Elf to get a better price of electric kilowatt h. EDF and Elf underlined the international market of electricity is one of the most dynamic of the energy area. One another hope to develop their activities in foreign countries where the principle issue of hydrocarbons is to produce electricity

  2. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  3. Shared and unshared exposure measurement error in occupational cohort studies and their effects on statistical inference in proportional hazards models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2018-01-01

    Exposure measurement error represents one of the most important sources of uncertainty in epidemiology. When exposure uncertainty is not or only poorly accounted for, it can lead to biased risk estimates and a distortion of the shape of the exposure-response relationship. In occupational cohort studies, the time-dependent nature of exposure and changes in the method of exposure assessment may create complex error structures. When a method of group-level exposure assessment is used, individual worker practices and the imprecision of the instrument used to measure the average exposure for a group of workers may give rise to errors that are shared between workers, within workers or both. In contrast to unshared measurement error, the effects of shared errors remain largely unknown. Moreover, exposure uncertainty and magnitude of exposure are typically highest for the earliest years of exposure. We conduct a simulation study based on exposure data of the French cohort of uranium miners to compare the effects of shared and unshared exposure uncertainty on risk estimation and on the shape of the exposure-response curve in proportional hazards models. Our results indicate that uncertainty components shared within workers cause more bias in risk estimation and a more severe attenuation of the exposure-response relationship than unshared exposure uncertainty or exposure uncertainty shared between individuals. These findings underline the importance of careful characterisation and modeling of exposure uncertainty in observational studies. PMID:29408862

  4. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Chhavi R.; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J.; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  5. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  6. Design And Measurement Of Radiation Exposure Rates At An X-Ray Diagnostic Radiological Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito-Sutjipto

    2003-01-01

    Every radiation employees suffers radiation exposure risk while doing his job. It is important therefore to investigate the occupational health and safety of radiation employees on its relationship with the design and measurement of radiation exposure rates at an X-ray diagnostic radiological unit in this work, a case study was held on the radiological unit at BP-4 Yogyakarta for patient diagnostics, This research armed to investigate the relationship between the design of radiological unit for X-ray diagnostics and the location of the X-ray machine, based on the distance variable and radiation exposure rate during patient diagnostics. This was performed using radiological unit design data for X-ray diagnostics and the measurement of radiation exposure rates throughout patient diagnostics. The design data can then be used for determining the requirement of primary and secondary shielding materials for radiological unit as well as a calculation basis of radiation exposure rates during patient diagnostics. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that from the occupational health and safety point of view, radiation exposure around the X-ray machines are fairly good, both for the shielding materials in each X-ray room and the radiation exposures received by the workers, because they are far beyond the maximum permittable average limit (16.67 m R/days). (author)

  7. Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Korn, Leo R.; Zhang, Lin; Weisel, Clifford P.; Turpin, Barbara; Morandi, Maria; Stock, Tom; Colome, Steve

    As a part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study, 48 h integrated residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of 10 carbonyls were simultaneously measured in 234 homes selected from three US cities using the Passive Aldehydes and Ketones Samplers (PAKS). In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using residential indoor concentrations to predict personal exposures to carbonyls. Based on paired t-tests, the means of indoor concentrations were not different from those of personal exposure concentrations for eight out of the 10 measured carbonyls, indicating indoor carbonyls concentrations, in general, well predicted the central tendency of personal exposure concentrations. In a linear regression model, indoor concentrations explained 47%, 55%, and 65% of personal exposure variance for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, respectively. The predictability of indoor concentrations on cross-individual variability in personal exposure for the other carbonyls was poorer, explainingexposure concentrations. It was found that activities related to driving a vehicle and performing yard work had significant impacts on personal exposures to a few carbonyls.

  8. Broadband measurements of high-frequency electric field levels and exposure ratios determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of people to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (over 100 kHz that emanate from modern wireless information transmission systems is inevitable in modern times. Due to the rapid development of new technologies, measuring devices and their connection to measuring systems, the first fifteen years of the 21st century are characterized by the appearance of different approaches to measurements. This prompts the need for the assessment of the exposure of people to these fields. The main purpose of this paper is to show how to determine the exposure ratios based on the results of broadband measurements of the high-frequency electric field in the range of 3 MHz to 18 GHz in the environment.

  9. On the use of mobile phones and wearable microphones for noise exposure measurements: Calibration and measurement accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Romain

    Despite the fact that noise-induced hearing loss remains the number one occupational disease in developed countries, individual noise exposure levels are still rarely known and infrequently tracked. Indeed, efforts to standardize noise exposure levels present disadvantages such as costly instrumentation and difficulties associated with on site implementation. Given their advanced technical capabilities and widespread daily usage, mobile phones could be used to measure noise levels and make noise monitoring more accessible. However, the use of mobile phones for measuring noise exposure is currently limited due to the lack of formal procedures for their calibration and challenges regarding the measurement procedure. Our research investigated the calibration of mobile phone-based solutions for measuring noise exposure using a mobile phone's built-in microphones and wearable external microphones. The proposed calibration approach integrated corrections that took into account microphone placement error. The corrections were of two types: frequency-dependent, using a digital filter and noise level-dependent, based on the difference between the C-weighted noise level minus A-weighted noise level of the noise measured by the phone. The electro-acoustical limitations and measurement calibration procedure of the mobile phone were investigated. The study also sought to quantify the effect of noise exposure characteristics on the accuracy of calibrated mobile phone measurements. Measurements were carried out in reverberant and semi-anechoic chambers with several mobiles phone units of the same model, two types of external devices (an earpiece and a headset with an in-line microphone) and an acoustical test fixture (ATF). The proposed calibration approach significantly improved the accuracy of the noise level measurements in diffuse and free fields, with better results in the diffuse field and with ATF positions causing little or no acoustic shadowing. Several sources of errors

  10. Assessing the reliability and validity of television and game violence exposure measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Taylor Piotrowski, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether common self-report measures of television and game violence exposure represent reliable and valid measurement tools. Three self-report measures—direct estimates, user-rated favorites, and agency-rated favorites—were assessed in terms of test-retest reliability, criterion

  11. Measurement of Microscopic Deformations Using Double-Exposure Holographic Interferometry and the Fourier Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic deformations on the surface of a circular diaphragm were measured using double exposure holographic interferometry and Fourier transform method (FTM. The three-dimensional surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM to holographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. This was calibrated via the Michelson interferometry technique.

  12. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Tehran Metro Drivers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza Monazzam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs in train drivers is an integral part of the driving task and creates concern about driving jobs. The present study was designed to investigate the occupational exposure of Tehran train drivers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Methods: In order to measure the driver’s exposure, from each line, a random sample in AC and DC type trains was selected and measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 using a triple axis TES-394 device. Train drivers were then compared with national occupational exposure limit guidelines. Results: The maximum and minimum mean exposure was found in AC external city trains (1.2±1.5 μT and DC internal city trains (0.31±0.2 μT, respectively. The maximum and minimum exposure was 9 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains of line 5, respectively. In the internal train line, maximum and minimum values were 5.4 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains. Conclusions: In none of the exposure scenarios in different trains, the exposure exceeded the national or international occupational exposure limit guidelines. However, this should not be the basis of safety in these fields

  13. Understanding the exposure-time effect on speckle contrast measurements for laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Kubota, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of exposure time on speckle noise for laser displays, speckle contrast measurement method was developed observable at a human eye response time using a high-sensitivity camera which has a signal multiplying function. The nonlinearity of camera light sensitivity was calibrated to measure accurate speckle contrasts, and the measuring lower limit noise of speckle contrast was improved by applying spatial-frequency low pass filter to the captured images. Three commercially available laser displays were measured over a wide range of exposure times from tens of milliseconds to several seconds without adjusting the brightness of laser displays. The speckle contrast of raster-scanned mobile projector without any speckle-reduction device was nearly constant over various exposure times. On the contrary to this, in full-frame projection type laser displays equipped with a temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, some of their speckle contrasts close to the lower limits noise were slightly increased at the shorter exposure time due to the noise. As a result, the exposure-time effect of speckle contrast could not be observed in our measurements, although it is more reasonable to think that the speckle contrasts of laser displays, which are equipped with the temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, are dependent on the exposure time. This discrepancy may be attributed to the underestimation of temporal averaging factor. We expected that this method is useful for evaluating various laser displays and clarify the relationship between the speckle noise and the exposure time for a further verification of speckle reduction.

  14. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields modulates Na+ currents in rat cerebellar granule cells through increase of AA/PGE2 and EP receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin He

    Full Text Available Although the modulation of Ca(2+ channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na(+ channels (Na(v. Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Na(v activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs. Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10-60 min significantly increased Na(v currents (I(Na by 30-125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Na(v channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 on I(Na in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE(2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the Na(V 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of Na(V 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE(2 receptor (EP antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and I(Na. In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA(2 in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal I(Na is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE(2 EP receptors PKA signaling pathway.

  15. Do Questions Reflecting Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure from a Questionnaire Predict Direct Measure of Exposure in Owner-Occupied Houses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, C.K. Jennifer; Foty, Richard G.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Miller, J. David; Evans, Greg; Stieb, David M.; Dell, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    Home characteristic questions are used in epidemiological studies and clinical settings to assess potentially harmful exposures in the home. The objective of this study was to determine whether questionnaire-reported home characteristics can predict directly measured pollutants. Sixty home inspections were conducted on a subsample of the 2006 population-based Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire. Indoor/outdoor air and settled dust samples were analyzed. Mean Fel d 1 was higher (p 50% (61.30 μg/g, versus 6.24 μg/g, p = 0.002). Self-reported presence of a cat, a gas stove, musty odours, mice, and the home’s age and indoor relative humidity over 50% predicted measured indoor levels of cat allergens, NO2, fungal glucan, mouse allergens and dust mite allergens, respectively. These results are helpful for understanding the significance of indoor exposures ascertained by self-reporting in large epidemiological studies and also in the clinical setting. PMID:20948960

  16. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  17. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  18. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  19. Predicting return of fear following exposure therapy with an implicit measure of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael W; Harbaugh, Casaundra N; Buffington, Adam G; Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2012-12-01

    We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fear) responses to the phobic stimulus, or both. However, if the attitude representation remains negative following treatment, ROF should be more likely. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical sample of individuals with public speaking phobia using a single-session exposure therapy protocol previously shown to be efficacious but also associated with some ROF. Consistent with predictions, a post-treatment implicit measure of attitudes toward public speaking (the Personalized Implicit Association Test [PIAT]) predicted ROF at 1-month follow-up. These results suggest that change in the automatically activated attitude toward the phobic stimulus is an important goal of exposure therapy and that an implicit measure like the PIAT can provide a useful measure of such change by which to gauge the adequacy of exposure treatment and predict its long-term efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Return of Fear Following Exposure Therapy With an Implicit Measure of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael W.; Harbaugh, Casaundra N.; Buffington, Adam G.; Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fear) responses to the phobic stimulus, or both. However, if the attitude representation remains negative following treatment, ROF should be more likely. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical sample of individuals with public speaking phobia using a single-session exposure therapy protocol previously shown to be efficacious but also associated with some ROF. Consistent with predictions, a post-treatment implicit measure of attitudes toward public speaking (the Personalized Implicit Association Test [PIAT]) predicted ROF at 1-month follow-up. These results suggest that change in the automatically activated attitude toward the phobic stimulus is an important goal of exposure therapy and that an implicit measure like the PIAT can provide a useful measure of such change by which to gauge the adequacy of exposure treatment and predict its long-term efficacy. PMID:23085186

  1. Utility of the ELF Test for Detecting Steatohepatitis in Morbid Obese Patients with Suspicion of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iria Cebreiros; Aroca, Florentina Guzmán; Bernal, Maria Dolores Frutos; Mompeán, Juan Antonio Luján; Bernal, Águeda Bas; Martínez, Antonio Miguel Hernández; Barba, Enrique Martínez; Velasco, Jose Antonio Noguera; Paricio, Pascual Parilla

    2017-09-01

    Morbid obese patients have a high rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is related to the progression and poor evolution of chronic hepatopathy in NAFLD, so that its detection makes it possible to identify the subjects who are most at risk in order to prioritize treatment. The ELF test (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test; Siemens Diagnostics, NY, USA) has been assessed for its capacity to detect fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, but its capacity for diagnosing NASH has not been checked. Our objective is to determine the utility of the ELF test for detecting NASH in morbid obese patients with suspected NAFLD. ELF values were determined in a cohort of obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery with suspected NAFLD. Liver biopsy was used as the reference standard. The values of ELF were significantly higher in patients with NASH (p = 0.002) and in those who presented with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.047). An ELF cut-off point of 8.72 allows the detection of patients with NASH with a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 74.1% (AUC = 0.742, p = 0.002). The ELF test is efficient for the identification of obese patients with NAFLD and early signs of steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

  2. Dual-beam ELF wave generation as a function of power, frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Dual-beam ELF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter are used to investigate the dependence of the generated ELF wave magnitude on HF power, HF frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location. During the experiments, two HF beams transmit simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere at ELF frequencies while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF wave generation. We report experimental results for different ambient ionospheric conditions, and we interpret the observations in the context of a newly developed dual-beam HF heating model. A comparison between model predictions and experimental observations indicates that the theoretical model includes the essential physics involved in multifrequency HF heating of the lower ionosphere. In addition to the HF transmission parameters mentioned above, the model is used to predict the dependence of ELF wave magnitude on the polarization of the CW beam and on the modulation frequency of the modulated beam. We consider how these effects vary with ambientD-region electron density and electron temperature.

  3. Development of Survey Scales for Measuring Exposure and Behavioral Responses to Disruptive Intraoperative Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Robinson, Sandra; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-09-10

    Disruptive intraoperative behavior has detrimental effects to clinicians, institutions, and patients. How clinicians respond to this behavior can either exacerbate or attenuate its effects. Previous investigations of disruptive behavior have used survey scales with significant limitations. The study objective was to develop appropriate scales to measure exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. We obtained ethics approval. The scales were developed in a sequence of steps. They were pretested using expert reviews, computational linguistic analysis, and cognitive interviews. The scales were then piloted on Canadian operating room clinicians. Factor analysis was applied to half of the data set for question reduction and grouping. Item response analysis and theoretical reviews ensured that important questions were not eliminated. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach α. Model fit was examined on the second half of the data set using confirmatory factor analysis. Content validity of the final scales was re-evaluated. Consistency between observed relationships and theoretical predictions was assessed. Temporal stability was evaluated on a subsample of 38 respondents. A total of 1433 and 746 clinicians completed the exposure and response scales, respectively. Content validity indices were excellent (exposure = 0.96, responses = 1.0). Internal consistency was good (exposure = 0.93, responses = 0.87). Correlations between the exposure scale and secondary measures were consistent with expectations based on theory. Temporal stability was acceptable (exposure = 0.77, responses = 0.73). We have developed scales measuring exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. They generate valid and reliable scores when surveying operating room clinicians, and they overcome the limitations of previous tools. These survey scales are freely available.

  4. Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Redox-Responsive Pathways Linked to Cancer Drug Resistance: Insights from Co-Exposure-Based In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical devices currently used in clinical practice and common household equipments generate extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as “possible carcinogenic.” Assuming that ELF-MF plays a role in the carcinogenic process without inducing direct genomic alterations, ELF-MF may be involved in the promotion or progression of cancers. In particular, ELF-MF-induced responses are suspected to activate redox-responsive intracellular signaling or detoxification scavenging systems. In fact, improved protection against oxidative stress and redox-active xenobiotics is thought to provide critical proliferative and survival advantage in tumors. On this basis, an ever-growing research activity worldwide is attempting to establish whether tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance through the activation of essential cytoprotective networks in the presence of ELF fields, and how this might trigger relevant changes in tumor phenotype. This review builds a framework around how the activity of redox-responsive mediators may be controlled by co-exposure to ELF-MF and reactive oxygen species-generating agents in tumor and cancer cells, in order to clarify whether and how such potential molecular targets could help to minimize or neutralize the functional interaction between ELF-MF and malignancies.

  5. COMPARISON OF MEASURES ON PROTECTION AGAINST ACCIDENTAL RADIATION AND INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE IN MUSLYUMOVO, TECHA RIVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I V; Malinovsky, G P; Zhukovsky, M V; Tolstykh, E V

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the study was comparison of the doses received due to contamination of the Techa River with those received from the indoor radon exposure. The study was performed on the example of Muslyumovo, the village closest to Mayak nuclear complex. The accidental doses were estimated using data on radionuclide intakes and ICRP-72 dose coefficients, and Techa River Dosimetry System. Radon exposure was estimated applying results of the radon surveys in 1992 and 2015. The doses prevented by means of different protection measures were considered. The maximum reduction of population exposure could be achieved in the case of timely evacuation to uncontaminated territory together with the indoor radon prevention measures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.

    1992-12-01

    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  7. New-evangelization discourse in ELF immigration encounters: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Guido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This paper investigates how the 'New Evangelization' process in the Roman Catholic Church is enacted through ELF by the Italian clergy offering spiritual and practical assistance to non-western immigrants newly-arrived in Italy. A case study explores how religious discourse reflects the two contact groups' different typological-syntactic, semantic and sociopragmatic features transferred to their respective ELF usage, as well as their different knowledge sustems and community values associated with the religious experience. It is argued that misunderstanding occurs when the clergy's culture-bound patterns of Possible-World Semantics, characterizing the counterfactual logic of their religious/metaphysical discourse in ELF, fail to account for the divergent ways by which non-western immigrants make religious sense of their existence. The conversational analysis shows how the New-Evangelization discourse requires from immigrants the activation of the two 'bimodal' cooperative maxims of 'suspension of disbelief', epistemically inducing them to believe that possible-world representations can be true, and 'experiential pliability', deontically compelling immigrants to adapt their actual-world experience to such counterfactual constructions, even though for the cultures of some African countries which immigrants come from religion is intrinsically connected with the referential domain of the actual world. Recognizing divergent ways of expressing the religious experience in different cultures may help 'new evangelizers' find alternative, 'hybrid' ways of conveying the Word of God through ELF, thus fostering true ecumenical communication.Riassunto - Lo studio esamina come il processo di 'Nuova Evangelizzazione' nella Chiesa Cattolica Romana è messo in atto dal clero italiano attraverso ELF quando offre assistenza pratica e spirituale ad immigrati non-occidentali appena giunti in Italia. Il caso di studio esplora i modi in cui il discorso

  8. The ELF Honest Data Broker: informatics enabling public-private collaboration in a precompetitive arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Guillaume; Cochrane, Philip; Jones, Philip S; van Hoorn, Willem P; Caracoti, Andrei; van Vlijmen, Herman; Pannifer, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    New precompetitive ways of working in the pharmaceutical industry are driving the development of new informatics systems to enable their execution and management. The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a precompetitive, 30-partner collaboration between academic groups, small-medium enterprises and pharmaceutical companies created to discover small molecule hits against novel biological targets. A unique HTS screening and triage workflow has been developed to balance the intellectual property and scientific requirements of all the partners. Here, we describe the ELF Honest Data Broker, a cloud-based informatics system providing the scientific triage tools, fine-grained permissions and management tools required to implement the workflow. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System - Ecological Monitoring Program: Summary of 1988 Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    trees . The population dynamics of mycorriizae occurring on hardwood and pine trees are being examined. Data on hardwood mycorrhizae were not collected...34 had a significance level of 5 percent (P < 0.05). 1 2.1 UPLAND FLORA Forest vegetation ( trees and herbs) is the dominant biota in the ELF...and3 health, the following elements are being examined: 0 growth rates of established tree stands and pine seedlings 1 * phernological events of trees

  10. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Summary of 1987 Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    population dynamics of mycorrhizae occurring on hardwood and pine trees are being examined. lIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE 15 IITRI E06595-3 The population dynamics of...a significance level of 5 percent (P < 0.05). 2.1 UPLAND FLORA Forest vegetation ( trees and herbs) is the dominant biota in the ELF Communications...the following objectives are being examined: * growth rates of established tree stands and pine seedlings * phenological events of trees , herbs, and

  11. Phytoplankton extracellular phosphatases: investigation using the ELF (Enzyme Labelled Fluorescence) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrojsová, Alena; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2006), s. 715-723 ISSN 1505-2249. [Symposium on European Freshwater Sciences /4./. Krakow, 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202 Grant - others:FRVŠ(CZ) G4 1841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : algae * cyanobacteria * ELF97 phosphate * cell-specific activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.306, year: 2006

  12. Harmonization of measurement strategies for exposure to manufactured nano-objects; Report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Berges, M.; Virji, M.A.; Fransman, W.; Bello, D.; Hodson, L.; Gabriel, S.; Tielemans, E.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the First International Scientific Workshop on Harmonization of Strategies to Measure and Analyze Exposure to (Manufactured) Nano-objects in Workplace Air that was organized and hosted by the Netherlands Organization for Applied

  13. Solar UV exposure among outdoor workers in Denmark measured with personal UV-B dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Sherman, David Zim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is a well-known cause of skin cancer. This is problematic for outdoor workers. In Denmark alone, occupational skin cancer poses a significant health and safety risk for around 400,000 outdoor workers. Objective measures of solar ultraviolet radi...

  14. Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew: compilation of measured and calculated data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindborg, L.; Bartlett, D.; Beck, P.; McAulay, I.; Schnuer, K.; Schraube, H.; Spurný, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, 1-4 (2004), s. 417-422 ISSN 0144-8420 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : cosmic radiation exposure * aircraft crew * measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  15. Harmonization of measurement strategies for exposure to manufactured nano-objects; report of a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Derk; Berges, Markus; Virji, Mohammed Abbas; Fransman, Wouter; Bello, Dhimiter; Hodson, Laura; Gabriel, Stefan; Tielemans, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the First International Scientific Workshop on Harmonization of Strategies to Measure and Analyze Exposure to (Manufactured) Nano-objects in Workplace Air that was organized and hosted by the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) and the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) (Zeist, The Netherlands, December 2010). It reflects the discussions by 25 international participants in the area of occupational (nano) exposure assessment from Europe, USA, Japan, and Korea on nano-specific issues related to the three identified topics: (i) measurement strategies; (ii) analyzing, evaluating, and reporting of exposure data; and (iii) core information for (exposure) data storage. Preliminary recommendations were achieved with respect to (i) a multimetric approach to exposure assessment, a minimal set of data to be collected, and basic data analysis and reporting as well as (ii) a minimum set of contextual information to be collected and reported. Other issues that have been identified and are of great interest include (i) the need for guidance on statistical approaches to analyze time-series data and on electron microscopy analysis and its reporting and (ii) the need for and possible structure of a (joint) database to store and merge data. To make progress in the process of harmonization, it was concluded that achieving agreement among researchers on the preliminary recommendations of the workshop is urgent.

  16. ELF in English language teaching: Researching attitudes of Serbian academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ošmjanski Vera B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the empirical part of the research was to explore the attitude of the Serbian academic community towards the English language used as lingua franca (ELF, i.e. neutral variety of the English language. The results might be a starting point in considering whether to include ELF in the language policy and, consequently, into English curricula in Serbia. The research included members of Serbian academic community, students of different departments, and English language teachers in the state owned and privately owned universities in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis. After examining their attitudes towards key postulates of ELF the conclusions are that it is necessary to start discussions about the concepts of the variety and to reassess current deeply rooted ideas about the English language from the perspective of modern linguistic trends. The need for a more liberal approach to the variety is not generated only in the needs of the market, i.e. those people to whom English is a practical means of international communication, but also the need to adjust ELT (English Language Teaching to modern linguistic tendencies and the European Council recommendations.

