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Sample records for eleven blood group

  1. Eleven-dimensional CJS supergravity and the D'Auria-Fre group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; Minning, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Salgado, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl

    2008-02-28

    An action for eleven-dimensional standard supergravity genuinely invariant under the D'Auria-Fre group is proposed. The construction of the action is carried out through a generalization of the Stelle-West-Grignani-Nardelli formalism. The action is genuinely invariant under this group without the need to impose auxiliary conditions such as a torsion-free condition.

  2. Blood transfusion trigger in burns: a four-year retrospective analysis of blood transfusions in eleven burn centers in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, G.; Anderson, R.; Lee, J.; Slesarenko, S.; Nagaychuk, V.; Grigorieva, T.; Kozinec, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary One focus of improvement of burn care in Ukraine was the management of blood loss and blood transfusions in burn patients. The aim of this project was to analyze blood transfusion triggers in burn patients and outcomes at eleven major burn centers in Ukraine. This multicenter retrospective study reviewed four years of data on blood-transfused burn patients admitted to eleven major burn centers in Ukraine. Data analyzed included: demographics, characteristics of the burns, complications of burn injury, triggers for blood transfusions and outcomes. A total of 928 burn patients who received 2,693 blood transfusions from 11 major burn centers over a four-year period, were studied. Regardless of the total body surface area (TBSA) that was burned, blood transfusions were administered with a hemoglobin (Hb) trigger value of around 9 g/dL. Roughly one third (30.5%) of all transfusions were given in patients with a TBSA ≤ 10%. We demonstrated that Ukrainian doctors were using the same Hb trigger for blood transfusions for all Ukrainian burn patients, which suggested a need to change blood transfusion policy. PMID:27279803

  3. BLOOD GROUPS AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. Lakshmi; Puttaram, Sowbhagya; Rao, B.S. Sridhara Rama; Khanna, Sumant; Channabasavanna, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY An analysis was made of the distribution of various blood groups in subjects with affective disorders. A group of healthy subjects served as controls. The distribution showed lack of association of affective disorder and any blood groups.

  4. [Genetic polymorphism of AcP, EsD, 6-PGD and GPT in eleven ethnic groups of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J J; Tan, Q A; Zhao, X X; Du, R F

    1989-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of red cell acid phosphatase (AcP), Esterase D (EsD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) and Glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in eleven ethnic groups of China was studied by starch gel electrophoresis. The results of 2272 tested showed that the gene frequencies of AcPB1 in Dong, Hui, Bai, Tujia, Miao, Yi, Tibetan, Man, Yao, Hani, Buyi, etc. were 0.7835, 0.7958, 0.8137, 0.7750, 0.7624, 0.8038, 0.8075, 0.8035, 0.7725, 0.6488, 0.6896, EsD1 gene frequencies were 0.6418, 0.7315, 0.6005, 0.6025, 0.6411, 0.6411, 0.6558, 0.6305, 0.6020, 0.6023, 0.6368. 6-PGDA gene frequencies 0.9279, 0.9381, 0.9387, 0.9150, 0.9356, 0.9014, 0.7764, 0.8818, 0.9851, 0.9233, 0.9410. GPT1 gene frequencies 0.4075, 0.5367, 0.5049, 0.4824, 0.5322, 0.6106, 0.6313, 0.6400, 0.3985, 0.4930, 0.3976, respectively. In addition, some rare variants were found.

  5. Frequency distribution 0f ABO, RH blood groups and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... blood sample, with the aid of glass rods. Blood groups were determined on the basis of agglutination. Blood genotype test. For the study of the blood genotype, cellulose acetate electrophoresis technique was used to determine haemoglobin genotype. A small quantity of venous blood was placed on a tile.

  6. ABO Blood Group Distribution among Voluntary Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ABO blood group antigens are the most important in blood transfusion service. Everyone over six months has naturally acquired antibody against the corresponding antigen absent on their red blood cell membrane. Safe blood transfusion includes the transfusion of group specific compatible units to recipients.

  7. Frequency distribution 0f ABO, RH blood groups and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty students (150) were randomly selected from the Department of Cell Biology and Genetics of University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria for ABO, RH blood groups and 6 haemoglobin genotypes studies. Blood group O was the highest with the percentage frequency of 55.3%, followed by blood group A (25.3%) ...

  8. Chapter Eleven

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    depth by individuals and groups of people. The adequacy or otherwise of definitions depends therefore on the nature or type of experience. One of the issues involved in definitions is because certain terms are culture-bound. This is because of the different experience offered by a culture to its people. Certain cultures do not.

  9. Frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ABO is a blood group system that is responsible for most blood transfusion reactions, transplant rejections and determining some forensic cases. The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems have been shown to show variations in different part of the world and race. Aim: The study is to show the frequency of ...

  10. Frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the genetic and phenotypic frequencies of the blood group and to confirm if the population is in. Hardy-Weinberg ... percentages and the frequencies of the ABO gene and the Rh phenotypes were calculated using. Hardy- ..... cancer of stomach and the ABO blood groups. British. Medical Journal 1953;2:799. 18. Frances TF.

  11. Blood group and Rhesus antigens among Blood donors attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is well known that the Rhesus system remains the second most clinically important blood group system after the ABO. There is no published work regarding the frequency of various Rhesus antigens among Sudanese population. Objectives: In order to minimize Rhesus allo-immunization among blood ...

  12. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood gro...... tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). DISCUSSION: Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research.......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...

  13. ABO Blood Groups and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanrui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ABO blood groups have been associated with various disease phenotypes, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in developed countries and their prevalence rate is rapidly growing in developing countries. There have been substantial historical associations between non-O blood group status and an increase in some cardiovascular disorders. Recent GWASs have identified ABO as a locus for thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and multiple cardiovascular risk biomarkers, refocusing attention on mechanisms and potential for clinical advances. As we highlight in this paper, more recent work is beginning to probe the molecular basis of the disease associations observed in these observational studies. Advances in our understanding of the physiologic importance of various endothelial and platelet-derived circulating glycoproteins are elucidating the mechanisms through which the ABO blood group may determine overall cardiovascular disease risk. The role of blood group antigens in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders remains a fascinating subject with potential to lead to novel therapeutics and prognostics and to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Distribution of blood groups in blood donors in the blood bank of Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.

  15. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  16. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  17. Autotransfusion performed on a patient with cis AB blood group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, S; Kitahata, H; Kimura, H; Tanaka, K; Oshita, S

    1999-09-01

    Cis AB blood group is a rare variant of the AB blood group resulting from inheritance of both A and B genes on one chromosome. It may lead to misclassification in ABO grouping and clinical misdiagnosis as a result of its divergence from the laws of Landsteiner and Mendel. We encountered a case of cis AB blood group, and we found that autotransfusion was useful during surgery in this patient with a rare blood group.

  18. Genetic basis of rare blood group variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, L.

    2013-01-01

    A transfusion of donor red blood cells can be life saving In individuals with massive blood loss due to an accident or surgery or in individuals with constitutive anemia due to a defect in erythropoiesis. Donor blood can, however, not be simply transfused to every patient. When a recipient of a red

  19. Eleven papers in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shabalin, P L; Yakubenko, A A; Pokhilevich, VA; Krein, M G

    1986-01-01

    This collection of eleven papers covers a broad spectrum of topics in analysis, from the study of certain classes of analytic functions to the solvability of singular problems for differential and integral equations to computational schemes for the partial differential equations and singular integral equations.

  20. ABO Blood Group Distribution in Patients with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzáles Flores, Pedro; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Monge Salgado, Eduardo; Servicio de Gastroenterología, Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión, Callao

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To determinate the ABO blood group distribution in patients with peptic ulcer disease ( PUD ). METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study. Clinical records of patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer and ABO blood group typification between june 1994 and november 1996 were reviewed. Blood donnors and patients that attended the blood bank between july and august 1996 were taken as controls. RESULTS: 100 patients were studied. In controls 73% were blood group O, whereas in...

  1. ABO and Rh Blood Groups Distribution in Yozgat City, Turkey

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    Çiğdem Kader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this retrospective study, we included 5257 healthy participants who admitted to Yozgat Government Hospital Blood Bank and Bozok University Blood Bank for several reasons to determine A, B, 0, AB blood groups and Rhesus (Rh positivity ratios between January 2007 and April 2013. Methods: We recorded their blood group types, age and gender from the hospital data. 2430 females, 2827 males totally 5257 participants were included to our study. Results: 2330 (44.3% persons were A blood group, 837 (15.9% were B group, 1665 (31.7% were 0 and 425 (%8.1 were AB group. Rh positivity ratio of our study group was 88%. Blood group frequency of Yozgat city is similar to other cities and the general population of our country, Turkey. Conclusion: Knowing the blood group is important for the blood recruitment in our region. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 169-172

  2. Differential Rheology Among ABO Blood Group System In Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ABO blood groups have been reported to have rheological significance and association with different disease conditions. The non-O blood groups (A, B, and AB) have shown more susceptibility to arterial and venous thrombotic diseases with no rheological delineation. The determinants of these blood groups ...

  3. Association of ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems are very important clinical tools that are commonly used in blood transfusion and their associations with various disease conditions have been widely reported. This study investigated the distribution of these blood group systems and assessed the association of malaria infection ...

  4. The distribution of the ABO blood groups among the diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... healthy adults above 18 years of age were recruited from the blood bank and 1650 individuals agreed to take part in this study, giving a ..... Table 3: Global comparison of distribution of ABO blood groups among diabetic population. Country. Total sample size. ABO blood groups (%). Year. A. B. AB. 0.

  5. Rhesus blood group systems and haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    genotype among confirmed HIV/AIDSETB co-infected patients in Enugu .... infection were mainly hetero sexual relationships, and blood ... from the same race and community as the patients. Data analysis. The data obtained were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software. The Student's t.

  6. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with /sup 125/I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with /sup 125/I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with /sup 125/I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined.

  7. Association of ABO blood groups with diabetes mellitus | Kamil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: So far no studies have been performed in Malaysia to look at association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with blood groups. We studied the association ... It was found that A and O blood groups were negatively associated with DM type 2 (P<0.05) with higher percentage of A and O groups individuals were non-diabetic.

  8. Conformational studies of blood group A and blood group B oligosaccharides using NMR residual dipolar couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurmendi, Hugo F; Bush, C Allen

    2002-05-13

    The conformations of two synthetic trisaccharides of blood group A and B (alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-[alpha-D-GalpNAc-(1-->3)]-alpha-D-Galp and alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-[alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)]-alpha-D-Galp, respectively) and of a type A tetrasaccharide alditol, Fucp-(1-->2)-[alpha-D-GalpNAc-(1-->3)]-beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-GalNAc-ol, were studied by NMR measurements of one-bond C-H residual dipolar couplings in partially oriented liquid crystal solutions. The conformations of the three oligosaccharides were analyzed by generating thousands of structures using a Monte-Carlo method. Two different strategies were applied to calculate theoretical dipolar couplings for these structures. In the first method, the orientation of the molecule was calculated from the optimal fit of the molecular model to the experimental data, while in the second method the orientation tensor was calculated directly from the moment of inertia of the molecular model. Both methods of analysis give similar results but with slightly better agreement with experiment for the former one. The analysis of the results implies a single unique conformation for both blood group epitopes in solution in disagreement with theoretical models suggesting the existence of two conformers in solution.

  9. Association of ABO blood group and breast cancer in Jodhpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shikha; Chawla, Vinod Kumar; Gupta, Kamal Kant; Gaur, Kusum Lata

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. However, in relation to breast cancer, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory. Present study was conducted for analysis to access ABO blood groups potential role of in breast carcinoma. The study was conducted on 206 clinically diagnosed breast cancer patients from Radiotherapy Department of Mathura Das Mathur Hospital in Jodhpur, from September 2006 to December 2007. The standard agglutination test was used to determine the blood groups. Association of ABO blood groups and risk of breast cancers was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). In reference of proportion of breast cancer in blood group AB [OR 1 with 95% CI 0.476 to 2.103), the breast carcinoma in blood group A [OR 7.444 with 95% CI 4.098 to 13.5222) was found at 7.4 times at higher risk than in blood group 'AB'. Breast cancer was found minimum in blood group 'AB' and maximum in blood group 'A'.

  10. Distribution of abo, rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis among 200 undergraduate students of Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria randomly selected were studied. Blood samples were collected by venepuncture from the antecubital vein. The blood sample were transferred into ...

  11. Para-Bombay phenotype: report of a rare blood group

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yashovardhan; I.S. Chaitanya Kumar; K.V. Sreedhar Babu; B. Suresh Babu; Anju Verma; D.S. Jothi Bai; B. Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The blood sample of a 54-year-old male patient who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of anaemia was submitted to the Blood Bank for blood grouping and cross-matching. In forward grouping, no agglutination was observed with A, B and AB antisera, but agglutination was noticed with D antiserum (Group O). In reverse grouping, there was agglutination in tube labelled A and no agglutination in tubes B and O (Group B) resulting in discrepancy between forward and reverse grouping. Furth...

  12. DNA biosensor/biochip for multiplex blood group genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccoz, S A; Blum, L J; Marquette, C A

    2013-12-15

    At present, 33 blood groups representing over 300 antigens are listed by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). Most of them result from a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the corresponding DNA sequence, i.e. approx. 200 SNPs. In immunohematology laboratories, blood group determination is classically carried out by serological tests, but these have some limitations, mostly in term of multiplexing and throughput. Yet, there is a growing need of extended blood group typing to prevent alloimmunization in transfused patients and transfusion accidents. The knowledge of the molecular bases of blood groups allows the use of molecular biology methods within immunohematology laboratories. Numerous assays focused on blood group genotyping were developed and described during the last 10 years. Some of them were real biochips or biosensors while others were more characterized by the particular molecular biology techniques they used, but all were intending to produce multiplex analysis. PCR techniques are most of the time used followed by an analytical step involving a DNA biosensor, biochip or analysis system (capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry). According to the method used, the test can then be classified as low-, medium- or high-throughput. There are several companies which developed platforms dedicated to blood group genotyping able to analyze simultaneously various SNPs or variants associated with blood group systems. This review summarizes the characteristics of each molecular biology method and medium-/high-throughput platforms dedicated to the blood group genotyping. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of ABO blood group on sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Gandini, Giorgio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Skafidas, Spyros; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico

    2017-06-01

    Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. The study population consisted of 52 recreational, middle-aged, Caucasian athletes (mean age: 49±13 years, body mass index, 23.4±2.3 kg/m2), regularly engaged in endurance activity. The athletes participated to a scientific event called "Run for Science" (R4S), entailing the completion of a 21.1 km (half-marathon) run under competing conditions. The ABO blood type status of the participants was provided by the local Service of Transfusion Medicine. In univariate analysis, running performance was significantly associated with age and weekly training, but not with body mass index. In multiple linear regression analysis, age and weekly training remained significantly associated with running performance. The ABO blood group status was also found to be independently associated with running time, with O blood type athletes performing better than those with non-O blood groups. Overall, age, weekly training and O blood group type explained 62.2% of the total variance of running performance (age, 41.6%; training regimen, 10.5%; ABO blood group, 10.1%). The results of our study show that recreational athletes with O blood group have better endurance performance compared to those with non-O blood group types. This finding may provide additional support to the putative evolutionary advantages of carrying the O blood group.

  14. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue......The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...

  15. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  16. Association of ABO blood groups with diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Objective: So far no studies have been performed in Malaysia to look at association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with blood groups. We studied the association of ABO blood groups with DM type 2. Patients and methodology: It was a case control study conducted at Kepala Batas Hospital Batas, Penang,.

  17. 7 PREVALENCE OF Rh AND ABO BLOOD GROUPS IN HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    Summary: HIV status and blood groups determination (Rhesus and ABO groups) in 3691 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at a Mission Hospital and Maternity and 1199 non-pregnant women visiting the same institution for marriage-related matters, or blood donation, or out-patient department between 1999 ...

  18. Comparative Study on Liver Enzymes Activity and Blood Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the activities of some selected liver enzymes amongst apparently healthy subjects of different blood groups. The study involved 95 apparently healthy students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria, between the ages of 18-30, and distributed as follows; blood group O ...

  19. Gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus blood groups and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups and haemoglobin variants for samples of the Nigerian population at Ogbomoso was determined. Data consisting of records of blood groups and haemoglobin types of different ages ranging from infants to adults for a period of 4 to 6 years (1995 ...

  20. Structure of a ganglioside with Cad blood group antigen activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Bouhours, J.-F.; Cartron, J.-P.; Kuik, J.A. van; Kamerling, J.P.; Marcus, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Cad antigen is a rare erythrocyte blood group antigen expressed on both sialoglycoprotein and ganglioside structures. It is related both serologically and biochemically to the Sd' blood group antigen expressed on over 90% of Caucasian erythrocytes. We reported previously that Cad erythrocytes

  1. Differential Rheology Among ABO Blood Group System In Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: ABO blood groups have been reported to have rheological significance and association with different disease conditions. The non-O blood groups (A, B, and AB) have shown more susceptibility to arterial and venous thrombotic diseases with no rheological delineation. The determinants of these ...

  2. The distribution of the ABO blood groups among the diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is strong evidence in the literature that there is an association between ABO blood group and certain diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate any association between the ABO blood groups and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Qatar. Design: This was a sex.matched case.control study.

  3. Blood group astrology - why the AB0 blood groups do not determine the human character nor the appropriate nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gajšek Grbec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AB0 blood groups are inherited markers on blood cells. Since their discovery, there were numerous attempts to be attributed a wide variety of biological functions they don’t possess. The purpose of this article is primarily to inform the professional, as well as lay public that the theory of healthy nutrition based on AB0 blood groups represents nothing more than a pseudoscience used for mass exploitation and commercial purposes. ABO blood groups were attributed such characteristics by naturopathic doctor Peter D'Adamo, who on the basis of false methods and erroneous assumptions wrote a bestseller "Eat Right For Your Type". It claims that the blood groupsAB0 represent a "key to the functioning of our immune system" and that the blood group based diet represents a “key to the health of every man”. As in the case of nutrition based on the ABO blood groups, the scientific knowledge in the field of immunohematology is misused to mislead the lay public, we are obliged to explain the real meaning and the role of blood groups in health and disease, the misuse of blood groups in relation to healthy nutrition.

  4. Delta check for blood groups: A step ahead in blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Delta checks proved to be an effective tool for detecting blood group errors and prevention of accidental mismatched blood transfusions. Preanalytical errors in patient identification or sample labeling were the most frequent.

  5. ABO blood grouping in Egyptian children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Hala Gouda; Abdel Samie, Ola M; Saleh, Maysa Tawhid; Sherif, Lobna S; Abdalmoneam, Naglaa; Kholoussi, Naglaa M; Kholoussi, Shams M; El-Taweel, Ahmed N

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is an important public health problem all over the world, causing a notable economic burden in both developing and developed countries. To explore the relationship between blood group typing, rotavirus gastroenteritis, and its severity in Egyptian children. A cross sectional case control study was conducted on 231 cases of acute gastroenteritis attending the outpatient clinic of Al-Zahraa University Hospital. Full history taking, clinical examination, and clinical data collection were done. Blood samples were collected for an ABO grouping. Stool samples were tested for viral gastroenteritis agents. Rota positive cases of GE were significantly more prevalent among cases with blood group A (p fever (p rotavirus gastroenteritis. This could highlight an important risk factor, which could play a significant role for the pathogenesis of rotavirus gastroenteritis and severity as well. Furthermore, more intervention care could be needed for blood group A paediatric patients, if gastroenteritis especially rotavirus affect this group to avoid comorbidities.

  6. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  7. rights reserved Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: A multitude of risk factors are responsible for development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with the ABO blood antigens is increasingly being reported. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and ...

  8. Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid Profile Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multitude of risk factors are responsible for development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with the ABO blood antigens is increasingly being reported. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and lipoprotein profiles of ...

  9. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among different blood group donors at Blood Bank LUMHS, Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Faheem Ahmed; Ujjan, Ikram Din; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Shaikh, Abdul Rehman; Rao, Ali Raza; Naz, Arshi

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence of HBsAg, Anti-HCV, HIV, Syphilis and Malaria in blood donors. This is a cross sectional descriptive study, conducted at Blood bank and Transfusion center at Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Hyderabad, during the period from January, 2014 to June, 2015. A total of 4683 blood donors were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV and HIV on Architect 20001 (manufactured by Abbott), employing chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). For Syphilis, VDRL ICT kits were used and Malaria parasite was screen through MP slides. Blood grouping was performed by both forward and reverse methods. This study showed a high frequency of HBsAg, VDRL and malaria positivity among the O-ve blood group donors, i.e. 3.70%, 9.25% and 0.61% respectively. Blood group B-ve individuals were commonly infected with HCV (12.5%) as compared with all other blood group donors. HIV is more commonly reported in A+ve blood group individuals. Blood group O+ve is more prevalent (37.41 %). High frequency of HCV infection in blood donors advocates implementation of strict screening policy for donors and public awareness campaigns about preventive measures to reduce the spread of this infection as well as other transfusion transmissible infections.

  10. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  11. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ayoub Meo; Faryal Suraya; Badar Jamil; Fwziah Al Rouq; Anusha Sultan Meo; Kamran Sattar; Mohammad Javed Ansari; Alasiri, Saleh A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the association of “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. Methods: In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including “PubMed”, “ISI-Web of Knowledge”, “Embase” and “Google Scholar”. The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including “ABO blood type”, “Rhesus” blood type and “breast cancer”. The research documents in which “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood ty...

  12. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Blood group “A” and “Rhesus +ve” have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type “AB” and “Rhesus –ve” are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group “A” and “Rh +ve” as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  13. [Blood groups as a risk factor in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Cañete, C M; Alvarez Dieguez, R; González Sánchez M de la, C; Díaz Hernández, C; Sánchez Montiel, M E

    1993-01-01

    We report 173 patients with venous thrombosis (or post-thrombotic syndrome) demonstrated by phlebography. We show up the importance of blood groups as risk factor, being very significant the A group. Female sex is associated with a high incidence of this pathology. A frequent location is the left lower limb.

  14. Low Titer Group O Whole Blood in Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    levels of coagulation components, WB stored for short pe- riods is a good option to treat trauma victims to handle both shock and hemorrhage while...System Clinical Practice Guideline 2012. Available at: http://www.usaisr.amedd.army.mil/assets/cpgs/Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion 24 Oct 12. pdf ...resources/bct/Documents/coi0413. pdf . Accessed October 1, 2013. 15. Camp FR Jr, Shields CE: Military blood banking identification of the group O

  15. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H. Coenraad; de Laat, H. Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII. PMID:26509437

  16. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Margaret A; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M

    2012-05-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses' Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association with ABO genotype in a nested case-control study of 1,138 invasive breast cancer cases and 1,090 matched controls. Finally, we evaluated the association between serologic blood type and survival among 2,036 participants with breast cancer. No clear association was seen between serologic blood type or ABO genotype and risk of total breast cancer, invasive breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes. Compared to women with blood type O, the age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for serologic blood type and total breast cancer were 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98-1.15) for type A, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.93-1.22) for AB and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.96-1.20) for B. In genetic analyses, odds ratios for invasive breast cancer were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.87-1.27) for A/O, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.86-1.69) for A/A, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.56-1.26) for A/B, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.63-1.13) for B/O and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.35-3.86) for B/B, compared to O/O. No significant association was noted between blood type and overall or breast cancer-specific mortality. Our results suggest no association between ABO blood group and breast cancer risk or survival. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  17. The associations of malaria parasite and ABO blood groups with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Aggressive Periodontitis (AgP) is a rare form of periodontitis which has been associated with aetiological factors including genetic predisposition, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and blood group B. It seems to have a racial predisposition being more common among blacks, particularly people of West ...

  18. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    healing show similarly decreased expression of A/B antigens on migrating epithelial cells. Some studies suggest that the relationship between expression of blood group antigens and cell motility can be explained by different degrees of glycosylation of integrins. Changes in ABO expression in tumours have...

  19. Genetic characterization of the ABO blood group in Neandertals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertranpetit Jaume

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high polymorphism rate in the human ABO blood group gene seems to be related to susceptibility to different pathogens. It has been estimated that all genetic variation underlying the human ABO alleles appeared along the human lineage, after the divergence from the chimpanzee lineage. A paleogenetic analysis of the ABO blood group gene in Neandertals allows us to directly test for the presence of the ABO alleles in these extinct humans. Results We have analysed two male Neandertals that were retrieved under controlled conditions at the El Sidron site in Asturias (Spain and that appeared to be almost free of modern human DNA contamination. We find a human specific diagnostic deletion for blood group O (O01 haplotype in both Neandertal individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that the genetic change responsible for the O blood group in humans predates the human and Neandertal divergence. A potential selective event associated with the emergence of the O allele may have therefore occurred after humans separated from their common ancestor with chimpanzees and before the human-Neandertal population divergence.

  20. Abo And Rhesus Blood Groups Distribution In Mothers And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide information in the distribution of ABO and Rhesus Blood Group in our population. Study Population/Methods: One hundred and twenty one antenatal mothers who were sequentially booked in antenatal care clinic of University of Jos Health Clinic, Jos, Plateau State after their informed consent.

  1. Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Online resources. Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in Philippines. Anna Elvira S. Arcellana Ruth Marian S. Guzman Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla. Volume 90 Online resources 2011 pp e90-e93 ...

  2. Red Blood Cell Membranes in Donors of Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an electroporation technique in order to evaluate its action on a biological membrane in donors of different age groups. It is shown that the older the donor is, the higher the rate of hemolysis is. Thus, owing to its simplicity, the electroporation technique may be clinically tested to diagnose the status of red blood cell membranes in subjects from different age groups for further studies.

  3. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red...

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukurije Zhubi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay test for H. pylori IgG with Biomerieux HPY-VIDAS.Results: The frequency of IgG antibody for H. pylori among healthy blood donors is 56.9%, there is not found any difference between voluntary and non-voluntary blood donors (57.4% respectively 56.3%(OR=1.05; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.43; p=0.8. H pylori IgG antibodies positive are detected in 57.0 % ( 126 of 221 of women, compared with 56.9 % ( 256 of 450 of men(OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.38; p=0.96. Serpositive donors are older than seronegative ones (31.9 years, respectively 29.5 years, p=0.02. Mean value of IgG antibody of H. pylori is 3.61 with no significant difference between males and females (3.72 respectively 3.44; p=0.2. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection is similar among blood groups: O (57.4%, A (56.2%, B (59.6%, AB (51.4%, RhD positive (56.7% and RhD negative (58.3%.Conclusions: The seropositivity of H. pylori is moderately higher in the non voluntary and familiar blood donors among the total Kosovo blood donors. There is not found a significant relationship between infection with H. pylori and ABO/Rhesus blood group among blood donors.

  5. Course of breast cancer disease and ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzarová, M; Kovarík, J; Hlávková, J; Kolcová, V

    1985-01-01

    The clinical records of 551 breast cancer patients were retrospectively analysed. Several parameters have been examined: age at presentation, distribution of stages at the time of diagnosis, incidence of any progression and "progression-free" interval after primary treatment, incidence of distant dissemination and distant metastasis-free interval, cancer mortality, time of survival from presentation and time of survival from detection of distant metastases (stage at presentation being taken into account in all evaluations). The results within various ABO blood groups were compared. There were no substantial differences in these parameters within different blood groups. The possible modifications of ABH (O) isoantigens on tumour cells and the immune response to these alien antigens is discussed.

  6. Streptococcus milleri group isolates from blood cultures: consider surgical sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzmueller, Ingrid; Pfausler, Bettina; Fille, Manfred; Dossett, Lesley Ann; Bonatti, Hugo

    2009-06-01

    Streptococcus milleri group bacteria (SMG) frequently are involved in purulent infections, often resulting in abscess formation with a high recurrence rate. Blood stream infections with these organisms are infrequent. Review of epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of SMG-related bacteremia. During a four-year period, 637 SMG-positive samples from 475 patients, including 45 positive blood cultures from 25 patients (7.1%), were identified. In one pediatric patient, the SMG was a contaminant, so 24 patients (5.1%) with 44 positive blood cultures (6.9%) were available for further evaluation. The study group consisted of 17 male and seven female patients with a median age of 56 years and a median hospital stay of 23 days (range 8-83 days). In 21 patients, monomicrobial SMG blood stream infection was found, whereas in three patients, polymicrobial infection was diagnosed (coagulase-negative staphylococci in two, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis in one). The source of the organism in the blood was intra-abdominal infection in six cases, soft tissue infection in another six cases, and cardiovascular and nervous system infection in three cases each. In the remaining cases, miscellaneous sources were identified. In 14 infected patients (58.3%), surgical interventions were performed before SMG bacteremia was diagnosed. All patients received antibiotic treatment with a median duration of 11.5 d (range 6-25 d). Five patients died, but no death was related directly to SMG infection. Sepsis with SMG is in most cases associated with surgical infection. Source control together with directed antibiotic therapy leads to an acceptable outcome. Immunosuppression and significant co-morbidities are common in patients with this type of infection.

  7. SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvejic, Ana; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Stephens, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    and expression of the Vel antigen on SMIM1-transfected cells confirm SMIM1 as the gene underlying the Vel blood group. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), the common SNP rs1175550 contributes to variable expression of the Vel antigen (P = 0.003) and influences the mean hemoglobin concentration of red...... blood cells (RBCs; P = 8.6 × 10(-15)). In vivo, zebrafish with smim1 knockdown showed a mild reduction in the number of RBCs, identifying SMIM1 as a new regulator of RBC formation. Our findings are of immediate relevance, as the homozygous presence of the deletion allows the unequivocal identification......The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with antibodies to Vel. To identify the responsible gene, we sequenced the exomes of five individuals negative...

  8. The Sirens of Eleven Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, Pierre

    While most theorists are tied to the mast of four dimensions, some have found it irresistible to speculate about eleven dimensions, the domain of M-theory. We outline a program which starts from the light-cone description of supergravity, and tracks its divergences to suggest the existence of an infinite component theory which in the lightcone relies on the coset F4/SO(9), long known to be linked to the Exceptional Jordan Algebra

  9. Blood Group Antigen Recognition via the Group A Streptococcal M Protein Mediates Host Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Everest-Dass, Arun; Day, Christopher J; Dabbs, Rebecca A; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Nizet, Victor; Packer, Nicolle H; Walker, Mark J; Jennings, Michael P; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2017-01-24

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is responsible for over 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes from streptococcal pharyngitis and invasive disease. The oral epithelial tract is a niche highly abundant in glycosylated structures, particularly those of the ABO(H) blood group antigen family. Using a high-throughput approach, we determined that a strain representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 GAS clone 5448 interacts with numerous, structurally diverse glycans. Preeminent among GAS virulence factors is the surface-expressed M protein. M1 protein showed high affinity for several terminal galactose blood group antigen structures. Deletion mutagenesis shows that M1 protein mediates glycan binding via its B repeat domains. Association of M1T1 GAS with oral epithelial cells varied significantly as a result of phenotypic differences in blood group antigen expression, with significantly higher adherence to those cells expressing H antigen structures compared to cells expressing A, B, or AB antigen structures. These data suggest a novel mechanism for GAS attachment to host cells and propose a link between host blood group antigen expression and M1T1 GAS colonization. There has been a resurgence in group A streptococcal (GAS) invasive disease, which has been paralleled by the emergence of the highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone. Intensive research has focused on mechanisms that contribute to the invasive nature of this serotype, while the mechanisms that contribute to host susceptibility to disease and bacterial colonization and persistence are still poorly understood. The M1T1 GAS clone is frequently isolated from the throat, an environment highly abundant in blood group antigen structures. This work examined the interaction of the M1 protein, the preeminent GAS surface protein, against a wide range of host-expressed glycan structures. Our data suggest that susceptibility

  10. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  11. Frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. The ABO and Rh blood groups are the most important blood groups despite the long list of several other blood groups discovered so far. Aim of the ...