  17. Measuring radon levels at high exposures with alpha-track detectors. Calibration and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanestad, Katrine; Roennqvist, Tryggve; Jensen, Camilla Lunder

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the TADTAC method - a track area dependent total area counting method, for measuring radon levels at high exposures with alpha-track detectors. Normally radon levels are measured by counting individual tracks. The TADTAC method is developed by Gammadata Maaleteknik AB and implemented at The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Alpha-track detectors used for testing and calibrating the method where exposed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. (author) (tk)

  18. Seasonal variation in bioaerosol exposure during biowaste collection and measurements of leaked percolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Herbert; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Breum, Niels O.

    2000-01-01

    The seasonal variation in waste collectors' exposure to microorganisms, endotoxin and dust was measured with personal sampling equipment. The measurement was carried out in three different combinations of storage and collection system for biowaste: container/compactor truck (CIC), paper sack/comp...... of percolate generated in biowaste may constitute a potential health hazard to waste collectors on account of the high concentrations of microorganisms and the risk of splashing during collection....

  19. Exposure measurement in bicycle safety analysis: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanparijs, Jef; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain; de Geus, Bas

    2015-11-01

    Cycling, as an active mode of transportation, has well-established health benefits. However, the safety of cyclists in traffic remains a major concern. In-depth studies of potential risk factors and safety outcomes are needed to ensure the most appropriate actions are taken to improve safety. However, the lack of reliable exposure data hinders meaningful analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we review the bicycle safety literature reporting different methods for measuring cycling exposure and discuss their findings. A literature search identified studies on bicycle safety that included a description of how cycling exposure was measured, and what exposure units were used (e.g. distance, time, trips). Results were analyzed based on whether retrospective or prospective measurement of exposure was used, and whether safety outcomes controlled for exposure. We analyzed 20 papers. Retrospective studies were dominated by major bicycle accidents, whereas the prospective studies included minor and major bicycle accidents. Retrospective studies indicated higher incidence rates (IR) of accidents for men compared to women, and an increased risk of injury for cyclists aged 50 years or older. There was a lack of data for cyclists younger than 18 years. The risk of cycling accidents increased when riding in the dark. Wearing visible clothing or a helmet, or having more cycling experience did not reduce the risk of being involved in an accident. Better cyclist-driver awareness and more interaction between car driver and cyclists, and well maintained bicycle-specific infrastructure should improve bicycle safety. The need to include exposure in bicycle safety research is increasingly recognized, but good exposure data are often lacking, which makes results hard to interpret and compare. Studies including exposure often use a retrospective research design, without including data on minor bicycle accidents, making it difficult to compare safety levels between age categories or

  20. Oslo traffic study - part 2: quantifying effects of traffic measures using individual exposure modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Klaeboe, R.; Kolbenstvedt, M.

    2000-01-01

    In quantifying the benefits of air pollution reduction measures, it is desirable to compare the size of the benefits with the effects of other individual confounding factors such as smoking or passive smoking. The effect of pollution is rarely very large and in order to quantify it, exposure estimating procedures must be as accurate as possible. Dispersion models, run for hourly time intervals and controlled by measurements, are therefore used to provide estimates for specific receptor points. Results of three consecutive cross-sectional investigations in an area of Oslo characterized by heavy traffic are presented. The study was designed to provide repeated information on the effects of traffic diversion measures on the self-reporting of symptoms of reduced health of 1100 adults living in Oslo. The principal source of air pollution in Oslo is vehicular traffic. The primary pollutants of interest are nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and respirable particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ). The mean hourly concentration of exposure was estimated at each participant's home by means of a time-dependent finite dispersion model combined with subgrid models to describe the source contribution to the grid concentrations. The study controlled the confounding factors. Using the symptom fatigue, the study illustrates that by controlling the changes in population composition, estimated exposure-effect relationships for health symptoms allow the effect of the studied traffic measures on the population to be evaluated. Since the method is based on individual estimates of exposure to different pollutants, it allows standardizing the exposure to compare effects of different pollutants. The study offers a methodology that is useful in evaluating the benefits of measures by both being able to quantify and compare the effects of different compounds and effects on different population sub-groups. (author)

  1. Measurement of Exposure levels in Some Locations of Umm-AlQuraa University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Allehyani, S.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to serve the following purposes: for the assessment of dose to human, to generate dose mapping of an interested region and a reference data base for future use. Measurement the exposure levels in some locations of Umm-Alquraa University were carried out using two techniques. The dose rate was measured using hand held gamma spectrometer that consists of built in NaI (Tl) detector and some Thermoluminescence dosimeters (LiF), TLD-chips-100. The annual outdoor dose rate was measured via four interval every three months. The measurements annual indoor dose rate was within the ICRP recommendation

  2. Incorporating Measurement Error from Modeled Air Pollution Exposures into Epidemiological Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Butland, Barbara K

    2017-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution exposures used in epidemiological studies are commonly predicted from spatiotemporal models incorporating limited measurements, temporal factors, geographic information system variables, and/or satellite data. Measurement error in these exposure estimates leads to imprecise estimation of health effects and their standard errors. We reviewed methods for measurement error correction that have been applied in epidemiological studies that use model-derived air pollution data. We identified seven cohort studies and one panel study that have employed measurement error correction methods. These methods included regression calibration, risk set regression calibration, regression calibration with instrumental variables, the simulation extrapolation approach (SIMEX), and methods under the non-parametric or parameter bootstrap. Corrections resulted in small increases in the absolute magnitude of the health effect estimate and its standard error under most scenarios. Limited application of measurement error correction methods in air pollution studies may be attributed to the absence of exposure validation data and the methodological complexity of the proposed methods. Future epidemiological studies should consider in their design phase the requirements for the measurement error correction method to be later applied, while methodological advances are needed under the multi-pollutants setting.

  3. Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  4. Respiratory Health - Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Angelini

    Full Text Available Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring, 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to

  5. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS e......, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637....

  6. Applied measures and further subjects for radiation exposure reduction at BWR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoha, K.

    1994-01-01

    The dose equivalent for workers at the Tokyo Electric Power Company's nuclear power plant operation, which started some 20 years ago, has lowered to about one fifth of the highest level record during the period. Apparently this has been achieved by the effects of the measures actively carried out to reduce the radiation exposure. This Report summarizes these radiation exposure reduction effects, followed by discussions on the current state and future developments of the company's activities in this field with careful consideration given to the in individual dose equivalent for plant workers. 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. The Exposure Hierarchy as a Measure of Progress and Efficacy in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerelos, Marina; Hawley, Lance L.; Antony, Martin M.; McCabe, Randi E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the psychometric properties and utility of the exposure hierarchy as a measure of treatment outcome for social anxiety disorder (SAD). An exposure hierarchy was created for each of 103 individuals with a diagnosis of SAD who completed a course of cognitive behavioral group therapy. Exposure hierarchy ratings were collected on a…

  8. Comparison of direct measurement methods for headset noise exposure in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora G Nassrallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets poses a methodological challenge. Although several standards describe methods for general noise measurements in occupational settings, these are not directly applicable to noise assessments under communication headsets. For measurements under occluded ears, specialized methods have been specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 11904 such as the microphone in a real ear and manikin techniques. Simpler methods have also been proposed in some national standards such as the use of general purpose artificial ears and simulators in conjunction with single number corrections to convert measurements to the equivalent diffuse field. However, little is known about the measurement agreement between these various methods and the acoustic manikin technique. Twelve experts positioned circum-aural, supra-aural and insert communication headsets on four different measurement setups (Type 1, Type 2, Type 3.3 artificial ears, and acoustic manikin. Fit-refit measurements of four audio communication signals were taken under quiet laboratory conditions. Data were transformed into equivalent diffuse-field sound levels using third-octave procedures. Results indicate that the Type 1 artificial ear is not suited for the measurement of sound exposure under communication headsets, while Type 2 and Type 3.3 artificial ears are in good agreement with the acoustic manikin technique. Single number corrections were found to introduce a large measurement uncertainty, making the use of the third-octave transformation preferable.

  9. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  10. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan R Tovey

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for

  11. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  12. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  13. Measurements of Intracellular Ca2+ Content and Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells: Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Wesseling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increase of the intracellular Ca2+ content as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer cell membrane surface after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has been investigated by a variety of research groups. Carrying out experiments, which we described in several previous publications, we observed some discrepancies when comparing data obtained by different investigators within our research group and also between batches of LPA. In addition, we found differences comparing the results of double and single labelling experiments (for Ca2+ and PS. Furthermore, the results of PS exposure depended on the fluorescent dye used (annexin V-FITC versus annexin V alexa fluor® 647. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate these methodological approaches in more detail to be able to quantify results and to compare data obtained by different research groups. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs separated from whole blood have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM obtained from three different companies (Sigma-Aldrich, Cayman Chemical Company, and Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.. Fluo-4 and x-rhod-1 have been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content, annexin V alexa fluor® 647 and annexin V-FITC have been used for PS exposure measurements. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing increased intracellular Ca2+ content as well as PS exposure changes significantly between different LPA manufacturers as well as on the condition of mixing of LPA with the RBC suspension. Furthermore, the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure is reduced in double labelling compared to single labelling experiments and depends also on the fluorescent dye used. Finally, data on Ca2+ content are slightly affected whereas PS exposure data are not affected significantly

  14. Evaluating street view exposure measures of visible green space for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Andrew; Hystad, Perry

    2018-01-19

    Urban green space, or natural environments, are associated with multiple physical and mental health outcomes. Several proposed pathways of action for these benefits (e.g., stress reduction and attention restoration) require visual perception of green space; however, existing green space exposure measures commonly used in epidemiological studies do not capture street-scale exposures. We downloaded 254 Google Street View (GSV) panorama images from Portland, Oregon and calculated percent of green in each image, called Green View Index (GVI). For these locations we also calculated satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), % tree cover, % green space, % street tree buffering, distance to parks, and several neighborhood socio-economic variables. Correlations between the GVI and other green space measures were low (-0.02 to 0.50), suggesting GSV-based measures captured unique information about green space exposures. We further developed a GVI:NDVI ratio, which was associated with the amount of vertical green space in an image. The GVI and GVI:NDVI ratio were weakly related to neighborhood socioeconomic status and are therefore less susceptible to confounding in health studies compared to other green space measures. GSV measures captured unique characteristics of the green space environment and offer a new approach to examine green space and health associations in epidemiological research.

  15. Measurements of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure at Work and at Leisure in Danish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Eriksen, Paul; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2018-03-30

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the main cause of skin cancer and may well present an occupational health and safety problem. In Denmark, skin cancer is a common disease in the general population, but detailed data on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure among outdoor workers is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide objective measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure on working days and at leisure and compare levels of exposure between groups of mainly-outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers. To this end, UV-B dosimeters with an aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector was used to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation exposure of 457 workers in the Danish summer season. Presented as semi-annual Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) on working days respectively at leisure, the results are for mainly-outdoor workers 214.2 SED and 64.8 SED, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor workers 131.4 SED and 64.8 SED, indoor workers 55.8 SED and 57.6 SED. The daily SED by month is significantly different (α=.05) between mainly-outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers and across professional groups; some of which are exposed at very high levels i.e. roofers 361.8 SED. These findings substantiates that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is indeed an occupational health and safety problem in Denmark. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Made Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements are made aboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2000). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Discussions related to hearing protection will also be included. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers aboard the ISS.

  17. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  18. Exposure of Primates for One Year to Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated with ELF Communications Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Transpeptidase (GGTP) . . . 239 f. Phosphohexose Isomerase (PHi) .. .. .. ... 245 6. Glucose ..... .............. ........ 251 7. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN...increase In absorbance at this wavelength. Phosphohexose Isomerase (LPli PHI ( glucose phosphate Isomerase ) catalyzed the Isomerization of fructose-6...animals usually consumed their food within six hours after feeding. This factor in animal behavior and the twelve-hour dark period Immediately before

  19. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the Selective Recording of Workplace Exposure Measurements into OSHA's IMIS Databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Philippe; Burstyn, Igor; Kincl, Laurel; Friesen, Melissa C; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2018-03-12

    The Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) is the largest multi-industry source of exposure results available in North America. In 2010, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) that contains analytical results of samples collected by OSHA inspectors. However, the two databanks only partially overlap, raising suspicion of bias in IMIS data. We investigated the factors associated with selective recording of CEHD results into the IMIS databank. This analysis was based on personal exposure measurements of 24 agents from 1984 to 2009. The association between nine variables (level of exposure coded as detected versus non-detected (ND), whether a sampling result was part of a panel of chemicals, duration of sampling, issuance of a citation, presence of other detected levels during the same inspection, year, OSHA region, amount of penalty, and establishment size) and a CEHD sampling result being reported in IMIS was analyzed using modified Poisson regression. A total of 461900 CEHD sampling results were examined. The proportion of CEHD sampling results recorded into IMIS was 38% (51% for detected and 28% for ND measurements). In the models, the detected sampling results were associated with a higher probability of recording into IMIS than ND sampling results, and this difference was similar for panel versus non-panel samples. Probability of recording remained constant from 1984 to 2009 for sampling results measured on panels but increased for sampling results of single determinations of an agent. Some OSHA regions had probability of recording two times higher than others. No other variables that we examined were associated with a CEHD sampling result being reported in IMIS. Our results indicate that the under-reporting of sampling results in IMIS is differential: ND results (especially those determined from the panels) seem less likely to be recorded in IMIS than other results. It is important to

  1. Measures of patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography: Beyond fluoroscopy time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaamy, Toufic; Harrison, Edwyn; Pannala, Rahul; Pavlicek, William; Crowell, Michael D; Faigel, Douglas O

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluoroscope time is a good predictor of patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in a tertiary care setting. Data related to radiation exposure were collected. The following measures were obtained: Fluoroscopy time (FT), dose area product (DAP) and dose at reference point (DOSERP). Coefficients of determination were calculated to analyze the correlation between FT, DAP and DOSRP. Agreement between FT and DAP/DOSRP was assessed using Bland Altman plots. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-three data sets were obtained. Fluoroscopy time average was 7.3 min. Fluoroscopy related radiation accounted for 86% of the total DAP while acquisition films related radiation accounted for 14% of the DAP. For any given FT there are wide ranges of DAP and DOSERP and the variability in both increases as fluoroscopy time increases. The coefficient of determination (R2) on the non transformed data for DAP and DOSERP versus FT were respectively 0.416 and 0.554. While fluoroscopy use was the largest contributor to patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), there is a wide variability in DAP and DOSERP that is not accounted for by FT. DAP and DOSERP increase in variability as FT increases. This translates into poor accuracy of FT in predicting DAP and DOSERP at higher radiation doses. CONCLUSION: DAP and DOSERP in addition to FT should be adopted as new ERCP quality measures to estimate patient radiation exposure. PMID:25684958

  2. Associations between different measures of anticholinergic drug exposure and Barthel Index in older hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Clare V; Soiza, Roy L; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2013-12-01

    To compare associations between four measures of anticholinergic exposure (anticholinergic risk scale, ARS; anticholinergic drug burden, DBAC; number and use versus no use of anticholinergic drugs), Barthel Index (BI, physical function) and Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT, cognitive function) on admission in older hospitalized patients. Prospective observational study of a consecutive series of 271 older patients (age 83 ± 7 years) from community-dwelling and institutionalized settings, admitted to an acute geriatric admission unit between 28 September 2011 and 18 December 2011. The main outcome measures were BI quartiles (primary outcome) and AMT (secondary outcome) on admission. Anticholinergic prevalence was 47%. Multinomial logistic regression showed higher DBAC was associated with a greater risk of being in the lower BI quartiles versus highest BI quartile (Q4). This risk was significant for Q3 (p = 0.04) and Q2 (p = 0.02) but not for Q1 (p = 0.06). A greater number of anticholinergic drugs was associated with a higher risk of being in Q2 (p = 0.02). This risk was not significant for either Q3 (p = 0.10) or Q1 (p = 0.06). No significant associations were observed either with use of anticholinergic medication or with ARS and BI quartiles. AMT did not show independent associations with any of the four measures of anticholinergic exposure. In older hospitalized patients, DBAC and some crude measures of anticholinergic exposure, but not ARS, showed independent associations with lower BI, but not AMT. These results highlight differences between various measures of anticholinergic drug exposure when studying their associations with functional status.

  3. High precision instrumentation for measuring the true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Danubia B.; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Luiz A.P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important physical quantities to be evaluated in diagnostic radiology is the radiation exposure time experimented by the patient during the X-ray examination. IAEA and WHO organizations have suggested that any country must create a quality surveillance program to verify if each type of ionizing radiation equipment used in the hospitals and medical clinics are in conformity with the accepted uncertainties following the international standards. The purpose of this work is to present a new high precision methodology for measuring true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations: pulsed, continuous or digital one. An electronic system named CronoX, which will be soon registered at the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI), is the equipment that provides such a high precision measurement. The principle of measurement is based on the electrical signal captured by a sensor that enters in a regeneration amplifier to transform it in a digital signal, which is treated by a microprocessor (uP). The signal treatment results in a two measured times: 1) T rx , the true X-ray exposure time; 2) T nx , the time in which the X-ray machine is repeatedly cut off during the pulsed irradiation and there is no delivery dose to the patient. Conventional Polymat X-ray equipment and dental X-ray machines were used to generate X-ray photons and take the measurements with the electronic systems. The results show that such a high precision instrumentation displays the true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations and indicates a new method to be purposed for the quality surveillance programs in radiology. (author)

  4. Exposure rate measurements and radiation control in post therapy with I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez A, M.; Castillo D, C.; Flores U, H.; Cespedes C, L.; Morgan N, C.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Marin R, K.

    2015-10-01

    During hyperthyroidism treatment, 131 I activities from 111 MBq up to 296 MBq are used. In the aim to determine if the 131 I uptake by the patient is a radiological risk to family members and public around the patient exposure rate measurements were carried out, using a limit 1.8 m R/h. Measurements were carried out in the Nuclear Medicine department of Almenara hospital in Lima, Peru. The exposure rate was measured to 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 m from the patient from 0 to 11 days after post-administrated dose (Pda). In this study measurements were carried out in 21 hyperthyroid patients. Measurements to 1 meter, along 2-4 (16/16), 5-7 (15/15), and 8-11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate the dose rate around 100% of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R /h. Measurements to 0.6 meters along 2-4 (16/16), 5 -7 (15/15), and 8-11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate that the dose rate around 44% (7/16), 93% (14/15), and 100% (14/14) of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R h. On the other hand, dose rate measurements to 0.3 meters, along 2-4 (16/16), 5-7 (15/15), and 8 -11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate that de dose rate is 13% (2/16), 6% (1/15), and 43% (6/14) of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R/h. Measured exposure rates are alike to values reported in the literature, and were used to define radiation control recommendations. (Author)

  5. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  6. Effects of exposure, diet, and thermoregulation on fecal glucocorticoid measures in wild bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Stetz

    Full Text Available We examined fecal glucocorticoid (fGC measures of nutrition and thermoregulatory demands on wild bears in Glacier National Park, Montana, and assessed how these measures changed in samples left in the field. Both ambient temperature and exposure can impact thermoregulation and sample degradation. Bear diets vary markedly with season, affecting body condition and thus fGC. We collected fecal samples during September and October, 2001, when ambient temperatures ranged from 30°C to -5°C. We collected half of each sample immediately and left the other half in its original location for 1-28 days. We used generalized linear models (GLM to first predict fGC concentrations in fresh samples based on proxies of nutrition, ambient temperature, thermal exposure, and precipitation. These same covariates were then used to predict degradation-based differences in fGC concentrations between the paired sample halves. Variation in fGC was predicted by diet, Julian date, aspect, and the interaction between Julian date and aspect in both fresh and exposed samples. Cumulative precipitation was also a significant predictor of fGC concentrations in the exposed samples, independent of time, indicating that precipitation contributes to sample degradation but not enough to mask effects of other environmental factors on fGC concentrations. Differences between sample halves were only predicted by cumulative precipitation and exposure time; cumulative precipitation decreased, whereas exposure time increased, fGC concentrations in the exposed sample halves. Results indicate that fGC can provide reliable indices of nutrition and thermoregulatory demands in bears and that sample degradation impacts on these relations are minimal and can be virtually eliminated by controlling for cumulative precipitation over the estimated exposure times.

  7. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun, E-mail: junyosh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  8. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P T; Forth, A R; Clark, R D R; Dowker, K P; Thorpe, A

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  10. Noise exposure assessment with task-based measurement in complex noise environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yang, Qiu-ling; Zeng, Lin; Zhu, Liang-liang; Tao, Li-yuan; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yi-ming

    2011-05-01

    Task-based measurement (TBM) is a method to assess the eight-hour A-weighted equivalent noise exposure level (L(Aeq.8h)) besides dosimeter. TBM can be better used in factories by non-professional workers and staffs. However, it is still not clear if TBM is equal or similar with dosimeter for L(Aeq.8h) measurement in general. This study considered the measurement with dosimeter as real personal noise exposure level (PNEL) and assessed the accuracy of TBM by comparing the consistencies of TBM and dosimeter in L(Aeq.8h) measurement. The study was conducted in one automobile firm among 387 workers who are exposed to unstable noise. Dosimeters and TBM were used to compare the two strategies and assess the degree of agreement and causes of disagreement. Worker's PNEL was measured via TBM for noise; the real PNEL was also recorded. The TBM for noise was computed with task/position noise levels measured via sound level meter and workers' exposure information collected via working diary forms (WDF) filled by participants themselves. Full-shift noise exposure measurement via personal noise dosimeters were taken as the real PNEL. General linear model (GLM) was built to analyze the accuracy of TBM for noise and the source of difference between TBM for noise and real PNEL. The L(Aeq.8h) with TBM were slightly higher than the real PNELs, except the electricians. Differences of the two values had statistical significance in stamping workers (P < 0.001), assembly workers (P = 0.015) and welding workers (P = 0.001). The correlation coefficient of L(Aeq.8h) with TBM and real PNELs was 0.841. Differences of the two results were mainly affected by real PNEL (F = 11.27, P = 0.001); and work groups (F = 3.11, P < 0.001) divided by jobs and workshops were also independent factors. PNEL of workers with fixed task/position ((86.53 ± 8.82) dB(A)) was higher than those without ((75.76 ± 9.92) dB(A)) (t = 8.84, P < 0.01). Whether workers had fixed task/position was another factor on the

  11. 75 FR 58387 - Notice of Issuance of Exposure Draft of a Concepts Statement on Measurement of the Elements of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Exposure Draft of a Concepts Statement on Measurement of the Elements of Accrual-Basis Financial Statements in Periods After Initial... Advisory Board (FASAB) has issued an Exposure Draft of a Concepts Statement on Measurement of the Elements...

  12. Influence of Exposure and Toxicokinetics on Measures of Aquatic Toxicity for Organic Contaminants: A Case Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Peter F; Chapman, Peter M; Neff, Jerry; Page, David S

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical and case study review of dynamic exposures of aquatic organisms to organic contaminants examines variables important for interpreting exposure and therefore toxicity. The timing and magnitude of the absorbed dose change when the dynamics of exposure change. Thus, the dose metric for interpreting toxic responses observed during such exposure conditions is generally limited to the specific experiment and cannot be extrapolated to either other experiments with different exposure dynamics or to field exposures where exposure dynamics usually are different. This is particularly true for mixture exposures, for which the concentration and composition and, therefore, the timing and magnitude of exposure to individual components of different potency and potentially different mechanisms of action can vary. Aquatic toxicology needs studies that develop temporal thresholds for absorbed toxicant doses to allow for better extrapolation between conditions of dynamic exposure. Improved experimental designs are required that include high-quality temporal measures of both the exposure and the absorbed dose to allow better interpretation of data. For the short term, initial water concentration can be considered a conservative measure of exposure, although the extent to which this is true cannot be estimated specifically unless the dynamics of exposure as well as the toxicokinetics of the chemicals in the exposure scenario for the organism of interest are known. A better, but still limited, metric for interpreting the exposure and, therefore, toxicity is the peak absorbed dose, although this neglects toxicodynamics, requires appropriate temporal measures of accumulated dose to determine the peak concentration, and requires temporal thresholds for critical body residue for each component of the mixture. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013; 9: 196–210. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23229376

  13. Measurement of air exchange rate of stationary vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Spengler, J D; Yoon, D W; Dumyahn, T; Lee, K; Ozkaynak, H

    1998-01-01

    The air exchange rates or air changes per hour (ACH) were measured under 4 conditions in 3 stationary automobiles. The ACH ranged between 1.0 and 3.0 h-1 with windows closed and no mechanical ventilation, between 1.8 and 3.7 h-1 for windows closed with fan set on recirculation, between 13.3 and 26.1 h-1 for window open with no mechanical ventilation, and between 36.2 and 47.5 h-1 for window closed with the fan set on fresh air. ACHs for windows closed with no ventilation were higher for the older automobile than for the newer automobiles. With the windows closed and fan turned off, ACH was not influenced by wind speed (p > 0.05). When the window was open, ACH appeared to be greatly affected by wind speed (R2 = 0.86). These measurements are relevant to understanding exposures inside automobiles to sources such as dry-cleaned clothes, cigarettes and airbags. Therefore, to understand the in-vehicle exposure to these internal sources, perchloroethylene (PCE) emitted from dry-cleaned clothes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside a vehicle were modeled for simulated driving cycles. Airbag deployment was also modeled for estimating exposure level to alkaline particulate and carbon monoxide (CO). Average exposure to PCE inside a vehicle for 30 minutes period was high (approximately 780 micrograms/m3); however, this is only 6% of the two-week exposure that is influenced by the storage of dry cleaned clothing at home. On the other hand, the exposure levels of respirable suspended particulate (RSP) and formaldehyde due to ETS could reach 2.1 mg/m3 and 0.11 ppm, respectively, when a person smokes inside a driving car even with the window open. In modeling the in-vehicle concentrations following airbag deployment, the average CO level over 20 minutes would not appear to present problem (less than 28 ppm). The peak concentration of respirable particulate would have exceeded 140 mg/m3. Since most of the particle mass is composed of alkaline material, these high levels

  14. An overview of measuring and modelling dose and risk from ionising radiation for medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tootell, Andrew; Szczepura, Katy; Hogg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper gives an overview of the methods that are used to calculate dose and risk from exposure to ionizing radiation as a support to other papers in this special issue. Background: The optimization of radiation dose is a legal requirement in medical exposures. This review paper aims to provide the reader with knowledge of dose by providing definitions and concepts of absorbed, effective and equivalent dose. Criticisms of the use of effective dose to infer the risk of an exposure to an individual will be discussed and an alternative approach considering the lifetime risks of cancer incidence will be considered. Prior to any dose or risk calculation, data concerning the dose absorbed by the patient needs to be collected. This paper will describe and discuss the main concepts and methods that can be utilised by a researcher in dose assessments. Concepts behind figures generated by imaging equipment such as dose-area-product, computed tomography dose index, dose length product and their use in effective dose calculations will be discussed. Processes, advantages and disadvantages in the simulation of exposures using the Monte Carlo method and direct measurement using digital dosimeters or thermoluminescent dosimeters will be considered. Beyond this special issue, it is proposed that this paper could serve as a teaching or CPD tool for personnel working or studying medical imaging

  15. Variability and determinants of wood dust and resin acid exposure during wood pellet production: measurement strategies and bias in assessing exposure-response relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Katja; Lundholm, Cecilia; Eriksson, Kare; Liljelind, Ingrid

    2008-11-01

    Production of wood pellets is a relatively new and expanding industry in which the exposure profiles differ from those in other wood-processing industries like carpentries and sawmills where there are lower levels of wood dust. Sixty-eight personal exposure measurements of wood dust (inhalable and total dust) and resin acids were collected for 44 participants at four production plants located in Sweden. Results were used to estimate within- and between-worker variability and to identify uniformly exposed groups and determinants of exposure. In addition, overexposure, whether the risk of the long-term mean exposure of a randomly selected worker exceeding the occupational exposure limit is acceptably low, was calculated as well as the underestimation of the exposure-response relationship (attenuation). Greater variability in exposure between work shifts than between workers was observed with the within-worker variation accounting for 57-99% of the total variance in the individual-based model. Several uniformly exposed groups were detected but were mostly associated with a between-worker variation of zero which is an underestimation of the between-worker variation but an indication of uniformly exposed groups. Cleaning was identified as a work task that increases exposure slightly; so reducing workers' exposure during this operation is advisable. The levels of wood dust were high and were found to pose unacceptable risks of overexposure at all plants for inhalable dust and at three out of four plants for total dust. These findings show that exposure to dust needs to be reduced in this industry. For resin acids, the exposure was classed as acceptable at all plants. According to an individual-based model constructed from the data, the level of attenuation was high, and thus there would be substantial bias in derived dose-response relationships.

  16. Computation of currents induced by ELF electric fields in anisotropic human tissues using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Motrescu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the task of estimating the currents induced within the human body by environmental electromagnetic fields has received increased attention from scientists around the world. While important progress was made in this direction, the unpredictable behaviour of living biological tissue made it difficult to quantify its reaction to electromagnetic fields and has kept the problem open. A successful alternative to the very difficult one of performing measurements is that of computing the fields within a human body model using numerical methods implemented in a software code. One of the difficulties is represented by the fact that some tissue types exhibit an anisotropic character with respect to their dielectric properties. Our work consists of computing currents induced by extremely low frequency (ELF electric fields in anisotropic muscle tissues using in this respect, a human body model extended with muscle fibre orientations as well as an extended version of the Finite Integration Technique (FIT able to compute fully anisotropic dielectric properties.

  17. Arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes: results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Feseke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inorganic arsenic and its metabolites are considered dangerous to human health. Although several studies have reported associations between low-level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in the United States and Mexico, this association has not been studied in the Canadian population. We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, as measured by total arsenic concentration in urine, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in 3151 adult participants in Cycle 1 (2007–2009 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS. Methods: All participants were tested to determine blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Urine analysis was also performed to measure total arsenic. In addition, participants answered a detailed questionnaire about their lifestyle and medical history. We assessed the association between urinary arsenic levels and T2D and prediabetes using multivariate logistic regression while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Total urinary arsenic concentration was positively associated with the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.12–2.95 and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.03–4.05, respectively, when comparing the highest (fourth urinary arsenic concentration quartile with the lowest (first quartile. Total urinary arsenic was also associated with glycated hemoglobin levels in people with untreated diabetes. Conclusion: We found significant associations between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes in the Canadian population. Causal inference is limited due to the cross-sectional design of the study and the absence of long-term exposure assessment.

  18. Measuring the consequences of wildfires in a Bayesian network with vulnerability and exposure indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Botzler, Sebastian; Krug, Kai; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate type areas have always been experiencing fire events. However, population growth and expansion of urban centers into wildland areas during the 20th century (expansion of wildland-urban interface) has increased the threat to humans and their activities. Life and property losses, damage on infrastructure and crops, and forest degradation are some of the damages caused by wildfires. Although fires repeatedly occur along the Mediterranean basin, not all areas have experienced severe consequences. The extent of damage by wildfires is influenced by several factors, such as population density, vegetation type, topography, weather conditions and social preparedness [1]. Wildfire consequence estimation by means of vulnerability and exposure indicators is an essential part of wildfire risk analysis. Vulnerability indicators express the conditions that increase the susceptibility of a site to the impact of wildfires and exposure indicators describe the elements at risk [2],[3]. Appropriate indicators to measure wildfire vulnerability and exposure can vary with scale and site. The consequences can be classified into economic, social, environmental and safety, and they can be tangible (human life losses, buildings damaged) or intangible (damage of cultural heritage site). As a consequence, a variety of approaches exist and there is a lack of generalized unified easy-to-implement methodologies. In this study we present a methodology for measuring consequences of wildfires in a Mediterranean area in the mesoscale (1 km² spatial resolution). Vulnerability and exposure indicators covering all consequence levels are identified and their interrelations are stressed. Variables such as building materials, roofing type, and average building values are included in the economic vulnerability level. Safety exposure is expressed by population density, demographic structure, street density and distance to closest fire station. Environmental vulnerability of protected

  19. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. PMID:27598182

  20. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gajšek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range, some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  1. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz-100 kHz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  2. Upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements: a general population job exposure matrix based on expert ratings and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-08-01

    We recently constructed a general population job exposure matrix (JEM), The Shoulder JEM, based on expert ratings. The overall aim of this study was to convert expert-rated job exposures for upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements to measurement scales. The Shoulder JEM covers all Danish occupational titles, divided into 172 job groups. For 36 of these job groups, we obtained technical measurements (inclinometry) of upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements. To validate the expert-rated job exposures against the measured job exposures, we used Spearman rank correlations and the explained variance[Formula: see text] according to linear regression analyses (36 job groups). We used the linear regression equations to convert the expert-rated job exposures for all 172 job groups into predicted measured job exposures. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess the agreement between the predicted and measured job exposures. The Spearman rank correlations were 0.63 for upper arm elevation and 0.64 for repetitive shoulder movements. The expert-rated job exposures explained 64% and 41% of the variance of the measured job exposures, respectively. The corresponding calibration equations were y=0.5%time+0.16×expert rating and y=27°/s+0.47×expert rating. The mean differences between predicted and measured job exposures were zero due to calibration; the 95% limits of agreement were ±2.9% time for upper arm elevation >90° and ±33°/s for repetitive shoulder movements. The updated Shoulder JEM can be used to present exposure-response relationships on measurement scales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm -2 , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm -2 . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m -2 ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Device for measuring the exposure time in dental X-ray - Cronox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Santos, Luiz A.P. dos, E-mail: cjmm@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) developed a test device for monitoring the X-ray beam in dental equipment to its application in quality control programs. This device, called Odontologic Dosimetric Card (CDO of Cartao Dosimetrico Odontologico in Portuguese) uses thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for the measurement of some parameters of the X-ray beam as the entrance surface dose, the peak tension and half value layer (HVL). Radiographic films record the size of the radiation field. However, the TLD does not allow the assessment of exposure time, a parameter that complements the requirements of the Diretrizes de Protecao Radiologica em Radiodiagnostico Medico e Odontologico of Department of Health in Brazil for such equipment. Thus was developed a system based on sensitivity to ionizing radiation of phototransistors for measurement of exposure time when a patient is put in a clinical dental radiography. The system, called CRONOX was sized to be inserted within the CDO. The results showed that the measuring error had developed for less than 3% when compared to reference values obtained with the Tektronix digital oscilloscope, TDS2022 model. The readings obtained with the CRONOX were also compared with the nominal values selected in the X-ray equipment and with the values measured with the instrument of trade PTW Diavolt Universal. The results showed that the measuring device developed showed a maximum deviation of 5.92% on the nominal value selected, while for the instrument of PTW was 17.86%. (author)

  5. Device for measuring the exposure time in dental X-ray - Cronox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Santos, Luiz A.P. dos

    2009-01-01

    The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) developed a test device for monitoring the X-ray beam in dental equipment to its application in quality control programs. This device, called Odontologic Dosimetric Card (CDO of Cartao Dosimetrico Odontologico in Portuguese) uses thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for the measurement of some parameters of the X-ray beam as the entrance surface dose, the peak tension and half value layer (HVL). Radiographic films record the size of the radiation field. However, the TLD does not allow the assessment of exposure time, a parameter that complements the requirements of the Diretrizes de Protecao Radiologica em Radiodiagnostico Medico e Odontologico of Department of Health in Brazil for such equipment. Thus was developed a system based on sensitivity to ionizing radiation of phototransistors for measurement of exposure time when a patient is put in a clinical dental radiography. The system, called CRONOX was sized to be inserted within the CDO. The results showed that the measuring error had developed for less than 3% when compared to reference values obtained with the Tektronix digital oscilloscope, TDS2022 model. The readings obtained with the CRONOX were also compared with the nominal values selected in the X-ray equipment and with the values measured with the instrument of trade PTW Diavolt Universal. The results showed that the measuring device developed showed a maximum deviation of 5.92% on the nominal value selected, while for the instrument of PTW was 17.86%. (author)

  6. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  7. Inactivation of TGF-β signaling in lung cancer results in increased CDK4 activity that can be rescued by ELF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Sang Soo; Silva, Fabio May da; Volpe, Eugene A.; Evans, Stephen; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mishra, Lopa; Blair Marshall, M.

    2006-01-01

    Escape from TGF-β inhibition of proliferation is a hallmark of multiple cancers including lung cancer. We explored the role of ELF, crucial TGF-β adaptor protein identified from endodermal progenitor cells, in lung carcinogenesis and cell-cycle regulation. Interestingly, elf -/- mice develop multiple defects that include lung, liver, and cardiac abnormalities. Four out of 6 lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines displayed deficiency of ELF expression with increased CDK4 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of primary human lung cancers also showed decreased ELF expression and overexpression of CDK4. Moreover, rescue of ELF in ELF-deficient cell lines decreased the expression of CDK4 and resulted in accumulation of G1/S checkpoint arrested cells. These results suggest that disruption in TGF-β signaling mediated by loss of ELF in lung cancer leads to cell-cycle deregulation by modulating CDK4 and ELF highlights a key role of TGF-β adaptor protein in suppressing early lung cancer

  8. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-01-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  9. A national prediction model for PM2.5 component exposures and measurement error-corrected health effect inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Silas; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D; Kim, Sun-Young; Richards, Mark; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D; Szpiro, Adam A

    2013-09-01

    Studies estimating health effects of long-term air pollution exposure often use a two-stage approach: building exposure models to assign individual-level exposures, which are then used in regression analyses. This requires accurate exposure modeling and careful treatment of exposure measurement error. To illustrate the importance of accounting for exposure model characteristics in two-stage air pollution studies, we considered a case study based on data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We built national spatial exposure models that used partial least squares and universal kriging to estimate annual average concentrations of four PM2.5 components: elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), silicon (Si), and sulfur (S). We predicted PM2.5 component exposures for the MESA cohort and estimated cross-sectional associations with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), adjusting for subject-specific covariates. We corrected for measurement error using recently developed methods that account for the spatial structure of predicted exposures. Our models performed well, with cross-validated R2 values ranging from 0.62 to 0.95. Naïve analyses that did not account for measurement error indicated statistically significant associations between CIMT and exposure to OC, Si, and S. EC and OC exhibited little spatial correlation, and the corrected inference was unchanged from the naïve analysis. The Si and S exposure surfaces displayed notable spatial correlation, resulting in corrected confidence intervals (CIs) that were 50% wider than the naïve CIs, but that were still statistically significant. The impact of correcting for measurement error on health effect inference is concordant with the degree of spatial correlation in the exposure surfaces. Exposure model characteristics must be considered when performing two-stage air pollution epidemiologic analyses because naïve health effect inference may be inappropriate.

  10. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2009-01-01

    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  11. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Todd P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore little is known about the variability of chemical levels that exist within and between households in dust samples. Results We analyzed 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nicotine in 68 carpet-dust samples from 21 households in agricultural communities of Fresno County, California collected from 2003-2005. Chemical concentrations (ng per g dust ranged from Conclusions Our findings suggest that attenuation bias should be relatively modest when using these semi-volatile carpet-dust chemicals as exposure surrogates in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  13. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  14. An Industrial Radipgraphy Exposure Device Based on Measurement of Transmitted Gamma-Ray Intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2014-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking knowledge of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a D3372 Hamamatsu small GM tube. Application software is developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display the counting data via Bluetooth. Prior to placing film, the device is placed behind the specimen to be radiographed to determine the exposure time from the transmitted intensity which is independent on source activity, source-to-film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  15. Measuring Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields at 220 kV Substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Tonteri, Juhani; Elovaara, Jarmo; Mika, Penttilä; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Earlier studies conducted at 400 and 110 kV substations in Finland have shown that the occupational exposure to electric fields can exceed the action levels (ALs) set by Directive 2013/35/EU. This is a case study investigating the level of occupational exposure experienced by workers at 220 kV substations in order to determine if the actions levels are being exceeded. The measurements were conducted at two old 220 kV substations in Finland. The higher AL of 20 kV m-1 was exceeded at both substations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cellular ELF signals as a possible tool in informative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletti, Alberto; Lisi, Antonella; Ledda, Mario; de Carlo, Flavia; Grimaldi, Settimio

    2009-01-01

    According to Quantum Electro-Dynamical Theory by G. Preparata, liquid water can be viewed as an equilibrium between of two components: coherent and incoherent ones. The coherent component is contained within spherical so called "coherence domains" (CDs) where all molecules synchronously oscillate with the same phase. CDs are surrounded by the incoherent component where molecules oscillate with casual phases regarding each other. The existence of coherent domain in water has been demonstrated in a set of experiments on pure water exposed to high voltage, under this condition the electric field concentrates inside the water, arranging the water molecules to form high ordered structure. Recently has been studied the influence of combined static and alternating parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid; outlining the relevance of low frequency electro-magnetic field in interacting with biological target. Additional results demonstrate that at combined static and alternating parallel, magnetic fields matching the ion cyclotron energy resonance of a particular charged molecule into biological tissue an intrinsic weak magnetic field is generated by ion currents in the cell. These results should increase the reliability and the clinical feasibility of the use of electromagnetic field, tuned at ion cyclotron resonance of charged molecules, as a biophysical approach to interfere with biological mechanisms. We demonstrate that Exposure of human epithelial cell to ion cyclotron energy resonance generated by a commercial electromedical device (Vega select 719) tuned to calcium ion at 7 Hz act as a differentiation factor, thus opening up the possibility to use particular extremely low frequency electro magnetic field protocols, in informative medicine.

  17. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-05

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of radioactive aerosol behavior during dismantling and reflection to the exposure dose evaluation - 16107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Kato, Masami

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol disperses slightly via contamination prevention systems such as control enclosures and filters when the nuclear installation is dismantled, and it might impact the environment. Therefore, when decommissioning is planned, it is necessary to assess the safety such as exposure dose evaluation to the public. For the radioactive aerosol, it is possible that the dispersion ratio is different according to the contamination condition, the dismantlement method of the material, nuclides (elements), etc. The radiation exposure evaluation for the decommissioning plan has been executed by operators in Japan based on a number of experiments (mostly cold tests) and overseas results. The decommissioning is now being carried out at the Tokai Power Station (GCR) and Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center in Japan. In this study, the results data is acquired at the decommissioning sites, and the methodology and data for the exposure dose evaluation are verified and confirmed. These examination results will lead to the upgrading and improvement of the exposure evaluation methodology. In particular, the dismantlement work of connected piping of the heat exchanger (steam generator) was executed in the Tokai Power Station in 2008. In this study, we paid attention to the radionuclides of Co-60 and Cs-137 that adhered to piping, and the dispersion behavior of aerosol was measured and contamination prevention effect was assured. As a result, the data show that the cesium concentrates about four times higher than cobalt. Moreover, the effects of the prevention measures of contamination were confirmed and the behavior of the radioactive aerosol became clear and the effective findings about the dose evaluation of the dismantling were collected. (authors)

  19. Assessment of human body influence on exposure measurements of electric field in indoor enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; García, Jorge; Ramos, Victoria; Blas, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEMs) used for measuring exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) are typically used in epidemiological studies. As is well known, these measurement devices cause a perturbation of real EMF exposure levels due to the presence of the human body in the immediate proximity. This paper aims to model the alteration caused by the body shadow effect (BSE) in motion conditions and in indoor enclosures at the Wi-Fi frequency of 2.4 GHz. For this purpose, simulation techniques based on ray-tracing have been carried out, and their results have been verified experimentally. A good agreement exists between simulation and experimental results in terms of electric field (E-field) levels, and taking into account the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the spatial distribution of amplitude. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value greater than 0.05, in fact close to 1. It has been found that the influence of the presence of the human body can be characterized as an angle of shadow that depends on the dimensions of the indoor enclosure. The CDFs show that the E-field levels in indoor conditions follow a lognormal distribution in the absence of the human body and under the influence of BSE. In conclusion, the perturbation caused by BSE in PEMs readings cannot be compensated for by correction factors. Although the mean value is well adjusted, BSE causes changes in CDF that would require improvements in measurement protocols and in the design of measuring devices to subsequently avoid systematic errors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fuzzy logic based ELF magnetic field estimation in substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosalay, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines estimation of the extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MF) in the power substation. First, the results of the previous relevant research studies and the MF measurements in a sample power substation are presented. Then, a fuzzy logic model based on the geometric definitions in order to estimate the MF distribution is explained. Visual software, which has a three-dimensional screening unit, based on the fuzzy logic technique, has been developed. (authors)

  1. Fuzzy logic based ELF magnetic field estimation in substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalay, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines estimation of the extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MF) in the power substation. First, the results of the previous relevant research studies and the MF measurements in a sample power substation are presented. Then, a fuzzy logic model based on the geometric definitions in order to estimate the MF distribution is explained. Visual software, which has a three-dimensional screening unit, based on the fuzzy logic technique, has been developed.

  2. ELF5 Drives Lung Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer through Recruitment of Gr1+ CD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, the ETS transcription factor ELF5 establishes the milk-secreting alveolar cell lineage by driving a cell fate decision of the mammary luminal progenitor cell. In breast cancer, ELF5 is a key transcriptional determinant of tumor subtype and has been implicated in the development of insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy. In the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT model of luminal breast cancer, induction of ELF5 levels increased leukocyte infiltration, angiogenesis, and blood vessel permeability in primary tumors and greatly increased the size and number of lung metastasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a group of immature neutrophils recently identified as mediators of vasculogenesis and metastasis, were recruited to the tumor in response to ELF5. Depletion of these cells using specific Ly6G antibodies prevented ELF5 from driving vasculogenesis and metastasis. Expression signatures in luminal A breast cancers indicated that increased myeloid cell invasion and inflammation were correlated with ELF5 expression, and increased ELF5 immunohistochemical staining predicted much shorter metastasis-free and overall survival of luminal A patients, defining a group who experienced unexpectedly early disease progression. Thus, in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary model, increased ELF5 levels drive metastasis by co-opting the innate immune system. As ELF5 has been previously implicated in the development of antiestrogen resistance, this finding implicates ELF5 as a defining factor in the acquisition of the key aspects of the lethal phenotype in luminal A breast cancer.