  12. The global distribution of the Duffy blood group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Patil, Anand P.; Piel, Frédéric B.; Nyangiri, Oscar A.; Kabaria, Caroline W.; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Barnadas, Céline; Beall, Cynthia M.; Gebremedhin, Amha; Ménard, Didier; Williams, Thomas N.; Weatherall, David J.; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Blood group variants are characteristic of population groups, and can show conspicuous geographic patterns. Interest in the global prevalence of the Duffy blood group variants is multidisciplinary, but of particular importance to malariologists due to the resistance generally conferred by the Duffy-negative phenotype against Plasmodium vivax infection. Here we collate an extensive geo-database of surveys, forming the evidence-base for a multi-locus Bayesian geostatistical model to generate global frequency maps of the common Duffy alleles to refine the global cartography of the common Duffy variants. We show that the most prevalent allele globally was FY*A, while across sub-Saharan Africa the predominant allele was the silent FY*BES variant, commonly reaching fixation across stretches of the continent. The maps presented not only represent the first spatially and genetically comprehensive description of variation at this locus, but also constitute an advance towards understanding the transmission patterns of the neglected P. vivax malaria parasite. PMID:21468018

  13. Immune Desensitization Allows Pediatric Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Jelena; Adamusiak, Anna; Kessaris, Nicos; Chandak, Pankaj; Ahmed, Zubir; Sebire, Neil J; Walsh, Grainne; Jones, Helen E; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-06-01

    Blood group incompatible transplantation (ABOi) in children is rare as pretransplant conditioning remains challenging and concerns persist about the potential increased risk of rejection. We describe the results of 11 ABOi pediatric renal transplant recipients in the 2 largest centers in the United Kingdom, sharing the same tailored desensitization protocol. Patients with pretransplant titers of 1 or more in 8 received rituximab 1 month before transplant; tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were started 1 week before surgery. Antibody removal was performed to reduce titers to 1 or less in 8 on the day of the operation. No routine postoperative antibody removal was performed. Death-censored graft survival at last follow-up was 100% in the ABOi and 98% in 50 compatible pediatric transplants. One patient developed grade 2A rejection successfully treated with antithymocyte globulin. Another patient had a titer rise of 2 dilutions treated with 1 immunoadsorption session. There was no histological evidence of rejection in the other 9 patients. One patient developed cytomegalovirus and BK and 2 others EBV and BK viremia. Tailored desensitization in pediatric blood group incompatible kidney transplantation results in excellent outcomes with graft survival and rejection rates comparable with compatible transplants.

  14. 7-Eleven Melejit Lewat Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy P. Simbolon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of convenient store businesses or minimarkets now have changed. Location base strategy has not been sufficient any longer now. Psychographic and Demographic approaches tend to share a newly built power. Two main variables that have been managed concern at retail level are the store image and the store atmosphere. While the store image dimensions that can be put into considerations are the items offered, services committed, who and the amount of customers, physical facilities, promotion and convenience, store atmosphere, especially the involvement of affections through built emotions status in store which possibly uncautioned wholly by the customers when doing shopping. Since officially opened, the 7-Eleven had offered unique facilities. Instead of providing instant foods and beverages for 24 hours, the 7-Eleven also provides convenient corners and tables to eat and drink and provides chatting facilities for customers who need it. These make other modern retailers following the concept: opened for 24 hours and providing chatting facilities for young people.

  15. Two loops in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Michael B.; Vanhove, Pierre; Green, Michael B.; Kwon, Hwang-h.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    The two-loop Feynman diagram contribution to the four-graviton amplitude of eleven-dimensional supergravity compactified on a two-torus, T^2, is analyzed in detail. The Schwinger parameter integrations are re-expressed as integration over the moduli space of a second torus, \\hat T^2, which enables the leading low-momentum contribution to be evaluated in terms of maps of \\hat T^2 into T^2. The ultraviolet divergences associated with boundaries of moduli space are regularized in a manner that is consistent with the expected duality symmetries of string theory. This leads to an exact expression for terms of order contraction of four Weyl tensors), thereby extending earlier results for the R^4 term that were based on the one-loop eleven-dimensional amplitude. Precise agreement is found with terms in type IIA and IIB superstring theory that arise from the low energy expansion of the tree-level and one-loop string amplitudes and predictions are made for the coefficients of certain two-loop string theory terms as we...

  16. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuisen, B.; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human

  17. Norovirus Binding to Ligands Beyond Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are commonly accepted as the cellular receptors for human norovirus. However, some human noroviruses have been found not to bind any HBGA ligand, suggesting potential additional co-factors. Some ligands have been found to bind noroviruses and have the potential to be additional cellular receptors/attachment factors for human norovirus or inhibitors of the HBGA interaction. The studies identifying these mostly characterize different chemical, human, food, or bacterial components and their effect on norovirus binding and infection, although the mechanism of interaction is unknown in many cases. This review seeks to supplement the already well-covered HBGA-norovirus literature by covering non-HBGA human norovirus ligands and inhibitors to provide investigators with a more comprehensive view of norovirus ligands. PMID:29312233

  18. ABO Blood Group. Related Investigations and Their Association with Defined Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jesch

    2007-01-01

    Carriers of blood group O suffered from ulcus ventriculi and gastritis (X21 = 78.629, p <0.001, colitis ulcerosa and duodenitis (X21 = 5.846, p < 0.016, whereas male patients carrying blood group A tended to contract different types of tumours. In patients with intestinal tumours, females with blood group A were more likely to develop the pathology, whereas in males, the blood group O dominated. The development of cholelithiasis was found, above all, in patients with blood group O, which differed from other research where a correlation between this pathology and blood group A was found.

  19. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Tirunelveli Medical College. Ethical committee approval was obtained.100 breast cancer cases were taken and 100 healthy women with no reports of breast cancer were taken as controls. Blood grouping was done by Standard Agglutination method. Association of ABO blood groups and breast cancer was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. ABO blood group distribution among patients with breast cancer was as follows: Group A- 39%, Group O-31%, Group B- 26% and Group AB- 4% Among 100 healthy controls, ABO blood groups percentage was: Group O- 32%, Group A- 15 %, Group B- 46%, and Group AB- 7%. There is significant association between blood group A and breast Cancer since the p value was <0.05This study showed that there is strong association between ABO blood group system and female breast cancer and the highest risk for breast cancer was in blood group A and minimum in blood group AB.

  20. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Margaret A; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    ...‐reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases...

  1. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in a Large Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Torabizade maatoghi

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... Study type. Our study was a descriptive cross-sectional one. The study population included the blood donors visiting Ahvaz trans- fusion center, affiliated ... SPSS software. 3. Results. Our results showed that blood group O was the most frequent and the B blood group was the second most frequent blood.

  2. Distribution of ABO Blood Groups in a Tertiary Care Centre in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ABO blood group antigens are hereditary, and are the most important compatibility test in any blood transfusion service. These antigens are also important in genetic studies, and in resolving medico-legal issues. It is important to determine the ABO blood group in blood banking and transfusion medicine.

  3. A silenced allele in the Colton blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpasitou, K; Frison, S; Longhi, E; Drago, F; Lopa, R; Truglio, F; Marini, M; Bresciani, S; Scalamogna, M; Poli, F

    2010-08-01

    The antigens of the Colton blood group system, Co(a) and Co(b), are encoded by a single gene that produces the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) protein, a water channel-forming protein, and are characterized by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A healthy Caucasoid blood donor originally typed as Co(a-b-) with commercial anti-Co(b) typed Co(a-b+) when retested with another anti-Co(b). Retyped with two different molecular biology methods, the sample came out Co(a)/Co(b). With the aim of understanding these discrepancies, serological, cytometric and molecular biology tests were carried out. Absorption/elution studies with propositus red cells and controls were performed. The region spanning exon 1 to exon 4 of the Colton gene was sequenced, and flow cytometry analyses were carried out. Absorption/elution studies showed the absence of Co(a) and a weak expression of Co(b). DNA sequencing confirmed a CT heterozygosity at nucleotide position 134 (i.e. Co(a)/Co(b)), and an additional heterozygous CT was found at position 112. The presence of the Co(b) allele that encodes for the Co(b) antigen was confirmed. The new allele has the base cytosine at nucleotide 134 (Co(a)), in cis with the new nucleotide 112T. The nucleotide substitution 112C>T causes a missense mutation leading to an amino acid change from proline (CCG) to serine (TCG) at codon 38. The substitution found at codon 38 results in a modified AQP1 protein which explains the Co(a-b+) phenotype and possibly the weak expression of Co(b).

  4. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-08-18

    To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. The ductal type of breast cancer was differentially distributed in blood groups Rh (+) (P breast cancer was present in 49.6% of cases, in relation to the other blood groups and in AB blood group the same type occurred rarely (3.6%). Rh (+) women with positive family history were more often found in A blood group. The relative risk of metastasis in Rh (-) patients was 4.2 times higher than that in Rh (+) patients. Among Rh (+) patients, the relative risk of metastasis was 1.29 times higher in A blood group than in other blood groups. Blood group A is often associated with ductal breast cancer (49.6%), in contrast to the other blood groups and particularly to blood group AB (3.6%). Blood group A and, particularly, A (-) has the worst prognosis of all.

  5. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getaneh Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22±0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean. Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%, A (136, 32.7%, B (87, 20.9%, and AB (18, 4.3%. Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%. The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416. ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P=0.022. High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P=0.003 compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  6. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  7. [Molecular background of the ABO blood group system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Dorota; Krop-Watorek, Anna; Waśniowska, Kazimiera; Czerwiński, Marcin

    2008-01-16

    The ABO human blood group system consists of A antigens, B antigens, and antibodies against these antigens. The antigenic determinants are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus by specific glycosyltransferases which transfer proper sugars to an oligosaccharide acceptor, called H antigen. N-acetylgalactosaminotransferase (transferase A) uses a UDP-GalNac donor to convert the H antigen to A antigen, whereas galactosyltransferase (transferase B) uses a UDP-galactose donor to convert the H antigen to B antigen. The amino-acid sequences of transferases A and B differ by four residues, of which only two cause a change in enzyme specificity. These residues are Leu/Met266 and Gly/Ala268 in transferases A and B, respectively. Structural studies revealed that the presence of amino acids with bulky side chains (methionine and alanine) in transferase B cause its inability to bind N-acetylgalactosamine. The recessive trait O, in which antigens A and B are not present, is caused by the expression of an incomplete enzyme as a result of a base deletion and a subsequent reading frame change. In addition to the basic ABO gene variants, several alleles are rarely found that may lead to the expression of enzymes with different specificities. In this article the mechanism of the synthesis of A and B antigens, the molecular background of ABO gene variablity, their allelic variants, and possible mechanisms by which they emerge are described.

  8. Distribution of ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens, alleles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens represent a genetically stably determined trait with many-sided biological and clinical significance. The indigenous Ajarian population (105 subjects) was investigated for ABO Rh-Hr red cell blood group antigens. Using immunoserologic methods, seven blood group antigens (A, B, C, c, ...

  9. Reduced ferritin levels in individuals with non-O blood group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Berkfors, Adam A; Pedersen, Ole B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies have reported alleles in the ABO locus to be associated with ferritin levels. These studies warrant the investigation of a possible association between the ABO blood group and ferritin levels. We aimed to explore if ABO blood group is associated with iron...... stores expressed as ferritin levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ferritin levels were measured at least once for 30,595 Danish Blood Donor Study participants. Linear regression analyses were performed with the ABO blood group as explanatory variable and adjusted for age, number of donations 3 years before...... blood group was associated with a ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL. RESULTS: Non-O blood group donors had lower ferritin levels than blood group O donors, regardless of sex. Accordingly, risk of ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL was increased for individuals with non-O blood group compared with O...

  10. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in a Large Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The demand for blood and blood products has increased due to advances in medical science, population growth and increased life expectancy. This has increased the need for various blood groups in Khuzestan province because of the higher incidence of thalassemia and other blood transfusion dependent ...

  11. Blood-group characteristics of the contemporary Bulgarian population from Midddle Mizia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov Velislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we studied the blood group affiliation of the Bulgarian population from Middle Mizia according to the ABO systems and Rhesus factor in connection with the complicated ethnos of the Bulgarians. The sample comprised 769 individuals of both sexes. The defined distribution of the groups from the ABO system was established in the studied population. The comparison with a control group from the Bulgarian population was made. The following differences were established - a decreased presence of the blood group A and an increasing of the blood group B and of the blood group AB The differences by the blood group A are significant. There are no differences by the Rhesus factor. According to the group from Troyan, however, the data shows a presence of a mongoloid admixture. A significant decreasing of the blood group A was observed and weak presence of the negative Resus factor.

  12. The pattern of distribution of ABO blood groups in North Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Everybody over the age of about six months has clinically significant anti-A or Anti-B in their serum, if they lack the corresponding antigens on their red cells. ABO blood group antigens are the most important in blood transfusion services. This study was to determine the current incidence of ABO blood group ...

  13. Prevalence of anti‑A and anti‑B hemolysis among blood group O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Date of Acceptance: 20‑Oct‑2014. Address for correspondence: Dr. Olufemi A Oyedeji, ... fit to be accepted as blood donors. A volume of 10 ml of venous blood was collected into plain (uncoagulated) .... Because group O individuals makeup over 52% of the population,[1] group O donor blood is often more readily available ...

  14. The distribution of the ABO and Rhesus blood groups among an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of the ABO and Rhesus blood groups among an indigenous ethnic group in Nigeria. ... Highland Medical Research Journal ... Background: In this study, the authors set out to find out the ABO-RhD blood group distribution among Idoma, an indigenous ethnic group in the middle belt of Nigeria in view of the ...

  15. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. The Korean Society for the History of Medicine.

  16. ABO blood group and risk of cancer: A register-based cohort study of 1.6 million blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nyrén, Olof; Ullum, Henrik; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Melbye, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Pawitan, Yudi; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-10-01

    The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. We estimated associations between different ABO blood groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to ABO-nonidentical blood associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients with group A blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Menaka; Cook, Richard; Barty, Rebecca; Eikelboom, John; Lee, Ker-Ai; Heddle, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Transfusing ABO-compatible blood avoids most acute hemolytic reactions, but donor units that are ABO compatible are not necessarily ABO identical. Emerging data have raised concerns that ABO-nonidentical blood products lead to adverse outcomes. A large multihospital registry (Transfusion Registry for Utilization, Surveillance, and Tracking) was used to determine the association between exposure to ABO-nonidentical blood and in-hospital mortality. Cox regression analyses controlled for sex, age, hemoglobin, creatinine, and in-hospital interventions and stratified by age of blood and admission year. Data from 18,843 non-group O patients admitted between 2002 and 2011 and receiving at least 1 unit of blood were analyzed. Overall, group A patients had significantly increased risk of in-hospital death upon receiving a nonidentical unit (RR , 1.79; 95% CI, 1.20-2.67; p = 0.005). There was no evidence of increased risk for group B or AB patients. Similar results were seen when only patients with circulatory disorders were considered. When patients with an injury or poisoning diagnosis were excluded, the risk of in-hospital death after receiving a non-identical unit was significantly higher in group A patients and significantly lower in Group B patients. Our study demonstrates an adverse effect of ABO-nonidentical blood in a broad range of patients with group A blood, after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research in this area is required to study possible mechanisms. Increased mortality associated with exposure to nonidentical blood in these patients would have a substantial impact at the population level; it would challenge how blood suppliers manage inventory and recruit donors and how health care providers administer blood. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Noninvasive antenatal determination of fetal blood group using next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2016-01-01

    blood cells and induce hemolysis. Cell-free DNA derived fromthe conceptus circulates in maternal blood. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), it can be determined if this cell-free fetalDNA encodes the corresponding blood group antigen that is the target of the maternal allospecific antibodies....... This determination carries no risk to the fetus. It is important to determine if the fetus is at risk of hemolysis to enable timely intervention. Many tests for blood groups are based solely on the presence or absence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Antenatal determination of fetal blood group by...

  19. Using Blood Donor-Derived ABO and RhD Blood Groups Helps to Detect Wrong Blood in Tube Errors in Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Yazer, Mark H; Sprogøe, Ulrik

    2017-11-01

    Comparing the ABO and RhD group of a recipient's current pre-transfusion sample against their historical group is an important means of detecting wrong blood in tube (WBIT) errors. This study investigated the utility of using the donor ABO and RhD group as the historical check for recipients. A single database stores serological information on blood donors, pregnant women, and patients throughout southern Denmark. A donor ABO and RhD group can be the historical blood group should that donor later require a transfusion. This database was searched to determine how often the ABO and RhD group on a recipient's current pre-transfusion sample was discrepant with their historical donor-derived blood group. During about 21 years, ABO and RhD groupings were performed on 76,455 blood donors and on 424,697 patients. There were 13,630/424,697 (3.2%) patients who had their donor-derived ABO and RhD group used as the historical comparison with the current sample; 6/13,630 (0.04%) of the current pre-transfusion samples on these patients were discrepant with the donor-derived historical group because of WBIT errors. Seven other discrepancies with the donor-derived blood group were also found. Accessing the donor-derived ABO and RhD group can be an important safeguard against WBIT-mediated mistransfusions.

  20. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh(D) blood group alleles in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also observed that blood group O was the most encountered phenotype while group AB was the least phenotype encountered among the studied population in both genders. This distribution differs significantly (p<0.05) from those expected under the Hardy–Weinberg law. With regard to the Rh blood group, individuals ...

  1. Apparently healthy HBs antigen carriers: ABO blood group distribution and ay : ad ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babes, V T; Stătescu, F; Milu, A; Steiner, N

    1976-01-01

    HBs antigen (HBsAg) incidence and subtype ratio were studied in apparently healthy HBsAg carriers and correlated with the ABO blood group of the subjects investigated. The incidence of subjects belonging to blood group AB was higher among the healthy carriers than in the unselected normal population, and the ay : ad ratio was much lower in this blood group than in the other ones.

  2. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya – a blood group study in chikungunya affected families

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Vadde; Sarojamma Vemula; Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO) tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antig...

  3. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  4. Relative Susceptibilities of ABO Blood Groups to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Afoakwah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical outcome of falciparum malaria in endemic areas is influenced by erythrocyte polymorphisms including the ABO blood groups. Studies have reported association of ABO blood group to resistance, susceptibility, and severity of P. falciparum malaria infection. Individuals with blood group “A” have been found to be highly susceptible to falciparum malaria whereas blood group “O” is said to confer protection against complicated cases. We analyzed samples from 293 young children less than six years old with malaria in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. It was observed that group O was present in about 16.1% of complicated cases weighed against 40.9% of uncomplicated controls. Individuals with complicated malaria were about twice likely to be of blood groups A and B compared to group O (A versus O, OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.59–2.26, P<0.0001; B versus O, OR = 1.82. 95% CI = 1.57–2.23, P<0.0001. Blood group O participants with complicated diseases had low parasitaemia compared to the other blood groups (P<0.0001. This may give blood group O individuals a survival advantage over the other groups in complicated malaria as suggested. Participants with complicated falciparum malaria were generally anaemic and younger than those with uncomplicated disease.

  5. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudikshya KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.

  6. Distribution of Blood Groups(ABO between Symptomatic & Asymptomatic Human Leishmania Infantum Infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the hypothesis that leishmania parasites can be escaped from immune system covered by blood group antigens (ABO to prevent its recognition by the immune system. The aim of this study was to show the associated blood groups with symptomatic or asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in human. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the population was divided into two groups. The first group included 54 patients with kala-azar (antibody against Leishmania titers ≥1:3200 by TDA with clinical specificity and the second group consisted of 45 subjects infected with Leishmania infantum (Leishmania antibody titers of1: 800 and 1:1600 by DAT method and non-specific symptoms. The distribution of the 4 main blood groups ABO type, sex, age, presence or absence of symptoms, clinical signs, and response to Glucantim therapy and DAT results were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Most of the patients in group 1 were blood group A (37% and the lowest number of blood group were B (12.8%. In the second group, most of the ABO blood group A (42.2% and lowest in the ABO blood group AB (8.9%.There was no significant association between blood groups and clinical symptoms (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no association between blood group and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic kala-azar. Key words: Leishmania Infantum, Kala-azar, Blood Group, Human

  7. Distribution of Abo and Rhesus D blood groups among the Bini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more important in planning blood utilization by health care service providers and policy markers. In Nigeria, the prevalence of ABO and Rhesus D blood ...

  8. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nigeria: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ABO and Rhesus factor (Rh) blood type are germane in human life in genetics and clinical studies. Aim of the study: The review was undertaken with the objective to provide data on the ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and gene frequency across Nigeria which is vital for blood transfusion and ...

  9. A CORRELATION BETWEEN ABO BLOOD GROUPS AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases, obesity being the major risk factor is rising rapidly globally. The present study seeks to determine if there is any association between ABO blood groups and body mass index. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study involve 200 medical students, 102 boys and 98 girls in the age group of 18-23 years in the Government Medical College, Amritsar. Weight, height for BMI and blood groups were determined in order to find any association between ABO blood group and BMI. RESULTS Overweight and obesity was found more prevalent in boys than girls, 22.5% students were overweight and 15.5% were obese. The prevalence of overweight was (24.52% boys and 20.40% girls and prevalence of obesity was (25.49% boys and 5.10% girls. Blood group B was reported the most common blood groups (37.5% followed by blood group O (32.0%, while blood groups A and AB were found 19.5% and 11% of participants, respectively. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 among participants based on blood group O, A, AB and B was 29.69%, 25.64%, 18.18%, 16.00%, while obesity (BMI >30 among participants based on blood groups B, O, A and AB was 24.00%, 10.94%, 10.26% and 9.09%. CONCLUSION Prevalence of overweight and obesity was more in blood group O and B respectively and was more in males than females

  10. [Total cholesterol mediates the effect of ABO blood group on coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Li, Sha; Hu, Liangyan; Luo, SongHui; Li, JianJun; Jiang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    To find a potential link among ABO blood group, lipid profiles and coronary artery disease (CAD) and to estimate the effect size of connection using mediation analysis model. A total of 898 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled, and divided into CAD group and non-CAD group according to angiographic findings. According to ABO blood group, patients were divided into O blood group and non-O blood group, as well as A blood group and non-A blood group. Baseline characteristics among various groups were compared and the association of ABO blood group, CAD and lipid profile was explored. Subjects of blood type A had higher concentration of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with that of non-A type (TC: (4.43 ± 1.12) mmol/L vs. (4.18 ± 1.09) mmol/L, LDL-C: (2.79 ± 0.99) mmo/L vs. (2.59 ± 1.01) mmol/L, all P cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoA I levels were significantly lower in CAD group than in non-CAD group (TC: (4.36 ± 1.05) mmol/L vs. (4.13 ± 1.16) mmol/L, LDL-C: (2.61 ± 0.87) mmol/L vs. (2.47 ± 0.94) mmol/L; ApoA I: (1.38 ± 0.29) mmol/L vs. (1.45 ± 0.33) mmol/L; all P risk factors, blood group A and TC remained significantly associated with the risk of CAD (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.280-2.774, P risk of CAD. Around 10.5% of the effect of A blood group on CAD is mediated by TC levels.

  11. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found......The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...

  12. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh(D) blood group alleles in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.A. Iyiola

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... independent studies showed association of rectal, cervical, leu- kemia, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, gastric cancers among indi- viduals with blood groups A, AB, or B more likely to have elevated risk of pancreatic cancer than individual belonging to blood group O [10–12]. However, further work is still re-.

  13. A Study of Thumb Print Patterns and ABO Blood Group Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish a possible relationship between thumb print pattern and ABO blood group distribution. The study involves two hundred and nine-two volunteers comprising 159 female and 133 male. The blood group and finger print patterns were determined using standard techniques. Results ...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. 864.9160 Section 864.9160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman origin...

  15. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome, blood group & diet: A correlative study in South Indian females

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30) years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30) years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system...

  17. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagoz H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatice Karagoz,1 Abdulsamet Erden,2 Ozerhan Ozer,2 Kubra Esmeray,2 Ali Cetinkaya,2 Deniz Avci,2 Samet Karahan,2 Mustafa Basak,2 Kadir Bulut,2 Hasan Mutlu,3 Yasin Simsek4 1Internal Medicine Department, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Medical Oncology Department, 4Endocrinology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey.Patients and methods: A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O and Rh status (+/-. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were

  18. Page 1 BLOOD-GROUP DISTRIBUTION IN INDIA WITH SPECIAL ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large sample of over two thousand people from the United Provinces belonging to various Hindu .... of attack upon the biood-group distribution problem in India, would be to get data from several .... A striking fact about these data is that as the Hindu social scale is descended the ..... The Cochia State &ian wal. Ernakulam.

  19. Is ABO blood group a possible risk factor for periodontal disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontal disease is a chronic immune inflammatory response associated with both the genetic makeup and the environmental influence. The aim of this study was to determine the association of different types of blood group with periodontal disease in a defined group of Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-six persons participated in this case-control study in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Dental School, International Branch, Tehran, Iran. The patients were divided into three groups including periodontally healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis according to approved criteria. Patients′ blood groups were determined, and the relationship between periodontal status and ABO antigens was assessed. Data was analyzed on the basis of analysis of variance (ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. Results: Logistic regression showed that people with blood group B (compared to blood group O was at 3.94 times greater risk for developing gingivitis. On the other hand, there was no relationship between periodontitis and ABO blood groups, sex, and types of Rh factor. It was noted that 1 year of aging is associated with a 5% rise in likelihood of periodontitis. Conclusions: People with blood group B are at a greater risk to develop gingivitis, whereas periodontitis did not show any relationship with blood groups.

  20. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S-s- of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jka-b- (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  1. Structural basis for the ABO blood-group dependence of Plasmodium falciparum rosetting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Vigan-Womas

    Full Text Available The ABO blood group influences susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent evidence indicates that the protective effect of group O operates by virtue of reduced rosetting of infected red blood cells (iRBCs with uninfected RBCs. Rosetting is mediated by a subgroup of PfEMP1 adhesins, with RBC binding being assigned to the N-terminal DBL1α₁ domain. Here, we identify the ABO blood group as the main receptor for VarO rosetting, with a marked preference for group A over group B, which in turn is preferred to group O RBCs. We show that recombinant NTS-DBL1α₁ and NTS-DBL1α₁-CIDR1γ reproduce the VarO-iRBC blood group preference and document direct binding to blood group trisaccharides by surface plasmon resonance. More detailed RBC subgroup analysis showed preferred binding to group A₁, weaker binding to groups A₂ and B, and least binding to groups A(x and O. The 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the PfEMP1-VarO Head region, NTS-DBL1α₁-CIDR1γ, reveals extensive contacts between the DBL1α₁ and CIDR1γ and shows that the NTS-DBL1α₁ hinge region is essential for RBC binding. Computer docking of the blood group trisaccharides and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis localized the RBC-binding site to the face opposite to the heparin-binding site of NTS-DBLα₁. RBC binding involves residues that are conserved between rosette-forming PfEMP1 adhesins, opening novel opportunities for intervention against severe malaria. By deciphering the structural basis of blood group preferences in rosetting, we provide a link between ABO blood grouppolymorphisms and rosette-forming adhesins, consistent with the selective role of falciparum malaria on human genetic makeup.

  2. Research on animal blood groups and biochemical polymorphisms at Onderstepoort (1956-1990 : historical article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Osterhoff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and wide use of artificial insemination in cattle in the 1950s led to a need for accurate parentage identification. Blood group determination by means of the newly emerging scientific discipline called immunogenetics provided the answer. A blood group laboratory was consequently established at Onderstepoort in 1956, initially concentrating on the production of blood typing reagents. Once established the technology was also applied to studies on a variety of problems in various animals as summarised in this paper. Investigations include zygosity in cattle twins, blood transfusion in domestic animals, breed relationships, genetic polymorphisms and the identification of useful genetic markers for production and disease parameters in breeding programmes.

  3. ABO blood group and chronic pancreatitis risk in the NAPS2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Julia B; LaRusch, Jessica; Brand, Randall E; O'Connell, Michael R; Yadav, Dhiraj; Whitcomb, David C

    2011-11-01

    A risk association has been observed between non-O blood groups and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Chronic pancreatitis also increases risk for pancreatic cancer, raising questions as to whether non-O blood groups are a risk for chronic pancreatitis and whether the pathophysiologic pathways are linked. Our goal was to determine whether ABO blood group may affect the risk of chronic pancreatitis. The study cohort included chronic pancreatitis patients (n = 499) and healthy controls (n = 631) from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 study. Genotyping was performed using Sequenom assay of rs8176746 A/C and rs505922 C/T to classify participants into ABO blood groups. O blood group was nonsignificantly more common among cases (44.7% vs 42.0%; P = 0.36), particularly among cases with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis (49.3% vs 42%; P = 0.060). Alcoholic patients without coexisting high-risk PRSS1, CFTR, or SPINK1 variants had a significant overrepresentation of O blood type when compared with controls (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.17; P = 0.01). A, B, and AB blood groups were not associated with a greater likelihood of having chronic pancreatitis and may decrease the risk of chronic pancreatitis in individuals who are very heavy drinkers. These results suggest that the mechanism linking non-O blood type with pancreatic pathology is specific to carcinogenesis.

  4. Association between ABO blood group and severity of coronary artery disease in unstable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Negar; Rafie Khorgami, Mohammad; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Khatami, Farnaz; Mashhadizadeh, Mehrpouya; Jalali, Arash; Hekmat, Hamidreza

    2017-07-01

    ABO blood groups are genetically transmitted through chromosome 9 at locus 9q34. It is supposed that there is a locus on 9p21, which has a role in developing coronary artery disease. Our study population consisted of 309 patients with unstable angina admitted to the Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who underwent coronary angiography. The association between types of blood group (O and non-O) with the severity of coronary artery disease was investigated. Compared to the non-O groups, the O group had more severe coronary artery involvement (P = 0.004). Our study supports recent suggestions on the association between blood group and coronary artery disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of blood group on atherosclerosis.

  5. ABO blood group is associated with response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T El-Ferzli

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO reduces death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. However, the response to iNO is variable and only 50-60% of infants demonstrate a response to iNO. It is not known why only some infants respond to iNO. Adults and children with blood groups B or AB do not respond as well to iNO as those with blood groups O/A.To determine if blood group was associated with iNO response in newborn infants, a retrospective medical record review was done of infants admitted to a regional NICU from 2002-9 with a diagnosis of PPHN. Data were collected during the first twelve hours post-initiation of treatment. Of 86 infants diagnosed with PPHN, 23 infants had blood group A [18 received iNO], 21 had group B [18 with iNO], 40 had group O [36 with iNO], and 2 had group AB [both received iNO]. Change in PaO(2/FiO(2 was less in infants with blood group A, of whom less than half were responders (ΔPaO(2/FiO(2>20% at 12 h versus 90% of infants with either O or B. Race, sex, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and baseline PaO(2/FiO(2 were similar among groups. Outcomes including need for ECMO, death, length of ventilatory support, length of iNO use, and hospital stay were statistically not different by blood groups.Our results indicate that blood group influences iNO response in neonates. We hypothesize that either there is genetic linkage of the ABO gene locus with vasoregulatory genes, or that blood group antigens directly affect vascular reactivity.