  3. Can in vivo surface dental enamelmicrobiopsies be used to measure remote lead exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; de Almeida Baldini Cardoso, Cristiane; da Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone; Ortiz, Adrielly Garcia; Toma, Henrique Eisi; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Luz, Maciel Santos; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Kelmer, Gislayne Aparecida Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günhter, Wanda Maria Risso; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2017-12-20

    Measuring lead in the surface dental enamel (SDE) using biopsies is a rapid, safe, and painless procedure. The dental enamel lead levels (DELLs) decrease from the outermost superficial layer to the inner layer of dental enamel, which becomes crucial for the biopsy depth (BD) measurement. However, whether the origin of lead found in SDE is fully endogenous is not yet established. There is also controversy about the biopsy protocol. The aims of this study were to investigate if DELLs are altered by extrinsic contamination (A) and to evaluate the real geometric figure formed by the erosion provoked by biopsy procedure and the respective BD in SDE (B). To accomplish the aim A, lead from 90 bovine incisor crowns lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer as a function of exposure time and lead concentration. Two biopsies were performed in each tooth, before and after lead exposure. Six 15-tooth groups differed by exposure time (1 or 30 min) and lead concentrations (A. 0 mg/L-placebo, B. 0.01 mg/L-standard for drinking water, or C. 0.06 mg/L-concentration found in contaminated groundwater). Phosphorus was determined by an inductively coupled plasm optical emission spectrometer to quantify the enamel removed. To compare intakes/losses of lead in SDE among the groups, values of DELL differences between before and after lead exposure were compared by ANOVA (p bottom surface area, analyzed by microscopy, showed an irregular area, with regions of peaks and valleys, where areas with depth ranging from 0.2 (peaks) to 1.8 μm (valleys) (± 0.1 μm) could be found. BD carried out in vivo is commonly calculated using the cylinder height formula. The real BD was shown to be very similar to already published data. In conclusion, the SDE of erupted teeth does not seem to be susceptible to environmental lead intake, being thus reliable to measure remote exposures to lead.

  4. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  5. Patterns of secretion of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in experimental silicosis. Acute and subacute effects of cristobalite exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Sjöstrand, M; Baldor, L C; Hemenway, D R; Kelley, J

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) a cytokine having potent mitogenic activity for epithelial and mesenchymal cells, may play a role in the lung remodeling of silicosis. Lung macrophages are among the major cells producing TGF-alpha in a lung tissue. A pivotal event in the cascade of pathologic events leading to pulmonary silicosis is the interaction between inhaled silica and macrophages. TGF-alpha may be critical in directing the proliferation of type II pneumocytes that characterize silicosis. An inhalation model of brief exposure of pathogen-restricted male rats to 25 mg/M3 cristobalite, a highly reactive form of silicon dioxide was used to study experimental silicosis. This model is characterized by a rapid, intense, and sustained increase in macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in both alveolar and interstitial compartments of the lung. TGF-alpha was measured in an A431 cell proliferation assay made specific with the use of anti-TGF-alpha neutralizing antiserum in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and conditioned media harvested from cultured alveolar and interstitial macrophages. Soluble TGF-alpha levels found in ELF were slightly elevated above control values during the exposure period, then increased 5-fold during the 20 weeks after the 8-day exposure period. Secretion of TGF-alpha by macrophages was elevated during exposure to cristobalite but then fell during the early post exposure period. Marked elevations in TGF-alpha secretion from both interstitial and alveolar macrophages (10- and 12-fold, respectively) occurred 8-16 weeks after cessation of exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R. (Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Cousins, T. (Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Space Systems and Technology Section); Hudson, D.F. (Air Canada Flight Operations, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Guery, G. (Air France-Direction des Operations Aeriennes, Roissy Charles de Gaulle (France))

    1994-06-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm[sup 2][center dot]s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 [mu]S[nu]/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes [approximately] 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public.

  7. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R.; Guery, G.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm 2 ·s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 μSν/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes ∼ 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public

  8. Mitigation measures of electromagnetic field exposure in the vicinity of high frequency welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Bieńkowski, Paweł; Cała, Pawel

    2017-10-17

    Presented information about the welding process and equipment, focusing on the emission of electromagnetic field (EMF) with levels significant in terms of the labor safety regulations in force in Poland - the ordinances of the Minister of Family, Labour and Social Policy that came into force on June 27, 2016 and June 29, 2016 - emerged due to harmonization with European Union directive 2013/35/EU of 26 June 2013 of the European Parliament and the Council. They presented methods of determination of the EMF distribution in the welding machine surroundings and analyzed the background knowledge from the available literature. The subject of the analysis included popular high frequency welders widely used in the industry. Electromagnetic field measurements were performed in the welder operating place (in situ) during machine normal operations, using measurement methods accordant with labor safety regulations in force in Poland and according to the same guidelines, the EMF distributions and parameters having been described. They presented various scenarios of particular, real examples of excessive exposure to EMF in the dielectric welder surroundings and showed solutions, ranging from simple and costless and ending on dedicated electromagnetic shielding systems, which allowed to reduce EMF exposure in some cases of more than 80% (protection zone ranges) or eliminate dangerous zone presence. It has shown that in the dielectric welders surrounding, significant EMF strength levels may be the result of errors or omissions which often occur during development, installation, operation or modification of welding machines. It has allowed to present the measures that may significantly reduce the exposure to EMF of workers in the welder surroundings. The role of accredited laboratories in helping in such cases was underlined. Med Pr 2017;68(6):693-703.

  9. Mitigation measures of electromagnetic field exposure in the vicinity of high frequency welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Zubrzak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presented information about the welding process and equipment, focusing on the emission of electromagnetic field (EMF with levels significant in terms of the labor safety regulations in force in Poland – the ordinances of the Minister of Family, Labour and Social Policy that came into force on June 27, 2016 and June 29, 2016 – emerged due to harmonization with European Union directive 2013/35/EU of 26 June 2013 of the European Parliament and the Council. They presented methods of determination of the EMF distribution in the welding machine surroundings and analyzed the background knowledge from the available literature. Material and Methods: The subject of the analysis included popular high frequency welders widely used in the industry. Electromagnetic field measurements were performed in the welder operating place (in situ during machine normal operations, using measurement methods accordant with labor safety regulations in force in Poland and according to the same guidelines, the EMF distributions and parameters having been described. Results: They presented various scenarios of particular, real examples of excessive exposure to EMF in the dielectric welder surroundings and showed solutions, ranging from simple and costless and ending on dedicated electromagnetic shielding systems, which allowed to reduce EMF exposure in some cases of more than 80% (protection zone ranges or eliminate dangerous zone presence. Conclusions: It has shown that in the dielectric welders surrounding, significant EMF strength levels may be the result of errors or omissions which often occur during development, installation, operation or modification of welding machines. It has allowed to present the measures that may significantly reduce the exposure to EMF of workers in the welder surroundings. The role of accredited laboratories in helping in such cases was underlined. Med Pr 2017;68(6:693–703

  10. Measurements and Modeling of Radiation Exposure Due to Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P.; Conrad Wp6-Sgb Team

    Dose assessment procedures of cosmic radiation to aircraft crew are introduced in most of the European countries according the corresponding European directive and national regulations 96 29 Euratom However the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research Several in-flight measurements were performed during solar storm conditions First models to estimate the exposure due to solar particle events were discussed previously Recently EURADOS European Radiation Dosimetry Group http www eurados org started to coordinate research activities in model improvements for dose assessment of solar particle events The coordinated research is a work package of the European research project CONRAD Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry on complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces Major aim of sub group B of that work package is the validation of models for dose assessment of solar particle events using data from neutron ground level monitors in-flight measurement results obtained during a solar particle event and proton satellite data The paper describes the current status of obtainable solar storm measurements and gives an overview of the existing models for dose assessment of solar particle events in flight altitudes

  11. Indoor air pollutants in residential settings : respiratory health effects and remedial measures to minimize exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Small and Fleming Ltd., Georgetown, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    The Ontario Lung Association's Movement for Clean Air Now (CAN DO) program focuses on educating the population about the possible adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants. The program is aimed at providing information on how to minimize exposure to pollutants in homes. This report presents an overview of the current understanding of, and recent developments in, specific indoor air quality issues and the extent to which they are know to present a risk to the respiratory health of the population, particularly the residential setting. Indoor air pollutants were assessed individually from a respiratory health perspective. The report describes the health problems associated with dampness, mould, bacteria, viruses, dust mites, cockroach antigen, animal dander, environmental tobacco smoke, products of combustion, products of emissions, radon, pesticides, and particulate matter. Each pollutant varies in nature, along with their potential respiratory effects, the degree of risk and the means of reducing exposure. Adverse respiratory health risks resulting from indoor pollutants can usually be reduced or eliminated by simple and practical measures such as eliminating dampness and water leakage, mould removal, sealing of soil gas entry points, cessation of smoking, and proper ventilation. the causal links between specific indoor pollutant exposures and specific adverse respiratory health symptoms was also examined. refs.

  12. Measurements of radiation exposure of dentistry students during their radiological training using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loya, M.; Sanín, L.H.; González, P.R.; Ávila, O.; Duarte, R.; Ojeda, S.L.; Montero-Cabrera, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure among dentistry students has not been assessed or regulated in Mexico. This work assessed the average exposure of 35 dentistry students during their training with the aid of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the students in the roles of dentist and observers, maximum accumulated equivalent dose obtained was 2.59±0.11 and 4.64±0.39 mSv, respectively. Students in the role as patients received a maximum accumulated effective dose of 28.41±0.31 mSv. If compared to occupational dose limits, this latter value is 56% of the recommended value of 50 mSv in any year. It was found that in all cases, values of equivalent dose to the women breasts were equal to the background dose. Results are discussed and compared to previous published work. Suggested recommendations were given to authorities in order to minimize exposure of the students in the role as patients. - Highlights: • Dose of training dentistry students was estimated with LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE dosimeters. • The average effective dose of students in the role of patient was also estimated. • The sum of organ doses from TL measurements is considered as the whole body dose. • The uncertainty in the results was less than 2%.

  13. Use of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's thermal measurement system for the verification of thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, William M.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) postflight thermal model predicted temperatures were matched to flight temperature data recorded by the Thermal Measurement System (THERM), LDEF experiment P0003. Flight temperatures, recorded at intervals of approximately 112 minutes for the first 390 days of LDEF's 2105 day mission were compared with predictions using the thermal mathematical model (TMM). This model was unverified prior to flight. The postflight analysis has reduced the thermal model uncertainty at the temperature sensor locations from +/- 40 F to +/- 18 F. The improved temperature predictions will be used by the LDEF's principal investigators to calculate improved flight temperatures experienced by 57 experiments located on 86 trays of the facility.

  14. Characterization, Exposure Measurement and Control for Nanoscale Particles in Workplaces and on the Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Pui, David Y H

    2011-01-01

    The amount of engineered nanoparticles is increasing at a rapid rate and more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace, and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. At the same time, diesel engine emissions are one of the serious air pollution sources in urban area. Ultrafine particles on the road can result in harmful effects on the health of drivers and passengers. Research on characterization, exposure measurement and control is needed to address the environmental, health and safety issues of nanoscale particles. We present results of our studies on airborne particles in workplaces and on the road.

  15. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  16. Solar Flare Track Exposure Ages in Regolith Particles: A Calibration for Transmission Electron Microscope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from multiple processes including: exposure to the solar wind, which results in ion damage and implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm); cosmic ray and solar flare activity, which result in track formation; and impact processes that result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. Determining the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure is critical to studies of the surface evolution of airless bodies. Solar flare energetic particles (mainly Fe-group nuclei) have a penetration depth of a few millimeters and leave a trail of ionization damage in insulating materials that is readily observable by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. The density of solar flare particle tracks is used to infer the length of time an object was at or near the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). Track measurements by TEM methods are routine, yet track production rate calibrations have only been determined using chemical etching techniques [e.g., 1, and references therein]. We used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) sample preparation techniques combined with TEM imaging to determine the track density/exposure age relations for lunar rock 64455. The 64455 sample was used earlier by [2] to determine a track production rate by chemical etching of tracks in anorthite. Here, we show that combined FIB/TEM techniques provide a more accurate determination of a track production rate and also allow us to extend the calibration to solar flare tracks in olivine.

  17. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  18. Food and beverage TV advertising to young children: Measuring exposure and potential impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Kalnova, Svetlana S

    2018-04-01

    Children of all ages are vulnerable to influence from exposure to unhealthy food advertisements, but experts raise additional concerns about children under 6 due to their more limited cognitive abilities. Most companies in the U.S. Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) industry self-regulatory program pledge to not direct any advertising to children under 6. However, young children also watch programming primarily directed to older children and thus may view food-related advertising despite companies' pledges. Research is required to understand the amount and potential impact of this exposure on preschool-age children. Study 1 uses Nielsen advertising exposure data to compare preschoolers' (2-5 years) and older children's (6-11 years) exposure to food advertising in 2015. Preschoolers viewed on average 3.2 food ads daily on children's programming, just 6% fewer compared to 6- to 11-year-olds; over 60% were placed by CFBAI-participating companies. Study 2 exposed young children (N = 49) in a child-care setting to child-directed food ads, measured their attitudes about the ads and advertised brands, and compared responses by 4- to 5-year-olds and 6- to 7-year olds. Most children indicated that they liked the child-directed ads, with media experience associated with greater liking for both age groups. Ad liking and previous consumption independently predicted brand liking for both age groups, although previous consumption was a stronger predictor for older children. Despite pledges by food companies to not direct advertising to children under age 6, preschoolers continue to view advertisements placed by these companies daily, including on children's programming. This advertising likely increases children's preferences for nutritionally poor advertised brands. Food companies and media companies airing children's programming should do more to protect young children from advertising that takes advantage of their vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2017

  19. Computational Strategy for Quantifying Human Pesticide Exposure based upon a Saliva Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eTimchalk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human

  20. Orbiting transmitter and antenna for spaceborne communications at ELF/VLF to submerged submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, P. R.; Harrison, J. K.; Rupp, C. C.; King, R. W. P.; Cosmo, M. L.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Dyer, C. J.; Grossi, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    An orbital emplacement for the transmitter and the antenna of a communications link at ELF (30 to 300 Hz) and VLF (3 kHz to 30 kHz) to submerged submarines has been considered since the very inception of the space age. However, only recently has space technology reached a sufficient level of maturity for system designers to undertake serious studies of this link configuration. The optimistic outlook stems from recent space technology developments, such as the design and construction by NASA of long orbiting tethers, and the testing, onboard Shuttle Orbiter ATLANTIS, of the first spaceborne 20 km metal wire. This is known as the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1), a space mission that might be possibly followed by other flights, with tether lengths that could reach 100 km. Once deployed at a height of, say, 300 km, from a Shuttle Orbiter, or from another suitable platform, a long, thin tether aligns itself along the local vertical by virtue of the gradient of the Earth gravity field. If made of metal, the tether can function as a VED (Vertical Electric Dipole) transmitting antenna at ELF and VLF.

  1. Can a rapid measure of self-exposure to drugs of abuse provide dimensional information on depression comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butelman, Eduardo Roque; Bacciardi, Silvia; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Darst-Campbell, Maya; Correa da Rosa, Joel; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2017-09-01

    Addictions to heroin or to cocaine are associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. Poly-drug self-exposure (eg, to heroin, cocaine, cannabis, or alcohol) is also common, and may further affect depression comorbidity. This case-control study examined the relationship of exposure to the above drugs and depression comorbidity. Participants were recruited from methadone maintenance clinics, and from the community. Adult male and female participants (n = 1,201) were ascertained consecutively by experienced licensed clinicians. The instruments used were the SCID-I, and Kreek-McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg (KMSK) scales, which provide a rapid dimensional measure of maximal lifetime self-exposure to each of the above drugs. This measure ranges from no exposure to high unit dose, high frequency, and long duration of exposure. A multiple logistic regression with stepwise variable selection revealed that increasing exposure to heroin or to cocaine was associated greater odds of depression, with all cases and controls combined. In cases with an opioid dependence diagnosis, increasing cocaine exposure was associated with a further increase in odds of depression. However, in cases with a cocaine dependence diagnosis, increasing exposure to either cannabis or alcohol, as well as heroin, was associated with a further increase in odds of depression. This dimensional analysis of exposure to specific drugs provides insights on depression comorbidity with addictive diseases, and the impact of poly-drug exposure. A rapid analysis of exposure to drugs of abuse reveals how specific patterns of drug and poly-drug exposure are associated with increasing odds of depression. This approach detected quantitatively how different patterns of poly-drug exposure can result in increased odds of depression comorbidity, in cases diagnosed with opioid versus cocaine dependence. (Am J Addict 2017;26:632-639). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  3. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, F; Njiki-Menga, G-H; Witschger, O

    2013-01-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  4. The Deceiving ELF? Can Englsh fulfil the role of a Lingua Franca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chapman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The debate which surrounds the role of English as a lingua franca has been lively and extensive over the last twenty years or so. Numerous conferences and specific publications in the field testify to the interest and importance that the question of the development of a possible international functional language has stimulated. The present article aims to critically reassess the claims made for ELF and, at the same time, highlight the profound significance of the issues the debate has raised. Discussion of ELF has touched upon the perception of linguistic diversity, (inaccuracy and variation, intelligibility and the potential functions of an international language. Other topics of profound importance that are part of the debate relate to the role of any language in creating and maintaining identity, enabling social mobility and empowering its users. Some criticisms of ELF proposals have been easily rebutted, but this paper aims to underline the serious linguistic and socio-linguistic aspects of the debate in order to emphasize the need for a theoretical underpinning to our understanding of how language can operate in the global environment. Clarification of what we can and cannot know about language change and behavior will also contribute to ideas as to future research in ELF but will also bring us to the conclusion that predictions of the future development of ELF are of little purpose beyond the curiosity value they may possess. Keywords: English1; lingua franca2; non-native speaker3.     Abstract– Il dibattito intorno al ruolo di inglese intesa come lingua franca è vivace e largo da almeno venti anni. Le conferenze e pubblicazioni specifiche sull’argomento sono numerose e sono testimone di quanto è interessante e importante la questione dello sviluppo di una lingua internazionale funzionale e utile. L’articolo qui presentato ha lo scopo di valutare a rivalutare le speranze che si sono formate per l’inglese come

  5. Situation and perspectives in refrigerating and air-conditioning. The point of view of Elf Atochem; Situation et perspectives en refrigeration et air conditionne. Point de vue d`Elf Atochem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which explains the engagements of Elf Atochem company in the replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): development of HFCs, production of FORANE, safety and environmental criteria, main refrigerants and their application in new installations, perspectives in reconversion, replacement of R-22, CFC-12 and R-502 fluids with respect to their applications. (J.S.)

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation of urban inhalation exposures to benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the European Union: comparison of measured and modelled exposure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Koistinen, Kimmo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Geiss, Otmar; Tirendi, Salvatore; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-07-01

    All across Europe, people live and work in indoor environments. On average, people spend around 90% of their time indoors (homes, workplaces, cars and public transport means, etc.) and are exposed to a complex mixture of pollutants at concentration levels that are often several times higher than outdoors. These pollutants are emitted by different sources indoors and outdoors and include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones) and other chemical substances often adsorbed on particles. Moreover, legal obligations opposed by legislations, such as the European Union's General Product Safety Directive (GPSD) and Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), increasingly require detailed understanding of where and how chemical substances are used throughout their life-cycle and require better characterisation of their emissions and exposure. This information is essential to be able to control emissions from sources aiming at a reduction of adverse health effects. Scientifically sound human risk assessment procedures based on qualitative and quantitative human exposure information allows a better characterisation of population exposures to chemical substances. In this context, the current paper compares inhalation exposures to three health-based EU priority substances, i.e. benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Distributions of urban population inhalation exposures, indoor and outdoor concentrations were created on the basis of measured AIRMEX data in 12 European cities and compared to results from existing European population exposure studies published within the scientific literature. By pooling all EU city personal exposure, indoor and outdoor concentration means, representative EU city cumulative frequency distributions were created. Population exposures were modelled with a microenvironment model using the time spent and concentrations in four microenvironments, i.e. indoors at home and at work, outdoors

  8. Dosemetry for exposures to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft - Part 1: Conceptual basis for measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The Directive requires account to be taken of the exposure of aircraft crew liable to receive more than 1 mSv per year. It then identifies the following four protection measures: (i) to assess the exposure of the crew concerned; (ii) to take into account the assessed exposure, when organizing working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed crew; (iii) to inform the workers concerned of the health risks their work involves; and (iv) to apply the same special protection during pregnancy to female crew in respect of the 'child to be born' as to other female workers. The EU Council Directive has already been incorporated into laws and regulations of EU Member States and is being included in the aviation safety standards and procedures of the Joint Aviation Authorities and the European Air Safety Agency. For regulatory and legislative purposes, the radiation protection quantities of interest are equivalent dose (to the foetus) and effective dose. The cosmic radiation exposure of the body is essentially uniform and the maternal abdomen provides no effective shielding to the foetus. As a result, the magnitude of equivalent dose to the foetus can be put equal to that of the effective dose received by the mother. Doses on board aircraft are generally predictable, and events comparable to unplanned exposure in other radiological workplaces cannot normally occur (with the rare exceptions of extremely intense and energetic solar particle events). Personal dosemeters for

  9. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  10. Saving turtles: Talisman, Elf and BHP make room for reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    1999-05-03

    Cooperation between Australia`s BHP Petroleum, Canada`s Talisman Energy and France`s El Aquitaine to help the Trinidadian government and conservation groups to save the nesting grounds of the Carribean sea turtle is described. The nesting ground is located near one of the projects the three companies are working on. The giant turtle, also called the leatherback, can weigh as much as a tonne and have a 2.4 metre flipper span, have their nesting places on Trinidad`s northeastern shore. The three companies are working in 36 metres of water opposite two of the turtles` last nesting places. Had the companies proceeded as planned, the project could have destroyed their nesting place. Instead, the companies put up $90,000 for a three-month research project to monitor the movement of the turtles with satellite telemetry. In order to assess the turtles` hearing, tiny wires were inserted in the the turtles` brain to measure brain wave patterns - a method similar to that used on human neo-natals. When it was discovered that the turtles did not adapt well to captivity, they were fitted with earphones and transmitter during 10-minute period when they were in the quiescent state of egg-laying. The companies proceeded with a seismic program that used cables on the sea floor. Rather than use a large and noisy survey vessel to lay long streamers on a wide area, they laid shorter strips on a grid with smaller, quieter boats. That was sufficient for the turtles to continue normal activity as females arrived on the beach in the usual numbers to nest and to lay eggs. The documentation provided to the Trinidadian government was well received and plans are afoot to use it as a benchmark in assessing future exploratory applications within Trinidadian jurisdiction.