  6. Distribution of blood-group-related carbohydrate antigens on oral endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M; Lilleholt, S; Thrane, P S; Koppang, H S; Dabelsteen, E

    1993-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that carbohydrate structures are involved in various endothelial functions such as inflammatory processes, adhesion of metastatic cells to endothelium and endothelial differentiation. In this paper we report the endothelial expression of various blood-group-related carbohydrate structures in normal oral mucosa using 15 different monoclonal antibodies reacting with type 1, 2 or 3 carbohydrate chains. Twenty biopsies, including normal oral mucosa, from secretor individuals comprised nine blood group O, nine A, one B and one AB. Endothelial staining was compared with epithelial staining in the same biopsies. Five blood-group-related carbohydrate antigens were detected on endothelial cells. The H type 2 antigen, which is the precursor of A, B and AB antigens, has previously been believed to be a universal marker for endothelial cells. All blood group O individuals (n = 9) showed strong H antigen staining in the endothelium of most vessels. However, of blood group A, B and AB individuals (n = 11), four showed heterogenous H antigen staining. In addition, we found that six out of ten blood group A or AB individuals, who expressed A or A and B antigens on spinous squamous cells and glandular epithelium, showed either heterogenous or no staining for these structures on their endothelial cells. It is concluded that there are differences between the biosynthesis of blood-group-related carbohydrate antigens in oral endothelium and epithelium.

  7. ABO blood group antigen mismatch has an impact on outcome after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Wolff, Daniel; Ahrens, Norbert; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Herr, Wolfgang; Holler, Ernst

    2016-11-01

    ABO blood group antigen incompatibility (ABO mismatch) is not an obstacle to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, the impact on clinical outcome after allo-SCT remains controversial. We analyzed 512 patients after allogeneic peripheral blood SCT (allo-PBSCT) for an association of ABO mismatch with transfusion requirements, myeloid and platelet engraftment, the incidence of GvHD, relapse, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall survival (OS). A total of 260 patients underwent ABO-mismatched transplantation and the control group consisted of 252 patients with ABO-matched allo-PBSCT. We found a significant association between major-0 ABO mismatch (group 0 recipient/group A, B, or AB donor) and increased red blood cell (RBC) and platelet transfusion requirements (both P<.001) as well as delayed platelet engraftment (P<.001). Minor-A (group A recipient/group 0 donor) and minor-AB (group AB recipient/group 0, A, or B donor) ABO mismatch was significantly associated with an increased TRM after allo-PBSCT (P=.001 and P=.02). In multivariate analysis performed using Cox regression, minor ABO mismatch appeared as independent risk factor for TRM after allo-PBSCT. No association was found for ABO mismatch with the incidence of GvHD, relapse, and OS. Our results suggest that ABO blood group mismatch has a significant impact on the outcome and that minor-A and minor-AB ABO mismatch represents a risk factor for increased TRM after allo-PBSCT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated....... One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent...

  9. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conduct...

  10. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, G; Iannuccelli, N; Legault, C; Milan, D; Groenen, M A; Giuffra, E; Andersson, L; Nissen, P H; Jørgensen, C B; Beeckmann, P; Geldermann, H; Foulley, J L; Chevalet, C; Ollivier, L

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall F(ST)= 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  11. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  12. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men

  13. Distribution of abo and rhesus (D) blood groups in Kano metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To provide information in the distribution of ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups since there has been no such study carried out in Kano. Study Population/Method: A total of 5,303 blood donors and pregnant women who came for antenatal care at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between January and ...

  14. A case of human chimerism established by blood grouping and chromosome heteromorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuro, IKEUCHI; Eiko, Ishibashi; Megumi, Murata; Satoko, Fukuda; Miyao, Yamada; Kohtaro, Yamamoto; Hachiro, Nakajima; Division of Genetics, Medical Research Institute; Tochigi Red Cross Blood Center; Division of Virology and Immunology, Medical Research Institute; Department of Forensic Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    2000-01-01

    An apparently normal adult male blood donor was detected to be a chimera, which was proved by polymorphic genetic marker systems (ABO and Kidd blood groups, phosphoglucomutase 1 and esterase D), and confirmed by Q-banding heteromorphic chromosome markers. The mechanism of chimera formation could not be established.

  15. Auto-Immune Hemolytic Anemia in Patient who his Serum React with all ABO Blood Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pourazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several irregular antibodies associated with various blood group systems which may cause some problems during blood cross matching in transfusion. The atypical antibodies are included auto and alloantibodies such as anti-I, anti-HI, anti-P… . In order to detect these antibodies, generally the agglutination reaction technique and anti-human-globulin (coombs tests would be performed and a panel of identified red blood cells will use if necessary for further investigation. During our work, we encountered with one serum sample that showed agglutination reaction with all the blood groups (A, B, O, and AB. We tested pooled red blood cells with OI group of adult and pooled cord red blood cells of Oi group with the patient serum. it was shown that the serum was reactive with OI but not with Oi. For confirmation of the result, the sample was sent to Institute of Immunohematology (I.I.H., India. The report approved that the serum contained anti-I specificity. To solve the transfusion problem for this patient, the recommendation is using the blood group with minimum coombs titration if the patient life is in threatened. Further investigations disclosed that the patient had leukemia. Keywords: Anti-I, Ii antigen, Allo-Autoantibody.

  16. Genetic Analysis of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Backward Caste Population of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana RAI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cell surface constitute blood group antigens. These are AB, A, B and O in ABO blood group system and Rh in rhesus blood group system. A total of 1065 unrelated Backward Caste (OBC individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D blood groups. Total 1065 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.81% (n=392, followed by O (32.68%; n=348, A (23.66%; n=252 and AB (6.85%; n=73. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The allelic frequencies of O, A, and B alleles were 0.5819, 0.1674 and 0.2506 respectively. Out of total 1065 samples, 1018 (95.59% samples were Rh-positive and 47 (4.41% were Rh-negative. Phenotypic frequency of Rh-negative in Koari, Yadav, Kurmi and Maurya samples were 0.99%, 4%, 1.4% and 7.6% respectively.

  17. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  18. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    .... It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1...

  19. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined...... the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail. METHODS: We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient...... and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3...

  20. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion.

  1. Evaluation of targeted exome sequencing for 28 protein-based blood group systems, including the homologous gene systems, for blood group genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Elizna M; Lopez, Genghis H; McGowan, Eunike C; Millard, Glenda M; O'Brien, Helen; Roulis, Eileen V; Liew, Yew-Wah; Martin, Jacqueline R; McGrath, Kelli A; Powley, Tanya; Flower, Robert L; Hyland, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Blood group single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping probes for a limited range of polymorphisms. This study investigated whether massively parallel sequencing (also known as next-generation sequencing), with a targeted exome strategy, provides an extended blood group genotype and the extent to which massively parallel sequencing correctly genotypes in homologous gene systems, such as RH and MNS. Donor samples (n = 28) that were extensively phenotyped and genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism typing, were analyzed using the TruSight One Sequencing Panel and MiSeq platform. Genes for 28 protein-based blood group systems, GATA1, and KLF1 were analyzed. Copy number variation analysis was used to characterize complex structural variants in the GYPC and RH systems. The average sequencing depth per target region was 66.2 ± 39.8. Each sample harbored on average 43 ± 9 variants, of which 10 ± 3 were used for genotyping. For the 28 samples, massively parallel sequencing variant sequences correctly matched expected sequences based on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data. Copy number variation analysis defined the Rh C/c alleles and complex RHD hybrids. Hybrid RHD*D-CE-D variants were correctly identified, but copy number variation analysis did not confidently distinguish between D and CE exon deletion versus rearrangement. The targeted exome sequencing strategy employed extended the range of blood group genotypes detected compared with single nucleotide polymorphism typing. This single-test format included detection of complex MNS hybrid cases and, with copy number variation analysis, defined RH hybrid genes along with the RHCE*C allele hitherto difficult to resolve by variant detection. The approach is economical compared with whole-genome sequencing and is suitable for a red blood cell reference laboratory setting. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Compactifications of the eleven-dimensional supermembrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Duff, M.J.; Pope, C.N.; Sezgin, E.

    1989-01-01

    We construct new vacua for the eleven-dimensional supermembrane in which spacetime is the product of four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and a compact seven-dimensional Einstein space, and the membrane is a sphere of non-zero radius in the anti-de Sitter space. In one class of solution the radius

  3. Interaction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli with lectins and blood group antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, K H; Skelton, S K; Feeley, J C

    1985-01-01

    Lectins and blood group antibodies were used to probe the surface structures of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the 29 strains tested, there were distinct reaction patterns. The lectin-reactive and blood group antibody-reactive sites on the bacterial surface were distinguishable from the heat-stable (lipopolysaccharide) antigenic determinants. The interactions were strain specific. The reactive sites were stable with respect to culture media and passage and may be useful as ad...

  4. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study.

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    Senthil K Vasan

    Full Text Available Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail.We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models.Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors aged 70 years or older except for a slight, but significantly decreased risk of all dementia combined in subjects with blood group A (IRR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98, compared to those with blood group O.Our results provide no evidence that ABO blood group influences the risk of dementia.

  5. [Association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease in Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Lin, Yingzhong; Liu, Hairun; Ji, Qingwei; Lu, Zhihong; Lu, Zhengde; Xu, Nengwen; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate this association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. From August 2010 to April 2013, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese Zhuang population, which included 1 024 CHD cases and 1 024 age and gender-matched non-CHD controls. The ABO blood groups and biological variables were measured by standard laboratory procedures. The Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Compared to non-CHD control group, CHD group had higher levels of fasting blood glucose ((6.71 ± 6.72) mmol/L vs. (4.98 ± 1.55) mmol/L, P population. Compared with group O, the group B individuals had a higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.88-2.90, P population.

  6. ABO blood group related venous thrombosis risk in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chung Mo; Vissapragada, Ravi; Sharp, Rebecca; Nguyen, Phi; Ung, Thomas; Solanki, Chrismin; Esterman, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the association between ABO blood group and upper limb venous thrombosis (VT) risk in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). Single centre retrospective cohort study. A cohort of patients who underwent PICC insertion from September 2010 to August 2014 were followed up for symptomatic VT presentations diagnosed by ultrasound. Blood group status was identified from hospital information systems. 2270 participants had 3020 PICCs inserted. There were 124 cases of symptomatic VT, an incident rate of 4% [95% confidence interval, CI (3-5%)]. Univariate analysis adjusting for the clustered sample showed that having chemotherapy, two or more previous PICCs, a larger catheter size, a diagnosis of cancer and having a blood group B were all associated with an increased risk of a VT. In the multivariate analysis, PICC diameter, cancer diagnosis and blood group B were all independently associated with increased risk of VT. Patients undergoing PICC insertion with a blood group B appear to have a higher risk of VT, independent of risks attached to the PICC procedure and cancer diagnosis. Without any existing guidelines for PICC-related VT, this investigation creates a platform for further research to be conducted in order to establish guidelines. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies investigating VT risk associated with blood group status related to large heterogeneous populations. In this article, we look at patients specifically with PICC, which reduces the heterogeneity in the cohort. In addition, due to the substantial number of patients enrolled, we had a chance to perform multivariate analyses with statistical significance.

  7. [Quality control for ABO blood group typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan-Ting; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui; Yu, Li-Jia; Sun, Le-Jing; DU, Ying

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate a quality control method for ABO typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood(UCB). The routine serology method was used to identify the ABO type of UCB samples. These samples with questions were further detected by sequence specific primer PCR (PCR-SSP). The results showed that among total of 76120 UCB samples identified by positive ABO typing, there were 78 samples (1 per thousand) which could not be determined. Of these 78 samples, 30 (56.92%) samples with a weak agglutination reaction were excluded by reverse ABO typing. Out of 260 samples in reverse ABO typing, 148 samples were consistent with positive ABO typing, 112 samples (43.08%) were inconsistent with the positive ABO typing. 58 undetermined samples were detected by PCR-SSP. Out of them the genotyping results of 45 samples confirmed the serological typing, the phenotyping results in 3 cases were inconsistent to that of genotyping. 10 cases showed the unconformity between positive and reverse typing, but the genotyping results were fully consistent with the positive typing. In conclusion, positive typing for red cell antigens combined with PCR-SSP is efficient and sensitive for quality control of ABO typing for neonatal UCB.

  8. Is there any relationship between ABO/Rh blood group and patients with pre-eclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Marta R; Caruso, Fernanda B; Paula, Letícia G; Medeiros, Augusto K; Gadonski, Giovani; Antonello, Ivan C; Mistry, Hiten D; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E; Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between pre-eclampsia and blood groups in a group of pregnant women hospitalized in a University Hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil - Hospital São Lucas (HSL)/PUCRS. Our sample consisted of 10,040 pregnant women admitted to the maternity department of HSL between 2005 and 2010. The patients were reviewed retrospectively for inclusion. Medical records of 414 women were diagnosed as preeclampsia/eclampsia and 9611 women were identified to the control group. The patients were divided into two groups: the group with preeclampsia/eclampsia and the control group, and their blood groups were considered. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Categorical data were summarized by counts and percentages, with the statistical significance evaluated by the Chi-square test. The null hypothesis was rejected when ppre-eclampsia, respectively, Systolic Blood Pressure (117±19.98 vs. 165±19.99); Diastolic Blood Pressure (73±14.23 vs. 106±14.24) and maternal weight at booking (73±33 vs. 83±33). For all data: mean+SD; pblood groups, firstly they were stratified by Rh and ABO phenotypes, separately. After that the groups were put together. No differences in blood group distribution were observed between controls and pre-eclampsia for any analysis. (p>0.05). When we adopted stricter criteria for pre-eclampsia and a large sample from the same region we noted that the results did not show any association between blood groups and the development of pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2014 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of gene polymorphisms in ABO blood group chromosomal regions and menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yong; Kong, Gui-Lian; Su, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yan; Lv, Li-Fang; Wang, Qiong; Huang, Bao-Ping; Zheng, Rui-Zhi; Li, Quan-Zhong; Yuan, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located near the gene of the ABO blood group play an important role in the genetic aetiology of menstrual disorders (MDs). Polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction technology was used to detect eight SNPs near the ABO gene location on the chromosomes in 250 cases of MD and 250 cases of normal menstruation. The differences in the distribution of each genotype, as well as the allele frequency in the normal and control groups, were analysed using Pearson's χ 2 test to search for disease-associated loci. SHEsis software was used to analyse the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies and to inspect the correlation between haplotypes and the disease. Compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences in the genotype distribution frequencies of the rs657152 locus of the ABO blood group gene and the rs17250673 locus of the tumour necrosis factor cofactor 2 (TRAF2) gene, which is located downstream of the ABO gene. The allele distribution frequencies of rs657152 and rs495828 loci in the ABO blood group gene exhibited significant differences between the groups. Dominant and recessive genetic model analysis of each locus revealed that the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences from the control group in the genotype distribution frequencies of rs657152 and rs495828 loci, respectively. These results indicate that the ABO blood group gene and TRAF2 gene may be a cause of MDs.

  10. Association between blood group and susceptibility to malaria and its effects on platelets, TLC, and Hb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhan, Hira; Hasan, Askari Syed; Mansur-Ul-Haque, Syed; Zaidi, Ghazanfar; Shaikh, Taha; Zia, Aisha

    2016-10-31

    According to the World Health Organization, the estimated number of malaria cases in Pakistan is about 1.5 million. Hematological variables like platelets, total leukocyte count (TLC), and hemoglobin (Hb) need to be evaluated to diagnose malaria in suspects. This study aimed to investigate the association between blood group and susceptibility to malaria and effects on platelets, TLC, and Hb. This was a case-control study with a sample size of 446, of which 224 were malarial cases and 222 were controls. A designated questionnaire was developed to know age, gender, malarial strain, Hb, TLC, platelets, and blood group. Of 224 malarial cases, 213 were P. vivax, and 11 were P. falciparum. There were 58 patients with blood group A, 72 with group B, 69 were O and 23 were AB. There was no significant difference in the blood group of controls compared to malarial patients (p > 0.05). Mean Hb level was 11.5mg/dL in malaria patients and 12.5mg/dL in controls. There was significant difference (pTLC was not significant between malarial and control groups (p = 0.072). Males were two times susceptible to malaria. There was no significant association between the type of blood group and susceptibility to malaria or developing anemia or thrombocytopenia.

  11. Determination of age, sex, and blood group from a single tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit K; Parhar, Swati; Thind, Gagandeep; Sharma, Aman; Sharma, Divya

    2017-01-01

    Human identification is one of the most challenging subjects that human has been confronted with. Through the ages, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search of human identity. Data in the form of age, gender, and blood group might provide vital clues in such investigations. In the recent times, it has been often desirable to preserve tissues for further investigations following the unfolding of certain events or discovery of new data. Hence, it is important to gather as much data as possible using less tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine age, sex, and ABO blood group of individual from a single tooth, to determine the effect of different environmental conditions, and to extract maximum information also at the same time preserving some tissue for the further investigation whenever needed. The study sample consisted of sixty teeth divided into four groups under different environmental conditions and time. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the buccolingual plane along the midline. Longitudinal ground sections of each tooth were prepared for age determination from cemental lines. Pulp removed was divided into two halves thereafter sex and blood group was determined. For correlation of age between estimated age and actual age, using cemental lines Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied. Further for determination of both sex and blood group between groups, Chi-square test was applied. A strong positive correlation was found between the estimated age and actual age of the study groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the actual and determined sex and blood group of the study groups. Although age, sex, and blood group are more reliably determined in freshly extracted teeth, these variables may be of significant help in identification even after a period of 6 weeks postextraction.

  12. Relationship of Blood Groups (ABO & Rhesus and Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

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    Ghulam Mostafa Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of blood groups with breast cancer in our country is not fully established elaborately and large scale studies have not been carried out till now. Therefore this study was designed to find out the possible relationship of different blood groups with breast cancer. Objective: To determine the relationship of various types of breast cancer with ABO and Rh blood groups among the female patients of our people. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the cancer unit of Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka from January 2011 to February 2013. After proper and ethical consideration total 112 female patients with breast cancer were included in this study. Various factors like age, family history, metastasis, type of cancer were considered in this study. The blood groups of the patients were done by standard ABO and Rh typing methods (Forward & Reverse grouping by test tube method. Results: Among 112 breast cancer patients of our country, ductal breast cancer was found in 108 (96.42% subjects, distant metastasis was found in 93 (86.9% cases and positive family history in 70 (62.50% subjects. Conclusion: Ductal type of breast cancer with positive family history and distant metastasis is common in different blood groups in our country.

  13. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  14. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpur Prakash Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord′s periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II, while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  15. Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease. PMID:23493096

  16. Relationship between genotypes of the Duffy blood groups and malarial infection in different ethnic groups of Choco, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Lina; Vega,Jorge; Ramirez, Jose L.; Bedoya, Gabriel; Carmona-Fonseca,Jaime; Maestre, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy-) confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Studies carried out in pursuing this direction in Colombia are scarce. Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities of La Italia (Chocó) and malarial infection. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with malaria. Sample size: Afro-Colombians 73; Ameri...

  17. Detection of rare blood group, Bombay (Oh phenotype patients and management by acute normovolemic hemodilution

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    Manisha Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to lack of correct blood grouping practices, the rare Bombay Oh phenotype may be missed, subjecting patients to the risk of severe hemolytic transfusion reaction. In the absence of blood donor registry, transfusion management of patients needing immediate surgery is a challenge. This study presents detection of rare Bombay Oh phenotype patients and their management by acute peri-operative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH in a hospital from central India. Materials and Methods: Blood grouping of patients and blood donors with a standard tube method was carried out and samples identified as rare Bombay phenotype were confirmed by saliva inhibition test. Surgical management of cases needing transfusion was done by ANH, as per the British Committee for Standards in Hematology guidelines. Results: The incidence of Bombay phenotype was 0.002% or 1 in 51,924 in the study. Amongst three cases (patients identified as Bombay phenotype, one was Bombay Oh, Rh negative. Two cases were missed in the first instance and one case actually did not require transfusion. In the absence of a blood donor registry for Bombay phenotype, the cases needing transfusion were successfully managed with ANH in the operation theatre. Conclusion: A simple test like blood grouping should be done with serious intention with incorporation of both forward and reverse grouping, so that no patient receives wrong blood leading to fatal hemolysis due to transfusion. ANH is a cost-effective transfusion option for suitable patients. Appropriate clinical decision making, use of strategies to decrease peri-operative blood losses and cost-effective country based planning could be more widely applied to improve clinical transfusion practice.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome, blood group & diet: A correlative study in South Indian females

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    Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30 years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30 years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system considering their diet & alcohol intake (p≤0.05 significant. Result: Our data revealed that the highest risk of PCOS was observed in females with blood group ‘O’ positive followed by ‘B’ positive who were on mixed diet & used to consume alcohol. Our study also suggests that Rh negative individuals didn’t show any association with PCOS. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that ‘O’ positive females, are more prone to PCOS. Though the relative frequency of B positive individuals are more in India, females with blood group O positive are more susceptible to PCOS, contributing factors being mixed diet & alcohol intake. So, early screening of ‘O’ positive &‘B’ positive females of reproductive age-group in South-India, could be used as a measure for timely diagnosis of PCOS, better management &also prevention of complications. However, further research should be done to investigate the multifaceted mechanisms triggering these effects.

  19. Genetic Sequencing Analysis of A307 Subgroup of ABO Blood Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Lin, Jiajin; Zhu, Suiyong

    2015-09-18

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the serology and gene sequence characteristics of the A307 subgroup of the ABO blood group. MATERIAL AND METHODS Monoclonal anti-A and anti-B antibodies were used to detect the ABO antigens of a proband whose positive blood type was not consistent with the negative blood type of the ABO blood group. Standard A-, B-, and O-negative typing cells were used to test for ABO antibodies in the serum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used to confirm the genotype, and subsequently, exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were detected by gene sequencing. Samples from the wife and daughters of the proband were also used for serological and genetic testing. RESULTS Red blood cells of the proband showed weak agglutination reaction with anti-A antibody, while anti-B antibody was detected in the serum. Moreover, PCR-SSP detected A307 and O02 alleles, while gene sequencing revealed mutation of c.745C>T in exon 7, which produced a polypeptide chain p.R249W. The A307 gene of the proband was not inherited by his daughters. CONCLUSIONS A mutation (c.745 C>T) in exon 7 of the ABO blood group gene resulted in low activity of a-1,3-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase, producing A3 phenotype.

  20. Molecular basis of Rh blood group system in the Malaysian population

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    Rozi Hanisa Musa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rh molecular studies have been previously mainly conducted in Caucasians and African population. There is a limited data on the molecular basis for Rh genotypes among Asians. Aims: This study aims to characterize the Rh genes and frequency of the various RH genotypes among blood donors in National Blood Centre (NBC, Kuala Lumpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 1014 blood samples were obtained from blood donors from four different ethnic groups (360 Malays, 434 Chinese, 164 Indians and 56 others. Serological and molecular analysis of all 1014 blood samples were performed. An automated deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing analysis was performed. Results: Rh phenotypes and RH genotypes showed heterogeneity and significant association with ethnicities. Discrepancies in allele D, C/c and E/e between phenotypes and genotypes results were observed. Discrepancy results in allele D showed significant association with the ethnic groups of the blood donors in NBC. There were multiple novel mutations (23 and published mutations (5 found in this study. Significant associations between discrepancy results and mutations were found in allele D and C/c. Conclusion: Performing RH molecular analysis in Malaysian population provided the basic database for the distribution of Rh genotypes of donors from major ethnic groups in Malaysia.

  1. Synergistic effect of hydrophobic and anionic surface groups triggers blood coagulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marion; Sperling, Claudia; Werner, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    Biomaterial induced coagulation encompasses plasmatic and cellular processes. The functional loss of biomedical devices possibly resulting from these thrombotic reactions motivates the need for a better understanding of processes occurring at blood-biomaterial interfaces. Well defined model surfaces providing specific chemical-physical properties (self assembled monolayers (SAMs)) displaying hydrophobic or/and acidic terminal groups were used to uncover initial mechanisms of biomaterial induced coagulation. We investigated the influence of electrical charge and wettability on platelet- and contact activation, the two main actors of blood coagulation, which are often considered as separate mechanisms in biomaterials research. Our results show a dependence of contact activation on acidic surface groups and a correlation of platelet adhesion to surface hydrophobicity. Clot formation resulting from the interplay of blood platelets and contact activation was only found on surfaces combining both acidic and hydrophobic surface groups but not on monolayers displaying extreme hydrophobic/acidic properties.

  2. ABO Blood Group Genotyping by Real-time PCR in Kazakh Population

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    Pavel Tarlykov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ABO blood group genotyping is a new technology in hematology that helps prevent adverse transfusion reactions in patients. Identification of antigens on the surface of red blood cells is based on serology; however, genotyping employs a different strategy and is aimed directly at genes that determine the surface proteins. ABO blood group genotyping by real-time PCR has several crucial advantages over other PCR-based techniques, such as high rapidity and reliability of analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine nucleotide substitutions differences by blood types using a PCR-based method on Kazakh blood donors.Methods. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center for Biotechnology. Venous blood samples from 369 healthy Kazakh blood donors, whose blood types had been determined by serological methods, were collected after obtaining informed consent. The phenotypes of the samples included blood group A (n = 99, B (n = 93, O (n = 132, and AB (n = 45. Genomic DNA was extracted using a salting-out method. PCR products of ABO gene were sequenced on an ABI 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems. The resulting nucleotide sequences were compared and aligned against reference sequence NM_020469.2. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on CFX96 Touch™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (BioRad.Results. Direct sequencing of ABO gene in 369 samples revealed that the vast majority of nucleotide substitutions that change the ABO phenotype were limited to exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene at positions 261, 467, 657, 796, 803, 930 and 1,060. However, genotyping of only three of them (261, 796 and 803 resulted in identification of major ABO genotypes in the Kazakh population. As a result, TaqMan probe based real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of genotypes 261, 796 and 803 was developed. The assay did not take into account several other mutations that may affect the determination of blood group, because they have a

  3. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

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    Dan eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Bifidobacterium longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1 and GII.4 strains to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E.coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders and one non-HBGA expressing E.coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E.coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E.coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission.

  4. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    palate induced by a chemical carcinogen (4NQO). The H antigen, normally expressed on spinous cells in rats, was absent in malignant epithelium, whereas staining for the B antigen, normally expressed on basal cells, was variable. These changes are equivalent to those seen in human squamous cell carcinomas....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  5. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  6. Prevalence and Mode of Inheritance of the Dal Blood Group in Dogs in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, S; Giger, U; Arsenault, J; Abrams-Ogg, A; Euler, C C; Blais, M-C

    2017-05-01

    The Dal blood group system was identified a decade ago by the accidental sensitization of a Dal- Dalmatian with a Dal+ blood transfusion. Similar Dal-related blood incompatibilities have been suspected in other Dalmatians, Doberman Pinschers, and other breeds. To determine the prevalence and mode of inheritance of the Dal antigen expression in dogs. A total of 1130 dogs including 128 Dalmatians, 432 Doberman Pinschers, 21 Shih Tzus, and 549 dogs of other breeds including 228 blood donors were recruited from North America between 2008 and 2015. Prospectively, dogs were blood typed for Dal applying a gel column technique using polyclonal canine anti-Dal sera. Pedigrees from 8 typed families were analyzed. The prevalence of the Dal+ blood type varied between 85.6 and 100% in Dalmatians and 43.3-78.6% in Doberman Pinschers depending on geographical area. Dal- dogs were identified mostly in Dalmatians (15/128; 11.7%), Doberman Pinschers (183/432; 42.4%), and Shih Tzus (12/21; 57.1%), and sporadically in mixed-breed dogs (3/122; 2.5%), Lhasa Apsos (1/6) and Bichon Frises (1/3). Only 6/245 (2.4%) blood donors were found to be Dal-, including 5 Doberman Pinschers. The mode of inheritance of the Dal+ phenotype was determined to be autosomal dominant. The high percentage of Dal- Doberman Pinchers, Dalmatians and Shih Tzus increases their risk of being sensitized by a blood transfusion from the common Dal+ donor. Extended Dal typing is recommended in those breeds and in dogs when blood incompatibility problems arise after initial transfusions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a similar fashion to a target model and demonstrated within-group dialogic interaction patterns. It was found that statements associated with DLA contributed to the collaborative group dynamics by providing cognitive scaffolding and enabling critical monitoring, which together facilitated model development and students' participation and understanding. In the model generation phase, the skills demonstrated indicated the use of statements associated with DLA as one student focused on the principles of blood circulation, thereby providing scaffolding for the other students. These students then generated another sub-model. In the model elaboration phase, statements associated with DLA elements such as request information of mechanism (AQ-a) and resolve discrepancies in knowledge (AQ-b) provided students with metacognitive scaffolding and enabled them to show their deep cognitive participation. Moreover, statements associated with DLA elements such as asking questions or metacognitive activity enabled the students to monitor others' models or ideas critically, showing that active cognitive interaction was taking place within the group. These findings reveal that individual learning approaches will bring a synergistic effect to a group modeling process and can lead to practical educational insights for educators seeking to use lessons based on group modeling.

  8. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  9. Prevalence of anti‑A and anti‑B hemolysis among blood group O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group O donor blood is more readily available and is frequently used as universal red cell donor in our environment. The presence of hemolysins in the donors may however lead to hemolysis in the recipients. Attempts have been made to study the prevalence of hemolysins in various populations with results ...

  10. The relationship between ABO/rhesus blood groups and type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the relationship between ABO/rhesus (Rh) blood groups and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a western Algerian population. Method: This case-control study was conducted at the Regional Hospital Centre of Maghnia, Tlemcen, from July 2008 to May 2009, involving 280 patients with type 2 diabetes ...

  11. The effect of alcoholism on secretor status of blood groups A and B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to secrete blood group A and B substances in the saliva of individuals has been studied in alcoholics. Individuals who secrete their corresponding ABH substances in body fluids are known as secretors, while those who do not secrete these substances are non-secretors. Three hundred people were tested.

  12. Effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, G-6-P-D enzyme activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective was to investigate the effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, haemoglobin genotype and G-6-P-D enzyme activity on malaria. The study was carried out in Buea, South West Province, Cameroon. Subjects consulting at health care facilities in Buea were randomly recruited into the study. A total of 121 febrile ...

  13. Relation between ABO blood groups and obesity in a Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki A. Alwasaidi, FRCPC

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Overall, our study did not show a significant relation between overweight and obesity and ABO blood groups. However, the elevation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity, mainly among the younger generations of the Saudi population, requires more awareness and educational programs.

  14. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide determinant of blood group Cad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.-P.; Fournet, B.; Montreuil, J.; Halbeek, H. van

    1983-01-01

    Glycophorin A and B from Cad erythrocyte membranes are the carriers of the blood group Cad determinants. They are characterized by a significant increase in molecular mass, as compared to the corresponding glycophorins from control erythrocytes (Cartron, J.-P., and Blanchard, D. (1982) Biochem. J.

  15. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the blood group ABO gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Worm, Jesper; Guldberg, Per

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A and B antigen expression is a frequent event in oral carcinomas and is associated with decreased activity of glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene. We examined 30 oral squamous cell carcinomas for expression of A and B antigens and glycosyltransferases. We also ...

  16. Association of ABO Blood Group Phenotype and Allele Frequency with Chikungunya Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairaya Rujirojindakul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the ABO blood group phenotype and allele frequency with CHIK fever. Methods. A rural community survey in Southern Thailand was conducted in August and September 2010. A total of 506 villagers were enrolled. Cases were defined as individuals having anti-CHIK IgG by hemagglutination ≥1 : 10. Results. There were 314 cases (62.1% with CHIK seropositivity. Females were less likely to have positive anti-CHIK IgG with odds ratio (OR (95% CI of 0.63 (0.43, 0.93. All samples tested were Rh positive. Distribution of CHIK seropositivity versus seronegativity (P value in A, B, AB, and O blood groups was 80 versus 46 (0.003, 80 versus 48 (0.005, 24 versus 20 (0.55, and 130 versus 78 (<0.001, respectively. However, chi-square test between ABO and CHIK infection showed no statistical significance P=0.76. Comparison of the ABO blood group allele frequency between CHIK seropositivity and seronegativity was not statistically significant. Conclusion. This finding demonstrated no association of the ABO blood group phenotypes and allele frequencies with CHIK infection.

  17. Prevalence of anti‑A and anti‑B hemolysis among blood group O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. Sera from 350 voluntary blood group O donors (328 Rhesus .... Boorman KE, Dodd BE, Lincoln PJ. ... Redman M, Malde R, Contreras M. Comparison of IgM and IgG anti‑A and.

  18. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, G-6-P-D enzyme activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theresa K Nkuo-Akenji *, Paul Wepngong , J ane-Frances Akoachere. Department of Life Sciences, University ofBuea, P. O. Box 63 Buea, S. W. Province, Cameroon. *Address for Correspondence. SUMMARY. The main objective was to investigate the effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, haemoglobin genotype and G-6-P-D ...

  20. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  1. Distribution of ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens, alleles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... significance in ethical anthropology (Salamatina and. Nasidze, 1993; Varsahr et al., 2003; Schmidt and Scheil,. 2003; Shneider et al., 2002). ... antigens, and they can serve as their identity identifiers. Based on the said property, blood group systems are widely used in forensic medicine (Pandey et al., 1995;.

  2. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ′O′ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ′O′ group constituting 14,164 (39.90% of subjects. Only three "Oh" that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008% were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%. Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008% and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%. Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India.

  3. ABO blood groups in relation to breast carcinoma incidence and associated prognostic factors in Moroccan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouine, S; Marnissi, F; Otmani, N; Bennani Othmani, M; El Wafi, M; Kojok, K; Zaid, Y; Tahiri Jouti, N; Habti, N

    2016-07-01

    The association between blood groups ABO and different types of diseases was established in several previous studies. Our aim was to seek the possible association between the ABO blood group and breast cancer-associated prognostic factors. The Chi-squared analytic test was used to compare phenotypic ABO distribution among Moroccan blood donors and 442 cases of women suffering from breast carcinoma with archived files in Maternity Ward of University Hospital C.H.U Ibn Rochd between 2008 and 2011. High incidence of breast carcinoma was observed in blood type B patients (p breast carcinomas overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 (p cancer at age over 70 years (p cancer among women younger than 35 years old. Blood type A and AB were associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis (p breast carcinoma. Further follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the role of ABH antigens in the progression of breast carcinoma.

  4. SMIM1 variants rs1175550 and rs143702418 independently modulate Vel blood group antigen expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mikael K.; Jöud, Magnus; Ajore, Ram; Vege, Sunitha; Ljungdahl, Klara W.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Olsson, Martin L.; Storry, Jill R.; Nilsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The Vel blood group antigen is expressed on the red blood cells of most individuals. Recently, we described that homozygosity for inactivating mutations in SMIM1 defines the rare Vel-negative phenotype. Still, Vel-positive individuals show great variability in Vel antigen expression, creating a risk for Vel blood typing errors and transfusion reactions. We fine-mapped the regulatory region located in SMIM1 intron 2 in Swedish blood donors, and observed a strong correlation between expression and rs1175550 as well as with a previously unreported tri-nucleotide insertion (rs143702418; C > CGCA). While the two variants are tightly linked in Caucasians, we separated their effects in African Americans, and found that rs1175550G and to a lesser extent rs143702418C independently increase SMIM1 and Vel antigen expression. Gel shift and luciferase assays indicate that both variants are transcriptionally active, and we identified binding of the transcription factor TAL1 as a potential mediator of the increased expression associated with rs1175550G. Our results provide insight into the regulatory logic of Vel antigen expression, and extend the set of markers for genetic Vel blood group typing. PMID:28084402

  5. EFFECT OF PLANT LECTINS ON HUMAN BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON PLANT FOODS AND JUICES

    OpenAIRE

    B. Venkata Raman; B. Sravani; P. Phani Rekha; K.V.N. Lalitha; B. Narasimha Rao

    2012-01-01

    Different plant lectins have been studied for lectin binding activity on ABO blood group system individually to study their suitability for consumption. 45% of plants were found to show blood group agglutination activity against A, B, AB and O groups. These results showed more suitability for consumption of investigated plants and their products to entire human population. Data also alarming human to be more careful about the plant lectins reacting with blood groups as the similar reactions ...

  6. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  7. ABO blood groups and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Lin; He, Na; Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-01-01

    For decades, studies have been performed to evaluate the association between ABO blood groups and risk of cancer. However, whether ABO blood groups are associated with overall cancer risk remains unclear. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. A search of Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, Wiley, and Web of Knowledge databases (to May 2013) was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and relevant reviews. We included case-control studies and cohort studies with more than 100 cancer cases. The search yielded 89 eligible studies that reported 100,554 cases at 30 cancer sites. For overall cancer risk, the pooled OR was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.09-1.16) for A vs. non- A groups, and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.80-0.88) for O vs. non-O groups. For individual cancer sites, blood group A was found to confer increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.18; 95%CI: 1.13-1.24), pancreatic cancer (OR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.15-1.32), breast cancer (OR=1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.24), ovarian cancer (OR=1.16; 95%CI: 1.04-1.27), and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR=1.17; 95%CI: 1.00-1.33). Blood group O was found to be linked to decreased risk of gastric cancer (OR=0.84; 95%CI: 0.80-0.88), pancreatic cancer (OR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.70-0.80), breast cancer (OR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.85-0.95), colorectal cancer (OR=0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.96), ovarian cancer (OR=0.76; 95%CI: 0.53-1.00), esophagus cancer (OR=0.94; 95%CI: 0.89-1.00), and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.70-0.91). Blood group A is associated with increased risk of cancer, and blood group O is associated with decreased risk of cancer.

  8. A New Chemical Approach to Human ABO Histo-Blood Group Type 2 Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new chemical approach to synthesizing human ABO histo-blood type 2 antigenic determinants was developed. N-Phthaloyl-protected lactosaminyl thioglycoside derived from lactulose via the Heyns rearrangement was employed to obtain a type 2 core disaccharide. Use of this scheme lowered the overall number of reaction steps. Stereoselective construction of the α-galactosaminide/galactoside found in A- and B-antigens, respectively, was achieved by using a unique di-tert-butylsilylene-directed α-glycosylation method. The proposed synthetic scheme provides an alternative to existing procedures for preparing ABO blood group antigens.

  9. A blood group A specific lectin from the seeds of Crotalaria striata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, N Q; Jean-Luc, G; Hoebeke, J

    1990-02-26

    A lectin, monospecific for human blood group A red blood cells was extracted from seeds of Crotalaria striata and purified by molecular sieving on Sephadex G-100 and ion-exchange on DEAE-cellulose. A molecular mass of 30 kDa was determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing and reducing conditions. Molecular sieving on a Superose 12 column indicated a molecular mass of 110 kDa, suggesting the tetrameric nature of the native protein. Amino-acid composition showed the presence of aminated carbohydrate residues on the lectin. N-terminal amino-acid sequencing showed a striking similarity with the N-terminal sequence of the lectin from Crotalaria juncea, which is blood-group non-specific. The potency order of agglutination inhibition with galactose containing monosaccharides was N-acetyl-D-galactosamine greater than D-galactose greater than D-galactosamine as found for blood-group-A-specific lectins from other species.

  10. Prognostic value of Rhesus blood groups in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M; Thrane, P S; Lilleng, R; Dabelsteen, E

    1991-11-15

    In the current study of the prognosis of all patients (N equals 70) with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of floor of mouth in Norway during the period 1963 to 1972, the authors found that patients with Rhesus (Rh) (D)-negative blood group had significantly poorer prognosis (mean 5-year survival, 8%) than patients with Rh (D)-positive blood group (5-year survival, 30%) (P equals 0.04). This extends the authors' previous observations in another group of oral cancer patients. The authors do not know the explanation for this association. However, the Rh gene locus is located on the short arm of chromosome 1 which reportedly has shown rearrangements in some head and neck SCC and other human neoplasms. The authors therefore speculate that the Rh gene locus may be linked with chromosome 1 changes of importance for the progression of oral SCC.

  11. INRA, a new high-frequency antigen in the INDIAN (IN023) blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Sheladiya, Ankita; Mendapara-Dobariya, Kinjal V

    2017-01-01

    The INDIAN blood group system comprises 4 antigens sensitive to enzymes and 2-aminoethyl isothiouronium bromide (AET). The patient's antibody was investigated for its specificity to the high-frequency antigens (HFA) of this system. Low ionic strength solution (LISS)-tube/LISS-indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) methods were used. The patient's red blood cells (RBCs) were tested with antisera to HFA. Her antibody was tested with RBCs lacking the HFA. Furthermore, it was tested with RBCs as untreated or treated with enzyme or AET. The genetic sequence was studied for mutation in CD44 gene that encodes INDIAN antigens. The patient was grouped A1B, RhD+, antibody screening test positive, direct antiglobulin test negative. A negative autocontrol test had suggested to the alloantibody being present. Antibody had agglutinated RBCs in LISS-tube at RT and by LISS-IAT at 37°C. The RBCs of the 11-cell panel, those lacking HFA and from 50 random donors, were agglutinated by her antibody indicating its specificity to the HFA, though the RBCs of Lu (a-b-)/In (Lu) type showed a weaker reaction. The patient's RBCs were agglutinated by antisera to a number of the enzyme-sensitive HFA, including those of INDIAN blood groups. The antibody showed reduced reactivity with the RBCs treated with papain, chymotrypsin, and AET but resistant to trypsin and dithiothreitol. The patient's genetic sequence revealed a novel homozygous mutation 449G>A in exon 5 of CD44. The antibody to enzyme sensitive HFA was tested for serological and molecular genetics studies and found to be directed to the novel HFA, named as INRA of the INDIAN blood group system and was assigned a numerical symbol IN: 005 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).

  12. Frequency Distribution of Blood Groups ABO, MN and Rh Factor in Philippine Cosmopolitan, Regional and the National Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Marian S. Guzman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. Blood groups include the ABO, Rh and the MN red cell antigens. The frequency distribution of these three blood groups were obtained and assessed for differences from three populations: (1 a regional population from the town of Cabagan located in Isabela province; (2 a cosmopolitan population from the University of the Philippines’ roster of students; and (3 the national population’s data obtained from blood banks all over the Philippines. This study sought to determine the frequency distribution of ABO, MN, and Rh factor blood groups to establish whether there exist differences in distribution among the three population categories. Standard blood agglutination sampling was conducted in these populations to determine blood types. Chi-square tests on the genetic frequencies reveal that there is no significant difference in the distribution of blood groups ABO and Rh. The blood group MN, however, displayed twice as many M blood type in the regional population than in the cosmopolitan population. This suggests a localized segregation of alleles responsible for the MN blood type within distinct populations in the Philippines. Computation of the allelic frequencies also revealed that both populations are not at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium based on the distribution of the different MN blood types.

  13. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  14. Perioperative treatment of hemophilia A patients: blood group O patients are at risk of bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive

  15. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD PRESSURE OF WOMEN BELONGING TO DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrkar, Stanislav; Mikalački, Milena; Čokorilo, Nebojša; Erić, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    One of the risk factors for the occurrence of arteriosclerosis and coronary heart diseases is physical inactivity. Together with hypokinesia, excessive feeding, age and other factors, make a multifactorial cause of cardiovascular disease. Positive effects of physical activities have been proved in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of coronary heart diseases. This study included 119 women from 20 to 76 years of age. All subjects vere nonsmokers who did not have a cardiovascular disease, and were divided into five different age groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured by the digital blood pressure measuring device with cuff OMRON M4-1. The evaluation of blood pressure was performed at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Novi Sad. The data processing was done by the statistical package SPSS 20.0. According to the obtained data it can be concluded that there are statistically significant differences in both individual and general system of the observed variables in different age groups. In addition, there are statistically significant differences between pairs of groups, which were observed when comparing with the oldest age group. The programmes of prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases should decrease the influence of risk factors and improve diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. High circulating osteoprotegerin levels are associated with non-zero blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Elod Erno; Varga-Fekete, Timea; Puskas, Attila; Kelemen, Piroska; Brassai, Zoltan; Szekeres-Csiki, Katalin; Gombos, Timea; Csanyi, Maria Csilla; Harsfalvi, Jolan

    2016-05-26

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) form complex within endothelial cells and following secretion. The nature of blood group antigens strongly influences the levels of circulating VWF, but there is no available data concerning its ascendancy on OPG levels. We aimed to assess the relationship of AB0 blood groups with OPG, VWF levels (VWF: Ag) and collagen binding activity (VWF: CB) in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. Functional and laboratory parameters of 105 PAD patients and 109 controls were examined. Results of OPG, VWF: Ag, VWF: CB (ELISA-s) were analysed by comparative statistics, together with clinical data. OPG levels were higher in patients than in controls (4.64 ng/mL vs. 3.68 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Among patients elevation was marked in the presence of critical limb ischemia (5.19 ng/mL vs. 4.20 ng/mL, p = 0.011). The OPG in patients correlated positively with VWF: Ag and VWF: CB (r = 0.26, p = 0.008; r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and negatively with ankle-brachial pressure index (r = -0.22, p = 0.023). Furthermore, OPG was significantly elevated in non-0 blood groups compared to 0-groups both in patients and controls (4.95 ng/mL vs. 3.90 ng/mL, p = 0.012 and 4.09 ng/mL vs. 3.40 ng/mL, p = 0.002). OPG levels are associated to blood group phenotypes and higher in non-0 individuals. Increased OPG levels in PAD characterize disease severity. The significant correlation between OPG and VWF:CB might have functional importance in an atherothrombosis-prone biological environment.

  17. Erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B in relation to atherosclerosis, serum lipids and ABO blood group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Klop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. METHODS: Subjects with and without CVD were included (N = 398. Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ≤ 0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT was determined as a measure of (subclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80 ± 0.09 mm, N = 140 compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57 ± 0.08 mm, N = 258 (P = 0.007, adjusted P<0.001. CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman's r: -0.116, P = 0.021. A total of 55 subjects (13.6% were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04-3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85-2.82. Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56 ± 0.94 a.u. when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89 ± 1.15 a.u, blood group B (0.73 ± 0.1.12 a.u. or blood group AB (0.69 ± 0.69 a.u. (P-ANOVA = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant.

  18. Reduced frequency of blood group Lewis a-b- in female Type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; Prinsen, K.; Lemkes, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To examine a disputed association between the Lewis(a(-)b(-)) phenotype and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Lewis red blood cell phenotyping was performed for 97 T1D White patients and 100 control subjects using monoclonal antibodies. Two historical cohorts were also included as a control...... population. RESULTS: T1D patients had a lower frequency (4.1%) of Lewis(a(-)b(-)) blood group compared with simultaneously tested healthy control subjects (10.0%) and the historical control group (11.1%, P = 0.02). Male T1D patients showed a Lewis(a(-)b(-)) frequency of 8.0%, which was similar to both...

  19. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Eunüs S.; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and...

  20. Secretor and Salivary ABO Blood Group Antigen Status Predict Rotavirus Vaccine Take in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul Momin; Cortese, Margaret M; Yu, Ying; Lopman, Benjamin; Morrow, Ardythe L; Fleming, Jessica A; McNeal, Monica M; Steele, A Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D; Zaidi, Anita K M; Ali, Asad

    2017-03-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) expressed on enterocytes are proposed receptors for rotaviruses and can be measured in saliva. Among 181 Pakistani infants in a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine trial who were seronegative at baseline, anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A seroconversion rates after 3 vaccine doses differed significantly by salivary HBGA phenotype, with the lowest rate (19%) among infants who were nonsecretors (ie, who did not express the carbohydrate synthesized by FUT2), an intermediate rate (30%) among secretors with non-blood group O, and the highest rate (51%) among secretors with O blood group. Differences in HBGA expression may be responsible for some of the discrepancy in the level of protection detected for the current rotavirus vaccines in low-income versus high-income settings. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Impact of sickle cell trait on the thrombotic risk associated with non-O blood groups in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sagir G; Kagu, Modu B; Ibrahim, Umma A; Bukar, Audu A

    2015-10-01

    The non-O blood group is an established risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), while controversy surrounds the role of sickle cell trait (SCT) as a risk factor for DVT. We hypothesised that if SCT is a risk factor for DVT, individuals with non-O blood groups and SCT (Hb AS) would have a higher risk of DVT than their counterparts with non-O blood groups and normal haemoglobin phenotype (Hb AA). We retrospectively analysed the prevalence of SCT and non-O blood groups among 148 DVT patients with control subjects in order to determine the role of SCT as a risk factor for DVT and its impact on the risk of DVT among patients with non-O blood groups. In comparison with control subjects, DVT patients had significantly higher prevalences of SCT (35.1% vs 27.7%, p=0.04) and non-O blood groups (68.9% vs 45.9%, p=0.02). The odds ratios for DVT due to SCT, non-O blood groups with normal Hb phenotype (Hb AA) and non-O blood groups with SCT (Hb AS) were 1.3, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. These results suggest that SCT by itself is a weak risk factor for DVT but it has the potential of escalating the DVT risk among patients with non-O blood groups. The combined effects of elevated clotting factors (non-O group effect) and increased clotting factor activation (SCT effect) were responsible for the escalated DVT risk among patients with co-inheritance of non-O blood groups and SCT. Co-inheritance of SCT and non-O blood group is, therefore, an important mixed risk factor for DVT. This should be taken into account when assessing DVT risk profiles of patients in Africa and other parts of the world where the SCT is prevalent.

  2. Relationship between somatotype and blood pressure in a group of institutionalized Venezuelan elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H; Rebato, E; Hernández, R; Hernández-Valera, Y; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A

    2004-01-01

    Somatotype, as an indirect measure of estimating body composition, provides an easy and comprehensive picture of body shape. Multiple investigations have shown the existence of an association between somatotype components and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of somatotype with blood pressure during ageing. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype and both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were recorded. The sample included 809 healthy institutionalized elders (370 males and 439 females) from geriatric units in Caracas, Venezuela. Ages ranged from 60 to 102 years. Product-moment correlation coefficients between somatotype components and both blood pressure readings were calculated. Principal component analysis and homogeneity analysis by means of alternative least squares tests were also performed. Females were more endomorphic and mesomorphic than males. Males were more ectomorphic than females. SBP showed a downward tendency with age in males, while in females the tendency was for the SBP to increase. Correlations among variables were from low to moderate and ranged from -0.37 to +0.34 in males, and from -0.18 to +0.32 in females. Correlations tended to be stronger in the younger age group and differences between sexes were found. A negative tendency in the correlation between ectomorphy and both SBP and DBP was found, except for the oldest age group, for which the correlation was positive. Endomorphy and mesomorphy showed a stable correlation pattern with blood pressure in males, while in females this pattern was more irregular and less consistent. Individuals with high levels of SBP and DBP had mean somatotypes, which were similar to those of other male groups characterized by myocardial infarct, coronary heart disease and the risk of hypertension, indicating that these somatotypes may be associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In particular, our results indicate that individuals who

  3. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  4. Aortopulmonary window. Experience of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabel; Paramés, Filipa; Rebelo, Mónica; Martins, José Diogo Ferreira; Pinto, Maria Fátima F; Kaku, Sashicanta

    2008-12-01

    Aortopulmonary (AP) window is a communication between the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery, in the presence of two separate arterial valves arising from separate subarterial ventricular outflow tracts. It is a rare anomaly that accounts for approximately 0.1% to 0.2% of all congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical features, surgical treatment and outcome of patients with aortopulmonary window referred to a tertiary pediatric cardiac center over a 30-year period. Eleven patients were diagnosed with AP window, ten with the proximal type and one with the distal type defect. Age at first evaluation ranged from three days to 13 years (mean 44.5+/-63.3 months; median three months). Echocardiography enabled correct diagnosis in the four most recent cases. Seven patients underwent closure of the AP window through a transaortic approach and three patients underwent ligation. Simultaneously, significant associated cardiac anomalies were corrected in three patients: correction of interrupted aortic arch in two patients and closure of ventricular septal defect and Dacron patch enlargement of the right ventricular outflow tract in one patient. One patient was not operated because of fixed high pulmonary vascular resistance. Operative mortality was 10% (1/10) and there were no late deaths. Mean follow-up was 10+/-4.9 years. All nine surviving operated patients are asymptomatic, without medication, with no residual defects and without pulmonary hypertension. In conclusion, advances in diagnostic and surgical approaches to AP window in recent years have enabled earlier intervention with good outcome.

  5. Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence. PMID:23593448

  6. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for blood group genotyping, copy number quantification, and analysis of RH variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuisen, Barbera; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, Masja

    2015-01-01

    The blood group multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a comprehensive assay, developed for genotyping the majority of clinically relevant blood group antigens in both patients and donors. The MLPA is an easy method to apply and only requires a thermal cycler and capillary

  7. The ABO blood group genotype and factor VIII levels as independent risk factors for venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Isabel; Mateo, José; Soria, José Manuel; Oliver, Arturo; Martínez-Sánchez, Elisabeth; Vallvé, Cristina; Borrell, Monserrat; Urrutia, Teresa; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and the ABO blood groups have been associated with thrombosis. The ABO locus has functional effects on vWF and FVIII levels and is genetically correlated with FVIII, vWF and thrombosis. We carried out a case-control study to assess the role of FVIII, vWF and ABO types on thrombotic risk. We analyzed 250 patients with venous thrombosis and 250 unrelated controls. FVIII, vWF and other factors related to thrombophilia were measured, ABO groups were analyzed by genotyping. FVIII and vWF were higher in non-O individuals. Group O was more frequent in the controls (44.3% v 23.3%; difference 21.1%; 95% CI: 13.0-29.3%) and Group A in patients (59.2% v. 41.5%; difference 17.7%, 95% CI: 9.1-26.4%). Individuals carrying the A1 allele had a higher risk of thrombosis (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8). The risk attributed to vWF disappeared after adjusting for the ABO group. Patients with FVIII above the 90th percentile had a high thrombotic risk (adjusted OR 3.7; 95% CI, 2.1-6.5), and a high risk of recurrence (OR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.1). In conclusion, high FVIII levels and non-O blood groups, likely those with the A1 allele, are independent risk factors for venous thromboembolism and should be considered in evaluating of thrombophilia.

  8. Approaches to Determination of a Full Profile of Blood Group Genotypes: Single Nucleotide Variant Mapping and Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon S. McBean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of blood group systems, currently 35, has increased in the recent years as genetic variations defining red cell antigens continue to be discovered. At present, 44 genes and 1568 alleles have been defined as encoding antigens within the 35 blood group systems. This paper provides a brief overview of two genetic technologies: single nucleotide variant (SNV mapping by DNA microarray and massively parallel sequencing, with respect to blood group genotyping. The most frequent genetic change associated with blood group antigens are SNVs. To predict blood group antigen phenotypes, SNV mapping which involves highly multiplexed genotyping, can be performed on commercial microarray platforms. Microarrays detect only known SNVs, therefore, to type rare or novel alleles not represented in the array, further Sanger sequencing of the region is often required to resolve genotype. An example discussed in this article is the identification of rare and novel RHD alleles in the Australian population. Massively parallel sequencing, also known as next generation sequencing, has a high-throughput capacity and maps all points of variation from a reference sequence, allowing for identification of novel SNVs. Examples of the application of this technology to resolve the genetic basis of orphan blood group antigens are presented here. Overall, the determination of a full profile of blood group SNVs, in addition to serological phenotyping, provides a basis for provision of compatible blood thus offering improved transfusion safety.

  9. Isolation of bifidobacteria for blood group secretor status targeted personalised nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Mäkivuokko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there is a constant need to find microbial products for maintaining or even improving host microbiota balance that could be targeted to a selected consumer group. Blood group secretor status, determining the ABO status, could be used to stratify the consumer group. Objective: We have applied a validated upper intestinal tract model (TIM-1 and culturing methods to screen potential probiotic bacteria from faeces of blood secretor and non-secretor individuals. Design: Faecal samples from healthy volunteers were pooled to age- and sex-matched secretor and non-secretor pools. Faecal pools were run through separate TIM-1 simulations, and bacteria were cultivated from samples taken at different stages of simulations for characterisation. Results: Microbes in secretor pool survived the transit through TIM-1 system better than microbes of non-secretor pool, especially bifidobacteria and anaerobes were highly affected. The differences in numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolates after plate cultivations and further the number of distinct RAPD-genotypes was clearly lower in non-secretor pool than in secretor pool. Conclusions: In the present study, we showed that microbiota of secretor and non-secretor individuals tolerate gastrointestinal conditions differently and that a combination of gastrointestinal simulations and cultivation methods proved to be a promising tool for isolating potentially probiotic bacteria.

  10. Perflubron emulsion delays blood transfusions in orthopedic surgery. European Perflubron Emulsion Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, D R; van Brempt, R; Theilmeier, G; Reibold, J P; Welte, M; Heinzerling, H; Birck, K M; Keipert, P E; Messmer, K; Heinzerling, H; Birck, K M; Keipert, P E; Messmer, K

    1999-11-01

    Fluorocarbon emulsions have been proposed as temporary artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of perflubron emulsion with the effectiveness of autologous blood or colloid infusion for reversal of physiologic transfusion triggers. A multinational, multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was performed in 147 orthopedic patients. Patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with colloid to a target hemoglobin of 9 g/dl with an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.40. Patients were then randomized into one of four treatment groups after having reached any of the protocol-defined transfusion triggers including tachycardia (heart rate > 125% of posthemodilution rate or > 110 bpm), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 150% of posthemodilution level) or decreased mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PVO2; emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0; and 1.8 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0. The primary endpoint was duration of transfusion-trigger reversal. A secondary end-point was percentage of transfusion-trigger reversal. Perflubron emulsion was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to drug treatment. Duration of reversal was longest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (median, 80 min; 95% confidence interval, 60-100 min; P = 0.014 vs. autologous blood, P emulsion (1.8 g/kg) combined with 100% oxygen ventilation is more effective than autologous blood or colloid infusion in reversing physiologic transfusion triggers.

  11. Assessment of relationship of ABO blood groups among tobacco induced oral cancer patients of Kanpur Population, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Katiyar, Anuradha; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Pandey, Amit

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of association between ABO blood groups and malignancy was first discussed by Anderson DE & Haas C. The association between blood group and oral cancer is least explored and hence this study was undertaken to evaluate relationship of ABO blood groups with an increased risk for oral cancer. The present study was conducted at various cancer hospitals in Kanpur. The study samples comprised 100 oral cancer patients and 50 controls with tobacco chewing habit. The information regarding the socio demographic profile, history on tobacco habits, type of oral cancer and ABO blood group profile was obtained from the case sheets of the patients. The frequency of squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher in men (78%) than women (22%) and mostly found in the age range of 45-65 years and also consuming chewing type of tobacco. It was found that out of 100 patients, 53 were of blood group B+ve, 28 of O +ve, 16 of A+ve and 3 had the blood group AB+ve. The high potential risk of developing OSCC was more in B+ve blood group (1.96 times), and relative frequency (%) in blood group O+ve (1.64 times) than in the control group Among locations of oral cancers, squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (25%) and buccal mucosa (15%) was more common in B+ve and Carcinoma of floor of mouth (11%) was more common in O+ve blood group cases. It was found that people with blood group B+ve, followed by O+ve had increased risk of developing OSCC with most prevalent being Well Differentiated OSCC as compared to people of other blood groups. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility against different types of oral cancers. The people with blood group B+ve and O+ve having tobacco chewing habits can be appraised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  12. Hvordan opplever elevene den formative evaluering i praksis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gran Aspunvik

    2016-03-01

    norske ungdomsskoleelever opplever de formative evalueringene. Artikkelen stiller spørsmål ved den formative evalueringens betydning for elevens læring, selvutvikling og samspillet mellom eleven og omverdenen. Resultatene viser at elevene opplever formative evalueringer forskjellig og at ikke alle opplever at denne form for evaluering fremmer læring. Videre gir artikkelen innspill til hvordan evalueringspraksis kan forbedres.

  13. The role of blood pressure in cognitive impairment in an elderly population. Osservatorio Geriatrico Campano Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, F; Abete, P; Ferrara, N; Paolisso, G; Amato, L; Canonico, S; Maggi, S; Varricchio, M; Rengo, F

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between arterial blood pressure and cognitive impairment in a group of elderly subjects, controlling for such confounding variables as age, education, depression, drug use and antihypertensive treatment. A cross-sectional survey in Campania, a region in southern Italy. A random sample of 1339 elderly subjects aged 65-95 years (mean 73.9 +/- 6.2 years) selected from the electoral rolls was interviewed by trained physicians. Sociodemographic characteristics, results of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), blood pressure and whether antihypertensive treatment was being administered were recorded. When subjects with neurological diseases and those under psychotropic therapy were excluded from the analyses, the population numbered 1106. The MMSE score was less than 24 for 27.9% of the subjects and the mean GDS score was 10.8 +/- 6.3. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 145.3 +/- 19.0 mmHg and the mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 82.0 +/- 9.2 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, age, GDS score and DBP but not SBP were predictive of cognitive impairment. Educational level and antihypertensive treatment, on the contrary, play a protective role. DBP was associated with cognitive impairment in subjects aged 75 years (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.25) and over (odds ratio 5.16, 95% confidence interval 1.50-17.71) but not in those aged 65-74 years. DBP but not SBP is predictive of cognitive impairment in subjects aged 75 years and over without neurological disorders independently from sex, age, education, GDS and antihypertensive treatment

  14. FREQUENCY AND DISTRIBUTION OF ABO & RH BLOOD GROUP IN BILASPUR DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH STATE : A STUDY FROM MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Pratap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Approximate 30 blood group systems have discovered and more than 400 erythrocytes antigens are identified. Blood group ABO and Rh are most important among all other blood group systems in transfusion service practices. The frequency of four major blood gr oup s namely A, B, O, AB with Rh Positive and Negative varies in different population of the world and differ also in region and race wise. MATERIAL AND METHOD : This 5 years retrospective study was conducted at Blood Bank of a Medical college Hospital of Bi laspur in Northern Chhattisgarh, catering the 1/3 population of state. Data were collected from the Blood Bank Grouping record from the period of January 2010 to December 2014. Blood group of blood donors and patients were determined by Monoclonal Anti Ser a by slide agglutinations tests. Rare case and difficult case were examined by test tube agglutination method and Matrix Gel System of Tulip. RESULT AND CONCLUSIO N: 31973 subjects were examined for blood group during observation period, Out of these 31092( 97.25% were male and 881 (2.75% were female. The frequency of blood group B in these populations was 11007 (34.42% (33.36% Rh Positive and 1.06% Rh Negative Followed by O were 10864 (33.97% (33.33% Rh Positive and 0.64% Rh Negative, A was 9113 (28.50 % (27.99 % Rh Positive and 0.51% Rh Negative and AB was 989 (3.11% (3.01% Rh Positive and 0.1% Rh Negative. Rhesus group Rh Positive were 31242 (97.7 % and Rh Negative were 731 (2.3 %.

  15. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpur Prakash Pai; Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar; Mulki Shaila; Anitha Dayakar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subject...