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125 I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  12. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian phosphate mines and their significance in the occupational exposure of mine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Hussein, Mohamed I.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progeny) and thoron ( 220 Rn) progeny, as well as γ-radiation from mine walls, ceilings and floors. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the Maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60. A number of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines

  13. Risk assessment of exposure to mechanical vibrations: comparison between field measurements and use of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monica, L.; Nataletti, P.; Vignali, G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite continuous technological progress with a view to guaranteeing workers' safety and health, there are still many hazardous situations to workers' health when using industrial equipment; exposure to mechanical vibrations may definitely be included among these situations. Many researches have shown that the widespread use of various vibrating tools in the industrial, agricultural and forestry fields, such as vehicles and machinery in the workplace, are a source of vibration disorders or the worsening of pre-existing symptoms.The aim of this paper is to present a comparison between the two types of risk assessment currently provided for by the law: direct field measurements and database support. We will identify the advantages and operational limitations involved in the use of databases through the results of direct field measurements assessing the risk derived from vibrations in a typical engineering company in the mineral waters and beverages industry. As a result, this research can represent a functional reference for risk assessments of vibration exposure in individual companies

  14. Review of measurement techniques and methods for assessing personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials in workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbach, Christof; Alexander, Carla; Clavaguera, Simon; Dahmann, Dirk; Dozol, Hélène; Faure, Bertrand; Fierz, Martin; Fontana, Luca; Iavicoli, Ivo; Kaminski, Heinz; MacCalman, Laura; Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Simonow, Barbara; van Tongeren, Martie; Todea, Ana Maria

    2017-12-15

    Exposure to airborne agents needs to be assessed in the personal breathing zone by the use of personal measurement equipment. Specific measurement devices for assessing personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials have only become available in the recent years. They can be differentiated into direct-reading personal monitors and personal samplers that collect the airborne nanomaterials for subsequent analyses. This article presents a review of the available personal monitors and samplers and summarizes the available literature regarding their accuracy, comparability and field applicability. Due to the novelty of the instruments, the number of published studies is still relatively low. Where applicable, literature data is therefore complemented with published and unpublished results from the recently finished nanoIndEx project. The presented data show that the samplers and monitors are robust and ready for field use with sufficient accuracy and comparability. However, several limitations apply, e.g. regarding the particle size range of the personal monitors and their in general lower accuracy and comparability compared with their stationary counterparts. The decision whether a personal monitor or a personal sampler shall be preferred depends strongly on the question to tackle. In many cases, a combination of a personal monitor and a personal sampler may be the best choice to obtain conclusive results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  16. Media violence exposure and frontal lobe activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in aggressive and nonaggressive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Vincent P; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Lurito, Joseph T; Lowe, Mark J; Dunn, David W

    2005-01-01

    To understand better the relation between media violence exposure, brain functioning, and trait aggression, this study investigated the association between media violence exposure and brain activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in groups of normal adolescents and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggressive features. Seventy-one participants underwent neuropsychologic evaluation and assessment of exposure to violent media. Subjects also were evaluated with fMRI while performing a counting Stroop (CS) task. Frontal lobe activation was reduced in aggressive subjects compared with control subjects. In addition, differences in frontal lobe activation were associated with differences in media violence exposure. Specifically, activation during performance of the CS in control subjects with high media violence exposure resembled that seen in DBD subjects. Our findings suggest that media violence exposure may be associated with alterations in brain functioning whether or not trait aggression is present.

  17. Problems of exposure measurement with extended sources. Case of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, J.L.

    A number of problems involved in the measurement of exposure rates in X-ray or gamma-ray beams from extended sources were studied. A mathematical model simulating an experimental device producing practically monoenergetic X-ray beams (X-ray fluorescence method) was developed. The theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental data previously published. From this theoretical analogy, it was possible to determine the influence of various parameters of a free-air ionization chamber, and several corrective coefficients were evaluated and measured. The experiments were performed with a mesh-grid free-air chamber especially fitted to wide beams. The results were compared with those of cavity chambers used in the same expermental conditions [fr

  18. Measurements of radiation exposure on commercial aircraft with the LIULIN-3M instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.; Dachev, T.P.; Tomov, B.T.; Dimitrov, P.G.; Brucker, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M evolved from an international cooperative project by a group of Bulgarian, Russian, German, and American scientists. The radiometer is a low power, small size, light weight, and low cost instrument composed of a solid state detector (SSD) with supporting electronics that enable it to operate as a pulse height analyzer of energy deposited in the detector, and to obtain from these measurements the total dose or the dose rate produced by charged particles. The instrument has also been used as a low-LET radiation spectrometer for measuring biological doses of potential human exposures. A flash memory allows self-storage of data during flights and post flight retrieval. Results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Toluene Exposure in Workers at Industrial Area of Sidoarjo, Indonesia by Measurement of Urinary Hippuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Sahri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Sahri M, Widajati N. Evaluation of Toluene Exposure in Workers at Industrial Area of Sidoarjo, Indonesia by Measurement of Urinary Hippuric Acid. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:145-9.

  20. Measurements for assessing the exposure from 3G femto-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursianis, A.; Vanias, P.; Samaras, T.

    2012-01-01

    Femto-cells are low-power access points, which combine mobile and broadband technologies. The main operation of a femto-cell is to function as a miniature base station unit in an indoor environment and to connect to the operator's network through a broadband phone line or a coaxial cable line. This study provides the first experimental measurements and results in Greece for the assessment of exposure to a femto-cell access point (FAP) indoors. Using a mobile handset with the appropriate software, power level measurements of the transmitted (Tx) and the received by the mobile handset signal were performed in two different and typical (home and office) environments. Moreover, radiofrequency electric field strength and frequency selective measurements with a radiation meter (SRM-3000) were carried out in the proximity of the FAP installation point. The cumulative distribution functions of the Tx power at most cases (except one) show that in 90% of all points the power of the mobile phone was lower by at least 7 dB during FAP operation. At a distance of ∼1 m from the FAP (in its main beam), power flux density measurements show that there is very little difference between the two situations (FAP ON and OFF). As a conclusion, the use of femto-cells indoors improves reception quality, reduces the Tx power of the user's mobile terminal and results in an indiscernible increase of the electromagnetic field in front of the unit, at values that are extremely low compared with reference levels of exposure guidelines. (authors)

  1. Demodulation effect is observed in neurones by exposure to low frequency modulated microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Bruzon, R N; Figols, T; Azanza, M J; Moral, A del

    2010-01-01

    Neurones exposure to a microwave (carrier f c =13.6 GHz; power P ≅ 5 mW; H o ≅ 0.10 Am -1 = 1.25 mOe; E 0 ≅ 3.5 V/m; ΔT ≅ 0.01 0 C; SAR: 3.1x10 -3 - 5.8x10 -3 W/Kg) EMF amplitude modulated by ELF-AC field (frequency, f m = 0-100 Hz) shows no electrophysiological effect under the carrier MF alone, but f requency resonances: at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 50, 100 Hz: demodulation effect. Resonances appear when applied ELF-MF is close to a dominant characteristic frequency of the neurone impulse Fourier spectrum. This is an interesting result considering that ELF-MF modulating RF or MW in the range of human EEG could induce frequency-resonant effects on exposed human brain.

  2. English as a Lingua Franca: Reflections on ELF-Related Issues by Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Esma Biricik; Özkan, Yonca; Bayyurt, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The leading position of English as a global language has evidently been continuing for several decades. This pivotal role has inevitably been influencing the agenda of English language teaching and teacher education in most domains of the profession. Although English as a lingua franca (ELF) implications and practices on teaching and teacher…

  3. Bespoke Language Teaching (BLT): A Proposal for a Theoretical Framework. the Case of EFL/ELF for Italians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santipolo, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) and as a lingua franca (ELF) in the Italian educational system and, in particular, with introducing language variation in the English class. After briefly illustrating how English teaching has changed in the last few decades, an outline is drawn of what happens in…

  4. Functional characterization of a putative glycine max ELF4 transgenic aradopsis and its role during flowering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering is an important trait in major crops like soybean due to its direct relation to grain production. The circadian clock mediates the perception of seasonal changes in day length and temperature to modulate flowering time. The circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4) was identified in Ar...

  5. The Characteristics of Magnetic Signals Observed at Lulin ELF Station and Their Association with Earthquakes in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ming Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave data from years 2009 - 2010 which were recorded by the extremely-low-frequency (ELF station at Lulin Observatory in Taiwan (120.87°E, 23.46°N; 2862 m are analyzed to explore the wave properties and their association with seismic and geomagnetic activities. Specifically, the power spectra, the ellipticity and the orientation of the below-10-Hz wave signals are studied. The correlation coefficients of these ELF signals and geomagnetic activity indices Dst and Kp are within -0.2 to 0.2, indicating geomagnetic activities are not likely sources for these emissions. In the frequency versus time (f-t spectrograms, a few events exhibit a frequency shift between 4 and 6 Hz and the possible association with seismic activities of magnitudes (M larger than 4 in the vicinity of Taiwan are examined. The subset of earthquakes in Taiwan with M/r2 (r is the epicenter distance in kilometer from the Lulin station of greater than 6 × 10-4, a total number of 50, show a higher association with ELF wave events showing a frequency down-shift within 7 days prior to the earthquakes and a frequency bounce-back within 7 days after the earthquakes. The epicenters of these earthquakes are all within a distance of 100 km from the Lulin station and with a depth of 50 km, suggesting that the detected ELF frequency-shift wave events maybe are pre-earthquake electromagnetic signals.

  6. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Designated Smoking Areas in the Hospitality Industry: Exposure Measurement, Exposure Modelling & Policy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    MCNABOLA, AONGHUS

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to ETS present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas ...

  7. Determination of Measurement Points in Urban Environments for Assessment of Maximum Exposure to EMF Associated with a Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A base station (BS antenna operates in accordance with the established exposure limits if the values of electromagnetic fields (EMF measured in points of maximum exposure are below these limits. In the case of BS in open areas, the maximum exposure to EMF probably occurs in the antenna’s boresight direction, from a few tens to a few hundred meters away. This is not a typical scenery for urban environments. However, in the line of sight (LOS situation, the region of maximum exposure can still be analytically estimated with good results. This paper presents a methodology for the choice of measurement points in urban areas in order to assess compliance with the limits for exposure to EMF.

  8. MEASUREMENTS IN AFGHANISTAN USING AN ACTIVE RADON EXPOSURE METER AND ASSESSMENT OF RELATED ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Mohammad R; Vahlbruch, Jan-Willem; Riebe, Beate; Irlinger, Josef; Rühm, Werner; Khalid, Fazal R; Storai, Abobaker; Walther, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Radon gas concentrations in eight basements, four living rooms and four caves from different locations in Kabul and Panjsher, Afghanistan, were measured by using eight active radon exposure meters recently developed by the Helmholtz Center in Munich, Germany. The two-phase measurements lasted from a week to a year. In the first phase of measurements which lasted one week, the mean activity concentrations ranged from 6 to 120 Bq/m3 and 25 to 139 Bq/m3 for the basements and caves, respectively. In the second phase of measurements which lasted one year, the mean activity concentrations ranged from 33 to 2064 Bq/m3 and the corresponding effective annual doses calculated for the inhabitants were in the range between 0.6 and 33.4 mSv. As some of the values are rather high and exceed the recommended recommendations by IAEA and ICRP, based on the local conditions a number of simple recommendations has been proposed for the possible reduction of effective annual dose caused by radon in the measurement locations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Birth outcome measures and prenatal exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Shenliang; Wu, Chunhua; Lu, Dasheng; Qi, Xiaojuan; Xu, Hao; Guo, Jianqiu; Liang, Weijiu; Chang, XiuLi

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in animals and humans, while epidemiological studies about associations between prenatal exposure to tOP and fetal growth are extremely limited. We measured urinary tOP concentrations in 1100 pregnant women before their delivery, and examined whether tOP levels were associated with birth outcomes, including weight, length, head circumference and ponderal index at birth. tOP could be detected in all samples, and the median uncorrected and creatinine-corrected tOP concentrations were 0.90 μg/L (range from 0.25 to 20.05 μg/L) and 1.33 μg/g creatinine (range from 0.15 to 42.49 μg/g creatinine), respectively. Maternal urinary log-transformed tOP concentrations were significantly negatively associated with adjusted birth weight [β (g) = −126; 95% confidence interval (CI): −197, −55], birth length [β (cm) = −0.53; 95% CI:−0.93, −0.14], and head circumference [β (cm) = −0.30; 95% CI: −0.54, −0.07], respectively. Additionally, considering sex difference, these significant negative associations were also found among male neonates, while only higher maternal tOP concentrations were associated with a significant decrease in birth weight among female neonates. This study suggested significant negative associations between maternal urinary tOP concentrations and neonatal sizes at birth, and they differed by neonatal sex. Further epidemiological studies are required to more fully elaborate the associations between prenatal tOP exposure and birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We measured 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP) in urine from 1100 Chinese pregnant women. • The associations between maternal tOP levels and birth outcomes were investigated. • Prenatal exposure to tOP in the selected area was widespread at higher levels. • Maternal tOP levels were significantly negatively associated with birth sizes. • The associations between tOP and birth outcomes might

  10. Use of visual range measurements to predict fine particulate matter exposures in Southwest Asia and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Garshick, Eric; Hart, Jaime; Bouhamra, Walid; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia and Afghanistan were exposed to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM). However, quantitative ambient exposure data for conducting health studies are limited due to a lack of PM monitoring stations. Since visual range (VR) is proportional to particle light extinction, VR can serve as a surrogate for PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) concentrations. We used data on VR, relative humidity (RH), and PM 2.5 ground measurements collected in Kuwait from years 2004-2005 to establish the relationship between PM 2.5 and VR. Model validation obtained by regressing trimester average PM 2.5 predictions against PM 2.5 measurements in Kuwait produced an r 2 value of 0.84. Cross validation of urban and rural sites in Kuwait also revealed good model fit. We applied this relationship to location-specific visibility data at 104 regional sites between years 2000-2012 to estimate monthly average PM 2.5 concentrations. Monthly averages at sites in Iraq, Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Djibouti, and Qatar ranged from 10 to 365 µg/m3 during this period, while site averages ranged from 22 to 80 µg/m3, indicating considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in ambient PM 2.5 across these regions. These data support the use of historical visibility data to estimate location-specific PM 2.5 concentrations for application in epidemiological studies. This study demonstrates the ability to use airport visibility to estimate PM 2.5 concentrations in Southwest Asian and Afghanistan. This supports the use of historical and ongoing visibility data to estimate PM 2.5 exposure in this region of the world, where PM exposure information is otherwise scarce. This is of high utility to epidemiologists investigating the relationship between chronic exposure to PM 2.5 and respiratory diseases among deployed military personnel stationed at various military bases throughout the region. Such information will

  11. Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Oyola, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    An exposure study of children (aged 10-12 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter ( 2.5 and 10 , respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For the main study, personal indoor and outdoor 24-h samples were collected for five consecutive days. Similar mean personal, indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations (69.5, 68.5 and 68.1 μg m -3 , respectively) were found. However, for coarse particles (calculated as the difference between measured PM 10 and PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 ) indoor and outdoor levels (35.4 and 47.4 μg m -3 ) were lower than their corresponding personal exposures (76.3 μg m -3 ). Indoor and outdoor NO 2 concentrations were comparable (35.8 and 36.9 ppb) and higher than personal exposures (25.9 ppb). Very low ambient indoor and personal O 3 levels were found, which were mostly below the method's limit of detection (LOD). Outdoor particles contributed significantly to indoor concentrations, with effective penetration efficiencies of 0.61 and 0.30 for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 , respectively. Personal exposures were strongly associated with indoor and outdoor concentrations for PM 2.5 , but weakly associated for PM 2.5-10 . For NO 2 , weak associations were obtained for indoor-outdoor and personal-outdoor relationships. This is probably a result of the presence of gas cooking stoves in all the homes. Median I/O, P/I and P/O ratios for PM 2.5 were close to unity, and for NO 2 they ranged between 0.64 and 0.95. These ratios were probably due to high ambient PM 2.5 and NO 2 levels in Santiago, which diminished the relative contribution of indoor sources and subjects' activities to indoor and personal PM 2.5 and NO 2 levels

  12. Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard University, School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, 02115 Boston, MA (United States); Oyola, Pedro [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente CONAMA, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-03-27

    An exposure study of children (aged 10-12 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter (<2.5 {mu}m in diameter, PM{sub 2.5} and <10 {mu}m in diameter, PM{sub 10}, respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For the main study, personal indoor and outdoor 24-h samples were collected for five consecutive days. Similar mean personal, indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations (69.5, 68.5 and 68.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively) were found. However, for coarse particles (calculated as the difference between measured PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 2.5-10}) indoor and outdoor levels (35.4 and 47.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were lower than their corresponding personal exposures (76.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Indoor and outdoor NO{sub 2} concentrations were comparable (35.8 and 36.9 ppb) and higher than personal exposures (25.9 ppb). Very low ambient indoor and personal O{sub 3} levels were found, which were mostly below the method's limit of detection (LOD). Outdoor particles contributed significantly to indoor concentrations, with effective penetration efficiencies of 0.61 and 0.30 for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-10}, respectively. Personal exposures were strongly associated with indoor and outdoor concentrations for PM{sub 2.5}, but weakly associated for PM{sub 2.5-10}. For NO{sub 2}, weak associations were obtained for indoor-outdoor and personal-outdoor relationships. This is probably a result of the presence of gas cooking stoves in all the homes. Median I/O, P/I and P/O ratios for PM{sub 2.5} were close to unity, and for NO{sub 2} they ranged between 0.64 and 0.95. These ratios were probably due to high ambient PM{sub 2.5} and NO{sub 2} levels in Santiago, which diminished the relative contribution of indoor sources and subjects' activities to indoor and personal PM

  13. Current status of programmes to measure and reduce radon exposure in Irish workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P A; Madden, J S; Synnott, H; Fennell, S; Pollard, D; Fenton, D

    2004-01-01

    National legislation, which implements European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM in Ireland, sets a reference level of 400 Bq m -3 averaged over any 3 month period for radon exposure in the workplace and also empowers the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to direct employers to have radon measurements carried out. This legislation came into effect in May 2000. Radon measurements have already been completed in show caves and other underground workplaces. Between 1998 and 2001, over 33 800 individual radon measurements were carried out in all ground floor offices and classrooms in 3444 schools nationwide as part of a programme undertaken jointly with the Department of Education and Science. Where the average indoor radon concentration in one or more rooms exceeded 200 Bq m -3 , remedial measures were implemented. For concentrations up to 400 Bq m -3 this involved increased ventilation while for higher concentrations an active sump was normally installed. The results of the survey, as well as the effectiveness of the different remedial strategies, are discussed. In the case of other above ground workplaces, different approaches have been adopted. As a first step, workplaces in two known high radon areas were directed to have radon measurements carried out. This programme had limited success because of problems in obtaining accurate workplace databases and a general lack of awareness on the part of employers of the issues involved. From a sample of 2610 employers directed to measure radon, only 408 actually completed measurements and 37 workplaces were identified as having average 3 month average radon concentrations above 400 Bq m -3 . A total of 1356 employers ignored all correspondence, some of which was sent by registered post and signed for on receipt. Current initiatives are focused on the provision of information and include newspaper advertising as well as publications aimed specifically at both employer and employee representative groups. The ability

  14. Validation of a radial diffusive sampler for measuring occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Paci, Enrico; Sacco, Paolo; Pigini, Daniela; Zaratin, Laura; Cottica, Danilo; Scapellato, Maria L; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2014-08-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a major industrial chemical used in the manufacture of rubbers and latexes; it is also a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose major source is traffic. Occupational exposure to (BD) can occur both during its production and during its use as a raw material. The objective of the study was the laboratory and field validation of a new diffusive sampler for BD. The nominal sampling rate of the Radiello diffusive sampler filled with Carbopack X is 30.5 cm(3)/min, at 0.177 mg/m(3), 20 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH), for an 8-h exposure time. A model can be used for calculating the sampling rate as a function of temperature, time and RH. The concentration does not affect the sampling rate above 30 μg/m(3). The measurement uncertainty (k=2), calculated both by laboratory data and by field comparison according to International Standard Organization (ISO) 13752, satisfies the EN 482:2006 requirement for measurements between 0.1 and 0.5 times the threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) (uncertainty<50%). For field validation study, 38 workers exposed to BD and 20 administrative employees, as the control group, underwent environmental and biological monitoring. Personal exposure to BD was measured by diffusive samplers (Radiello) in comparison with active samplers. The BD exposure levels detected for the exposed subjects were low (mean 0.059, range <0.010-1.340 mg/m(3)) but higher than the controls levels, all below 0.010 mg/m(3). The comparison between diffusive and active (pumped) air sampling showed a good correlation, with no systematic deviation from the ideal values of the intercept and slope of the optimized regression line. The concentrations of two biomarkers were also determined on urine samples, collected at the end of the work-shift: unchanged BD, by GC-MS, and the metabolite dihydroxybutylmercapturic acid (DHBMA), by HPLC-MS/MS. The urinary excretion of the biomarkers was on average higher in the exposed group (urinary BD

  15. ELF wave generation in the ionosphere using pulse modulated HF heating: initial tests of a technique for increasing ELF wave generation efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barr

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a preliminary study to determine the effective heating and cooling time constants of ionospheric currents in a simulated modulated HF heating, `beam painting' configuration. It has been found that even and odd harmonics of the fundamental ELF wave used to amplitude modulate the HF heater are sourced from different regions of the ionosphere which support significantly different heating and cooling time constants. The fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics are sourced in a region of the ionosphere where the heating and cooling time constants are about equal. The even harmonics on the other hand are sourced from regions of the ionosphere characterised by ratios of cooling to heating time constant greater than ten. It is thought that the even harmonics are sourced in the lower ionosphere (around 65 km where the currents are much smaller than at the higher altitudes around 78 km where the currents at the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics maximise.Key words. Electromagnetics (antennae · Ionosphere (active experiments · Radio science (non linear phenomena

  16. Student′s music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Jeevandas Washnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49% student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19% exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  17. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Use of photoprotective measures in relation to actual exposure to solar rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarev, J

    1998-01-01

    There is evidence that in spite of worldwide campaigns against excessive sun exposure, children as well as adults still spend long periods in the sun. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sun exposure in a group of doctors of different specialties and to compare their knowledge about sun protection methods with regular use of sun protection products. 51 doctors of different specialties, volunteers, mean age 40.78, filled out questionnaires with 21 multiple choice questions about their skin type, sun exposure habits, sun protection habits and questions about meaning of the Sun Protection Factor. Thirty-three percent of our study participants spent more than two peak ultraviolet hours outdoors every day, and additional 33.33% are sun exposed for longer than 5 hours, regularly. Only 39% of them utilized sunscreens. Majority of sunscreen users utilized less than 100 ml of commercial sunscreen products which is an inadequate amount for full body protection per year. Majority of study participants did not believe that sunscreens could prevent skin cancer, but 57% of them believed that these compounds can slow the process of skin aging. Meaning of the term Sun Protection Factor is not familiar to 84.3% study participants. The two most common reasons for not using sunscreens are time consuming application and high cost. Results of the presented study confirm our statement that there is bad understanding of a need for sun protection which is in correlation with deficient application of sun protective measures. It should be stressed out that our study participants lack well formed sun protection habits.