  16. Detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood by radiometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the radiometric detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood, using three media preparations, Bactec 6A and 6B isotonic media and 8B hypertonic medium. All enterococci tested were detected by the 6A and 6B media. However, the 6A medium failed to detect 76% of the Streptococcus bovis isolates and 57% of the viridans streptococci, whereas all S. bovis isolates and 95% of the viridans streptococci were detected with the 6B formulation. No improvement in detection was noted in comparing the 6B and the 8B hypertonic media. The importance of adequate detection of this group of organisms, especially in patients with endocarditis, is discussed.

  17. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Denong; Tang, Jin; Liu, Shaoyi; Huang, Jiaoti

    2015-01-01

    Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gp(HAE3), was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  18. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  19. Relationship between genotypes of the Duffy blood groups and malarial infection in different ethnic groups of Choco, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lina; Vega, Jorge; Ramirez, Jose L; Bedoya, Gabriel; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda

    2012-07-01

    The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy-) confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Studies carried out in pursuing this direction in Colombia are scarce. To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities of La Italia (Chocó) and malarial infection. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with malaria. Afro-Colombians 73; Amerindian (Emberá) 74, and Mestizo, 171. The presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene was studied by PCR and RFLP to help identify changes to T-46C and A131G which originate the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C and G/G, G/A, A/A. Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% of cases with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% due to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated with ethnicity (p= 0.003). Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotypes were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas the other diplotypes were infected with either of the species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0.90-1.00, among Afro-Colombians this was 0.50, the same as with the C allele and with an absence of heterozygous. At locus 131, the maximum frequency of the G allele was 0.30 in Amerindians and the maximum of the A allele was 0.69 in Afro-Colombians. In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, there was a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+) but this was not observed with the P. vivax infection. P. vivax was ruled out in all FY- individuals.

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  1. External quality assessment in blood group serology in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisangwan, Patravee

    2012-01-01

    The quality of blood transfusion services (BTS) is essential for the treatment of patients who need blood or blood products. BTS involve several steps, including the acquisition of the donor's blood, blood grouping, unexpected antibody screening, blood storage, transfusion, etc. There is a need to check the effectiveness of all elements in the BTS can be assessed and monitored by an external quality assessment. To assess and evaluate the performance of ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping and unexpected antibody screening of the selected World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region Member country laboratories. WHO Collaborating Centre on Strengthening Quality of Health Laboratories (Thailand) organized a regional external quality assessment scheme for blood group serology (REQAS-BGS) between 2002 and 2008 for laboratories in countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region. Test items for ABO and Rh(D) blood groupings and unexpected antibody screening and identification were distributed three cycles per year to BTS laboratories in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand. By the end of the project, a total of 20 BTS laboratories had participated for differing lengths of time. It was found that 87.5%, 93.3%, 81.3%, 92.3%, 100% and 87.5% of laboratories returned the test results in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Laboratories with excellent quality or a trend of quality improvement for ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping, unexpected antibody screening and identification during the six years were 60% (12/20), 50% (10/20), 52.9% (9/17) and 81.8% (9/11), respectively. At the initiation of the scheme, most laboratories were using substandard methods for ABO and Rh blood groupings, i.e. performing only direct blood grouping alone but subsequently adopted the standard methods, i.e. performing both direct and reverse blood groupings. REQAS-BGS in South-East Asia countries has been useful for assessing, monitoring and

  2. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  3. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  4. B Subgroup: Bx blood Group in a Patient : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Khatun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case of B Sub Group: Bx, first ever detected in Bangladesh, while doing compatibility test of a sample of a patient undergoing cardiac surgery. The patient was referred to the transfusion medicine department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University to do cross-match with 8 proposed donors of same ABO group prior to cardiac surgery. His red cells showed weak agglutination with anti-B, anti-AB and in his serum there was potent Anti-A and weak anti-B which was not detected at 370C. After adsorption with anti-B an elute was prepared from patient’s cells which agglutinate with B and AB cells but did not agglutinate with A or O cells. The patient could be transfused with B blood but in this situation of cardiac surgery, as he should have to be kept in hypothermic condition, we transfused him with O washed red cell with AB plasma during operation. Patient was released from hospital without any complication. The weak B subgroups are: B3, Bx & Bel. B3 shows a mixed field of agglutination with anti B. Bx shows a weak agglutination and weak anti-B is found in the serum. Bel is not agglutinated with anti-B but is only adsorbed anti-B. With meticulous attention, cell & serum grouping of recipient and proposed donor/s to be done along with 3 phase cross-matching (Saline phase at room temp, at 4 and 37 degree Celsius temp, Indirect Coomb’s Test phase to ensure right blood to the right patient at right time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.11032 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:81-82 

  5. Effect of pronase on high-incidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M E; Greeen, C A; Hoffer, J; Øyen, R

    1996-01-01

    Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient's blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the Cromer and Lutheran blood group systems and the JMH antigen were sensitive to pronase treatment of RBCs. Antigens in the Dombrock blood group system and Sc1 were either sensitive to or markedly weakened by pronase treatment of RBCs. The following high-incidence antigens were resistant to treatment of RBCs with pronase: AnWj, Ata, Coa, Co3, Dib, EnaFR, Era, Fy3, Jk3, Jra, k, Kpb, Jsb, K14, Lan, Oka, Rh17, U, Vel, and Wrb. Over half of the serum samples from normal blood donors contained antibodies to pronase-treated RBCs. When testing human serum against pronase-treated RBCs, it is essential either to use an autocontrol or to perform the testing with an eluate.

  6. Spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhotic patients: analysis of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiol, X; Castellote, J; Baliellas, C; Ariza, J; Gimenez Roca, A; Guardiola, J; Casais, L

    1990-03-01

    Eleven episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema were identified in eight cirrhotic patients with ascites. Criteria for spontaneous bacterial empyema included positive pleural fluid culture or polymorphonuclear cell concentration greater than 500 cells/mm3, evidence of pleural effusion before an infectious episode and transudate characteristics during infection. In five cases, spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-negative and was associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ascitic fluid was culture-negative in two of these cases and culture-positive in three. Blood cultures were negative in all five of these cases. In six cases spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-positive (Escherichia coli in four, Klebsiella pneumoniae in one and Clostridium perfringens in one). Four of these patients had the same organism in ascites; one had culture-negative spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and one had no infection of ascites. Blood cultures were positive in four of these patients; three died. Death was more frequent in patients with positive cultures than in those with negative ones (p less than 0.05). Patients with hydrothorax are prone to spontaneous bacterial empyema. This infection probably occurs through hematogenous seeding, but transfer of infected ascites from the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm cannot be excluded. Patients with spontaneous bacterial empyema may be asymptomatic or may be seen with fever, chills and dyspnea. Spontaneous bacterial empyema must be differentiated from parapneumonic empyemas. The presence of pleural effusion before the infectious episode, fluid characteristics and the organisms isolated are the clues for differential diagnosis. Treatment includes antibiotics; chest tube insertion probably is not necessary.

  7. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Mun; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor)

    2008-07-28

    Members of Norovirus, a genus in the family Caliciviridae, are causative agents of epidemic diarrhea in humans. Susceptibility to several noroviruses is linked to human histo-blood type, and its determinant histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are regarded as receptors for these viruses. Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to genogroup II noroviruses that exhibit a more diverse HBGA binding pattern. To understand the structural basis for how HBGAs interact with the NV capsid protein, and how the specificity is achieved, we carried out x-ray crystallographic analysis of the capsid protein domain by itself and in complex with A- and H-type HBGA at a resolution of {approx}1.4 {angstrom}. Despite differences in their carbohydrate sequence and linkage, both HBGAs bind to the same surface-exposed site in the capsid protein and project outward from the capsid surface, substantiating their possible role in initiating cell attachment. Precisely juxtaposed polar side chains that engage the sugar hydroxyls in a cooperative hydrogen bonding and a His/Trp pair involved in a cation-p interaction contribute to selective and specific recognition of A- and H-type HBGAs. This unique binding epitope, confirmed by mutational analysis, is highly conserved, but only in the genogroup I noroviruses, suggesting that a mechanism by which noroviruses infect broader human populations is by evolving different sites with altered HBGA specificities.

  8. Serum pepsin levels Hiroshima adult health study. Relation to radiation, ABO blood groups, and gastrointestinal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittle, J.L.

    1961-07-12

    At the ABCC clinic in Hiroshima 1330 subjects were investigated as to serum pepsin levels over a four month period. The normal mean values compared well with those reported for a United States population using a similar technique. There appeared to be no significant change in serum pepsin level with age, and no difference could be detected among individuals of the ABO blood groups. No relationship was found between serum pepsin level and exposure to ionizing radiation. Patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers had mean levels which were higher than normal mean values, while patients with leukemia had lower than normal mean levels. Patients with gastric polyps and gastric cancer had normal mean values. It is believed that the relation of serum pepsin activity to cancer of the stomach is not settled and deserves further investigation. 23 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...... of formalin-fixed paraffin-imbedded tissue using monoclonal antibodies with defined specificity. In fetal thymus the epithelial cells of the medulla and the Hassal's bodies strongly expressed elongated carbohydrate structures (Le-y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x). In a few cases the cortical epithelial cells weakly...... expressed Le-x and sialyl-Le-x. Compared with fetal thymus 16 of the thymomas showed a total loss, or a very much reduced expression of elongated carbohydrate structures. Three thymomas, which histologically had been reclassified according to Kirchner & Müller-Hermelink (14) as high grade thymic carcinomas...

  10. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eunüs S; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and subsequently performed in silico and in vitro drug screens have identified compounds that block norovirus binding and may thereby serve as structural templates for design of therapeutic norovirus inhibitors. This review explores norovirus therapeutic options based on the strategy of blocking norovirus-HBGA binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A national review of the clinical use of group O D- red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Rena; Wong, Janet; Diaz, Perfecto; Mondy, Phillip; Hogan, Chris; Dennington, Peta M; Pink, Joanne; Irving, David O

    2017-05-01

    There has been an international decline in the demand for red blood cell (RBC) units. In Australia, there has been a 21% reduction in demand between 2012 and 2015. In contrast, the demand for the "universal" group O D- RBC units is in fact proportionally increasing. The clinical use of the entire O D- RBC distribution for a 5-week period throughout Australia was reviewed. Fate data on each unit issued (n = 9733) were collected that included the indication and urgency of transfusion, reason for discard, component age, and patient demographics. A total of 74% of audit forms were returned (n = 7143). The national discard rate of issued units was 7.9%. A total of 6387 units were transfused into an estimated total of 3008 patients (55% males) with median patient age of 67 years and median RBC age of 21 days. Forty-seven percent were transfused to group O D- patients. A total of 17.4% were chosen for specific phenotype requirements, 24.5% of units were transfused close to expiry, and 24.5% were transfused into patients of other ABO groups. The data appear broadly representative of the current transfusion and inventory management practices surrounding the use of group O D- RBC units. Strategies to reduce O D RBC demand include reevaluation of inventory holdings particularly at smaller centers, increasing the panel of phenotyped RBC units across all ABO groups, more regular rotation of units between hospitals to minimize time expiry, and continuing education for promoting transfusion of ABO-identical RBC units. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Significance of ABO-Rh blood groups in response and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether ABO-Rh blood groups have significance in the treatment response and prognosis in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. We retrospectively evaluated files of 335 patients with breast cancer who were treated between 2005 and 2010. Demographic data, clinic- pathological findings, treatments employed, treatment response, and overall and disease-free survivals were reviewed. Relationships between clinic-pathological findings and blood groups were evaluated. 329 women and 6 men were included to the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.2 years (range: 26-86). Of the cases, 95% received chemotherapy while 70% were given radiotherapy and 60.9% adjuvant hormone therapy after surgery. Some 63.0% were A blood group, 17.6% O, 14.3% B and 5.1% AB. In addition, 82.0% of the cases were Rh-positive. Mean follow-up was 24.5 months. Median overall and progression-free survival times were 83.9 and 79.5 months, respectively. Overall and disease-free survival times were found to be higher in patients with A and O blood groups (pABO blood groups were identified as factors that had significant effects on overall and disease-survival times (p=0.011 and p=0.002). It was seen that overall and disease-free survival times were higher in breast cancer patients with A and O blood groups when compared to those with other blood groups. It was seen that A and O blood groups had good prognostic value in patients with breast cancer.

  13. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avci D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deniz Avci,1 Hatice Karagoz,2 Ozerhan Ozer,1 Kubra Esmeray,1 Kadir Bulut,1 Fatma Aykas,1 Ali Cetinkaya,1 Emine Uslu,1 Samet Karahan,1 Mustafa Basak,1 Abdulsamet Erden1 1Internal Medicine Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, 2Internal Medicine Department, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Introduction: Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. Patients and methods: A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O and Rh status (+/-. Results: There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029. The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006. The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004. Discussion: In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum. Keywords: ABO blood groups, Rh factor, preeclampsia

  14. Blood group genotyping Genotipagem de grupos sangüíneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Castilho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate phenotyping of red blood cells (RBCs can be difficult in transfusion-dependent patients such as those with thalassemia and sickle cells anemia because of the presence of previously transfused RBCs in the patient's circulation. Recently, the molecular basis associated with the expression of many blood group antigens was established. This allowed the development of a plethora of polymerase chain reaction-based tests for identification of the blood group antigens by testing DNA. The determination of blood group polymorphism at the genomic level facilitates the resolution of clinical problems that cannot be addressed by hemagglutination. They are useful to (a determine antigen types for which currently available antibodies are weakly reactive; (b type patients who have been recently transfused; (c identify fetuses at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn; and (d to increase the reliability of repositories of antigen negative RBCs for transfusion. It is important to note that PCR based assays are prone to different types of errors that those observed with hemagglutination assays. For instance, contamination with amplified products may lead to false positive test results. In addition, the identification of a particular genotype does not necessarily mean that the antigen will be expressed on the RBC membrane.Os antígenos eritrocitários são herdados geneticamente e definidos por seqüências de aminoácidos específicos constituindo uma proteína ou por carboidratos ligados a estas proteínas ou à lipídios. A diversidade dos antígenos de grupos sangüíneos, como para qualquer outro traço biológico, encontra-se ao nível do gene. Existem atualmente mais de 250 antígenos eritrocitários que se encontram distribuídos em 29 sistemas de grupos sangüíneos, de acordo com a Nomenclatura da Sociedade Internacional de Transfusão Sangüínea (ISBT. Os genes que codificam 28 dos 29 sistemas de grupos sangüíneos já foram clonados e seq

  15. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium...

  16. Efficacy of eleven antimicrobials against a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitman Douglas W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apicomplexa are a diverse group of obligate protozoan parasites infesting a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts including humans. These parasites are notoriously difficult to control and many species continue to evolve resistance to commercial antibiotics. In this study, we sought to find an effective chemotherapeutic treatment against arthropod gregarines (Apicomplexa, and to identify candidate compounds for testing against other groups of protozoan parasites. Methods We tested eleven commercial antibiotics against a gregarine parasite of Romalea microptera grasshoppers. Infected insects were fed daily, lettuce containing known amounts of specific antibiotics. On Days 15 or 20, we measured the number of gregarines remaining in the digestive tract of each grasshopper. Results Treatment with metronidazole and griseofulvin in host insects significantly reduced gregarine counts, whereas, gregarine counts of insects fed, albendazole, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fumagillin, quinine, streptomycin, sulfadimethoxine, thiabendazole or tetracycline, were not significantly different from the controls. However, albendazole produced a strong, but non-significant reduction in gregarine count, and streptomycin exhibited a non-significant antagonistic trend. Conclusion Our results confirm that gregarine infections are difficult to control and suggest the possibility that streptomycin might aggravate gregarine infection. In addition, the insect system described here, provides a simple, inexpensive, and effective method for screening antibiotics.

  17. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in blood donors of south Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, Manoj A; Patel, Rajnikant D

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk(a), Le(a), Le(b), P1, M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp(a), Kp(b), Fy(a),Fy(b), Jk(b), S,s, Lu(a), and Lu(b) antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R1 R1, 40.87%) as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+) and Fy(a-b-) were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+) or Lu(a+b-) phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b-) phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups.

  18. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

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    Manoj A Kahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk a , Le a , Le b , P 1 , M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp a , Kp b , Fy a ,Fy b , Jk b , S,s, Lu a , and Lu b antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. Results: From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R 1 R 1 , 40.87% as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+ and Fy(a-b- were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+ or Lu(a+b- phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b- phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Conclusion: Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups.

  19. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

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    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  20. Blood groups and red cell acid phosphatase types in a Mixteca population resident in Mexico City.

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    Buentello, L.; García, P.; Lisker, R.; Salamanca, F.; Peñaloza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several blood groups, ABO, Rh, Ss, Fy, Jk, and red cell acid phosphatase (ACP) types were studied in a native Mixteca population that has resided in Mexico City since 1950. Gene frequencies were obtained and used to establish admixture estimates with blacks and whites. The subjects came from three different geographical areas: High Mixteca, Low Mixteca, and Coast Mixteca. All frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The difference in the ABO frequencies was statistically significant when subjects from the three areas were compared simultaneously. Rh frequencies differed only between the High and the Low Mixteca populations. The ACP frequencies were similar between the Low Mixteca population and a previously reported Mestizo population. However, there were significant differences between the High Mixteca group and a Mestizo population, all the subjects being from Oaxaca. This is the first report of Ss, Fy, Jk, and ACP frequencies in a Mixteca population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:525-529, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  2. Natural occurrence, biological activities and synthesis of eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered ring lactones

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    Helena M. C. Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence, biological activities and synthetic approaches to natural eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered lactones is reviewed. These medium ring lactones are grouped according to ring size, and their syntheses are discussed. The structures of some natural products early identified as medium-ring lactones were revised after total synthesis.

  3. Cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH mutations associated with the domestic cat AB blood group

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    Millon Lee V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cat has one common blood group with two major serotypes, blood type A that is dominant to type B. A rare type AB may also be allelic and is suspected to be recessive to A and dominant to B. Cat blood type antigens are defined, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc is associated with type A and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc with type B. The enzyme cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH determines the sugar bound to the red cell by converting NeuAc to NeuGc. Thus, mutations in CMAH may cause the A and B blood types. Results Genomic sequence of CMAH from eight cats and the cDNA of four cats representing all blood types were analyzed to identify causative mutations. DNA variants consistent with the blood types were genotyped in over 200 cats. Five SNPs and an indel formed haplotypes that were consistent with each blood type. Conclusion Mutations in type B cats likely disrupt the gene function of CMAH, leading to a predominance of NeuAc. Type AB concordant variants were not identified, however, cDNA species suggest an alternative allele that activates a downstream start site, leading to a CMAH protein that would be altered at the 5' region. The cat AB blood group system is proposed to be designated by three alleles, A > aab > b. The A and b CMAH alleles described herein can distinguish type A and type B cats without blood sample collections. CMAH represents the first blood group gene identified outside of non-human primates and humans.

  4. Blood stream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii group in Japan - Epidemiological and clinical investigation.

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    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, especially A. baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, constitutes an important group of nosocomial pathogens; however, epidemiological or clinical characteristics and prognosis is limited in Japan. From 2009 to 2013, 47 blood stream infection cases resulting from A. baumannii group were reviewed at the National Defense Medical College, an 800-bed tertiary hospital. To determine the genospecies, further comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the RNA polymerase b-subunit (rpoB) gene were performed. Sequence analysis of rpoB gene showed that 25 (49.0%), 17 (33.3%) and 5 (9.8%) cases were caused by A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, respectively. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates of A. baumannii were 8.5% and 25.5%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between Acinetobacter species. Clinical characteristics were statistically insignificant. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species were detected in 3 cases (5.9%) with same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and A. baumannii was less susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. In this study, the mortality and clinical characteristics were similar among A. baumannii group isolate cases despite some showing drug resistance. However, identification of Acinetobacter species helps to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy in earlier treatment phase, because A. baumannii shows some drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Systematic Review on the Relationship of Dietary Habits and Blood Pressure in the Pediatric Age Group

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    Roya kelishadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Tracking of blood pressure from early life to adulthood and the increasing prevalence of elevated blood pressure in the pediatric age group are considered as important health issues. Rapid lifestyle change and dietary habits are considered as important determinants of this problem. This study aimed to systematically review the studies on the association of dietary habits and blood pressure in the pediatric age group.  Materials and Methods The search was conducted from November 2015 to August 2016 .Those papers were included that investigated the association of dietary habits on blood pressure in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years. The following medical subject headings and keywords were used to search all field (Diet OR nutrition OR nutrient OR food OR food habits OR food preferences AND (Blood pressure OR hypertension OR high blood pressure OR systolic pressure OR diastolic pressure OR Systolic Blood Pressure [TIAB] OR Diastolic Blood Pressure [TIAB] AND (child [Mesh] OR children [TIAB] OR adolescent [Mesh] [TIAB] OR pediatrics [Mesh] OR paediatric [TIAB] Results A total of 549 studies were initially identified in the databases. After excluding duplicate studies, 270 articles were retrieved and we reviewed them based on their titles and abstracts; then 161 articles were selected for more detail review. Findings of multiple studies showed the beneficial effect of fruits, vegetables and dairy products on blood pressure in children. Conclusion Increasing evidences indicate that dietary habits, notably daily salt intake of children is directly related to their blood pressure level. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence on the necessity of paying more attention to primordial and primary prevention of hypertension.

  6. BGMUT: NCBI dbRBC database of allelic variations of genes encoding antigens of blood group systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to human leukocyte antigens, blood group antigens are surface markers on the erythrocyte cell membrane whose structures differ among individuals and which can be serologically identified. The Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT) is an online repository of allelic variations in genes that determine the antigens of various human blood group systems. The database is manually curated with allelic information collated from scientific literature and from direct submissions from research laboratories. Currently, the database documents sequence variations of a total of 1251 alleles of all 40 gene loci that together are known to affect antigens of 30 human blood group systems. When available, information on the geographic or ethnic prevalence of an allele is also provided. The BGMUT website also has general information on the human blood group systems and the genes responsible for them. BGMUT is a part of the dbRBC resource of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA, and is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gv/rbc/xslcgi.fcgi?cmd=bgmut. The database should be of use to members of the transfusion medicine community, those interested in studies of genetic variation and related topics such as human migrations, and students as well as members of the general public.

  7. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

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    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  8. Molecular polymorphism of ABO blood group gene in Austronesian and non-Austronesian populations in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, J; Naka, I; Ohtsuka, R; Inaoka, T; Ataka, Y; Nakazawa, M; Tokunaga, K; Matsumura, Y

    2004-04-01

    A number of archeological, linguistic, and genetic studies have been carried out on the peopling of the Pacific, while the origin of Polynesians or the Lapita people is still open to debate. The Lapita people are believed to have populated the Bismarck Archipelago more than 3600 years ago. However, their Melanesian descendants still living in the Bismarck Archipelago have not been genetically clarified yet. To address this question, polymorphism of the ABO blood group gene was investigated in the following three populations who are considered to be almost free from recent admixtures: (i) Balopa islanders as Austronesian (AN)-speaking Melanesians living in the northwestern end of the Bismarck Archipelago; (ii) Gidra as non-Austronesian (NAN)-speaking Melanesians in southwestern lowlands of Papua New Guinea; and (iii) Tongan living in Ha'apai island as AN-speaking Polynesians. Interestingly, there were marked differences in allele frequencies of ABO*A101 and ABO*A102 among the three populations. The allele frequencies of ABO*A101 and ABO*A102 were 7.9 and 19.3% in Balopa, 23.2 and 0.0% in Gidra, and 2.9 and 25.0% in Tongan. Both phylogenetic and correspondence analyses suggested that Balopa was more close to Tongan than to Gidra and that Balopa was genetically placed between Tongan and Asian populations. Our results imply that Balopa may be Melanesian descendants of the Lapita people who populated the Bismarck Archipelago.

  9. Minisequencing-based genotyping of Duffy and ABO blood groups for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Bini, Carla; Ceccardi, Stefania; Ingravallo, Francesca; Lugaresi, Federica; Pelotti, Susi

    2006-03-01

    Duffy and ABO blood group genetic polymorphisms were studied by minisequencing analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nucleotide positions--33, 125, 265, and 298 of the Duffy gene and at nucleotide positions-261, 297, 467, 646, and 703 of the ABO gene. In an Italian population sample, we found four alleles and seven genotypes for the Duffy and six alleles and 16 genotypes for the ABO systems. The lower limit for reproducible results was 200 pg DNA, with a range of up to 10 ng and an optimum at 1 ng. All of the 16 analyzed inclusive paternity tests were also consistent with parentage and two out of four inconsistencies with parentage cases were excluded by one or more SNPs. Although Duffy and ABO SNP typing show lower informativeness than most current forensic tests, their robustness, the limited population distribution of FY* Fy type, and the sensitivity of the minisequencing technology suggest that these markers can be useful in selected forensic applications.

  10. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis(b) motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of blood group antigens A and B in pancreas of vertebrates

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    ELENKA GEORGIEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of blood group antigens (BGA A and B in tissues of different vertebrates is still controversial. There are few investigations on vertebrate pancreas and no obvious explanation of their tissue expression. The aim of the present study is to follow and compare the pancreatic expression of BGA A and B in representatives of five vertebrate classes. The biotin-streptavidin-proxidase labeling system was used for immunohistochemical detection of BGA by monoclonal antibodies to human A and B antigens. The present study reveals specific immunoreactivity in acinar and epithelial cells of pancreatic efferent ducts in species free-living vertebrates. The immunoperoxidase staining shows antigenic heterogeneity in the cellular localization. The number of positive cells and the intensity of expression vary in different species. Endothelial cells are positive only in the pancreas of Emys orbicularis. The lack of BGA A and B in some species suggests that the expression of these antigens is dependent not only on the evolutionary level of the species, but mainly on some genetic control mechanisms. The production of BGA A and B and the variability in their cellular localization probably reflect the stage of cell differentiation and the mechanisms of pancreatic secretor function. The presence of histo BGA in endodermal acinar pancreatic cells confirms the assumption for the high antigenic stability and conservatism of these molecules in vertebrate histogenesis and evolution.

  12. Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghasadeghi, Firoozeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2017-04-15

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a genetic component in the development of PE with estimated heritability around 0.47. Several studies have investigated the association between maternal ABO blood groups (OMIM 110300) and risk of PE, with contradictory results have emerged. Considering that there is no study in this filed from Iranian population, the present case-control study was carried out at Shiraz (south-west Iran). In this study 331 women; 121 pregnant with PE and 210 normotensive pregnant women were included. Using blood group O (for ABO blood groups) or Rh+ (for Rh blood groups) as a reference, odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PE risk were estimated from logistic regression analysis. Although the A (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.39-1.17, P = 0.165), B (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.48-1.53, P = 0.615) and AB (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.37-3.45, P = 0.812) phenotypes showed lower risks compared with the O blood group, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between ABO phenotypes and risk of PE. The frequency of Rh- phenotype was higher among PE patients compared with the control group. However, the association was not significant (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.69-4.65, P = 0.229). Adjusted ORs for age of participants and parity did not change the above-mentioned associations. Our present findings indicate that there is no association between ABO and Rh blood groups and risk of PE in Iranian population.

  13. Perioperative management of patient with Bombay blood group undergoing mitral valve replacement

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    Shio Priye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of stenotic mitral valve with Bombay phenotype who underwent minimal invasive right lateral thoracotomy for the replacement of the mitral valve. A male patient from Bangladesh presented to the hospital with New York Heart Association III symptoms. His medical evaluation revealed severe mitral valve stenosis and mild aortic valve regurgitation. The patient received erythropoietin, intravenous iron succinate and folic acid tablets. Autologous blood transfusion was carried out. The mitral valve was replaced with a prosthetic valve successfully. After weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinisation was corrected with protamine. Post-operatively, the patient received autologous red blood cells. The patient recovered after 1-day of inotropic support with adrenaline and milrinone, and diuretics and was discharged on the 5 th post-operative day.

  14. Anti-A/B antibody depletion by semiselective versus ABO blood group-specific immunoadsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrmann, Markus; Schiemann, Martin; Marinova, Lena; Körmöczi, Günther F; Derfler, Kurt; Fehr, Thomas; Stussi, Georg; Böhmig, Georg A

    2012-05-01

    Recipient desensitization using blood group (BG)-specific immunoadsorption (ABO-IA) has proven to enable successful kidney transplantation across major ABO barriers. In this context, the efficiency of non-antigen-specific (semiselective) IA adsorbers has not yet been established. The objective of our study was to quantify anti-A/B antibody depletion by protein A-, peptide ligand- and anti-human immunoglobulin-based semiselective IA in comparison to ABO-IA. Eight ABO-IA-treated transplant candidates and 39 patients subjected to semiselective IA for a variety of different indications outside the context of ABO-incompatible transplantation were included. Antibody patterns (IgG, IgG1-4 subclasses, IgM, C4d-fixing reactivities) were analysed applying conventional agglutination testing and flow cytometry. As assessed by sensitive flow cytometric antibody detection, ABO-IA-based desensitization led to a profound even though often incomplete reduction of anti-A/B reactivities. Persistent complement- or non-complement-fixing reactivities, however, were not associated with transplant rejection or capillary C4d deposition. Single sessions of semiselective IA turned out to be more effective than ABO-IA in decreasing levels of anti-A/B IgG [median reduction to 28 versus 59% (ABO-IA) of baseline values, P tested adsorber types. Analysis of four consecutive IA sessions revealed that inferior efficiency could not be overcome by serial treatment. Our observation of limited adsorption capacities regarding distinct BG-specific Ig (sub)classes suggests caution in applying semiselective IA techniques in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

  15. Seasonal tracking of histo-blood group antigen expression and norovirus binding in oyster gastrointestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Engelbrektson, Anna L; Mandrell, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters and generally occur between the months of November and March, when oysters produce the highest levels of glycogen. Oyster glycogen has been proposed as playing a role in NOR accumulation. Recent research indicates that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) function as viral receptors on human gastrointestinal cells. In this study, oyster glycogen was tested to determine whether it contains HBGA-like molecules and whether it plays a role in NOR binding. The correlation between the amount of HBGA expression and NOR binding also was measured. We also tested whether seasonal changes affected HBGA expression and binding of recombinant NORs. The results indicate that recombinant NOR binding is highly correlated with HBGA expression in Virginica (Crassostrea virginica), Pacific (Crassostrea gigas), and Kumamato (Crassostrea sikamea) oysters, but the association does not have a seasonal pattern. No obvious trend in either HBGA expression or recombinant NOR binding by month was noted. A significant increase in recombinant NOR binding was observed in Virginica and Pacific oysters in a season not generally associated with NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks. A significant increase in HBGA expression also was observed for Pacific and Virginica oysters in the same season. Paradoxically, HBGA expression and NOR binding both were higher in oysters produced in the non-NOR gastroenteritis season (April through October) than in those produced in the NOR gastroenteritis season (November through March), suggesting that seasonal NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks are not associated with high levels of HBGA expression or NOR binding.

  16. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

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    Silva Nalinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS. Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016 geometric mean (95% CI whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3 μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9 μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated.

  17. Blood group AB is protective factor for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Wang, Leishen; Sun, Shurong; Liu, Gongshu; Leng, Junhong; Guo, Jia; Lv, Li; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chinese cohort. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 14,198 pregnant women within the first 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women had a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test if the results from GCT were ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for traditional risk factors. Stratified analysis was performed by family history of diabetes (yes versus no). Sensitivity analyses were also performed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for GDM. Women with blood groups A, B or O (i.e. non-AB) were associated with increased risk of GDM as compared with those with blood group AB (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.83). Sensitivity analyses showed that the result was consistent using WHO criteria. The adjusted OR of blood group non-AB versus AB for GDM was enhanced among women with a family history of diabetes (2.69, 1.21-5.96) and attenuated among those without (1.33, 1.03-1.71). Blood group AB was a protective factor against GDM in pregnant Chinese women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Blood lead levels in a group of children: the potential risk factors and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuShady, Mones M; Fathy, Hanan A; Fathy, Gihan A; Fatah, Samer Abd El; Ali, Alaa; Abbas, Mohamed A

    To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. This was a cross-sectional study in children (n=400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45±3.90μg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37±7.94μg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (plead levels≥10μg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level≥10μg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead levellead level≥10μg/dL. Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Analysis of Correlation between IgG Titer of Pregnant Women and Neonatal Hemolytic Complications of Different Blood Groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hai-Hui; Huang, Hong-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Pi, You-Jun

    2017-10-01

    To study the relationship between IgG titer of pregnant women and hemolytic disease of newborn(HDN) with different blood groups. Four hundred pregnant women, including pregnant women with type O blood, were selected from May 2014 to January 2015 in our hospital for inspection and a couple of different blood groups, the IgG titer of pregnant women were detected in the inspection process. According to neonatal HDN, newborns were divided into 2 groups: HDN group(85 cases) and non-HDN group(315 cases). The incidence of postpartum neonatal hemolytic disease was tracked and the correlation of IgG titers with HDN were systematically analyzed. In the production and inspection process, the IgG titer in pregnant women was divided into IgG titer >64 and IgG titer IgG titers with ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn, that is, with the increase of IgG titer, the incidence of hemolytic disease of newborns increased in certain degree (r=0.8832), the risk in 4 groups of neonatal HDN was higher than that in IgG titer IgG titer >64 HDN group. There is a certain corelation between prevalence of ABO-HDN and IgG titer of pregnant women. For these pregnant women, the control of the pregnant women IgG titer has a positive clinical significance to reduce the incidence of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  20. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    OpenAIRE

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as li...

  1. Molecular typing for the Indian blood group associated 252G>C single nucleotide polymorphism in a selected cohort of Australian blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Genghis H.; McBean, Rhiannon S.; Wilson, Brett; Irwin, Darryl L.; Liew, Yew-Wah; Hyland, Catherine A.; Flower, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Indian blood group antigens, Ina and Inb, are clinically significant in transfusion medicine. However, antisera to type these antigens are difficult to obtain. The Inb antigen is a high frequency antigen present in all populations, while the frequency of the antithetical Ina ranges from 0.1% in Caucasians up to 11% in Middle Eastern groups. This antigen polymorphism is encoded by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 252G>C in CD44. The aim of this study was to establish and compare two genotyping methods to measure the frequency of the IN*A and IN*B alleles in a blood donor cohort. Materials and methods Donor blood samples (n=151) were genotyped by a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution meltcurve (HRM) analysis and a custom matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay. Samples with the rare IN*A allele were further investigated by nucleotide sequencing, red cell agglutination, and flow cytometry techniques. Results In this study group, 149 IN*B homozygous and 2 IN*A/B heterozygous samples were detected with 100% concordance between HRM and MALDI-TOF MS methods. For PCR HRM, amplicon melting alone did not differentiate IN*A and IN*B alleles (class 3 SNP), however, the introduction of an unlabelled probe (UP) increased the resolution of the assay. Sequencing confirmed that the two non-homozygous samples were IN*A/B heterozygous and phenotyping by red cell agglutination, and flow cytometry confirmed both Ina and Inb antigens were present as predicted. Discussion Genotyping permits conservation of rare antisera to predict blood group antigen phenotype. In PCR UP-HRM the IN*A and IN*B alleles were discriminated on the basis of their melting properties. The Ina frequency in this selected donor population was 1.3%. Application of genotyping methods such as these assists in identifying donors with rare blood group phenotypes of potential clinical significance. PMID:24960658

  2. The controversy about controls for fetal blood group genotyping by cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Peter G.; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Fetal blood group genotyping using cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma is routinely performed in alloimmunized women and has been introduced for targeted antenatal anti-D prophylaxis. The necessity to control for extraction of fetal DNA in these tests is questioned by many. This review

  3. O Blood Group as a Risk Factor for Helicobacter Pylori IgG Seropositivity Among Pregnant Sudanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Gasim I; Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Rayis, Duria A; Adam, Ishag

    2017-06-07

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence and the association between blood groups and Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out at Saad Abul Ela Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2014 through December 2015. Questionnaires covering socio-demographic and obstetrics information were administered. Specific H. pylori IgG antibody was analysed using ELISA. One hundred eighty six pregnant women were enrolled. The mean (SD) of the age, parity was 28.3 (2.6) years and 2.6 (3.5), respectively. Of the 186 women, 42 (22.6%), 24 (12.9%), 11(5.9%) and 109 (58.6%) had blood group A, B, AB and O, respectively. H. pylori IgG seropositivity rate was 132/186 (71.0%). There was no significant difference in age and parity between women with H. pylori IgG seropositive and seronegative. Compared with the women with H. pylori IgG seronegative, significantly higher numbers of women with H. pylori IgG seropositive had O blood group, [84/132(63.6) versus 25/54(46.3), PIgG seropositivity. The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk for H. pylori IgG seropositivity.

  4. Role of dental pulp in identification of the deceased individual by establishing ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As the teeth are the hardest, most stable biological material, resist adverse environmental conditions and the pulpal tissue inside the teeth is well protected, the blood group antigen from pulp remains stable for long. Thus, the high potential value of dental pulp tissue is highlighted in this study.

  5. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  6. Blood pressure percentiles in a group of Nigerian school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Determination of abnormal blood pressure (BP) in children is dependent on comparison with normal percentile values. The commonly used National Institute of Health (NIH) standard is generated from children outside of Africa. Objective: To develop BP percentile values for Nigerian children based on BP cuff ...

  7. Distribution of ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens, alleles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... DF, Barrett AJ, Childs RW (2001). Delayed donor red cell chimerism and pure red cell aplasia following major ABO-incompatible nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J. Blood,. 98(6): 1687-1694. Bucin D, Johansson S, Malm T, Jogi P, Johansson J, Westrin P,. Lindberg LO, Olsson AK, ...

  8. Blood pressure percentiles in a group of Nigerian school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-04-06

    Apr 6, 2014 ... life style including watching television and the large consumption of the fattening fast food are found to be ..... style that includes television watching, video gaming and less physical exercise. This is further ... cal activities like playing football and other outdoor games. The 90th and 95th percentiles for blood ...

  9. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Ye; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO3H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group (⊕N((CH3)2)(CH2)3SO3⊖) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO3H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO3H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  10. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  11. Next-Generation Sequencing for Antenatal Prediction of KEL1 Blood Group Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2015-01-01

    The KEL1 antigen can give rise to immunization of KEL2 mothers. Maternal antibodies can be transferred to the fetus and destroy fetal red blood cells and their stem cell precursors and give rise to serious fetal disease. It is important to be able to predict the fetal KEL status in order...... to intervene in those pregnancies where the fetus is at risk, and to ascertain when the fetus is not at risk. Technically it can be demanding to predict KEL1 status from a maternal blood sample. The KEL1 allele is based on a single SNP present in about 1-10 % of cell-free maternal DNA after gestation week 10...

  12. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2013-10-10

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b(+)CD5(+) B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d(-/-) mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γc(null)) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.

  13. Measurement of blood pressure for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in different ethnic groups: one size fits all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paramjit; Haque, M Sayeed; Martin, Una; Mant, Jonathan; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Heer, Gurdip; Johal, Amanpreet; Kaur, Ramandeep; Schwartz, Claire; Wood, Sally; Greenfield, Sheila M; McManus, Richard J

    2017-02-08

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and prevalence varies by ethnic group. The diagnosis and management of blood pressure are informed by guidelines largely based on data from white populations. This study addressed whether accuracy of blood pressure measurement in terms of diagnosis of hypertension varies by ethnicity by comparing two measurement modalities (clinic blood pressure and home monitoring) with a reference standard of ambulatory BP monitoring in three ethnic groups. Cross-sectional population study (June 2010 - December 2012) with patients (40-75 years) of white British, South Asian and African Caribbean background with and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension recruited from 28 primary care practices. The study compared the test performance of clinic BP (using various protocols) and home-monitoring (1 week) with a reference standard of mean daytime ambulatory measurements using a threshold of 140/90 mmHg for clinic and 135/85 mmHg for out of office measurement. A total of 551 participants had complete data of whom 246 were white British, 147 South Asian and 158 African Caribbean. No consistent difference in accuracy of methods of blood pressure measurement was observed between ethnic groups with or without a prior diagnosis of hypertension: for people without hypertension, clinic measurement using three different methodologies had high specificity (75-97%) but variable sensitivity (33-65%) whereas home monitoring had sensitivity of 68-88% and specificity of 64-80%. For people with hypertension, detection of a raised blood pressure using clinic measurements had sensitivities of 34-69% with specificity of 73-92% and home monitoring had sensitivity (81-88%) and specificity (55-65%). For people without hypertension, ABPM remains the choice for diagnosing hypertension compared to the other modes of BP measurement regardless of ethnicity. Differences in accuracy of home monitoring and clinic monitoring (higher sensitivity

  14. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b+CD5+ B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d−/− mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γcnull) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:23943651

  15. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about nine pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  16. Relationships between the ABO blood group SNP rs505922 and breast cancer phenotypes: a genotype-phenotype correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rummel Seth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, evaluation of the association of the ABO blood group and breast cancer has yielded mixed results. SNP rs505922, located within the first intron of the ABO gene, has been associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype of pancreatic cancer. To evaluate the association between genetic variation in the ABO blood group and risk of breast cancer, rs505922 was genotyped in 629 Caucasian women with invasive breast cancer, representing a variety of clinical and pathological tumor types. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from blood. TaqMan SNP assay C_2253769_10 was used to determine genotypes for each patient at rs505922. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square analysis using a P-value Results Genotypes were generated for 100% of the 629 patients in this study. Allele and genotype frequencies did not vary significantly for age at diagnosis, tumor stage, size or grade, hormone, HER2 or lymph node status, intrinsic subtype, tumor type or patient outcome. Conclusions Allele frequencies for rs505922 did not differ between women with breast cancer and published HapMap frequencies from women of European descent. Further stratification into different tumor phenotypes also failed to reveal an association between rs505922 and any clinical characteristics. Together, these data suggest that the minor allele of rs505922 and the resulting non-O blood types are not associated with increased risk or less favorable tumor characteristics or prognosis in breast cancer.

  17. Relationships between the ABO blood group SNP rs505922 and breast cancer phenotypes: a genotype-phenotype correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Seth; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2012-05-29

    To date, evaluation of the association of the ABO blood group and breast cancer has yielded mixed results. SNP rs505922, located within the first intron of the ABO gene, has been associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype of pancreatic cancer. To evaluate the association between genetic variation in the ABO blood group and risk of breast cancer, rs505922 was genotyped in 629 Caucasian women with invasive breast cancer, representing a variety of clinical and pathological tumor types. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood. TaqMan SNP assay C_2253769_10 was used to determine genotypes for each patient at rs505922. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square analysis using a P-value breast cancer and published HapMap frequencies from women of European descent. Further stratification into different tumor phenotypes also failed to reveal an association between rs505922 and any clinical characteristics. Together, these data suggest that the minor allele of rs505922 and the resulting non-O blood types are not associated with increased risk or less favorable tumor characteristics or prognosis in breast cancer.

  18. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal multiple bonds between Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin and Lewis b ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, P; Shi, Q; Magalhaes, A; Reis, C A; Bugaytsova, J; Borén, T; Leckband, D; Martins, M C L

    2014-12-06

    The strength of binding between the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) and its cognate glycan receptor, the Lewis b blood group antigen (Le(b)), was measured by means of atomic force microscopy. High-resolution measurements of rupture forces between single receptor-ligand pairs were performed between the purified BabA and immobilized Le(b) structures on self-assembled monolayers. Dynamic force spectroscopy revealed two similar but statistically different bond populations. These findings suggest that the BabA may form different adhesive attachments to the gastric mucosa in ways that enhance the efficiency and stability of bacterial adhesion. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of infection and cystic fibrosis lung disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Taylor-Cousar

    Full Text Available The pulmonary phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF is variable; thus, environmental and genetic factors likely contribute to clinical heterogeneity. We hypothesized that genetically determined ABO histo-blood group antigen (ABH differences in glycosylation may lead to differences in microbial binding by airway mucus, and thus predispose to early lung infection and more severe lung disease in a subset of patients with CF.Clinical information and DNA was collected on >800 patients with the DeltaF508/DeltaF508 genotype. Patients in the most severe and mildest quartiles for lung phenotype were enrolled. Blood samples underwent lymphocyte transformation and DNA extraction using standard methods. PCR and sequencing were performed using standard techniques to identify the 9 SNPs required to determine ABO blood type, and to identify the four SNPs that account for 90-95% of Lewis status in Caucasians. Allele identification of the one nonsynonymous SNP in FUT2 that accounts for >95% of the incidence of nonsecretor phenotype in Caucasians was completed using an ABI Taqman assay. The overall prevalence of ABO types, and of FUT2 (secretor and FUT 3 (Lewis alleles was consistent with that found in the Caucasian population. There was no difference in distribution of ABH type in the severe versus mild patients, or the age of onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the severe or mild groups. Multivariate analyses of other clinical phenotypes, including gender, asthma, and meconium ileus demonstrated no differences between groups based on ABH type.Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ABO blood type, secretor or Lewis genotypes were not shown to associate with severity of CF lung disease, or age of onset of P. aeruginosa infection, nor was there any association with other clinical phenotypes in a group of 808 patients homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation.

  20. Evolution of analogical reasoning in children: follow-up from six to eleven years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fidel Abregú Tueros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the time and period of development of Analogical Reasoning (AR and evaluate its independence and performance with respect to the age. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of two age groups and six annual follow-up phases from each one (2000-2005, 2001-2006 in six to eleven years-old children in the city of Huanuco (Peru with a sample of 167 children (first stage, and N=121 (sixth stage. The Raven’s progressive matrices test, coloured version, was applied individually without time limits. Results indicate that AR development occurs in a constant and late way from seven to eleven years-old children, and also that there is independence between the ability of AR and the children age. We discuss the importance of knowledge in the relationships between analogies topics, adjusted to the age, as a mediating factor in the development of AR.

  1. Immunohistochemical and genetic exploration of incompatible A blood group antigen expression in invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouine, S; Orfi, Z; Kojok, K; Benayad, S; Zaid, Y; Marnissi, F; Habti, N

    Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma and represents the most inherently aggressive form. Expression of incompatible blood group A antigen in cancer of type O patients has been reported in several types of cancer, however, the biosynthetic mechanism and the genetic basis remain unclear until today. The aim of the present case report study was to evaluate the expression of incompatible blood group A antigen and to identify the genetic basis of this expression in IMPC of the breast. One patient blood group O with Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma was screened at Pathology Department of University Hospital CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca. ABH antigens expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ABO genotyping was performed by allele specific primers PCR-ASP and Exon 6 of ABO gene was sequenced with Sanger method. H antigen was expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells of normal tissue. However, H antigen expression was lost in both invasive micropapillary carcinomas. A antigen was expressed in IMPC with approximately 80% of positive cells. Tumor DNA was genotyped as heterozygous A/O. In normal DNA, we identified a single frameshift deletion c.320delA p.(Glu107Glyfs*12), which is removed from tumor DNA. Our findings suggest that incompatible A antigen expression in IMPC is due to glycosyltransferase A encoded by an A allele which is derived from O allele with a deletion at the position 320. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Oscar; Solano, Luis; Escobar, Jorge; Fernandez, Miguel; Solano, Carlos; Fujita, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Carrion's disease (CD), is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase). Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only) and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P > 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru.

  3. Effect of placebo groups on blood pressure in hypertension: a meta-analysis of beta-blocker trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marcel; Winkler, Alexander; Rief, Winfried; Doering, Bettina K

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension is often treated pharmacologically. Since there is evidence that the cardiovascular system is sensitive to placebo mechanisms, our aim was to conduct an effect size analysis of placebo groups in double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group drug trials using beta-blockers to treat hypertensive patients. A comprehensive literature search via PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PQDT OPEN, OpenGREY, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform provided the basis of our meta-analysis. Effect sizes were estimated using a random-effects model based on 23 studies covering a total of 11,067 participants. Main outcomes were systolic blood pressure (sBP) and diastolic blood pressure (dBP). Blood pressure was lowered in placebo groups with significant and robust effect sizes (Hedges' g). The estimates for sBP (-0.27, P < .001) and dBP (-0.49, P < .001) can be interpreted as small to moderate. The placebo response accounted for 34% of the drug response for sBP and 47% of the drug response for dBP. Our moderator analyses indicated that a higher study quality and more study site visits were marginally associated with a higher placebo response. In light of these strong placebo responses, placebo mechanisms need to be considered in order to improve antihypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. West Nile Virus (WNV seroprevalence in a blood donors group of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Lunghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A seroprevalence study for anti West Nile virus was carried out among 864 healthy blood donors living in the metropolitan area of Milan by using a commercially available ELISA method. In addition, the performance of a novel ELISA assay for WNV antibodies was assessed. The sero-prevalence rate of WNV antibodies was 0.57% thus showing that WNV is likely circulating also in this up to now unknown area. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the novel ELISA were 99.9% and 45.4%, respectively, well comparable with that of the chosen reference immunoenzimatic method.

  5. Adenoid and tonsil surgeries in children: How relevant is pre-operative blood grouping and cross-matching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Onotai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a part of pre-operative evaluation, several otolaryngologists group and cross-match blood routinely for children undergoing adenoid and tonsil surgeries. This practice has generated several debates either in support or against this practice. The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the incidence of post-tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy bleeding and blood transfusions in otherwise healthy children with adenoid/tonsil pathologies conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH. Patients and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study of children who underwent adenoid and tonsil surgeries in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT surgery of UPTH from January 2003 to December 2012. Children with family history of bleeding disorders and derangement of clotting profile as well as different co-morbidity like sickle cell disease were excluded from this study. The patients′ data were retrieved from the registers of ENT out-patient clinics, theatre registers and patients case notes. Demographic data, indications for surgery, preoperative investigations, complications and management outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: Out of 145 children that had adenoid and tonsil surgeries; only 100 met the criteria for this study. The study subjects included 65 males and 35 females (male: female ratio 1.9:1 belonging to 0-16 years age group (mean age: 3.46 ± 2.82 years. The age group of 3-5 years had the highest (n = 40, 40% number of surgeries. Adenotonsillectomy was the commonest (n = 85, 85% surgery performed on patients who had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The commonest (n = 6, 6% complication was haemorrhage, and only few (n = 3, 3% patients had blood transfusion. However, mortality was recorded in some (n = 3, 3% patients. Conclusion: This study confirms that the incidence of post adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy bleeding in otherwise healthy children is low and rarely requires blood transfusion

  6. Glucose buffer is suitable for blood group conversion with α-N acetylgalactosaminidase and α-galactosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Hui; Wang, Ying-Li; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that the buffer plays a key role in the enzymatic reaction involved in blood group conversion. In previous study, we showed that a glycine buffer is suitable for A to O or B to O blood group conversion. In this study, we investigated the use of 5% glucose and other buffers for A to O or B to O blood group conversion by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or α-galactosidase. Materials and methods We compared the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase/α-galactosidase with red blood cells (RBC) in different reaction buffers, such as normal saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a disodium hydrogen phosphate-based buffer (PCS), and 5% commercial glucose solution. The doses of enzymes necessary for the A/B to O conversion in different reaction buffers were determined and compared. The enzymes’ ability to bind to RBC was evaluated by western blotting, and routine blood typing and fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to evaluate B/A to O conversion efficiency. Results The A to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.06 mg/mL pRBC). B to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was also similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.005 mg/mL pRBC). Most enzymes could bind with RBC in glycine or glucose buffer, but few enzymes could bind with RBC in PBS, PCS, or normal saline. Conclusion These results indicate that 5% glucose solution provides a suitable condition for enzymolysis, especially for enzymes combining with RBC. Meanwhile, the conversion efficiency of A/B to O was similar in glucose buffer and glycine buffer. Moreover, 5% glucose solution has been used for years in venous transfusion, it is safe for humans and its cost is lower. Our results do, therefore, suggest that 5% glucose solution could become a novel suitable buffer for A/B to O blood group conversion. PMID:24333060

  7. Glucose buffer is suitable for blood group conversion with α-N acetylgalactosaminidase and α-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Hui; Wang, Ying-Li; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the buffer plays a key role in the enzymatic reaction involved in blood group conversion. In previous study, we showed that a glycine buffer is suitable for A to O or B to O blood group conversion. In this study, we investigated the use of 5% glucose and other buffers for A to O or B to O blood group conversion by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or α-galactosidase. We compared the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase/α-galactosidase with red blood cells (RBC) in different reaction buffers, such as normal saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a disodium hydrogen phosphate-based buffer (PCS), and 5% commercial glucose solution. The doses of enzymes necessary for the A/B to O conversion in different reaction buffers were determined and compared. The enzymes' ability to bind to RBC was evaluated by western blotting, and routine blood typing and fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to evaluate B/A to O conversion efficiency. The A to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.06 mg/mL pRBC). B to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was also similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.005 mg/mL pRBC). Most enzymes could bind with RBC in glycine or glucose buffer, but few enzymes could bind with RBC in PBS, PCS, or normal saline. These results indicate that 5% glucose solution provides a suitable condition for enzymolysis, especially for enzymes combining with RBC. Meanwhile, the conversion efficiency of A/B to O was similar in glucose buffer and glycine buffer. Moreover, 5% glucose solution has been used for years in venous transfusion, it is safe for humans and its cost is lower. Our results do, therefore, suggest that 5% glucose solution could become a novel suitable buffer for A/B to O blood group conversion.

  8. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-05

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sara K.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Farber, Gregory K.; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D.; Burns, Kristin M.; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C.; Chung, Wendy K.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H.; Forrest, Christopher B.; Gaynor, William J.; Gaies, Michael G.; Go, Alan S.; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R.; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Schwartz, Steven M.; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Working Group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease (CHD) research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of CHD data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in CHD, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the Working Group. PMID:27045129

  10. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  11. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  12. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia González

    Full Text Available The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs, which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories.We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua. High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment.TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies.Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs.

  13. ABO blood group alleles and prostate cancer risk: Results from the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium (BPC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Shui, Irene M; Unger, Robert H; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L; Stram, Daniel O; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A; Choueiri, Toni K; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney, and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.87-1.08; Type B: OR = 0.92, 95%CI =n0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between "dose" of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, we established organotypic cultures of skin and buccal mucosa. In these cultures, keratinocytes are grown at the air-liquid interface on a supporting matrix consisting of homologous fibroblasts embedded in a collagen type I gel. We examined the expression of blood...... cultures. The organotypic skin and oral mucosa cultures showed a histological differentiation pattern analogous to that of normal skin and buccal mucosa, and a tissue-specific expression of carbohydrate structures and cytokeratins. However, both types of organotypic cultures also expressed markers which......Cellular maturation and migration are usually associated with changes in cell-surface carbohydrates, but the relationship between these changes and cell behaviour is at present largely unknown. To investigate whether an organotypic culture system can be used as an in vitro model to study...

  16. Successful unintentional ABO-incompatible renal transplantation: Blood group A1B donor into an A2B recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2014-05-01

    To report a successful unintentional transplantation of a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor into a recipient who was blood group A2B with unsuspected preformed anti-A1 antibodies. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO antigens. The recipient was tested for ABO and non-ABO antibodies. The recipient was typed for HLA class I and class II antigens, including HLA antibody screen. The T-and B-flow cytometry crossmatch test was performed using standard protocol. The donor-recipient pair was a complete six-antigen human leukocyte antigen mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry cross-match tests were compatible. The recipient was a 65-year-old woman with a medical history of end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy who underwent kidney transplantation from a 46-year-old brain-dead standard criteria donor. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and the recipient was thus typed as an A2 subgroup. Anti-A1 could be demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor's RBCs were positive with A1 lectin, thereby conferring an A1 blood type. It is safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group barrier provided that the preformed antibodies are not reactive at 37°C and with anti-human globulin.

  17. Bifidobacterial α-galactosidase with unique carbohydrate-binding module specifically acts on blood group B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakinaka, Takura; Kiyohara, Masashi; Kurihara, Shin; Hirata, Akiko; Chaiwangsri, Thida; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Fukamizo, Tamo; Katayama, Takane; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Bifidobacterium bifidum is one of the most frequently found bifidobacteria in the intestines of newborn infants. We previously reported that B. bifidum possesses unique metabolic pathways for O-linked glycans on gastrointestinal mucin (Yoshida E, Sakurama H, Kiyohara M, Nakajima M, Kitaoka M, Ashida H, Hirose J, Katayama T, Yamamoto K, Kumagai H. 2012. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis uses two different β-galactosidases for selectively degrading type-1 and type-2 human milk oligosaccharides. Glycobiology. 22:361-368). The nonreducing termini of O-linked glycans on mucin are frequently covered with histo-blood group antigens. Here, we identified a gene agabb from B. bifidum JCM 1254, which encodes glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 110 α-galactosidase. AgaBb is a 1289-amino acid polypeptide containing an N-terminal signal sequence, a GH110 domain, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) 51 domain, a bacterial Ig-like (Big) 2 domain and a C-terminal transmembrane region, in this order. The recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed α1,3-linked Gal in branched blood group B antigen [Galα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-R], but not in a linear xenotransplantation antigen (Galα1-3Galβ1-R). The enzyme also acted on group B human salivary mucin and erythrocytes. We also revealed that CBM51 specifically bound blood group B antigen using both isothermal titration calorimetry and a solid-phase binding assay, and it enhanced the affinity of the enzyme toward substrates with multivalent B antigens. We suggest that this enzyme plays an important role in degrading B antigens to acquire nutrients from mucin oligosaccharides in the gastrointestinal tracts.

  18. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The A0 blood group genotype modifies the jejunal glycomic binding pattern profile of piglets early associated with a simple or complex microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priori, D.; Colombo, M.; Koopmans, S.J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Trevisi, P.; Bosi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif is an important determinant of the bacterial-host interaction and may be affected in pigs by gut microbiota and by blood group genotype. The aim was to study the effect of intestinal association with different microbiota and A0 blood group

  20. Un caso de grupo sanguíneo raro: fenotipo p A rare blood group: p phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. De La Vega Elena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un individuo con un fenotipo eritrocitario raro carece de uno o varios antígenos presentes en la mayor parte de la población de pertenencia. Cuando presenta el anticuerpo correspondiente, se pueden producir complicaciones perinatales, transfusionales y/o transplantológicas. Se presenta el caso de una embarazada aloinmunizada derivada a nuestro servicio en la semana 12 de su tercera gesta para su evaluación y seguimiento. El diagnóstico inmunohematológico le asignó el excepcional fenotipo "p" (aproximadamente 1/200 000 individuos, asociado con una mayor tasa de abortos espontáneos y a reacciones transfusionales graves cuando se transfunden unidades incompatibles. El estudio del gen A4GALT demostró la presencia de la mutación c.752C > T en doble dosis. Esta mutación lleva a un cambio de una prolina por una leucina en el residuo 251 de la 4-α-galactosiltransferasa. Por parto inducido por sufrimiento fetal, nace a las 36 semanas una bebé con prueba de antiglobulina (Coombs directa negativa, eluido reactivo, con ictericia que requirió luminoterapia. Una semana después el neonato fue externado sin secuelas aparentes. Posteriormente, a raíz de una cirugía inminente y la improbabilidad de encontrar sangre compatible, se elaboró un plan para cubrir las posibles demandas. Este caso pone en evidencia la necesidad de contar a nivel nacional con un laboratorio de referencia de inmunohematología y un banco de sangre de grupos raros, que permita resolver con celeridad situaciones que requieran transfundir a estos individuos.A rare blood group is usually defined as the absence of a high prevalence antigen or the absence of several antigens within a single blood group system. These individuals may develop clinically significant red cell antibodies to the high incidence red cell antigens they lack. A 33-year-old alloimmunized woman was referred to our center at the 12th week of her third pregnancy for evaluation and follow up. The laboratory

  1. Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeen H Jafar

    Full Text Available Evidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the combined home health education (HHE and trained general practitioner (GP intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than no intervention (usual care in lowering systolic BP among adults with hypertension in urban Pakistan. However, it was not clear whether the effect would be sustained after the cessation of intervention. We conducted 7 years follow-up inclusive of 5 years of post intervention period of COBRA trial participants to assess the effectiveness of the interventions on BP during extended follow-up.A total of 1341 individuals 40 years or older with hypertension (systolic BP 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or greater, or already receiving treatment were followed by trained research staff masked to randomization status. BP was measured thrice with a calibrated automated device (Omron HEM-737 IntelliSense in the sitting position after 5 minutes of rest. BP measurements were repeated after two weeks. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to analyze the primary outcome of change in systolic BP from baseline to 7- year follow-up. The multivariable model was adjusted for clustering, age at baseline, sex, baseline systolic and diastolic BP, and presence of diabetes.After 7 years of follow-up, systolic BP levels among those randomised to combined HHE plus trained GP intervention were significantly lower (2.1 [4.1-0.1] mm Hg compared to those randomised to usual care, (P = 0.04. Participants receiving the combined intervention compared to usual care had a greater reduction in LDL-cholesterol (2.7 [4.8 to 0.6] mg/dl.The benefit in systolic BP reduction observed in the original cohort assigned to the combined intervention was attenuated but still evident at 7- year follow-up. These

  2. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nigeria: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abass Toba Anifowoshe

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... a Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria b Department of Biology, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo, Nigeria c Transcriptional Regulation Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi, India.

  3. Distribution of Rhesus blood group antigens and weak D alleles in the population of Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhetani, Merita; Seferi, Irena; Férec, Claude; Zoraqi, Grigor; Fichou, Yann

    2014-10-01

    Determination of Rhesus (Rh) status is of critical importance in the field of both transfusion and obstetric medicine. As the distribution of Rh phenotypes was unknown in the Albanian population, we investigated the donor population in Albania to estimate the prevalence of each phenotype, as well as to identify and characterise the variants at the molecular level. A total of 38,836 blood donors were phenotyped for Rh D, C, c, E and e antigens by routine serological methods, and samples with reduced D antigen expression underwent molecular characterisation by a Tm-shift genotyping method and direct sequencing. Among all donors 89.00% and 10.86% were D-positive and D-negative, respectively, while 0.14% (n=55) of the donors were found to be weak D-positive. Overall 45/55 samples (81.8%) were resolved by Tm-shift screening, showing that approximately 67% of the variant D alleles were weak D type 1, while weak D type 3 (9.1%) and weak D type 2 (3.6%) were less common. A novel c.932A>G (p.Y311C) variant was also found in the heterozygous state by direct sequencing. This extensive study reveals the distribution of Rh phenotypes in the Albanian population, the low prevalence of individuals with a weak D phenotype, and the specific pattern of distribution of the three most common variant alleles in this Caucasian population.