  19. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several important issues which affect external exposure in contaminated Chernobyl areas have been investigated using field measurements and computational simulations since 1992. The objectives of the study were: 1) the development of a mobile survey method to collect radiation data over the contaminated wide areas in a shot time; 2) the verification of a method to infer external dose to the population; 3) the provision of basic data used for evaluation of external dose due to gamma ray using a Monte Carlo simulation method. To develop a method to rapidly measure radiation over wide areas and map the extend of fallout, a mobile survey system was constructed and tested; the conversion factors to convert the measured data to required quantities were examined; and finally a detailed contamination map was created. The field surveys were implemented by using a land rover and a helicopter. To infer external dose to inhabitants, radiation measurements were carried out in the living environments using accurate dose meters in addition to individual dose measurements using glass dosimeters. Individual doses were inferred from occupancy factors and dose rate data measured with portable dose rate meters in and around houses. The evaluated doses were compared to directly measured individual doses with glass dosimeters in the seven settlements. A good agreement was observed with an error margin of approximate 20%. Basic data used for the evaluation of environmental gamma-ray dose rate were calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The following two kinds of data have been provided from the calculation: a) conversion factors from the nuclide concentration in the ground to the air kerma rate at 1 m height; and b) shielding factors of a typical Chernobyl house for gamma radiation. (M. Suetake)

  20. Measurement of exposure buildup factors: The influence of scattered photons on gamma-ray attenuation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh

    2018-01-01

    Scattered photon's influence on measured values of attenuation coefficients (μm, cm2g-1) for six low-Z (effective atomic number) building materials, at three photon energies has been estimated. Narrow-beam transmission geometry has been used for the measurements. Samples of commonly used engineering materials (Cements, Clay, Lime-Stone, Plaster of Paris) have been selected for the present study. Standard radioactive sources Cs137 and Co60 have been used for obtaining γ-ray energies 661.66, 1173.24 and 1332.50 keV. The optical thickness (OT) of 0.5 mfp (mean free path) has been found the optimum optical thickness (OOT) for μm-measurement in the selected energy range (661.66-1332.50 keV). The aim of this investigation is to provide neglected information regarding subsistence of scattered photons in narrow beam geometry measurements for low-Z materials. The measurements have been performed for a wide range of sample-thickness (2-26 cm) such that their OT varies between 0.2-3.5 mfp in selected energy range. A computer program (GRIC2-toolkit) has been used for various theoretical computations required in this investigation. It has been concluded that in selected energy-range, good accuracy in μm-measurement of low-Z materials can be achieved by keeping their sample's OT below 0.5 mfp. The exposure buildup factors have been measured with the help of mathematical-model developed in this investigation.

  1. National campaign of measurement of domestic exposure to radon IPSN-DGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailliez, E.

    2000-10-01

    The radon atlas in accommodation, published by the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (I.P.S.N.) and the General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), and available from http://www.ipsn.fr, presents maps and statistical elements from 12 641 measures made in 10013 communes, from 1982 up to and including 1999. The objective pursued is to estimate in an overall way the French population exposure to domestic radon. An update is planned regularly (every two years). In its present version, the modesty of the measures number and the local strong disparities make very difficult the identification of risk areas at the communal level: high voluminal activities can be noticed in any commune; whereas a housing situated in a commune classified in the highest group will not show inescapably a strong concentration in radon leading to take rapid measures. The average value of radon voluminal activity measured in France is 90 Bq. by m 3 . For the risk management, the authorities have kept the value of 400 Bq. by m 3 as caution objective and this one of 1000 Bq. by m 3 as alert threshold, in yearly average value. (N.C.)

  2. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  3. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  4. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N.; Stark, A.; Ju, C.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  5. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of exposures to radioactivity and monitoring of effects on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spira, Alfred; Boutou, Odile

    1999-01-01

    On the request of the French ministries of Health and of the Environment, the author reports thoughts and proposals regarding epidemiological problems related to natural and artificial radioactive emissions. He first reports an analysis of the present context (assessment of health risks, ionizing radiation in France, radiation protection, nuclear operators, relationship between ionizing radiation and health, epidemiology) and knowledge (about nuclear and health, available results, current investigations). He outlines the benefits of an epidemiological monitoring and its requirements, and identifies the various components of this monitoring. While presenting current works, biological and epidemiological studies performed in the northern Cotentin area, he makes some specific proposals for this area and notably for the workers of La Hague. He proposes the implementation of a national arrangement comprising a measurement of exposures, an epidemiological monitoring, and a sociological survey. He discusses the associated administrative organisation and needs

  7. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  8. Conjunctival Ultraviolet Autofluorescence as a Measure of Past Sun Exposure in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Pezic, Angela; Mackey, David A; Carlin, John B; Kemp, Andrew; Ellis, Justine A; Cameron, Fergus J; Rodda, Christine P; Dwyer, Terence; Coroneo, Minas T; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2017-07-01

    Background: Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) area detected from UVAF photographs is a recently developed potential marker for past sun exposure, but its relationship with sun-related factors has not been fully investigated. Methods: The study included 339 healthy children ages 5 to 15 years in Melbourne, Australia. Data were collected by questionnaire and examination at school. CUVAF area was measured using a computer program and analyzed as a continuous and dichotomous outcome (any/none). Results: Fifty-three children (15.6%) had detectable CUVAF, and the youngest age at which a child showed sun damage was 8 years. Compared with silicone skin cast score, there was good inter-grader agreement on CUVAF grading, with Cohen kappa 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-1.00] for total CUVAF area using both eye photographs. Perfect intra-grader agreement was achieved. Fairer pigmentation, including medium/fair skin color [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.42; 95% CI, 1.02-11.48 vs. dark/olive] and blue/gray eye color (AOR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.73-9.55 vs. brown) was associated with increased odds of CUVAF. Increasing lifetime sunburn number (e.g., AOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.14-7.35 and 4.29; 1.04-17.76 for sunburns 2 to 4 and ≥ 5 times, respectively, vs. no sunburns, trend P = 0.004) and freckling by the end of last summer were associated with increased odds of CUVAF. Conclusions: CUVAF area can be an a priori objective measure of past sun exposure in pediatric populations for future research. Impact: To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric study that evaluated associations of sun-related risk factors with CUVAF. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1146-53. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement errors and effect attenuation in bi-pollutant epidemiologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using multipollutant models to understand the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, the complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from ...

  10. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement error and effect attenuation in bi-pollutant epidemiologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates f...

  11. Head impact exposure measured in a single youth football team during practice drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mireille E; Kane, Joeline M; Espeland, Mark A; Miller, Logan E; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Urban, Jillian E

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts in practice drills within a youth football team to determine how head impact exposure varies among different types of drills. METHODS On-field head impact data were collected from athletes participating in a youth football team for a single season. Each athlete wore a helmet instrumented with a Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System head acceleration measurement device during all preseason, regular season, and playoff practices. Video was recorded for all practices, and video analysis was performed to verify head impacts and assign each head impact to a specific drill. Eleven drills were identified: dummy/sled tackling, install, special teams, Oklahoma, one-on-one, open-field tackling, passing, position skill work, multiplayer tackle, scrimmage, and tackling drill stations. Generalized linear models were fitted to log-transformed data, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and impact rates. RESULTS A total of 2125 impacts were measured during 30 contact practices in 9 athletes (mean age 11.1 ± 0.6 years, mean mass 44.9 ± 4.1 kg). Open-field tackling had the highest median and 95th percentile linear accelerations (24.7 g and 97.8 g, respectively) and resulted in significantly higher mean head accelerations than several other drills. The multiplayer tackle drill resulted in the highest head impact frequency, with an average of 0.59 impacts per minute per athlete, but the lowest 95th percentile linear accelerations of all drills. The front of the head was the most common impact location for all drills except dummy/sled tackling. CONCLUSIONS Head impact exposure varies significantly in youth football practice drills, with several drills exposing athletes to high-magnitude and/or high-frequency head impacts. These data suggest that further study of practice drills is an important step in developing evidence-based recommendations for modifying or eliminating

  12. Ampullary Cancers Harbor ELF3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Mutations and Exhibit Frequent WNT Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Gingras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ampulla of Vater is a complex cellular environment from which adenocarcinomas arise to form a group of histopathologically heterogenous tumors. To evaluate the molecular features of these tumors, 98 ampullary adenocarcinomas were evaluated and compared to 44 distal bile duct and 18 duodenal adenocarcinomas. Genomic analyses revealed mutations in the WNT signaling pathway among half of the patients and in all three adenocarcinomas irrespective of their origin and histological morphology. These tumors were characterized by a high frequency of inactivating mutations of ELF3, a high rate of microsatellite instability, and common focal deletions and amplifications, suggesting common attributes in the molecular pathogenesis are at play in these tumors. The high frequency of WNT pathway activating mutation, coupled with small-molecule inhibitors of β-catenin in clinical trials, suggests future treatment decisions for these patients may be guided by genomic analysis.

  13. Synchronization control of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons exposed to ELF electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Zhou Sisi; Deng Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neural network H ∞ control for unidirectional synchronization of modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field. The proposed modified HH neurons exhibit periodic and chaotic dynamics in response to sinusoidal electric field stimulation. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive the updated laws of neural network for approximating the nonlinear uncertain functions of the error dynamical system. The H ∞ design technique makes the controller robust to unmodeled dynamics, disturbances and approximate errors. The proposed controller not only ensures closed-loop stability, but also guarantees an H ∞ performance for the synchronization error system. The states of the controlled slave system exponentially synchronize with that of the master one after control. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  14. Study on characteristic frequencies of ELF emissions and estimation of ion constituents in the vicinity of magnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The AKEBONO satellite has been operated continuously over 2 cycles of solar activity. Long-term observation data obtained by the AKEBONO satellite is very valuable to clarify plasma dynamics in the magnetosphere. Recently, the mechanism of wave-particle interaction around the radiation belt has attracted considerable attention. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard AKEBONO, measures waveforms below 50Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver [1] . It is well known that ion cyclotron wave generally propagates with a left-handed circularly polarization, but there exists right-handed polarized ion cyclotron wave below a characteristic frequency called 'crossover' in the presence of two or more kinds of ions such as oxygen and helium ions besides proton. As the crossover frequency can be derived theoretically from relative constituents of ions in plasma, it is possible to estimate the ion constituents by identifying the crossover frequency observationally. In this study, we analyze polarization of the ion cyclotron waves observed around the magnetic equator by the ELF receiver onboard AKEBONO, and report an example of ion cyclotron wave whose polarization changes from left-handed to right-handed at crossover frequency. As a next step, we estimate the ion constituents according to the polarization analysis. Furthermore, these phenomena sometimes have characteristic lower cut-off frequencies changing along the trajectories of Akebono. According to our work, it was found that the cutoff frequency is frequently in agreement with 1/n of proton's cyclotron frequency, where "n" is integer. The lower cut-off of ion cyclotron wave can be theoretically derived considering certain ion constituents of the background cold plasma

  15. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the efficiency of the scorpion alpha toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Milena; Pawlowska-Mainville, Agnieszka; Stankiewicz, Maria; Rogalska, Justyna; Wyszkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is produced by electric power transmission lines and electronic devices of everyday use. Some phenomena are proposed as "first effects" of ELF-EMF: the discrete changes in the membrane potential and the increase of the calcium channel activity as well as the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+). Interaction of the scorpion alpha toxin with the sodium channel depends on the orientation of the charges and may be perturbed by changes in the membrane polarization. The toxin induces overexcitability in the nervous system and an increase in the neurotransmitters released with different consequences, mainly the paralysis of muscles. We assumed that the exposure to ELF-EMF 0.7 mT will change the effects of the insect selective scorpion alpha toxin (recombinant LqhαIT from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus) at the level of the cercal nerve function, the synaptic transmission and on the level of entire insect organism. Taking into account the compensatory mechanisms in organisms, we tested in addition ten times higher ELF-EMF on whole insects. Experiments were performed in vivo on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and in vitro - on isolated cockroach abdominal nerve cord with cerci. In biotests, the effects of LqhαIT (10(-8) M) were estimated on the basis of the insect ability to turn back from dorsal to ventral side. Three groups were compared: the control one and the two exposed to ELF-EMF - 0.7 and 7 mT. Bioelectrical activity of the cercal nerve and of the connective nerve that leaves the terminal abdominal ganglion was recorded using extracellular electrodes. LqhαIT (5 × 10(-8) M) induced modifications of neuronal activity that were observed in the control cockroach preparations and in the ones exposed to ELF-EMF (0.7 mT). The exposure to ELF-EMF was carried out using coils with a size appropriate to the examined objects. The exposure to ELF-EMF (0.7 mT) modified the effects of LqhαIT (5

  16. Estrogenic and androgenic activities in total plasma measured with reporter-gene bioassays: relevant exposure measures for endocrine disruptors in epidemiologic studies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Besselink, H.; Bretveld, R.W.; Anzion, R.B.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brouwer, A.; Roeleveld, N.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of estrogenic and androgenic activities in total plasma with Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX(R)) bioassays could provide biologically relevant measures for exposure to endocrine disruptors in epidemiologic studies. The objective of this study was to explore the

  17. Assessment of uncertainty associated with measuring exposure to radon and decay products in the French uranium miners cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique; Bernhard, Sylvain; Henry, Stéphane; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of exposure data directly affects the reliability of the risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies. Measurement uncertainty must be known and understood before it can be corrected. The literature on occupational exposure to radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products reveals only a few epidemiological studies in which uncertainty has been accounted for explicitly. This work examined the sources, nature, distribution and magnitude of uncertainty of the exposure of French uranium miners to radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products. We estimated the total size of uncertainty for this exposure with the root sum square (RSS) method, which may be an alternative when repeated measures are not available. As a result, we identified six main sources of uncertainty. The total size of the uncertainty decreased from about 47% in the period 1956–1974 to 10% after 1982, illustrating the improvement in the radiological monitoring system over time.

  18. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p'shunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducret-Stich, R; Gemperli, A; Ineichen, A; Phuleria, H C; Delfino, R J; Tjoa, T; Wu, J; Liu, L-J S

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter 25 ), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). One child per run had concurrent indoor/outdoor home monitoring. Measurements at central sites (24-hr PM 25 , EC, OC) were taken daily and concentrations of PM 25 , EC, and OC from traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM 2 5 , EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R 2 ) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM 25 , EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM 25 (R 2 =0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R 2 =0.01-0.29) and OC (R 2 =0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM 25 . However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  20. Measurement techniques of exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace for low- and medium-income countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccuni, Fabio; Gagliardi, Diana; Ferrante, Riccardo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology offers many opportunities but there is still considerable uncertainty about the health risks and how to assess these.In the field of risk analysis for workers potentially exposed to nano-objects and their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) different methodological approaches to measure airborne NOAA have been proposed.This study proposes a systematic review of scientific literature on occupational exposure to NOAA in the workplace with the aim to identify techniques of exposure measurement to be recommended in low- and medium-income countries.We gathered scientific papers reporting techniques of NOAA exposure measurements in the workplace, we summarized the data for each eligible technique according to PRISMA guidelines, and we rated the quality of evidence following an adapted GRADE approach.We found 69 eligible studies to be included in qualitative synthesis: the majority of studies reported a moderate quality and only two studies demonstrated the use of a high quality exposure measurement technique.The review demonstrates that a basic exposure measurement, i.e. evidence for the presence or absence of NOAA in the workplace air, can be achieved with moderate (40 techniques) to high (2 techniques) quality; comprehensive exposure measurement, that allow the quantification of NOAA in the workplace, can be achieved with moderate (11 techniques) to high (2 techniques) quality.The findings of the study also allowed to finalize a list of requirements that must be fulfilled by an effective measurement technique (either basic or comprehensive) and to highlight the main weaknesses that need to be tackled for an effective affordability evaluation of measurement techniques to be recommended in low- and medium-income countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Artery Embolization: Effective Measures to Minimize Dose to the Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian, E-mail: christian.scheurig@charite.de [Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Powerski, Maciej J., E-mail: maciej.powerski@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Mueller, Johann-Christoph, E-mail: johann-christoph.mueller@charite.de [Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Kroencke, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Kroencke@klinikum-augsburg.de [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeEvaluation of patient radiation exposure during uterine artery embolization (UAE) and literature review to identify techniques minimizing required dose.MethodsA total of 224 of all included 286 (78 %) women underwent UAE according to a standard UAE-protocol (bilateral UAE from unilateral approach using a Rösch inferior mesenteric and a microcatheter, no aortography, no ovarian artery catheterization or embolization) and were analyzed for radiation exposure. Treatment was performed on three different generations of angiography systems: (I) new generation flat-panel detector (N = 108/151); (II) classical image amplifier and pulsed fluoroscopy (N = 79/98); (III) classical image amplifier and continuous fluoroscopy (N = 37/37). Fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose-area product (DAP) were documented. Whenever possible, the following dose-saving measures were applied: optimized source-object, source-image, and object-image distances, pulsed fluoroscopy, angiographic runs in posterior-anterior direction with 0.5 frames per second, no magnification, tight collimation, no additional aortography.ResultsIn a standard bilateral UAE, the use of the new generation flat-panel detector in group I led to a significantly lower DAP of 3,156 cGy × cm{sup 2} (544–45,980) compared with 4,000 cGy × cm{sup 2} (1,400–13,000) in group II (P = 0.033). Both doses were significantly lower than those of group III with 8,547 cGy × cm{sup 2} (3,324–35,729; P < 0.001). Other reasons for dose escalation were longer FT due to difficult anatomy or a large leiomyoma load, additional angiographic runs, supplementary ovarian artery embolization, and obesity.ConclusionsThe use of modern angiographic units with flat panel detectors and strict application of methods of radiation reduction lead to a significantly lower radiation exposure. Target DAP for UAE should be kept below 5,000 cGy × cm{sup 2}.

  2. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ''biological Bragg curve'' is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta, et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called "overkill".

  3. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (Author)

  4. Measuring attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to intimate partner violence: the ATT-RECOURSE scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Minh, Tran Hung; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2014-06-01

    Attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women are widely surveyed, but attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to IPV are understudied, despite their importance for intervention. Designed through qualitative research and administered in a probability sample of 1,054 married men and women 18 to 50 years in My Hao District, Vietnam, the ATT-RECOURSE scale measures men's and women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after exposure to physical IPV. Data were initially collected for nine items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with one random split-half sample (N 1 = 526) revealed a one-factor model with significant loadings (0.316-0.686) for six items capturing a wife's silence, informal recourse, and formal recourse. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the other random split-half sample (N 2 = 528) showed adequate fit for the six-item model and significant factor loadings of similar magnitude to the EFA results (0.412-0.669). For the six items retained, men consistently favored recourse more often than did women (52.4%-66.0% of men vs. 41.9%-55.2% of women). Tests for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender revealed one item with significant uniform DIF, and adjusting for this revealed an even larger gap in men's and women's attitudes, with men favoring recourse, on average, more than women. The six-item ATT-RECOURSE scale is reliable across independent samples and exhibits little uniform DIF by gender, supporting its use in surveys of men and women. Further methodological research is discussed. Research is needed in Vietnam about why women report less favorable attitudes than men regarding women's recourse after physical IPV.

  5. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet (UV radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  6. Membrane solubilization in erythrocytes as a measure of radiation exposure to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan Monem, A.; Ali, F.M.; Ali, S.A.; Al-thani, N.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Membrane solubilization and osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes irradiated in vivo with fast neutron fluences ranging from 10 6 to 5x10 7 n cm -2 using a 252 Cf source were measured instantaneously using a light scattering technique. The solubilization of erythrocyte membrane by a non-ionic detergent, octylglucoside (OG), was found to exhibit a two stage transition from vesicular form to mixed micellar form in the range of detergent concentrations 1.5-7.8 mM. The coexistence phase, vesicular/mixed micellar, was shifted towards higher detergent concentrations with increase in the neutron fluence, indicating increasing membrane resistance to the detergent and hence change in the natural membrane permeation properties. The technique shows an adequate sensitivity in detecting membrane damage in erythrocytes and has potential as a biophysical marker of radiation exposure. The osmotic fragility of irradiated erythrocytes shows a decreasing trend with increasing irradiation fluence measured directly and two weeks post-irradiation. Blood films photographed two weeks post-irradiation show developed elliptocytosis and crenated cell anaemia. (author)

  7. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive; Pielak, Rafal M

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  8. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application. PMID:29293664

  9. Measurement of radiation exposure in attendants of thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, Y. T.

    2012-01-01

    Patients treated with 131 I for differentiated thyroid cancer present radiological risk to relatives, occupational exposed workers and general public. Recently, the IAEA issued document K-9010241, 2010, which recommends that patient discharge from hospital must be based on the particular status of each patient, unlike the current criteria applied in Mexico based on the exposure rate at a 1 m distance. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters were used during a 15 day period to measure the effective dose received by 40 family caregivers of patients treated with 131 I, after their release from hospital 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia', Mexico. Relatives were classified in two groups, ambulatory (outpatients) and hospitalized (inpatients), according to the release mode of the patient. Measurements were performed for 20 family caregivers in each group. The effective dose received by all family members of outpatient and inpatient groups was found to be smaller that 5 mSv. In addition, 70 and 90% of inpatient and outpatient groups, respectively, received doses lower than 1 mSv. These data provide information which allow to give recommendations of possible modifications to current regulations in Mexico regarding discharge from hospital of patients treated with radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  10. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. → Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. → Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. → O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. → O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  11. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, Yutaka [College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-0880 (Japan); Takahashi, Kyoko, E-mail: ktaka@brs.nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-0880 (Japan); Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi [College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-0880 (Japan)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. {yields} Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. {yields} Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. {yields} O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. {yields} O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  12. Media Exposure in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children Is Associated with Multiple Measures of Self-Regulatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Tiffany G; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Contreras, Dawn; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Radesky, Jenny

    2018-05-01

    Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015). Screen media exposure was measured by daily screen media exposure (hr/d), television (TV) in the bedroom, frequency of background TV, and TV with meals (1 = rarely/never, 4 = frequently). Child self-regulatory behaviors were measured by the following: child ability to delay gratification, a standardized waiting paradigm; teacher-reported Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation; and parent-reported difficult temperament on the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Multivariate regression analyses modeled screen media exposure predicting each self-regulatory measure, adjusting for child age, sex, parent age, education, marital status, income-to-needs ratio, number of adults in household, parent depressive symptoms, and sensitivity. Children were aged 4.1 years (SD = 0.5), parents were aged 29.6 years (SD = 6.8), 48% had high school education or less, and 67% were married. Daily screen media exposure and background TV were associated with weaker observed self-regulation (β: -10.30 seconds for each hr/d media, -12.63 seconds for 1-point increase, respectively). Background TV and TV with meals were associated with greater parent-reported difficult temperament (β: 0.04 and 0.05 CBQ, respectively, for 1-point increase). Greater screen media exposure had small but significant associations with weaker observed and parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, self-regulatory behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directionality of associations.

  13. Electromagnetic field measurements in ULF-ELF-VLF [0.001 Hz─100 KHz] bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting the technological and scientific objectives of the MEM project. The MEM project has been activated in the INGV Observatory of L'Aquila to create in Central Italy a network of observatories in order to monitoring the electromagnetic signals in the frequency band [0.001 Hz–100 kHz]. Some examples of the instrumentation developed in the frame of the project are reported. An innovative technique, based on the wide band interferometry is proposed to obtain detailed information concerning the several detected electromagnetic sources. Moreover, data from each station will be elaborated to investigate different sectors as the structure of ground electric conductibility, the electromagnetic phenomena connected with seismic activity, the separation of the electromagnetic fields originated in the Earth's interior and the electromagnetic phenomena originated in the magnetosphere, in the ionosphere and in the Earth-ionosphere cavity.

  14. Validity of Questionnaire and Representativeness of Objective Methods for Measurements of Mechanical Exposures in Construction and Health Care Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Gjulem, Tonje; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-01-01

    To determine the criterion validity of a questionnaire on physical exposures compared to objective measurements at construction and health care sites and to examine exposure variation over several working days. Five hundred ninety-four construction and health care workers answered a baseline questionnaire. The daily activities (standing, moving, sitting, number of steps), postures (inclination of the arm and the trunk), and relative heart rate of 125 participants were recorded continuously over 3-4 working days. At the end of the first measurement day, the participants answered a second questionnaire (workday questionnaire). All objective activity measurements had significant correlations to their respective questions. Among health care workers, there were no correlations between postures and relative heart rate and the baseline questionnaire. The questionnaires overestimated the exposure durations. The highest explained variance in the adjusted models with self-reported variables were found for objectively measured sitting (R2 = 0.559) and arm inclination > 60° (R2 = 0.420). Objective measurements over several days showed a higher reliability compared to single day measurements. Questionnaires cannot provide an accurate description of mechanical exposures. Objective measurements over several days are recommended in occupations with varying tasks.

  15. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-Culture with Human Osteoblasts and Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Improve Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ehnert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs have been proposed as suitable option for cell-based therapies to support bone regeneration. In the bone environment, Ad-MSCs will receive stimuli from resident cells that may favor their osteogenic differentiation. There is recent evidence that this process can be further improved by extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs. Thus, the project aimed at (i investigating whether co-culture conditions of human osteoblasts (OBs and Ad-MSCs have an impact on their proliferation and osteogenic differentiation; (ii whether this effect can be further improved by repetitive exposure to two specific ELF-PEMFs (16 and 26 Hz; (iii and the effect of these ELF-PEMFs on human osteoclasts (OCs. Osteogenic differentiation was improved by co-culturing OBs and Ad-MSCs when compared to the individual mono-cultures. An OB to Ad-MSC ratio of 3:1 had best effects on total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (AP activity, and matrix mineralization. Osteogenic differentiation was further improved by both ELF-PEMFs investigated. Interestingly, only repetitive exposure to 26 Hz ELF-PEMF increased Trap5B activity in OCs. Considering this result, a treatment with gradually increasing frequency might be of interest, as the lower frequency (16 Hz could enhance bone formation, while the higher frequency (26 Hz could enhance bone remodeling.

  17. How Questionnaires and Multimedia Measurements collected in the U.S. EPA’s Observational Human Exposure Measurement Studies Inform Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade, the U.S. EPA has conducted and/or funded numerous observational humanexposure measurement studies where questionnaires were administered to the study participants in addition tothe collection of multimedia measurements. Questionnaire responses provide ancillar...

  18. The antiproliferative effects of progestins in T47D breast cancer cells are tempered by progestin induction of the ETS transcription factor Elf5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, H N; Kalyuga, M; Cowley, M J; Alles, M C; Lee, H J; Caldon, C E; Blazek, K; Kaplan, W; Musgrove, E A; Daly, R J; Naylor, M J; Graham, J D; Clarke, C L; Ormandy, C J

    2010-07-01

    Prolactin and progesterone act together to regulate mammary alveolar development, and both hormones have been implicated in breast cancer initiation and progression. Here we show that Elf5, a prolactin-induced ETS transcription factor that specifies the mammary secretory cell lineage, is also induced by progestins in breast cancer cells via a direct mechanism. To define the transcriptional response to progestin elicited via Elf5, we made an inducible Elf5 short hairpin-RNA knock-down model in T47D breast cancer cells and used it to prevent the progestin-induction of Elf5. Functional analysis of Affymetrix gene expression data using Gene Ontologies and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed enhancement of the progestin effects on cell cycle gene expression. Cell proliferation assays showed a more efficacious progestin-induced growth arrest when Elf5 was kept at baseline levels. These results showed that progestin induction of Elf5 expression tempered the antiproliferative effects of progestins in T47D cells, providing a further mechanistic link between prolactin and progestin in the regulation of mammary cell phenotype.

  19. Human papilloma virus (HPV) E7-mediated attenuation of retinoblastoma (Rb) induces hPygopus2 expression via Elf-1 in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzenov, Youlian R; Andrews, Phillip G; Voisey, Kim; Popadiuk, Paul; Xiong, Jieying; Popadiuk, Catherine; Kao, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of cervical cancer. In this study, we provide evidence for the human Pygopus (hPygo)2 gene as a cellular biomarker for HPV-related disease. In a tumor microarray of cervical cancer progression, hPygo2 levels were greater in high-grade lesions and squamous cell carcinomas than in normal epithelia. Similarly, hPygo2 mRNA and protein levels were greater in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells relative to uninfected primary cells. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of HPV-E7 increased whereas E74-like factor (Elf)-1 RNAi decreased association of Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor with the hPygo2 promoter in cervical cancer cell lines. Transfection of dominant-active Rb inhibited Elf-1-dependent activation of hPygo2, whereas Elf-1 itself increased hPygo2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Rb repressed hPygo2 by inhibiting Elf-1 at the Ets-binding site in the hPygo2 promoter. These results suggested that abrogation of Rb by E7 resulted in derepression of Elf-1, which in turn stimulated expression of hPygo2. Thus, initiation of hPygo2 expression by Elf-1 was required for proliferation of cervical cancer cells and its expression therefore may act as a surrogate marker for dysplasia. ©2012 AACR.

  20. Exposure to engineered nanoparticles: Model and measurements for accident situations in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Tobias; Hellweg, Stefanie; Juraske, Ronnie; Luechinger, Norman A; Wang, Jing; Fierz, Martin

    2012-03-15

    In the life cycle of engineered nanoparticles (ENP), their manufacturing requires particular attention because of unwanted potential ENP emissions to workplaces. We simulated three scenarios of equipment failure during gas phase production of nanoparticles in a laboratory. The emission plume of nanoparticles was tracked with high spatial and temporal resolution by 10 measurement devices. While under normal production conditions, no elevated ENP concentrations were observed, worst case scenarios led to homogeneous indoor ENP concentrations of up to 10(6)cm(-3) in a 300m(3) production room after only 60s. The fast dispersal in the room was followed by an exponential decrease in number concentration after the emission event. Under conditions like those observed - rapid dispersal and good mixing - a single measurement device alone can provide valuable information for an ENP exposure assessment. A one-box model adequately reflected measured number concentrations (r(2)>0.99). The ENP emission rates to the workplace were estimated between 2.5·10(11) and 6·10(12)s(-1) for the three emission scenarios. The worst case emission rate at the production zone was also estimated at 2·10(13)s(-1) with a stoichiometric calculation based on the precursor input, density and particle size. ENP intake fractions were 3.8-5.1·10(-4) inhaled ENP per produced ENP in the investigated setting. These could only be substantially lowered by leaving the production room within a few minutes after the emission event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measures to reduce occupational radiation exposure in PET facilities from nurses' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Keiko; Takahashi, Juri; Mochiduki, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with the increase in the number of institutions having PET facilities, the number of nurse working in these facilities has also increased, and the issue of occupational radiation exposure has assumed ever greater importance. In our clinic, since nurses have started to administer FDG intravenous injections, their annual radiation exposure has amounted to 4.8 - 7.1 mSv. To reduce their annual radiation exposure to less than 5 mSv, we identified sources of increased exposure and considered countermeasures based on this information. By implementing countermeasures such as improvements in daily working conditions and ways to avoid various troubles, it was possible to reduce the annual radiation exposure of all nurses to less than 5 mSv. Our experience demonstrates that to provide a working environment with a minimum of occupational radiation exposure, educational training and enhancement of knowledge and technical skills are vital. (author)

  2. MR signal-fat-fraction analysis and T2* weighted imaging measure BAT reliably on humans without cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstila, Milja; Pesola, Marko; Saari, Teemu; Koskensalo, Kalle; Raiko, Juho; Borra, Ronald J H; Nuutila, Pirjo; Parkkola, Riitta; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is compositionally distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) in terms of triglyceride and water content. In adult humans, the most significant BAT depot is localized in the supraclavicular area. Our aim is to differentiate brown adipose tissue from white adipose tissue using fat T2* relaxation time mapping and signal-fat-fraction (SFF) analysis based on a commercially available modified 2-point-Dixon (mDixon) water-fat separation method. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can reliably measure BAT regardless of the cold-induced metabolic activation, with BAT having a significantly higher water and iron content compared to WAT. The supraclavicular area of 13 volunteers was studied on 3T PET-MRI scanner using T2* relaxation time and SFF mapping both during cold exposure and at ambient temperature; and 18 F-FDG PET during cold exposure. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined semiautomatically in the supraclavicular fat depot, subcutaneous WAT and muscle. The supraclavicular fat depot (assumed to contain BAT) had a significantly lower SFF and fat T2* relaxation time compared to subcutaneous WAT. Cold exposure did not significantly affect MR-based measurements. SFF and T2* values measured during cold exposure and at ambient temperature correlated inversely with the glucose uptake measured by 18 F-FDG PET. Human BAT can be reliably and safely assessed using MRI without cold activation and PET-related radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muelhopt, Sonja; Paur, H-R [Institute for Technical Chemistry, Thermal Waste Treatment Division, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, 76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Diabate, S; Weiss, C [Institute for Toxicology and Genetics, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, 76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Krebs, T [VITROCELL Systems GmbH, 79183, Waldkirch (Germany)], E-mail: muelhopt@itc-tab.fzk.de

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL (registered) system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

  4. Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muelhopt, Sonja; Paur, H-R; Diabate, S; Weiss, C; Krebs, T

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL (registered) system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

  5. Measuring lifetime stress exposure and protective factors in life course research on racial inequality and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer; Jacquez, Farrah; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in better understanding how social factors contribute to racial disparities in health, including birth outcomes. A recent emphasis in this context has been on identifying the effects of stress exposure and protective factors experienced over the entire lifetime. Yet despite repeated calls for a life course approach to research on this topic, very few studies have actually assessed how stressors and protective factors occurring over women's lives relate to birth outcomes. We discuss this issue here by describing how challenges in the measurement of lifetime stress exposure and protective factors have prevented researchers from developing an empirically-based life course perspective on health. First, we summarize prevailing views on racial inequality and birth outcomes; second, we discuss measurement challenges that exist in this context; and finally, we describe both new tools and needed tools for assessing lifetime stress exposure and suggest opportunities for integrating information on stress exposure and psychosocial protective factors. We conclude that more studies are needed that integrate information about lifetime stress exposures and the protective factors that promote resilience against such exposures to inform policy and practice recommendations to reduce racial disparities in birth outcomes.

  6. Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. Proceedings of the second ELFE workshop on Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hose, N.; Frois, B.; Guichon, P.A.M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee; Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Van de Wiele, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France). Division de Recherche Experimentale

    1996-07-01

    The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project(which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser) as well as the development of the detectors. The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. (author)

  7. Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. Proceedings of the second ELFE workshop on Hadronic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hose, N.; Frois, B.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Pire, B.; Van de Wiele, J.

    1996-01-01

    The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project (which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser) as well as the development of the detectors. The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. (author)

  8. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people; Presentacion del proyecto MobiKids: Tecnologias de la comunicacion, exposiciones ambientales y riesgo de tumores cerebrales en gente joven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-07-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  9. Differences in Lipid Measurements by Antiretroviral Regimen Exposure in Cohorts from Asia and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit C. Achhra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the mean differences in routinely measured lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to exposure to different combination antiretroviral regimens in Asian (n=2051 and Australian (predominantly Caucasian, n=794 cohorts. The regimen was defined as at least 3 antiretroviral drugs with at least 2 nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NRTIs and either of at least one protease inhibitor (PI or non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NNRTIs. We categorised cART regimens as: NRTIs as tenofovir based or not; NNRTIs as nevirapine or efavirenz (but not both; and PI as atazanavir based or not. We found that the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on lipids in Asian and Australian cohorts was only different by cohort for total cholesterol (P for interaction between regimen and cohort: 0.05. The differences in total cholesterol were however small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Overall, tenofovir with nevirapine or atazanavir was associated with the most favorable lipids, while the PI regimens without tenofovir and atazanavir were associated with least favorable lipids. We conclude that the impact of various ART regimens on lipids is largely similar in Asian and Australian cohorts and that the newer drugs such as tenofovir and atazanavir are likely to provide similar benefit in terms of lipid profiles in both populations.

  10. Compilation of 1989 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Tabs C-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    studies (wetland flora and5 slime molds) are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Past compilations, executive summaries, and...pp. plus appendixes. 2. Goodman, E.; Greenebaum; B. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Slime Mold Studies--Final Report. IT...analysis of 1986 nests indicated that 0he 6.0 mm diameters were common, and because it was feared that 5.5 mm boies would skew the sex ratio in favor of

  11. ELF/VLF wave propagation at subauroral latitudes: Conjugate observation between the ground and Van Allen Probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez‐Calderon, C.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Ozaki, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 6 (2016), s. 5384-5393 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : QP * conjugate event * VLF/ELF * propagation * time delay * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA022264/full

  12. Evaluation of the effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF on survival of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Istiaque

    2013-12-01

    In summary, the growth rate of the irradiated S. aureus bacteria is affected by radiation of particular parameters, thus revealing resonant effects induced by the applied radiation. The decreased CFU values in all irradiated samples compared to control samples (non-exposed were observed. Findings provide important insight towards selecting the optimal parameters of ELF PEMF for possible treatment of infected tissue and thus, wound healing promotion.

  13. Compilation of 1993 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs G-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    146 Appendix I ................. 229 Element 5 - Movement Patterns of Dragonfly Naiads ..................... 235 Element 6 - Leaf Litter ...compared to a random distribution of the data set. S - shredder invertebrates; those that feed on large leaf fragments by shredding holes in this leaf ...differences in movement patterns attributable to E.L.F. 9 effects. This Element was deleted from our studies in 1990. Element 6 - Leaf Litter Processing Fresh

  14. On the Method of Investigating Human Exposure to Nonuniform Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kenichi; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Fujinami, Hideo; Shigemitsu, Tsukasa

    Regarding compliance testing with existing guidelines on human exposure to ELF (extremely low frequency) magnetic fields, the nonuniformity of the fields has been one of the major concerns since guideline-level exposures are generally encountered in the direct vicinity of magnetic field sources such as electric power facilities and electric appliances. According to the guidelines, when the measured maximum magnetic fields exceed the specified field level, induced currents inside human bodies are to be investigated to check their conformity. However, this calculation still needs verification and requires massive computational resources, which are not readily applicable under practical exposure conditions. Therefore, a simple and relevant method of assessing nonuniform magnetic field exposure is highly desirable. In this paper, a method of obtaining an equivalent uniform magnetic field using a coefficient (the normalized induction factor) is investigated using a numerical calculation of induced current in anatomically correct human models. In addition, to assess the obtained coefficient easily, a simple method using a spherical model was proposed.

  15. A Comparison of Exposure Control Procedures in CAT Systems Based on Different Measurement Models for Testlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Aimee M.; Dodd, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This study compared several exposure control procedures for CAT systems based on the three-parameter logistic testlet response theory model (Wang, Bradlow, & Wainer, 2002) and Masters' (1982) partial credit model when applied to a pool consisting entirely of testlets. The exposure control procedures studied were the modified within 0.10 logits…

  16. Effects on g2/m phase cell cycle distribution and aneuploidy formation of exposure to a 60 Hz electromagnetic field in combination with ionizing radiation or hydrogen peroxide in l132 nontumorigenic human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hee; Yoon, Hye Eun; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether exposure to the combination of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF; 60 Hz, 1 mT or 2 mT) with a stress factor, such as ionizing radiation (IR) or H2O2, results in genomic instability in non-tumorigenic human lung epithelial L132 cells. To this end, the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells and aneuploid cells were examined. Exposure to 0.5 Gy IR or 0.05 mM H2O2 for 9 h resulted in the highest levels of aneuploidy; however, no cells were observed in the subG1 phase, which indicated the absence of apoptotic cell death. Exposure to an ELF-MF alone (1 mT or 2 mT) did not affect the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells, aneuploid cells, or the populations of cells in the subG1 phase. Moreover, when cells were exposed to a 1 mT or 2 mT ELF-MF in combination with IR (0.5 Gy) or H2O2 (0.05 mM), the ELF-MF did not further increase the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells or aneuploid cells. These results suggest that ELF-MFs alone do not induce either G2/M arrest or aneuploidy, even when administered in combination with different stressors.

  17. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  18. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wu, Honglu; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET g or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ‘‘biological Bragg curve’’ is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called “overkill”. F. A. Cucinotta, I. Plante, A. L. Ponomarev, and M. Y. Kim, Nuclear Interactions in Heavy Ion Transport and Event

  19. Developing a method for the retrospective estimation of radon exposure from in vivo measurements of 210Pb activity in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, R.J.; Johnston, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which has been linked to lung cancer in occupationally exposed uranium mine workers. Where monitoring of an individual's exposure to radon and radon progeny has not occurred or is incomplete, it may be possible to determine this exposure retrospectively by the measurement of the long lived decay product 210 Pb which accumulates in the bones of exposed individuals. This paper describes a method being developed at the whole body monitor (WBM) facility of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to estimate the time integrated exposure to radon over a period of up to several decades from the in vivo measurements of 210 Pb activity in the knee of human subjects. Initial work has concentrated on characterising the WBM facility for this work using artificial bone phantoms. This project will serve as a test of the feasibility of the method before undertaking further studies on human subjects

  20. Respiratory outcomes of ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) as a surrogate measure of near-roadway exposures among bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Youn; Gilbreath, Susan; Barakatt, Edward

    2017-02-08

    Studies have shown a consistent association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. In particular, exposure can be high for cyclists who travel near roadways. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between short-term exposure of near-road traffic emissions and acute changes in lung function among individuals who frequently bike in the Sacramento and Davis areas in California. Ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) was used as a surrogate for near-roadway exposure in this study since the main source of this pollutant is from motor vehicle exhaust. Thirty-two bicyclists were recruited and completed two rides on separate days during the study period of March-June, 2008. One ride was on a high traffic route paralleling a section of Interstate 80 (I-80)/Interstate Business 80 (I-80B), and a second one was on a low traffic route, such as bike paths away from major highways. The participant's lung function was measured before and after each ride, and UFPM exposure was measured during the rides using a condensation particle counter (CPC). In the final linear mixed-effect model using median UFPM concentrations as the main exposure, we observed that lung function change (post-ride minus baseline measurements) shifted in the negative direction. Lung function changed by 216 mL for FVC and 168 mL for FEV 1 , respectively, for an interquartile range (IQR: 12,225 to 36,833 number of particles/cm 3 ) increase of UFPM concentration after adjusting for other covariates of age, sex, wind direction, and day of the week. This study found significant associations between increased levels of UFPM concentrations as a proxy for near road traffic pollution, and decrements in lung function measurements. Our results are related to short-term exposures, and the long-term health effects of cycling near heavy traffic require further research. Our study suggests the need to reduce traffic pollution, particularly near roads. Cyclists

  1. Performance of methods for measurement of exposure to inorganic acids in workplace air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Dietmar; Howe, Alan

    2006-01-01

    BGIA has organised round robins for the analysis of samples of inorganic acids in workplace air for a number of years. Test samples of the volatile acids HCl and HNO(3) are collected from a standard atmosphere and samples of the non-volatile acids H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4) are prepared by spiking filters with acid solution. The last two round robins have also covered the sampling of volatile acids, with up to 15 "active" participants able to visit the test facility in Dresden and take samples themselves. For other "passive" participants, BGIA takes samples from the same atmosphere. The acid concentrations generated lie between 0,1 and 1 times the German limit values for HCl and HNO(3). The results for the last round robin showed no significant difference between the performance of the "active" and "passive" participants. The participant means were in good agreement with the theoretical concentrations and the quality control measurements. For "active" participants RSDs were between 7% and 14% and for all participants between 8% and 16%. The round robin for the non-volatile acids showed similar results. The participant means were again in excellent agreement with the quality control measurements and RSDs were between 12% and 15%. The BGIA round robins have demonstrated the proficiency of laboratories measuring exposure to inorganic acids in air. However, concerns remain about the performance of published methods. It has shown that the sampling efficiency of sorbent tubes falls off with increasing particle size and hence silica gel tube methods may give low results for acid mists. Another issue with silica gel tubes is that a substantial proportion of the sample can be collected on the glass wool plugs that retain the sorbent. This can be up to 50% for HCl and 100% for HNO(3). Hence, low results may be obtained if the glass wool plugs are discarded. Similarly, methods for volatile inorganic acids that use a pre-filter to remove particulates usually overlook the fact

  2. Children’s Exposures to Pyrethroid Insecticides at Home: A Review of Data Collected in Published Exposure Measurement Studies Conducted in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha K. Morgan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 published articles from observational exposure measurement studies conducted from 1999 to present that examined children’s (5 months to 17 years of age exposures to pyrethroids in media including floor wipes, floor dust, food, air, and/or urine collected at homes in the United States. At least seven different pyrethroids were detected in wipe, dust, solid food, and indoor air samples. Permethrin was the most frequently detected (>50% pyrethroid in these media, followed by cypermethrin (wipes, dust, and food. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA, a urinary metabolite of several pyrethroids, was the most frequently (≥67% detected pyrethroid biomarker. Results across studies indicate that these children were likely exposed to several pyrethroids, but primarily to permethrin and cypermethrin, from several sources including food, dust, and/or on surfaces at residences. Dietary ingestion followed by nondietary ingestion were the dominate exposure routes for these children, except in homes with frequent pesticide applications (dermal followed by dietary ingestion. Urinary 3-PBA concentration data confirm that the majority of the children sampled were exposed to one or more pyrethroids.

  3. Children’s Exposures to Pyrethroid Insecticides at Home: A Review of Data Collected in Published Exposure Measurement Studies Conducted in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marsha K.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 published articles from observational exposure measurement studies conducted from 1999 to present that examined children’s (5 months to 17 years of age) exposures to pyrethroids in media including floor wipes, floor dust, food, air, and/or urine collected at homes in the United States. At least seven different pyrethroids were detected in wipe, dust, solid food, and indoor air samples. Permethrin was the most frequently detected (>50%) pyrethroid in these media, followed by cypermethrin (wipes, dust, and food). 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a urinary metabolite of several pyrethroids, was the most frequently (≥67%) detected pyrethroid biomarker. Results across studies indicate that these children were likely exposed to several pyrethroids, but primarily to permethrin and cypermethrin, from several sources including food, dust, and/or on surfaces at residences. Dietary ingestion followed by nondietary ingestion were the dominate exposure routes for these children, except in homes with frequent pesticide applications (dermal followed by dietary ingestion). Urinary 3-PBA concentration data confirm that the majority of the children sampled were exposed to one or more pyrethroids. PMID:23066409

  4. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 (micro)m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features

  5. A panel study of airborne particulate matter concentration and impaired cardiopulmonary function in young adults by two different exposure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Bloom, Michael S.; Nelson, Erik J.; Liu, Echu; Han, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yimin; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Komppula, Mika; Leskinen, Ari; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Roponen, Marjut; Jalava, Pasi; Bai, Zhipeng; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to clarify the correlation of individual exposure measurements and PM2.5 measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites in short-term panel study settings. To achieve this goal, 30 young, healthy adult participants were assigned to three groups with 4 samplers in each group to collect individual exposures during four weekends in March 2016. Participants also completed cardiopulmonary function tests during the same periods. For comparison, ambient air pollution data were obtained from the Air Pollution Surveillance Network in Guangzhou, China. The 8-h ambient pollutant averages and group sampler concentrations were used as separate indicators of air pollution exposure. Results showed that the 8-h mean concentration of personal PM2.5 exposure was 65.09 ± 22.18 μg/m3, which was 24.34 μg/m3 statistically higher than the ambient concentrations over the same period (p urban areas may experience reduced lung function (lower MMEF), even after just 8 h of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10.