  4. The identification of specific Rhesus-polypeptide-blood-group-ABH-active-glycoprotein complexes in the human red-cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Green, C

    1987-06-15

    1. RhD,c and E immune complexes isolated from 3H- and 125I-surface-radiolabelled and unlabelled intact human red cells were analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. Apparent Mr values of 31,900 for RhD polypeptide and 33,100 for Rhc,E polypeptide were obtained under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. Glycosylation of RhD,c and E polypeptides was not detected. 3. RhD,c and E immune complexes also contain a glycoprotein component. RhD glycoprotein (apparent Mr 45,000-100,000) is distinct from Rhc,E glycoprotein(s) (apparent Mr 35,000-65,000). Rh (Rhesus) glycoprotein carbohydrate moieties are susceptible to endo-beta-galactosidase digestion and carry blood-group-ABH determinants. This suggests the presence of polylactosaminoglycan-type structures. 4. Rh glycoproteins are not present in Rh immune complexes as a result of non-specific adsorption of membrane glycoproteins during the membrane-solubilization phase of immune-complex isolation because RhD immune complexes isolated from a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of Acde/cde and OcDE/cDE red cells do not contain blood-group-A-active glycoprotein. 5. Blood-group-A immune complexes isolated from group-A red cells of the appropriate Rh phenotypes contain the 31,900- and 33,100-apparent-Mr Rh polypeptides. 6. It was concluded from the above evidence that non-covalent Rh-glycoprotein-Rh-polypeptide complexes exist in the native red-cell membrane. 7. The 31,900- and 33,100-apparent-Mr Rh polypeptides are absent from blood-group-A immune complexes isolated from regulator type Rhnull cells (donor A.L.), but are replaced by a 33,800-apparent-Mr Rhnull-specific polypeptide (Rhnull polypeptide). It is suggested that Rhnull polypeptide is an aberrant product of the Rh gene complex.

  5. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  6. Influence of Gestational Age, Secretor, and Lewis Blood Group Status on the Oligosaccharide Content of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Clemens; Meyer, Christina; Collado, Maria Carmen; Geiger, Lena; García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Bertua-Ríos, Bibiana; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia; Borsch, Christian; Rudloff, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are considered to play an important role for the infant. As the biotechnical production of some HMOs is feasible today and clinical studies are being designed, the individual variation of the total amount of HMOs and of single components is of particular importance. Our objectives were to investigate whether differences exist between term and preterm milk, milk from mothers with secretor or nonsecretor status, and a Lewis blood group (a+b-), (a-b+), or (a-b-) pattern. Within a longitudinal study 96 milk samples (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk) from 32 mothers with preterm (n = 18) and term (n = 14) infants were collected. Delipidated and deproteinized milk was subjected to porous graphitized carbon cartridges followed by high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Quantitation of 16 single HMOs revealed changes during the first weeks of lactation without discrepancies between term and preterm milk. Significant differences occurred between "secretor" and "nonsecretor" milk (median approximately 10 vs 5 g/L total HMOs). Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) II comprised > 55% of the total HMO content in Lewis blood group (a+b-), "nonsecretor" milk and LNT together with 2'fucosyllactose, LNFP I, and difucosyllactose approximately 60% in Lewis (a-b+), "secretor" milk. In Lewis (a-b-), "secretor" milk 80% of oligosaccharides are due to LNT, 2'fucosyllactose, and LNFP I. There are marked differences in total HMOs and single HMOs in milk depending on Lewis blood group and secretor status, which need to be taken into account in clinical studies.

  7. The porcine M blood group system: evidence to suggest assignment of its M1 factor to a new system (P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojný, J; Schröffel, J; Geldermann, H; Cepica, S

    1994-06-01

    A new allele Maejm and a more precise genetic analysis of the Ml factor previously assigned to the M system are described after screening three generation families (Wild Boar x Pietrain, Meishan x Pietrain) for the M blood group system using a complete set of 13 M reagents. From informative families with proven parental M genotypes it was shown that the Ml antigen is controlled by an allele from another system. We propose to designate this new system P and to change the factor designation from Ml to Pa.

  8. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  9. Evaluating Blood Parameters, P53, and IL6 in Personnel of Copper Complex: A Comparison with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Ahmadiraad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Industrial pollution including trace elements is the ability to exert many biological effects such as cancer and inflammatory diseases on humans. Therefore, in this study, some of the inflammation and cancer awareness factors such as P53 and IL6 and some blood indices are examined along with trace elements to which people are normally exposed. Materials & Methods: The population includes 45 workers subjected to trace elements who are studied in comparison with the control group with some biochemical parameters such as WBC, RBC, and CRP. In addition, gene expressions of p53 and IL6 are measured by Real time PCR technique. Results: The results show that the gene expressions of IL6 and P53 increases significantly (P –Value p53=0.00, IL6=0.0037. Furthermore, the number of red and white blood cells demonstrate a substantial upsurge. The level of liver enzymes of ALT and AST grows. Additionally, ALP reduces and CRP is negative in all the subjects. (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The results confirm that industrial pollution is able to induce some changes in gene expressions of P53, IL6, and some blood parameters. It may create serious risks for people who will be exposed to pollution in the future.

  10. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, Laurence [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); D' Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Reynders, Hans; Van Campenhout, Karen [Environment and Health Unit, Department of Environment, Nature and Energy, Flemish Government - Koning Albert II-laan 20, Bus 8, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Cornelis, Christa; Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Koppen, Gudrun [Unit Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.b [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  11. Blood Transfusion and Survival for Resected Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Study from the United States Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Caroline E; Postlewait, Lauren M; Ethun, Cecilia G; Tran, Thuy B; Prescott, Jason D; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wang, Tracy S; Glenn, Jason; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Phay, John E; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C; Jin, Linda X; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C; Mansour, John C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C; Kiernan, Colleen M; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Levine, Edward A; Staley, Charles A; Poultsides, George A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic, gastric, and liver cancer. The effect of transfusion in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has not been studied. Patients with available transfusion data undergoing curative-intent resection of ACC from 1993 to 2014 at 13 institutions comprising the United States Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group were included. Factors associated with blood transfusion were determined. Primary and secondary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively. Out of 265 patients, 149 were included for analysis. Out of these, 57 patients (38.3%) received perioperative transfusions. Compared to nontransfused patients, transfused patients more commonly had stage 4 disease (46% vs 24%, P = 0.01), larger tumors (15.8 vs 10.2 cm, P Transfusion was associated with decreased RFS (8.9 vs 24.7 months, P = 0.006) and OS (22.8 vs 91.0 months, P transfusion, stage IV, hormonal hypersecretion, and adjuvant therapy were associated with decreased RFS. On multivariable analysis, only transfusion [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-2.9, P = 0.04], stage IV (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7-5.9, P transfusion HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.8, P = 0.02; stage 4 HR = 6.2, 95% CI = 3.1-12.4, P 2 units of packed red blood cells in median RFS (8.9 vs 8.4 months, P = 0.95) or OS (26.5 vs 18.6 months, P = 0.63). Perioperative transfusion is associated with earlier recurrence and decreased survival after curative-intent resection of ACC. Strategies and protocols to minimize blood transfusion should be developed and followed.

  12. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  13. [Hemolytic anemia caused by graft-versus-host reaction in ABO-nonidentical renal transplants from blood group O donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C; Navascués, R A

    2001-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia is one of the side effects associated with cyclosporin and tacrolimus therapy, and three mechanisms have been described to account for hemolytic anemia in patients receiving these drugs: drug induced hemolysis, autoimmune hemolysis and alloimmune hemolysis resulting from donor lymphocytes derived from the allograft (passenger lymphocyte syndrome). We report four cases of renal transplant recipients who developed alloimmune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility while under treatment with cyclosporin (two) and tacrolimus (two). The anti-erythrocyte antibodies responsible for hemolysis were of the IgG isotype and showed anti-A or anti-B specificity. These findings suggest that the hemolysis could be related to alloantibodies derived from the clonal development of donor B lymphocytes in the recipients (microchimerism). In summary, hemolytic anemia due to ABO-minor incompatibility occurs infrequently after renal transplantation. Risks are higher for patients A, B or AB blood group receiving an O blood group graft under treatment with cyclosporin or tacrolimus. Follow-up of these patients is warranted for the early detection and optimal management may be achieved by reduction of immunosuppression and change to mycophenolate mofetil.

  14. Genetic structure of three Native Mexican communities based on mtDNA haplogroups, and ABO and Rh blood group systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Boiso, Adriana; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Castro-Sierra, Eduardo; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonora; Sánchez-Urbina, Rocío; Ortiz-de-luna, Rosa I; Rodríguez-Espino, Benjamín A; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A; Flores-Ayón, Martha P; Salamanca-Vargas, Teresita; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Cerón-Vázquez, Elsa; López-Castillejos, Juanita; Morán-Barroso, Verónica F

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this population genetics study were to describe mtDNA haplogroups and ABO and Rh blood group systems of 3 Native Mexican populations, to determine their genetic variability, and to compare their haplogroups with those of 13 Native Mexican populations previously reported. The three communities under analysis were a Tepehua-speaking community from Huehuetla (Hidalgo state), an Otomi-speaking community from San Antonio el Grande (Hidalgo state), and a Zapotec-speaking community from Juchitán (Oaxaca state). Every subject studied in each community had four grandparents who were born in the same community and spoke the same language. The four Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C and D) were studied by restriction analysis and gel electrophoresis. Regarding the blood groups, the O group was the most frequent in the three populations (97.2, 94.7, and 86.2%, respectively), as well as the Rh+ group (100, 100, 84%). The three populations analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In respect to the mtDNA haplogroups, A, B, C and D, their percentage was 33.3, 36.1, 13.9 and 5.6 % in Huehuetla; 39.5, 13.2, 39.5 and 2.6 % in San Antonio el Grande, and 55.3, 21.0, 7.9 and 5.2 % in Juchitán. Between 5 and 11% of the haplogroups were of non-Amerindian origin, probably due to admixture with Caucasian and African populations, as has been reported in the past. No statistically-significant differences were found among the three populations studied or between them and 13 previously reported Native Mexican populations.

  15. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related...... the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis. What's New? Blood type A indicates a higher risk of gastric cancer, but why? This study examined the relationship between blood group genes and cancer. The authors investigated 32 variants among not only...... the ABO alleles, but also including the genes involved in producing the Lewis blood group antigens. They confirmed blood group A as a risk factor for diffuse-type gastric cancer, and also detected an association between certain Lewis antigen alleles and intestinal-type gastric cancer. Interestingly...

  16. Production of anti-ABO blood group antibodies after minor ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation in NOD/SCID/gamma(c)(null) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hirofumi; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Mori, Takehiko; Kato, Jun; Uemura, Tomoe; Handa, Makoto; Tazawa, Hirofumi; Ohdan, Hideki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kuroda, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    ABO incompatibility is a barrier for solid organ transplantation, but not for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To investigate tolerance induction, we enrolled patients who had undergone minor ABO-incompatible (O into A group, n = 6) and ABO-identical (O into O group, n = 4) bone marrow transplantation (BMT). None of the six O into A patients were positive for recipient-specific (anti-blood group A) isohemagglutinins, whereas all four O into O patients were. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were engrafted into NOD/SCID/gamma(c)(null) (NOG) mice, followed by sensitization of blood group A red blood cells. Anti-blood group A antibodies (Abs) in the sera of the patients and the human PBMC-engrafted NOG mice were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Anti-blood group A Abs in the patients' sera were significantly correlated with anti-A isohemagglutinin titers (p Abs were significantly lower in the O into A group than in the O into O group (p < 0.05), despite ex vivo restimulation of B cells. The results of this study suggest that long after receiving minor ABO-incompatible BMT, B cells derived from newly engrafted donor precursor cells were induced tolerance to recipient-specific antigens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A1 and A2 Sub-Types of Blood Group 'A': A Reflection of their Prevalence in North Karnataka Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyan, Sujata S; Agrawal, Akanksha; Bajpai, Richa; Nirala, Niraj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Landsteiner ABO system of blood groups is most important for transfusion medicine and has subtypes of A Antigen, A1 and A2, upon which further groups of A and AB have been classified. Of individuals with A antigen, approximately 20% belong to A2 while rest 80% belong to A1. Anti-A1 Lectin, a cold agglutinin which destroys A1 cells is clinically significant when they react at 37°C, causing transfusion reactions. To assess the prevalence of A1 and A2 subgroups in the population. This was two year retrospective analysis of blood groups of donors coming to the blood bank of Karnataka Institute of Medical Science, Hubli, Karnataka, India. The data of the subgroups A and AB was analysed. 20,864 donors were analysed. Of 5466 (26.20%) of A group, 5406 (98.90%) belonged to A1 subgroup and only 60 (1.10%) belonged to A2 subgroup. Of 1708 donors with blood group AB, 1532 (89.70%) belonged to A1B subgroup and 176 (10.30%) belonged to A2B. It was noted that A2 in AB blood-group, as A2B, was more frequent in occurrence than presence of A2 as an A blood group. Rhesus negative frequency in these subgroups was also reported. Having known the prevalence of A1 and A2 subgroups and incorporating them into the ABO grouping system can limit these minor, yet dangerous, transfusion incompatibilities.

  18. Adherence to an occupational blood borne pathogens exposure management program among healthcare workers and other groups at risk in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Miceli

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective review of 130 occupational blood borne pathogens exposure (BBP-OE records at Centro de Estudios Médicos e Investigaciones Clínicas, a university hospital with an ongoing educational program and a postexposure management program for healthcare workers (HCWs since 1995, in order to evaluate adherence to a hospital BBP-OE management program. We compared HCWs from our institution (Group 1 and HCWs from independent institutions that contract our postexposure management program (Group 2. Compliance with standard precautions in Group 1 was inadequate in 77%, 23%, and 16% of nurses, physicians, and others, respectively. A greater proportion of HCWs in Group 1 (74% vs. 40% reported occupational accidents within two hours after exposure (p = 0.0001. No difference was observed regarding compliance with adherence to schedule, partial adherence, and loss at follow-up (14%, 33%, and 53%; p > 0.05. Adherence to the standard of care for BBP-OE, including postexposure prophylaxis, was low (HIV: 53% and HBV: 63%. Knowledge of the seropositive status of the source patient did not improve adherence. We conclude that postexposure programs do not guarantee appropriate behavior by HCWs. General interventions and ongoing personnel education to modify individual attitudes are needed, as are continued efforts to assess HCWs' experiences with these programs, as well as the identification of strategies to improve adherence.

  19. Eleven years that changed the face of particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Director General Luciano Maiani opens the proceedings at the LEP Celebration. Members of government from around the world gathered at CERN on Monday 9 October to celebrate the achievements of the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP), the Laboratory’s flagship particle accelerator. Over the eleven years of its operational lifetime, LEP has not only added greatly to mankind’s pool of knowledge about the Universe, but has also changed the way that particle physics research is done, and proved to be a valuable training ground for young professionals in many walks of life. The celebration took place in building 180 and the audience of politicians and scientists listened to speeches from:   Prof. Luciano Maiani CERN’s Director-General Prof. Martinus Veltman Nobel Prize Laureat 1999 M. Adolf Ogi President of the Swiss Confederation Switzerland M. Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg Minister of Research  France Mme Edelgard Bulmahn Minister of Education and R...

  20. On eleven-dimensional supergravity and Chern-Simons theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, Fernando, E-mail: fizaurie@ucsc.cl [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile); Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Insurgentes Sur s/n, D.F. (Mexico); Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, Eduardo, E-mail: edurodriguez@ucsc.cl [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-02-11

    We probe in some depth into the structure of eleven-dimensional, osp(32|1)-based Chern-Simons supergravity, as put forward by Troncoso and Zanelli (TZ) in 1997. We find that the TZ Lagrangian may be cast as a polynomial in 1/l, where l is a length, and compute explicitly the first three dominant terms. The term proportional to 1/l{sup 9} turns out to be essentially the Lagrangian of the standard 1978 supergravity theory of Cremmer, Julia and Scherk, thus establishing a previously unknown relation between the two theories. The computation is nontrivial because, when written in a sufficiently explicit way, the TZ Lagrangian has roughly one thousand non-explicitly Lorentz-covariant terms. Specially designed algebraic techniques are used to accomplish the results.

  1. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 10(7)-107 × 10(7). The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future.

  2. Evaluation of an automated microplate technique in the Galileo system for ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiyi; Wan, Feng; Lou, Yufeng; Jin, Jiali; Mao, Weilin

    2014-01-01

    A number of automated devices for pretransfusion testing have recently become available. This study evaluated the Immucor Galileo System, a fully automated device based on the microplate hemagglutination technique for ABO/Rh (D) determinations. Routine ABO/Rh typing tests were performed on 13,045 samples using the Immucor automated instruments. Manual tube method was used to resolve ABO forward and reverse grouping discrepancies. D-negative test results were investigated and confirmed manually by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The system rejected 70 tests for sample inadequacy. 87 samples were read as "No-type-determined" due to forward and reverse grouping discrepancies. 25 tests gave these results because of sample hemolysis. After further tests, we found 34 tests were caused by weakened RBC antibodies, 5 tests were attributable to weak A and/or B antigens, 4 tests were due to mixed-field reactions, and 8 tests had high titer cold agglutinin with blood qualifications which react only at temperatures below 34 degrees C. In the remaining 11 cases, irregular RBC antibodies were identified in 9 samples (seven anti-M and two anti-P) and two subgroups were identified in 2 samples (one A1 and one A2) by a reference laboratory. As for D typing, 2 weak D+ samples missed by automated systems gave negative results, but weak-positive reactions were observed in the IAT. The Immucor Galileo System is reliable and suited for ABO and D blood groups, some reasons may cause a discrepancy in ABO/D typing using a fully automated system. It is suggested that standardization of sample collection may improve the performance of the fully automated system.

  3. Studies of blood groups and protein polymorphisms in the Brazilian horse breeds Mangalarga Marchador and Mangalarga (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Samaha Lippi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelic frequencies at 12 loci (five blood groups: C, D, K, P, and U; and seven protein polymorphisms: Al, A1B, Es, Gc, Hb, PGD, and Tf, are given for two Brazilian horse breeds: Mangalarga Marchador and Mangalarga. The high genetic identity value found (96.0% is consistent with their common origin, although, at some point of the development of Mangalarga Marchador, Mangalarga separated from the original stock. The expected average heterozygosity was higher in Mangalarga Marchador. The populations presented genetic differentiation, as shown by the statistically significant value of F ST. The nonsignificant F IS values showed that there was no appreciable consanguineous mating in any of the two populations. Exclusion probability calculated for the 12 loci was 87.0% and 86.5% for Mangalarga Marchador and Mangalarga, respectively. No genetic equilibrium was observed in the A1B, Tf, and Es loci of Mangalarga Marchador. The frequencies of blood factors A, Q, and T were calculated.

  4. Acute kernicterus in a neonate with O/B blood group incompatibility and a mutation in SLC4A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Reading, N Scott; Agarwal, Archana M; Eggert, Larry D; Prchal, Josef T

    2013-08-01

    We cared for a term female newborn, who at 108 hours of age, with a total serum bilirubin of 15.4 mg/dL, was discharged from the hospital on home phototherapy. At a return appointment 44 hours later, her total serum bilirubin was 41.7 mg/dL and signs of acute kernicterus were present. Maternal/fetal blood group O/B incompatibility was identified, with a negative direct antiglobulin test, which was positive on retesting. She had abundant spherocytes on blood smear, and these persisted at follow-up, but neither parent had spherocytes identified. A heterozygous SLC4A1(E508K) mutation (gene encoding erythrocyte membrane protein band 3) was found, and in silico predicted to result in damaged erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein function. No mutations were identified in other red cell cytoskeleton genes (ANK1, SPTA1, SPTB, EPB41, EPB42) and the UGT1A1 promoter region was normal. Neurologic follow-up at 2 and 4 months showed developmental delays consistent with mild kernicterus.

  5. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  6. Histo-blood group antigens as receptors for rotavirus, new understanding on rotavirus epidemiology and vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi; Liu, Yang; Tan, Ming

    2017-04-12

    The success of the two rotavirus (RV) vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) in many countries endorses a live attenuated vaccine approach against RVs. However, the lower efficacies of both vaccines in many low- and middle-income countries indicate a need to improve the current RV vaccines. The recent discovery that RVs recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as potential receptors has significantly advanced our understanding of RV diversity, evolution and epidemiology, providing important new insights into the performances of current RV vaccines in different populations and emphasizing a P-type-based vaccine approach. New understanding of RV diversity and evolution also raises a fundamental question about the 'Jennerian' approach, which needs to be addressed for future development of live attenuated RV vaccines. Alternative approaches to develop safer and more cost-effective subunit vaccines against RVs are also discussed.

  7. The PFA-100R cannot detect blood group-dependent inhibition of platelet function by eptifibatide or abciximab at therapeutic plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuring, M; Ruf, A; Schultz, A; Wehling, M

    2010-01-01

    Previous investigations revealed that AB0 blood groups are associated with divergent concentrations of several coagulation factors. Concentrations of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and factor VIII are lower in individuals with blood group 0 compared to subjects with blood group A, B or AB, which might in turn result in a reduced inhibition of platelet aggregation in individuals with blood group 0. The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to elucidate the impact of AB0 blood group-dependent vWF concentrations on eptifibatide and abciximab mediated inhibition of GPIIb/IIIa function. Platelet function was measured with the platelet function analyzer PFA-100(R) at baseline and at increasing concentrations of eptifibatide and abciximab. It was stratified for blood group 0 vs A. If measured with the collagen/ADP cartridge, blood group 0 was associated with a prolonged mean baseline closure time in comparison with blood group A (94.3 +/- 14.6 s vs. 74.6 +/- 9.9 s, p = 0.007) which was paralleled by reduced concentrations of vWF and factor VIII. In contrast, no statistically significant differences in closure times (167.4 +/- 83.9 s vs. 140.1 +/- 99.0 s, p = 0.562) could be found in the presence of eptifibatide (0.1 microg/ml). Higher concentrations of abciximab (1 microg/ml) than those of eptifibatide were needed to increase the closure times in both cartridges of the PFA-100, but at this concentration of abciximab differences in closure times could not be detected most probably due to higher variability at these drug concentrations. The PFA-100(R) is not suitable for monitoring abciximab or eptifibatide within the therapeutic concentration range because the highest concentrations where the PFA-100(R) had measurable closure times of below 300 s is much too low to lead to the necessary platelet inhibition and, consequently, does not resemble the in vivo situation.

  8. Heritability of eleven metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Pang, Zengchang

    2013-01-01

    A twin-based comparative study on the genetic influences in metabolic endophenotypes in two populations of substantial ethnic, environmental, and cultural differences was performed. Design and Methods: Data on 11 metabolic phenotypes including anthropometric measures, blood glucose, and lipids...... similar heritability patterns in the two samples with body weight showing only a slight difference. Higher genetic influences were estimated for fasting blood glucose level in Chinese twins, whereas the Danish twins showed more genetic regulation over most lipids phenotypes. Systolic blood pressure...... was more genetically controlled in Danish than in Chinese twins. Conclusions: Metabolic endophenotypes show disparity in their genetic determinants in populations under distinct environmental conditions....

  9. DNA Hydroxymethylation by Ten-eleven Translocation Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 1 and 3 Regulates Nociceptive Sensitization in a Chronic Inflammatory Pain Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiqiang; Xue, Zhou-Ya; Li, Guo-Fang; Sun, Meng-Lan; Zhang, Ming; Hao, Ling-Yun; Tang, Qian-Qian; Zhu, Li-Jiao; Cao, Jun-Li

    2017-07-01

    Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase converts 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, which plays an important role in gene transcription. Although 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is enriched in mammalian neurons, its regulatory function in nociceptive information processing is unknown. The global levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase were measured in spinal cords in mice treated with complete Freund's adjuvant. Immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and behavioral tests were used to explore the downstream ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-dependent signaling pathway. Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced nociception increased the mean levels (± SD) of spinal 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (178 ± 34 vs. 100 ± 21; P = 0.0019), ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-1 (0.52 ± 0.11 vs. 0.36 ± 0.064; P = 0.0088), and ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-3 (0.61 ± 0.13 vs. 0.39 ± 0.08; P = 0.0083) compared with levels in control mice (n = 6/group). The knockdown of ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-1 or ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-3 alleviated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, whereas overexpression cytosinethem in naïve mice (n = 6/group). Down-regulation of spinal ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-1 and ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-3 also reversed the increases in Fos expression (123 ± 26 vs. 294 ± 6; P = 0.0031; and 140 ± 21 vs. 294 ± 60; P = 0.0043, respectively; n = 6/group), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels in the Stat3 promoter (75 ± 16.1 vs. 156 ± 28.9; P = 0.0043; and 91 ± 19.1 vs. 156 ± 28.9; P = 0.0066, respectively; n = 5/group), and consequent Stat3 expression (93 ± 19.6 vs. 137 ± 27.5; P = 0.035; and 72 ± 15.2 vs. 137 ± 27.5; P = 0.0028, respectively; n = 5/group) in complete Freund's adjuvant-treated mice. This study reveals a novel

  10. UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine as a donor substrate for the glycosyltransferase encoded by the B gene at the human blood group ABO locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, P; Yates, A D; Watkins, W M

    1986-06-01

    The properties of the enzyme in the serum of blood group B individuals that catalyses the transfer of small amounts of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to H-active precursor structures were compared with those of the blood group B gene-associated alpha-(1----3)-D-galactosyltransferase and with the blood group A gene-associated alpha-(1----3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferases in the serum of blood group A1 and A2 individuals. The biosynthetic products formed by the enzyme in B serum were identical with the A-active structures synthesised by the A1 and A2 gene-associated alpha-(1----3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferases but the enzyme differed from the A1 and A2 transferases in its apparent Km for UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, its heat susceptibility, its failure to bind to Sepharose 4B, and its adsorption to H-active sites on group O red cell ghosts under conditions which bind the B transferase but fail to adsorb the A1 and A2 transferases. The correlation between the levels of alpha-(1----3)-D-galactosyltransferase and alpha-(1----3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase activities in all the group B serum samples tested, the maintenance of the same ratio of activities after successive cycles of binding to group O red cell ghosts, the retention of the ability to convert blood group O to A-active cells after treatment of the serum with Sepharose 4B, and the failure to detect any comparable activity in group O serum samples tested under the same conditions indicated that the enzyme in group B serum that utilises UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to make blood group A-active structures is the B gene-associated alpha-(1----3)-D-galactosyltransferase.

  11. VENTRICULAR RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE ORTHOSTATIC REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH PERMANENT ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN GENERAL CARDIOVASCULAR RISK GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Martymianova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Types and prevalence of ventricular rate (VR, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure (BP orthostatic reactions (OR in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF in general cardiovascular risk groups (GCVR were studied in 137 patients (73 men and 64 women, aged 66.4 ± 9.9 years. VR was measured by the electrocardiography (ECG on the computer electrocardiograph «CardioLab 2000» and BP – semi-automatic tonometer Microlife BP2BIO. Changes VR, SBP and DBP in the range of ± 5 % were classified as a lack, an increase of 5 % and more – both positive and decreased by 5 % or more – as a negative OR. GCVR calculated in accordance with the scale of SCORE. Patients were classified into groups of GCVR. Statistical evaluation of the results was performed with the parametric estimate of the mean (M and standard deviation (sd and non-parametric Student's T-test and Mann-Whitney test methods. It was found that patients with AF have all three types (positive, absent, negative OR of VR, SBP and DBP, which are stored in all classes GCVR. Optimizing the management of patients with atrial fibrillation, including with and through modification within the GCVR risk factors should take into account deviations in orthostatic reactions of VR, SBP and DBP.

  12. Eleven new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Sarawak, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse geological formations resulted in diverse terrains and varied microhabitats in Borneo where over 200 species of Begonia are currently known. The majority of Begonia species in Sarawak have a very narrow to moderately restricted distribution, and are often confined to a particular geology. An overwhelming number of new species were reported recently from Borneo. It was estimated that more than 600 species of Begonia occur in Borneo, which means that many more species are yet to be discovered and scientifically named. In continuation of our research on Sarawak Begonia, we discovered a number of unknown species of Begonia from southwestern Sarawak. Consultation of the literature, herbarium specimens and detailed morphological examination of plants in cultivation supports the recognition of eleven new species. Herein we name them as B. aiensis, B. dinosauria, B. hirsuticarpa, B. iridifolia, B. lawii, B. lichenora, B. magnicarpa, B. metallicolor, B. nix, B. superciliaris and B. wallacei, all of which belonging to sect. Petermannia. They are fully described and illustrated in this article.

  13. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination elicits IgG anti-AB blood group antibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Wolfram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We adressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP vaccine (PPV Pneumovax®23 could have such an effect in patients with with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I, an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role.Methods: Anti-PnP IgM and IgG responses were determined by ELISA and the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System was used to screen anti-A/B antibody titer before and after Pneumovax®23 immunization in 28 healthy individuals and 16 patients with DM I. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology using the Biacore® device and a synthetic blood group A/B trisaccharide as the antigen was applied to investigate IgM and IgG anti-A/B antibodies and to measure antibody binding dynamics. Results: All healthy individuals and DM I patients responded with anti-PnP IgM and IgG antibody production four to six weeks after Pneumovax®23 (Pn23 immunization, while no increase in blood group anti-A/B antibody titer was observed when measured by the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System. Interestingly, isotype-specific testing by SPR-technology revealed an increase in blood group anti-A/B IgG, but not IgM, following Pn23 immunization in both patients and controls. No change in binding characteristics of blood group anti-A/B antibodies could be detected following Pn23 vaccination, supporting the assumption of an increase in IgG antibody titer with no or very little affinity maturation.Conclusion: The study provides evidence for epitope sharing

  14. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Elicits IgG Anti-A/B Blood Group Antibodies in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Wendelin; Sauerwein, Kai M T; Binder, Christoph J; Eibl-Musil, Nicole; Wolf, Hermann M; Fischer, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype, and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We addressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP) vaccine Pneumo 23 Vaccine "Pasteur Merieux" (Pn23) could have such an effect in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I), an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role. Anti-PnP IgM and IgG responses were determined by ELISA, and the DiaMed-ID Micro Typing System was used to screen anti-A/B antibody titer before and after Pn23 immunization in 28 healthy individuals and 16 patients with DM I. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology using the Biacore(®) device and a synthetic blood group A/B trisaccharide as the antigen was applied to investigate IgM and IgG anti-A/B antibodies and to measure antibody binding dynamics. All healthy individuals and DM I patients responded with anti-PnP IgM and IgG antibody production 4-6 weeks after Pn23 immunization, while no increase in blood group anti-A/B antibody titer was observed when measured by the DiaMed-ID Micro Typing System. Interestingly, isotype-specific testing by SPR technology revealed an increase in blood group anti-A/B IgG, but not IgM, following Pn23 immunization in both patients and controls. No change in binding characteristics of blood group anti-A/B antibodies could be detected following Pn23 vaccination, supporting the assumption of an increase in IgG antibody titer with no or very little affinity maturation. The study provides evidence for epitope sharing between pneumococcal polysaccharides and blood group ABO

  15. Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Y C; Dulin-Keita, A; Casazza, K; Willig, A L; Allison, D B; Fernandez, J R

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) in the United States. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social or behavioural factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as AA, European American or Hispanic American. We use body composition, behavioural (diet and physical activity) and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among AAs, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioural measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental aetiology of disparities in blood pressure.

  16. Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48μg/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28μg/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56μg/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between blood group, packed cell volume, knowledge and practices of adults to malaria prevalence in Lagos Island, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele Akinsanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practices at residents of Lagos Island Local Government. Methods: Two hundred blood samples were collected from adults attending the General Hospital, Marina while 100 questionnaires were administered to individuals still in the same hospital. Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 18 and 30 years (44%, while the age group 60 and above had the lowest population (9%. Results: More than half of the respondents (68% were employed and engaged in different occupations such as entrepreneur (32%, students (31%, trader (24%, and civil servant (10%. Stratification of the respondents by income revealed that 71% earned above the minimum wage, while 29% earned below. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy method was 10.5%. Malaria parasite had significant effect on the packed cell volume of infected individuals (P < 0.05. Preventive measures employed by the respondents were majorly insecticide (72.2%, while some others (5.6% used mosquito net. Majority of the respondents (98% believed that malaria was caused by mosquito. Conclusions: Therefore, it is appropriate to put in place preventive measures against malaria to avoid high prevalence of the number one killer in tropical Africa.