  6. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  7. Predicting Return of Fear Following Exposure Therapy With an Implicit Measure of Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Vasey, Michael W.; Harbaugh, Casaundra N.; Buffington, Adam G.; Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fea...

  8. Systematic Review of Control Measures to Reduce Hazardous Drug Exposure for Health Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crickman, Rachael; Finnell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. This review presents evidence-based strategies to mitigate the harmful exposures. These include engineering controls, full use of personal protective equipment, medical and environmental monitoring, hazard identification, and the need for a comprehensive hazardous drug control program that includes education and training for health care workers.

  9. Prevalence of Hand-transmitted Vibration Exposure among Grass-cutting Workers using Objective and Subjective Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmir, N. A.; Yahya, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Extended exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from vibrating machine is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms of occupational disease related to hand disorder. The present case study is to determine the prevalence and correlation of significant subjective as well as objective variables that induce to hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among hand-held grass-cutting workers in Malaysia. Thus, recommendations are made for grass-cutting workers and grass maintenance service management based on findings. A cross sectional study using adopted subjective Hand Arm Vibration Exposure Risk Assessment (HAVERA) questionnaire from Vibration Injury Network on hand disorder signs and symptoms was distributed to a sample of one hundred and sixty eight male workers from grass and turf maintenance industry that use vibrating machine as part of their work. For objective measure, hand-transmitted vibration measurement was collected on site during operation by the following ISO 5349-1, 2001. Two groups were identified in this research comprising of high exposure group and low-moderate exposure group. Workers also gave information about their personal identification, social history, workers’ health, occupational history and machine safety inspection. There was positive HAVS symptoms relationship between the low-moderate exposure group and high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio (PR) was considered high for experiencing white colour change at fingers and fingers go numb which are 3.63 (1.41 to 9.39) and 4.24 (2.18 to 8.27), respectively. The estimated daily vibration exposure, A(8) differs between 2.1 to 20.7 ms-2 for right hand while 2.7 to 29.1 ms-2 for left hand. The subjects claimed that the feel of numbness at left hand is much stronger compared to right hand. The results suggest that HAVS is diagnosed in Malaysia especially in agriculture sector. The A(8) indicates that the exposure value is more than exposure limit value

  10. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  11. Language Learner Beliefs In An English As A Lingua Franca (ELF Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Naghdipour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of learner-centered approaches to second or foreign language teaching, the research on learners’ beliefs or what learners bring into the classroom in terms of their prior knowledge and experiences, their expectations, and their attitudes towards different aspects of language learning has gained momentum. Learners may, for example, develop core beliefs about language learning that undergo change or otherwise resist change when moving to a new learning context. This study examines overseas Iranian undergraduate students’ (n = 160 beliefs about language learning in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF context and investigates the impact of the old and new learning environments on shaping or affecting these beliefs. The data form a survey and a semi-structured interview revealed that the students’ previous learning experiences and the socio-political factors of the old learning context affected the shaping of the trajectory of their belief development. The results also suggested that the new learning environment hardly affected the students’ core beliefs about language learning and in some cases even consolidated them. The paper concludes with a discussion of the main findings and offers several implications for further research and practice.

  12. ELF-VLF atmospheric waveforms under night-time ionospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sukhorukov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tweek atmospherics generated by lightning discharges and propagated in the night-time Earth-ionosphere waveguide, have often very pronounced dispersive features near the first few waveguide cut-off frequencies ( fcm~m\\dot{s} fc1, fc 1~1.6–1.9 kHz, m=1, 2, . . . , , being very extended in time, and have rather large amplitudes of oscillations with periods corresponding to the narrow vicinity of the cut-off frequencies. In this paper an analytical approach is developed to describe the waveform of distant tweeks. It is based on the solving of the Maxwell equations in two qualitatively different regions, whose changes are related in the first instance to the changes in the relative magnitudes of the displacement current and components of the conduction currents, and the following asymptotic matching of the solutions in the transitional region. The analytical night-time waveguide model accounts for both anisotropy and vertical inhomogeneity of the low ionosphere. The model is valid for upper ELF – lower VLF range and is well suitable for the analysis of the QTEm modes in the cut-off frequency regions, which determine the most important part of the tweek spectra and tweek amplitudes. The influence of the different ionospheric heights on the tweek characteristics is determined. The efficiency of the tweek generation by cloud-to-cloud discharge is also evaluated.

  13. ELF-VLF Communications through the Earth Project report for calendar year 1984. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H.M.; Burke, G.J.; Didwall, E.M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constant of the rock, the noise characteristics, and the modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  14. Lead in enamel and saliva, dental caries and the use of enamel biopsies for measuring past exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudevold, F; Aasenden, R; Srinivasian, B N; Bakhos, Y

    1977-10-01

    Enamel biopsies taken from schoolchildren in a community where exposure to lead was a health hazard were analyzed for lead and fluoride. The children with high enamel lead had significantly higher caries scores than the children with low enamel lead, in spite of the fact that the high lead group also was higher in enamel fluoride. There was no increase in enamel lead with age. The lead in saliva was only a fraction of that in blood. Infants with lead poisoning showed higher saliva lead than a normal infant. The use of the lead in enamel biopsies and in saliva for measuring exposure to lead is discussed.

  15. Measurement of genotoxic air pollutant exposures in street vendors and school children in and near Bangkok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Navasumrit, Panida; Settachan, Daam; Tuntaviroon, Jantamas; Buthbumrung, Nantaporn; Sharma, Suman

    2005-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on human health are a great concern, particularly in big cities with severe traffic problems such as Bangkok, Thailand. In this study, exposure to genotoxic compounds in ambient air was studied by analysis of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene through direct measurement of concentrations in air as well as through the use of different biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) for PAHs and urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) for benzene. The study was conducted in various susceptible groups of the population with different occupations in 5 traffic-congested areas of Bangkok, as well as in primary school children. The level of total PAHs on the main roads at various sites ranged from 7.10 to 83.04 ng/m 3 , while benzene levels ranged from 16.35 to 49.25 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels in nearby temples, the control sites, ranged from 1.67 to 3.04 ng/m 3 total PAHs and 10.16 to 16.25 ppb benzene. Street vendors selling clothes were exposed to 16.07 ± 1.64 ng/m 3 total PAHs and 21.97 ± 1.50 ppb benzene, levels higher than in monks and nuns residing in nearby temples (5.34 ± 0.65 ng/m 3 total PAHs and 13.69 ± 0.77 ppb benzene). Grilled-meat vendors in the same area were exposed to both total PAHs and benzene at even higher levels, possibly due to additional formation of PAHs during the grilling of meat (34.27 ± 7.02 ng/m 3 total PAHs; 27.49 ± 2.72 ppb benzene). At the end of the workday, urinary 1-OHP levels in street vendors (0.12 and 0.15 μmol/mol creatinine in clothes and grilled-meat vendors, respectively) were significantly higher than in controls (0.04 μmol/mol creatinine; P 3 and 4.71 ± 0.25 ppb, respectively, higher than those to which children living outside the city were exposed (1.25 ± 0.24 ng/m 3 total PAHs; 2.10 ± 0.16 ppb benzene). At the end of the school day, levels of urinary 1-OHP and t,t-MA were significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) in

  16. Measurement of internal radiation exposure among decontamination workers in villages near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nihei, Masahiko; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu; Kato, Shigeaki; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Matsumura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo; Shibuya, Kenji; Kami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Taro

    2013-10-01

    Decontamination workers may face a high risk of exposure to internal irradiation through inhalation during decontamination activities; there is, however, little previous research on the levels of internal contamination during decontamination procedures. The authors reviewed the medical records, including whole body counter measurements, of decontamination workers in villages near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to assess their levels of internal radiation exposure. In total, 83 decontamination workers were enrolled in this study. They were regularly engaged in decontamination activities in highly contaminated areas where surface 137Cs deposition density was over 100 kBq m-2. The present study showed low levels of internal exposure among the decontamination workers near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The cesium burdens of all the decontamination workers were below detection limits. They had reported no acute health problems. The resuspension of radioactive materials may cause minimal internal contamination during decontamination activities.

  17. Measuring anticholinergic exposure in patients with dementia: A comparative study of nine anticholinergic risk scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; Blanco-Silvente, Lidia; Castells, Xavier; Capellà, Dolors; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2018-05-01

    To describe the prevalence and concordance of anticholinergic exposure according to 9 published scales, to quantify the relative weight of the drug subtypes included in each scale, and to identify clinical variables related to anticholinergic exposure. Observational and cross-sectional study using 5323 cases of dementia diagnosed in the 7 hospitals of the public health care system of the Health Region of Girona (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 and registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona (ReDeGi). We used the Pharmacy database that includes all the drugs prescribed by specialist and primary care physicians and dispensed in pharmacies. We calculated the anticholinergic exposure using the scoring rules of each scale. Age, gender, place of residence, dementia subtype, Clinical Dementia Rating score, Mini-Mental Status Examination score, and Blessed Dementia Rating Score at the moment of dementia diagnose were retrieved from the ReDeGi. Prevalence of the annual anticholinergic exposure ranged from 36.3% to 69.0% according to the different scales, the concordance among scales was poor to moderate, and the central nervous system drugs accounted the most for anticholinergic exposure. Being in a nursing home, having depressive symptoms, having a non-Alzheimer's dementia subtype, the number of drug treatments, and the severity of dementia were main determinants of anticholinergic exposure. There is a large difference in outcomes among the 9 anticholinergic risk scales. Clinicians and researchers should be aware of these differences when using these instruments in patients with dementia. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Calibration of nylon organic chemical integrative samplers and sentinel samplers for quantitative measurement of pulsed aquatic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-06-03

    Environmental exposures often occur through short, pulsed events; therefore, the ability to accurately measure these toxicologically-relevant concentrations is important. Three different integrative passive sampler configurations were evaluated under different flow and pulsed exposure conditions for the measurement of current-use pesticides (n=19), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (n=10), and personal care products (n=5) spanning a broad range of hydrophobicities (log Kow 1.5-7.6). Two modified POCIS-style samplers were investigated using macroporous nylon mesh membranes (35μm pores) and two different sorbent materials (i.e. Oasis HLB and Dowex Optipore L-493). A recently developed design, the Sentinel Sampler (ABS Materials), utilizing Osorb media enclosed within stainless steel mesh (145μm pores), was also investigated. Relatively high sampling rates (Rs) were achieved for all sampler configurations during the short eight-day exposure (4300-27mL/d). Under flow conditions, median Rs were approximately 5-10 times higher for POCIS-style samplers and 27 times higher for Sentinel Samplers, as compared to static conditions. The ability of samplers to rapidly measure hydrophobic contaminants may be a trade off with increased flow dependence. Analyte accumulation was integrative under pulsed and continuous exposures for POCIS-style samplers with mean difference between treatments of 11% and 33%; however, accumulation into Sentinel Samplers was more variable. Collectively, results show that reducing membrane limitations allows for rapid, integrative accumulation of a broad range of analytes even under pulsed exposures. As such, these sampler designs may be suitable for monitoring environmental substances that have short aquatic half-lives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methods to adjust for misclassification in the quantiles for the generalized linear model with measurement error in continuous exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yun; Tapsoba, Jean De Dieu; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-05-10

    In many biomedical studies, covariates of interest may be measured with errors. However, frequently in a regression analysis, the quantiles of the exposure variable are often used as the covariates in the regression analysis. Because of measurement errors in the continuous exposure variable, there could be misclassification in the quantiles for the exposure variable. Misclassification in the quantiles could lead to bias estimation in the association between the exposure variable and the outcome variable. Adjustment for misclassification will be challenging when the gold standard variables are not available. In this paper, we develop two regression calibration estimators to reduce bias in effect estimation. The first estimator is normal likelihood-based. The second estimator is linearization-based, and it provides a simple and practical correction. Finite sample performance is examined via a simulation study. We apply the methods to a four-arm randomized clinical trial that tested exercise and weight loss interventions in women aged 50-75 years. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Common behaviors alterations after extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Najafi Abedi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Naturally, the presence of electromagnetic waves in our living environment affects all components of organisms, particularly humans and animals, as the large part of their body consists of water. In the present study, we tried to investigate the relation between exposure to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and common behaviors such as body weight, food and water intake, anorexia (poor appetite), plasma glucose concentration, movement, rearing and sniffing in rats. For this purpose, rats were exposed to 40  Hz ELF-EMF once a day for 21 days, then at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after exposure, any changes in the above-mentioned items were assessed in the exposed rats and compared to the non-exposed group as control. Body weight of irradiated rats significantly increased only a week after exposure and decreased after that. No significant change was observed in food and water intake of irradiated rats compared to the control, and the anorexia parameter in the group exposed to ELF-EMF was significantly decreased at one and two weeks after irradiation. A week after exposure, the level of glucose was significantly increased but at other days these changes were not significant. Movements, rearing and sniffing of rats at day 1 after exposure were significantly decreased and other days these changes did not follow any particular pattern. However, the result of this study demonstrated that exposure to ELF-EMF can alter the normal condition of animals and may represent a harmful impact on behavior.

  1. Time-integrating radon gas measurements in domestic premises: comparison of short-, medium- and long-term exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Gillmore, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    To identify the most applicable technology for the short-term assessment of domestic radon levels, comparative assessments of a number of integrating detector types, including track-etch, electret and activated charcoal were undertaken. Thirty-four unremediated dwellings in a high-radon area were monitored using track-etch detectors exposed for one-month and three-month periods. In parallel, one-week measurements were made in the same homes at one-month intervals, using co-located track-etch, charcoal and electret detectors exposed simultaneously, while three of the homes were also monitored by continuous-sampling detectors at hourly intervals over extended periods. Calibration of dose-integrating devices against each other and against continuous-monitoring systems confirmed good responsivity and linearity. Although track-etch, charcoal and electret devices are suitable in principle for one-week measurements, zero-exposure offset and natural radon variability cause many one-week results to be equivocal, necessitating repetition of the measurement. One-week exposures can be reliable indicators in low-radon areas or for new properties, but in high-radon areas, the use of three-month exposures is indicated. This analysis also established confidence limits for short-term measurements

  2. Assessing whole body vibration exposure for use in epidemiological studies of back injuries: measurements, observations and self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, J; Trask, C; Chow, Y; Morrison, J B; Koehoorn, M; Teschke, K

    2012-01-01

    Improved assessment of whole body vibration exposure is needed for epidemiological studies investigating the causes of low back disorders. Vibration was measured on 54 worker-days in five heavy industries, with data collected on observed and self-reported driving conditions, demographics, and vehicle characteristics. Variables significant at p prediction of rms vibration level and 8-h equivalent vibration exposure. Vibration was measured, on average, for 205 min per work shift (SD 105). Means and standard deviations in m · s⁻² were: x-axis 0.35 (0.19); y-axis 0.34 (0.28); z-axis 0.54 (0.23); vector sum 0.90 (0.49); and 8-h equivalent vector sum 0.70 (0.37). The final three regression models retained only 2 or 3 of the 34 variables (driving speed (predict whole body vibration exposure from a number of observed or self-reported variables. This could eliminate the need for costly and time-consuming field measurements of WBV in epidemiological studies. Despite a large number of variables included in the model (34) and 54 worker-days of WBV measurement, the final models contained only two or three variables, and explained 60% of the variance. While this is an improvement over use of job title in epidemiological studies, it still leaves a considerable amount of WBV variance unexplained.

  3. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children's Observational Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that im...

  4. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Objectively measured secondhand smoke exposure and mental health in children: evidence from the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Ford, Tamsin; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Dockray, Samantha; Batty, G David

    2011-04-01

    To examine the association between objectively assessed secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and mental health in a representative sample of British children. Cross-sectional study. Community-based population sample from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Nine hundred one nonsmoking children (mean [SD] age, 8.3 [2.5] years). Exposure to SHS was determined from salivary cotinine level and self-report. Psychological distress assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Forty percent of the sample demonstrated high SHS exposure (cotinine level >0.70 ng/mL). Children with higher cotinine levels were more likely to live in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. Participants in the highest cotinine quartile (>0.70 ng/mL) had significantly higher total SDQ scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (age- and sex-adjusted mean difference = 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). There was evidence of a dose-response effect across the cotinine group (P trend = .001). Of the SDQ subscales, the strongest associations with cotinine levels emerged for hyperactivity and conduct disorder. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for possible confounders including social deprivation, single-parent status, body mass index, chronic illness, and physical activity. Objectively assessed SHS exposure was associated with poorer mental health among children.

  6. Epinephrine, DNA integrity and oxidative stress in workers exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) at 132 kV substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ravindra; Lakshmi, N K; Bhargava, S C; Ahuja, Y R

    2015-03-01

    There is apprehension about widespread use of electrical and electromagnetic gadgets which are supposed to emit electromagnetic radiations. Reports are controversy. These electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have considerable effect on endocrine system of exposed subjects. This study was focused to assess the possible bioeffects of extremely low-frequency (ELF)-EMFs on epinephrine level, DNA damage and oxidative stress in subjects occupationally exposed to 132 kV high-voltage substations. The blood sample of 142 exposed subjects and 151 non-exposed individuals was analyzed. Plasma epinephrine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay along with oxidative stress. Epinephrine levels of sub-groups showed mean concentration of 75.22  ±  1.46, 64.43  ±  8.26 and 48.47  ±  4.97 for high, medium and low exposed groups, respectively. DNA damage ranged between 1.69 µm and 9.91 µm. The oxidative stress levels showed significant increase. The individuals employed in the live-line procedures were found to be vulnerable for EM stress with altered epinephrine concentrations, DNA damage and increased oxidative stress.

  7. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Sima; Blanka Ferencova; Alon Warburg; Iva Rohousova; Petr Volf

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replaceme...

  8. ELF-VLF atmospheric waveforms under night-time ionospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sukhorukov

    Full Text Available Tweek atmospherics generated by lightning discharges and propagated in the night-time Earth-ionosphere waveguide, have often very pronounced dispersive features near the first few waveguide cut-off frequencies ( fcm~mdot{s} fc1, fc 1~1.6–1.9 kHz, m=1, 2, . . . , , being very extended in time, and have rather large amplitudes of oscillations with periods corresponding to the narrow vicinity of the cut-off frequencies. In this paper an analytical approach is developed to describe the waveform of distant tweeks. It is based on the solving of the Maxwell equations in two qualitatively different regions, whose changes are related in the first instance to the changes in the relative magnitudes of the displacement current and components of the conduction currents, and the following asymptotic matching of the solutions in the transitional region. The analytical night-time waveguide model accounts for both anisotropy and vertical inhomogeneity of the low ionosphere. The model is valid for upper ELF – lower VLF range and is well suitable for the analysis of the QTEm modes in the cut-off frequency regions, which determine the most important part of the tweek spectra and tweek amplitudes. The influence of the different ionospheric heights on the tweek characteristics is determined. The efficiency of the tweek generation by cloud-to-cloud discharge is also evaluated.

  9. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Sam; Calderon, Carolina; Valič, Blaž; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Verloock, Leen; Van den Bossche, Matthias; Gajšek, Peter; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin; Cardis, Elisabeth; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300Hz to 1MHz) as well as potential effects of IF

  10. The prospective relationship between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using a comprehensive work stressor measure for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerencsi, Karolina; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Prins, Martin; Kant, Ijmert

    2014-02-01

    The currently used instruments which measure the psychosocial work environment have been criticized. We analyzed the association between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using the Maastricht Cohort Study Work Stressor Score (MCS-WSS), a comprehensive measure which has been associated with work strain. At baseline 11,489 employees of the Maastricht Cohort Study were participating. This prospective cohort study started in 1998 in the Netherlands and includes a heterogeneous population of employees. The psychosocial work environment, cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease were measured with questionnaires at various time points during follow-up, the last follow-up was in 2008. For a subsample of employees, CVD extracted from medical records was available. The MCS-WSS consists of items from emotional demands, psychological demands, role clarity, career possibilities, working overtime, job insecurity, cognitive demands, skills discretion and decision authority. Each item has its own contribution in inducing work strain, represented by its own weighting factor. The association between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity was assessed with Cox regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and leisure physical activity. During a median follow-up of 49 months, 309 employees developed incident cardiovascular disease. Overall, no significant associations were found between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity. The results of this study indicate that high exposure to work stressors has no considerable impact on cardiovascular disease.

  11. Klucel™ EF and ELF polymers for immediate-release oral dosage forms prepared by melt extrusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.

  12. Infant With In Utero Ketamine Exposure: Quantitative Measurement of Residual Dosage in Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of ketamine exposure during late pregnancy detected by hair testing. We noted several clinical features in this case, including the infant being small for gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, remarkable hypo-tonia, and poor reflex responses. Although the mother denied the use of ketamine during the late stage of her pregnancy, significant amount of ketamine and norketamine was still found in hair samples (only 2 cm long and 25 mg from the infant.

  13. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is there a relation between extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases? A review of in vivo and in vitro experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simkó, Myrtill

    2012-11-15

    Possible health consequences of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have received considerable interest during the last decades. One area of concern is neurodegenerative diseases (NDD), where epidemiological evidence suggests a correlation between MF exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review is focussing on animal and in vitro studies employing ELF-MF exposures to see if there is mechanistic support for any causal connection between NDD and MF-exposure. The hypothesis is that ELF-MF exposure can promote inflammation processes and thus influence the progression of NDD. A firm conclusion regarding this hypothesis is difficult to draw based on available studies, since there is a lack of experimental studies that have addressed the question of ELF-MF exposure and NDD. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of the performed studies regarding, e.g., the exposure duration, the flux density, the biological endpoint and the cell type and the time point of investigation is substantial and makes conclusions difficult to draw. Nevertheless, the investigated evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that short-term MF-exposure causes mild oxidative stress (modest ROS increases and changes in antioxidant levels) and possibly activates anti-inflammatory processes (decrease in pro-inflammatory and increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines). The few studies that specifically have investigated NDDs or NDD relevant end-points show that effects of exposure are either lacking or indicating positive effects on neuronal viability and differentiation. In both immune and NDD relevant studies, experiments with realistic long-term exposures are lacking. Importantly, consequences of a possible long-lasting mild oxidative stress are thus not investigated. In summary, the existing experimental studies are not adequate in answering if there is a causal relationship between MF-exposure and AD, as suggested in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  15. Diffusion measures indicate fight exposure-related damage to cerebral white matter in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, W; Mahmoud, S Y; Sakaie, K; Banks, S J; Lowe, M J; Phillips, M; Modic, M T; Bernick, C

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this