  18. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C

    1995-01-01

    red and white cells isolated from M'-A16 positive animals, whereas no bands were seen in M'-A16 negative animals in precipitations with the same antibody. Precipitation with a crossreacting human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) specific antibody confirmed a class-I-like structure associated with beta...... 2-m on M' positive red cells and the absence of such a structure on M' negative red cells. Sequential precipitations gave analogous results. Proteolytic degradation by papain and V8 protease did not reveal any substantial difference between red and white M'-A16 positive cells, but a slight...... difference in the pI of the immunoprecipitable components of red and white cells was observed. All together, this indicates that either the blood group antigen M' is the BoLA-A16 class I antigen or M' and BoLA-A16 are two different class I polypeptides with the same relative mass, sharing identical epitopes...

  19. Haematopoietic SCT in severe autoimmune diseases: updated guidelines of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, J A; Saccardi, R; Allez, M; Ardizzone, S; Arnold, R; Cervera, R; Denton, C; Hawkey, C; Labopin, M; Mancardi, G; Martin, R; Moore, J J; Passweg, J; Peters, C; Rabusin, M; Rovira, M; van Laar, J M; Farge, D

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, the first consensus guidelines for haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in autoimmune diseases (ADs) were published, while an international coordinated clinical programme was launched. These guidelines provided broad principles for the field over the following decade and were accompanied by comprehensive data collection in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) AD Registry. Subsequently, retrospective analyses and prospective phase I/II studies generated evidence to support the feasibility, safety and efficacy of HSCT in several types of severe, treatment-resistant ADs, which became the basis for larger-scale phase II and III studies. In parallel, there has also been an era of immense progress in biological therapy in ADs. The aim of this document is to provide revised and updated guidelines for both the current application and future development of HSCT in ADs in relation to the benefits, risks and health economic considerations of other modern treatments. Patient safety considerations are central to guidance on patient selection and HSCT procedural aspects within appropriately experienced and Joint Accreditation Committee of International Society for Cellular Therapy and EBMT accredited centres. A need for prospective interventional and non-interventional studies, where feasible, along with systematic data reporting, in accordance with EBMT policies and procedures, is emphasized. PMID:22002489

  20. Smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension: possible etiologic role for Peyronie's disease? Analysis in 279 patients with a control group in Sicily

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavone, Carlo; D'Amato, Francesco; Dispensa, Nino; Torretta, Federico; Magno, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    ...), the second one composed by patients with other andrological diseases (control arm). For each patient we evaluated the age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension and erectile function...

  1. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18-80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to hydrochlorothiazide, and 150 to the combination group

  2. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  3. Microbial detoxification of eleven food and feed contaminating trichothecene mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Rafiq; Zhou, Ting; Lepp, Dion; Pauls, K Peter

    2017-03-15

    Contamination of agricultural commodities with multiple trichothecene mycotoxins, produced by toxigenic Fusarium species, is a food safety issue, which greatly affects grain production and marketing worldwide. Importantly, exposure to multiple trichothecenes may increase toxicity in animals due to their synergistic and/or additive effects. To address the problem this study aimed to achieve a novel biological trait capable of detoxifying various food and feed contaminating trichothecenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and wide range of temperatures. A highly enriched microbial consortium (called DX100) capable of transforming eleven trichothecenes to significantly less toxic de-epoxy forms was achieved after prolonged incubation of soil microbial culture with 200 μg/mL deoxynivalenol (DON). DX100 demonstrated de-epoxidation activity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, a greater range of temperatures and around neutral pH. The consortium contains 70% known and 30% unknown bacterial species, dominated by Stenotrophomonas species. Probably novel bacteria including strains of Stenotrophomonas and Alkaliphilus-Blautia species complex could be involved in aerobic and anaerobic de-epoxidation of trichothecenes, respectively. DX100 showed rapid and stable activity by de-epoxidizing 100% of 50 μg/mL deoxynivalenol at 48 h of incubation and retaining de-epoxidation ability after 100 subcultures in mineral salts broth (MSB). It was able to de-epoxidize high concentration of DON (500 μg/mL), and transformed ten more food contaminating trichothecenes into de-epoxy forms and/or other known/unknown compounds. Microbial de-epoxidation rate increased with increasing trichothecene concentrations in the broth media, suggesting that DX100 maintains a robust trichothecene detoxifying mechanism. Furthermore, the nature of microbial de-epoxidation reaction and inhibition of the reaction by sodium azide and the finding that bacterial cell culture lysate retained activity

  4. Analysis of circulating cholesterol levels as a mediator of an association between ABO blood group and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yequn; Chen, Chang; Ke, Xiayi; Xiong, Longgen; Shi, Yongying; Li, Jiafu; Tan, Xuerui; Ye, Shu

    2014-02-01

    Non-O type of ABO blood group has been associated with a predisposition to coronary heart disease. It is thought that this association is partly mediated by increased cholesterol levels in non-O-type individuals. In this study, we sought to estimate the mediation effect size. In a group of individuals (n=6476) undergoing coronary angiography, we detected associations of non-O type with significant coronary artery disease with >50% stenosis in ≥1 coronary arteries (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.39; P=2.6×10(-4)) and with prevalent or incident myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.37; P=1.2×10(-3)). Subjects of non-O type had higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean [SEM] in mmol/L: 4.931[0.021], 3.041 [0.018], and 3.805 [0.020] in non-O type compared with 4.778 [0.026], 2.906 [0.021], and 3.669 [0.024] in O type; P=3.8×10(-7), P=1.5×10(-7), and P=3.1×10(-7), respectively). Mediation analyses indicated that 10% of the effect of non-O type on coronary artery disease susceptibility was mediated by increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P=7.8×10(-4)) and that 11% of the effect of non-O type on myocardial infarction risk was mediated by raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P=2.0×10(-3)). In a model in which it is presumed that cholesterol is a mediator of the associations of ABO group with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, around 10% of the effect of non-O type on coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction susceptibility was mediated by its influence on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level.

  5. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  6. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincaré symmetry in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Pasqua, A; Zumino, B; Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  7. A Red Blood Cell Membrane-Camouflaged Nanoparticle Counteracts Streptolysin O-Mediated Virulence Phenotypes of Invasive Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Escajadillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS, an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes. SLO can trigger macrophage and neutrophil cell death and/or the inactivation of immune cell functions, and promotes tissue injury and bacterial survival in animal models of infection. In the present work, we describe how the pharmacological presentation of red blood cell (RBC derived biomimetic nanoparticles (“nanosponges” can sequester SLO and block the ability of GAS to damage host cells, thereby preserving innate immune function and increasing bacterial clearance in vitro and in vivo. Nanosponge administration protected human neutrophils, macrophages, and keratinocytes against SLO-mediated cytotoxicity. This therapeutic intervention prevented SLO-induced macrophage apoptosis and increased neutrophil extracellular trap formation, allowing increased GAS killing by the respective phagocytic cell types. In a murine model of GAS necrotizing skin infection, local administration of the biomimetic nanosponges was associated with decreased lesion size and reduced bacterial colony-forming unit recovery. Utilization of a toxin decoy and capture platform that inactivates the secreted SLO before it contacts the host cell membrane, presents a novel virulence factor targeted strategy that could be a powerful adjunctive therapy in severe GAS infections where morbidity and mortality are high despite antibiotic treatment.

  8. Histo-blood group antigen-like substances of human enteric bacteria as specific adsorbents for human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takayuki; Sano, Daisuke; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fuzawa, Miyu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been suggested to be receptors or coreceptors for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) expressed on the intestinal epithelium. We isolated an enteric bacterium strain (SENG-6), closely related to Enterobacter cloacae, bearing HBGA-like substances from a fecal sample of a healthy individual by using a biopanning technique with anti-HBGA antibodies. The binding capacities of four genotypes of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) to Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 cells were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that NoVLPs bound mainly to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, where the HBGA-like substances were localized. EPS that contained HBGA-like substances extracted from Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of binding to NoVLPs of a GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa) and a GII.6 strain that can recognize A antigen but not to an NoVLP GI.1 mutant strain (W375A) that loses the ability to bind to A antigen. Enzymatic cleavage of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in the bacterial EPS weakened bacterial EPS binding to the GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa). These results indicate that A-like substances in the bacterial EPS play a key role in binding to NoVLPs. Since the specific binding of HuNoVs to HBGA-positive enteric bacteria is likely to affect the transmission and infection processes of HuNoVs in their hosts and in the environment, further studies of human enteric bacteria and their binding capacity to HuNoVs will provide a new scientific platform for understanding interactions between two types of microbes that were previously regarded as biologically unrelated.

  9. Norovirus recognizes histo-blood group antigens on gastrointestinal cells of clams, mussels, and oysters: a possible mechanism of bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Engelbrektson, Anna L; Jiang, Xi; Zhong, Weiming; Mandrell, Robert E

    2007-09-01

    Outbreaks of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis are often associated with the consumption of contaminated bivalves such as oysters, clams, and mussels. Crassostrea virginica oysters trap the Norwalk virus through the intestinal type A-like histo-blood group antigen (HBGA), a possible mechanism of bioaccumulation responsible for NoV outbreaks. In this study, we tested binding and inhibition of binding in three species of oysters and one species each of clams and mussels with NoVs, representing four HBGA receptor-binding patterns. Our results indicated that all three oyster species expressed type A- and type O-like HBGA in their gastrointestinal tissue. Similar type A-like antigens also were found in mussels and clams, but only some of them express the O-like antigens. Both genogroups I and II recombinant norovirus-like particles (rNoVLPs) bound to gastrointestinal homogenates from oysters, mussels, and clams, and the binding was inhibited by preincubation of the rNoVLP with HBGA-specific monoclonal antibodies or with types A or O HBGA-positive human saliva. Co-localization of rNoVLPs and HBGA on gastrointestinal epithelial cells of oysters, mussels, and clams was also observed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Finally, the binding of rNoVLP to oyster gastrointestinal homogenates was inhibited by incubation with HBGA analogs. This study significantly expands our understanding that multiple HBGAs are expressed in oyster, mussel, and clam gastrointestinal tissues, which could be the major mechanism of bioaccumulation of NoVs by these bivalves. Our results also suggest that this bioaccumulation could be reversed by incubation with HBGA analogs, a possible important new strategy for depuration.

  10. Referrals to a regional allergy clinic - an eleven year audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy is a serious and apparently increasing public health problem yet relatively little is known about the types of allergy seen in routine tertiary practice, including their spatial distribution, co-occurrence or referral patterns. This study reviewed referrals over an eleven year period to a regional allergy clinic that had a well defined geographical boundary. For those patients confirmed as having an allergy we explored: (i differences over time and by demographics, (ii types of allergy, (iii co-occurrence, and (iv spatial distributions. Methods Data were extracted from consultant letters to GPs, from September 1998 to September 2009, for patients confirmed as having an allergy. Other data included referral statistics and population data by postcode. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe types of allergy. We calculated 11 year standardised morbidity ratios for postcode districts and checked for spatial clustering. We present maps showing 11 year rates by postcode, and 'difference' maps which try to separate referral effect from possible environmental effect. Results Of 5778 referrals, 961 patients were diagnosed with an allergy. These were referred by a total of 672 different GPs. There were marked differences in referral patterns between GP practices and also individual GPs. The mean age of patients was 35 and there were considerably more females (65% than males. Airborne allergies were the most frequent (623, and there were very high rates of co-occurrence of pollen, house dust mite, and animal hair allergies. Less than half (410 patients had a food allergy, with nuts, fruit, and seafood being the most common allergens. Fifteen percent (142 had both a food and a non-food allergy. Certain food allergies were more likely to co-occur, for example, patients allergic to dairy products were more likely to be allergic to egg. There were age differences by types of allergy; people referred with food allergies were

  11. Referrals to a regional allergy clinic - an eleven year audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Hewson, Paul; Kaminski, Edward R

    2010-12-29

    Allergy is a serious and apparently increasing public health problem yet relatively little is known about the types of allergy seen in routine tertiary practice, including their spatial distribution, co-occurrence or referral patterns. This study reviewed referrals over an eleven year period to a regional allergy clinic that had a well defined geographical boundary. For those patients confirmed as having an allergy we explored: (i) differences over time and by demographics, (ii) types of allergy, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) spatial distributions. Data were extracted from consultant letters to GPs, from September 1998 to September 2009, for patients confirmed as having an allergy. Other data included referral statistics and population data by postcode. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe types of allergy. We calculated 11 year standardised morbidity ratios for postcode districts and checked for spatial clustering. We present maps showing 11 year rates by postcode, and 'difference' maps which try to separate referral effect from possible environmental effect. Of 5778 referrals, 961 patients were diagnosed with an allergy. These were referred by a total of 672 different GPs. There were marked differences in referral patterns between GP practices and also individual GPs. The mean age of patients was 35 and there were considerably more females (65%) than males. Airborne allergies were the most frequent (623), and there were very high rates of co-occurrence of pollen, house dust mite, and animal hair allergies. Less than half (410) patients had a food allergy, with nuts, fruit, and seafood being the most common allergens. Fifteen percent (142) had both a food and a non-food allergy. Certain food allergies were more likely to co-occur, for example, patients allergic to dairy products were more likely to be allergic to egg.There were age differences by types of allergy; people referred with food allergies were on average 5 years younger than those with other

  12. Evaluation of the non-compliance with grouping guidelines which may lead to "wrong blood in tube", an observational study and risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, A; Boudet, E; Daurat, G; Roger, C; Gris, J-C; Tunez, V; Gaste, M-C; Lefrant, J-Y

    2017-06-01

    In France, blood group determination requires the completion of two samples collected at two different times to detect identity mistake and "wrong blood in tube". The aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate the compliance with guidelines and (2) to identify risk factors of non-compliance. Samples for ABO group determination collected between January 1st and December 15th, 2013 in the University hospital of Nîmes, France were analyzed. An ABO group determination demand was considered non-compliant if more than one tube arrived in the laboratory within ten minutes apart. Between May 1st and June 30th 2014, a self-administered questionnaire was offered to the nurses of the hospital on a random day for each service during this period. The aim was to validate the non-compliance criterion and the identification of risk factors using logistic regression. Among the 16,450 analyzed blood samples, the overall compliance rate was 65.1%. Lower compliance rates were found in the surgical services. Independent risk factors for wrong practice were work overload, surgical service and individual intermediate transfusion frequency. More than one third of ABO group determinations did not follow national recommendations, which induces a substantial risk of "wrong blood in tube" and group error. The study revealed major variations among hospital services. Identification of risk factors allows targeted corrective actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative...

  14. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran...

  15. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

  16. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old...

  17. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Shishebor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old. Glycemic index and Glycemic load of the food program was analyzed with 24-hour food recall questionnaires (4-6 recall. For calculating GI and GL, Iranian food GI tables, and also, international GI and GL table were used. The levels of blood lipids including HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides of the blood were measured and the level of LDL Cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. Also, Anthropometric measurements were done using standard methods. Resulst: The mean age of subjects in this study was 36 years. GI mean was 72.1 and GL mean was 153.2. In this study, there was no significant relation between HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and Blood TG with Glycemic index and Glycemic load of food program. Conclusion: Unlike findings of west and Asian countries, both dietary GI and GL were not correlated with metabolic factors including blood lipid levels in this study , underreporting of individuals may influence the results of the study.

  18. Influence of ABO blood group and Rhesus factor on breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 9665 breast cancer patients and 244,768 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Su-Yu; Zhou, Wenbin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Shui; Liu, Xiao-An

    2014-06-01

    Blood group is an important risk factor for some malignancies, including pancreatic and stomach cancer. However, it is unclear whether the risk of breast cancer is higher in any specific ABO blood type. We searched the electronic database of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the VIP Chinese Journal of Science and Technology for case-control studies about blood type and breast cancer incidence, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Fourteen studies were eligible for assessment on the association of breast cancer with different blood types, including 9665 breast cancer patients and 244,768 controls. Relative to blood type O, women with blood type A (odds ratio (OR) = 1.115, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.992-1.254), B (OR = 0.983, 95% CI 0.915-1.056) and AB (OR = 1.042, 95% CI 0.881-1.231) had the same breast cancer risk. The risk for women with Rhesus-positive (Rh+) was the same as those with Rh-negative (Rh-) (OR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.667-1.348). Among Caucasians, the OR of blood type A was 1.066 (95% CI, 1.001-1.134, P = 0.522 for heterogeneity). This meta-analysis suggests Caucasians with blood type A may have a higher risk of breast cancer than other Caucasians. No association was found in any other blood type or any other population. Similarly, the Rh factor had no association with the risk of breast cancer. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of once-a-day trandolapril by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The Italian Trandolapril Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, G; De Cesaris, R; Fogari, R; Lattuada, S; Montemurro, G; Palombo, C; Porcellati, C; Ranieri, G; Tettamanti, F; Verdecchia, P

    1992-10-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of trandolapril on 24-hour blood pressure in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. After a washout period of 4 weeks, 42 patients were randomized to receive 2 mg of trandolapril once daily and 20 to receive placebo in a double-blind fashion for 6 weeks. This was followed by a second washout period of 4 weeks. At the end of each period, clinic blood pressure was assessed at 24 hours after the last dose and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was measured noninvasively, taking blood pressure readings every 15 minutes during the day and every 20 minutes during the night. Two patients were dropped out before any blood pressure evaluation under treatment. Analysis of ambulatory blood pressure was performed in 48 patients who met the criteria for the minimal number of ambulatory blood pressure data (2 values per hour during the day and 1 value per hour in the night). In the trandolapril-treated group (n = 41) clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressures were 159.8 +/- 2.0/102.4 +/- 0.8, 146.8 +/- 2.3/94.8 +/- 1.1, and 155.7 +/- 2.0/99.2 +/- 0.7 mm Hg in the pretreatment, treatment, and post-treatment periods, respectively. The corresponding values for 24-hour mean blood pressure (n = 31) were 139.5 +/- 1.9/91.2 +/- 1.5, 131.0 +/- 2.0/84.3 +/- 1.2, and 139.7 +/- 1.8/90.9 +/- 1.1 mmHg. The differences between the lower treatment, versus the higher pre- and post-treatment, values were all statistically significant (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Finne, J.; Breimer, M.E.; Hansson, G.C.; Karlsson, K.-A.; Leffler, H.; Halbeek, H. van

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of N-linked glycopeptides representing a major part of the glycans in human small intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A and O individuals were isolated by gel filtrations and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I-Sepharose.

  1. Characterization of the primary structure and the microheterogeneity of the carbohydrate chains of porcine blood-group H substance by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Halbeek, H. van; Dorland, L.; Kochetkov, N.K.; Arbatsky, N.P.; Derevitskaya, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    In blood-group H substance from pig stomach cell linings, carbohydrate structures are known to occur which are O-glycosidically linked via GalNAc to Ser or Thr of the polypeptide backbone. They have in common the Gal(beta1->3)GalNAc core unit, which bears one or more N-acetyllactosamine branches.

  2. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  3. The Knights’ Eleven Oars: In Praise of Phormio? (Ar. Eq. 546-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2009-01-01

    The curious “eleven oars” of the chorus of Knights in Aristophanes’ eponymous play recall the victory of Phormio and his eleven triremes in the gulf of Naupactus in 429 B.C., and echo a lost victory ode performed at the celebration of this victory....

  4. Trustworthiness of information about blood donation and transfusion in relation to knowledge and perceptions of risk: an analysis of UK stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E; Farrell, K; James, V; Lowe, K C

    2004-06-01

    There is evidence that the public perceive blood transfusion as risky, and there is a growing literature exploring factors associated with perceived transfusion risk. One contributory factor might be the types of information different key stakeholders (e.g. general practitioners, anaesthetists, health/life style journalists and blood donors) rely on for information. This article addresses four unanswered questions about transfusion/donation risk, namely (1) do different stakeholder groups perceive different sources of information as more or less trustworthy, (2) to what extent is the perceived trustworthiness related to levels of knowledge and perceived risk, (3) is optimistic bias observed across the stakeholder groups, and (4) is knowledge related to levels of perceived risk across the stakeholder groups? A questionnaire survey was used to assess the trustworthiness of sources of information, perceived risk and knowledge. Four stakeholder groups were examined, namely (1) blood donors (n = 250), (2) general practitioners (n = 88), (3) anaesthetists (n = 143) and (4) medical journalists (n = 20). The results showed that (1) judgements of trustworthiness vary as a function of stakeholder groups, and (2) it is what people think they know rather than what they actually know that is related to judgements of trustworthiness and perceptions of risk. Judgements of trustworthiness are generally unrelated to perceptions of risk, and all stakeholder groups show optimistic bias. The implications of these findings for risk communication, specifically relating to transfusion medicine, are discussed.

  5. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-08-03

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of intra-neuronal VZV proteins in snap-frozen human ganglia is confounded by antibodies directed against blood group A1-associated antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Flowerdew, Sarah E; Wick, Desiree; Horn, Anja K E; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M; Hüfner, Katharina

    2012-06-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox, establishes latency in trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and can lead to herpes zoster upon reactivation. The VZV proteome expressed during latency remains ill-defined, and previous studies have shown discordant data on the spectrum and expression pattern of VZV proteins and transcripts in latently infected human ganglia. Recently, Zerboni and colleagues have provided new insight into this discrepancy (Zerboni et al. in J Virol 86:578-583, 2012). They showed that VZV-specific ascites-derived monoclonal antibody (mAb) preparations contain endogenous antibodies directed against blood group A1 proteins, resulting in false-positive intra-neuronal VZV staining in formalin-fixed human DRG. The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend this phenomenon to snap-frozen TG (n=30) and DRG (n=9) specimens of blood group genotyped donors (n=30). The number of immunohistochemically stained neurons was higher with mAb directed to immediate early protein 62 (IE62) compared with IE63. The IE63 mAb-positive neurons always co-stained for IE62 but not vice versa. The mAb staining was confined to distinct large intra-neuronal vacuoles and restricted to A1(POS) donors. Anti-VZV mAb staining in neurons, but not in VZV-infected cell monolayers, was obliterated after mAb adsorption against blood group A1 erythrocytes. The data presented demonstrate that neuronal VZV protein expression detected by ascites-derived mAb in snap-frozen TG and DRG of blood group A1(POS) donors can be misinterpreted due to the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against blood group A1-associated antigens present in ascites-derived VZV-specific mAb preparations.

  7. [Frequencies of blood groups, ABO and Rh D incompatibility in post-delivery women and their liveborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiochi, Eduardo; Camano, Luiz; Sass, Nelson; Colas, Osmar Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the frequency of different blood phenotypes and to predict the risk of Rh D alloimmunization and maternal-fetal incompatibility in a Brazilian population living in the West zone of the city of São Paulo-Brazil. This descriptive study evaluated 2,372 post-delivery women and their liveborn during one year. Blood types were analyzed by means of tube agglutination tests. The blood type frequencies were: 50.67 O, 32.17 A, 13.45 B, 3.75 AB, 90.34 Rh D(+) and 9.66 Rh D(-). ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility was detected in 18.4% and Rh D incompatibility in 7%. The fraction of Rh D(-) population at high risk for Rh D alloimmunization was 82%, emphasizing the importance of Rh D alloimmunization profilaxis.

  8. Distribution of von Willebrand factor levels in young women with and without bleeding symptoms: influence of ABO blood group and promoter haplotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lethagen, S.; Hillarp, A.; Ekholm, C.

    2008-01-01

    The normal distribution of von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels is wide. Low levels are associated with bleeding symptoms and von Willebrand disease (VWD). We have recently described a high prevalence of bleeding symptoms in a whole age group of young females (n = 1,019) from Malmo, Sweden....... It was the objective of the present study to evaluate the distribution of VWF levels in young females with or without bleeding symptoms in this population, and the influence of ABO blood group and promoter haplotypes on VWF levels and to identify a possible increased prevalence of VWD in females with bleeding symptoms....... A random selection of the female age group (n = 246), into a study group (n = 176) with, and a control group (n = 70) without bleeding symptoms, was evaluated. Eighteen girls had VWF:RCo below the reference range, of which 17 belonged to the study group (17/176, 9.7%), and one to the control group (1/70, 1...

  9. [Clinical analysis of eleven patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders complicating pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yue-Ting; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jian-Liu; Liang, Mei-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, the antenatal management, the outcome and prognosis of chronic myeloproliferative disorders(CMPD) complicating pregnancy. Retrospectively analyze the clinical data of eleven patients with CMPD complicating pregnancy hospitalized in Peking University People's Hospital from 2000 to 2009, including five patients with essential thrombocythemia, one with primary myelofibrosis and five with chronic myeloid leukemia. (1) Five pregnancies had periodic antenatal care and laboratory monitorings like full blood count. Reasonable anti-coagulation therapy was given to prevent the complications. One patient with PMF diagnosed before conception had her first pregnancy ended with mild pre-eclampsia and intrauterine death at the gestational age of 32 weeks. During the first trimester of her second pregnancy two years later, the test for anti-β2 glycoprotein antibody was positive. She received low-dose aspirin and low-molecular-weight heparin as anti-coagulants. An uneventful course was obtained and she delivered a healthy term infant. (2) Five pregnancies had occasional antenatal examination, including two patients with ET and three patients with CML. One patient with ET developed severe pre-eclampsia at the gestational age of 25 weeks. Umbilical artery Doppler showed reversed end-diastolic velocity. The management with anti-convulsants, anti-hypertensives and anti-coagulants showed no effect. An emergency cesarean section had to be performed because of the aggressive hypertension and placental abruption, with still birth as a result. Two pregnancies never had an antenatal care. Both of them were admitted on labor and the diagnoses of CML were made. (3) Four pregnancies developed oligohydramnios and three developed preelampsia (two severe pre-eclampsia and one mild pre-eclampsia). There was no other hemorrhage and thrombosis event. (4) Eight pregnancies reached full-term with four cesarean sections and four vaginal births. Two preterm

  10. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  12. Evaluating the maintenance of disease-associated variation at the blood group-related gene B4galnt2 in house mice

    OpenAIRE

    Vallier, Marie; Abou Chakra, Maria; Hindersin, Laura; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Traulsen, Arne; Baines, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Background B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g. in the C57BL/6?J strain, directs intestinal expression of B4galnt2, which is the pattern observed among vertebrates, including humans. An alternative allele class found in the RIIIS/J strain and other mice instead drives expression in blood vessels, which leads to a phenotype similar to type 1 von Wi...

  13. A uniform method for the simultaneous blood group phenotyping of Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, S, s̅, P1, k applying lateral-flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, A; Meyer, S; Trost, N; Neuenschwander, K; Geisen, C; Frey, B M; Gassner, C; Schwind, P

    2018-02-01

    A lateral flow assay for simultaneous blood group typing of ABO, RhD, C, E, c, e, Cw and K with stable end-point and without centrifugation is in routine use since several years (MDmulticard ® ). The typing of extended phenotype parameters belonging to the Duffy, Kidd, MNSs blood group systems and others, however, has not yet been demonstrated for this technique. Reliable detection of Fy x , a weak Fy b phenotype with a pronounced quantitative reduction of the number of Fy b antigens on the erythrocyte surface, remains a weakness of current serological blood grouping techniques. The performance characteristics of the following reagents were evaluated in donor and patient samples in lateral flow technology (MDmulticard ® ): Anti-Fy a , -Fy b , -Jk a , -Jk b , -S, -s̅, -P1 and -k. The sensitivity to detect Fy x was in addition evaluated with Fy x positive samples, which had been preselected by MALDI-TOF MS-based genotyping. All results obtained with the MDmulticard ® were in full accordance with those of the CE-certified reference products for all the eight reagent formulations used: Anti-Fy a , -Fy b , -Jk a , -Jk b , -S, -s̅, -P1 and -k. Also, all Fy x phenotypes of the selected population of 93 positive samples, originally identified by MALDI-TOF MS-based genotyping, were reliably detected by the lateral flow assay. Extended phenotype blood group parameters, including the serologically challenging Fy x phenotype, can be determined simultaneously, rapidly and accurately using the lateral flow (MDmulticard ® ) technology, even in cases when IgG class antibodies are the only source of diagnostic antibodies. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Group-wise construction of reduced models for understanding and characterization of pulmonary blood flows from medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Romain; McLeod, Kristin; Caiazzo, Alfonso; Mansi, Tommaso; Fernández, Miguel A; Sermesant, Maxime; Pennec, Xavier; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E; Boudjemline, Younes; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in patient-specific geometries provides complementary insights to clinical imaging, to better understand how heart disease, and the side effects of treating heart disease, affect and are affected by hemodynamics. This information can be useful in treatment planning for designing artificial devices that are subject to stress and pressure from blood flow. Yet, these simulations remain relatively costly within a clinical context. The aim of this work is to reduce the complexity of patient-specific simulations by combining image analysis, computational fluid dynamics and model order reduction techniques. The proposed method makes use of a reference geometry estimated as an average of the population, within an efficient statistical framework based on the currents representation of shapes. Snapshots of blood flow simulations performed in the reference geometry are used to build a POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) basis, which can then be mapped on new patients to perform reduced order blood flow simulations with patient specific boundary conditions. This approach is applied to a data-set of 17 tetralogy of Fallot patients to simulate blood flow through the pulmonary artery under normal (healthy or synthetic valves with almost no backflow) and pathological (leaky or absent valve with backflow) conditions to better understand the impact of regurgitated blood on pressure and velocity at the outflow tracts. The model reduction approach is further tested by performing patient simulations under exercise and varying degrees of pathophysiological conditions based on reduction of reference solutions (rest and medium backflow conditions respectively). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European endangered species program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Moyse, Jill A; Lovstad, Jessica N; Ober, Carole B; Thompson, Emma E

    2011-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes have long been considered similar, although they are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A, which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O, although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared with zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques, and genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and, specifically, the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Current topics in red cell biology: report on the Red Cell Special Interest Group meeting held at NHS Blood and Transplant Bristol on 30 October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, T; Bruce, L J; Ridgwell, K

    2016-08-01

    The Red Cell Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting, hosted by the British Blood Transfusion Society, provides an annual forum for the presentation of UK- and European-based red cell research. The 2015 meeting was held on Friday 30 October at the National Health Service Blood & Transplant (NHSBT) facility in Filton, Bristol and provided an exciting and varied programme on the themes of erythropoiesis, malaria biology and pathophysiology and red cells properties in stress and disease. Ten speakers presented on these topics over the course of one day. The meeting was well attended by over 90 delegates. Posters were presented during the lunch break, and abstracts from the posters are published at the end of this issue. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Negative regulation of HLA-DR expression on endothelial cells by anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation and mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Miwa, Yuko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    Donor-specific antibody (DSA), particularly against HLA class II, is a major cause of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) after transplantation, although ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation has recently demonstrated favorable graft outcomes. The condition of no injury even in the presence of anti-donor antibody has been referred to as "accommodation", which would be one of the key factors for successful long-term graft survival. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effect of anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation on endothelial cells against HLA-DR antibody-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Blood group A/B-expressing endothelial cells EA.hy926 or Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells (HUVEC) were incubated with IFNγ in the presence or absence of anti-blood group A/B antibody or mTOR inhibitor (mTOR-i) for 48h. The effects on signaling pathway, HLA expression, complement regulatory factors, and CDC were investigated. Expression of HLA-DR on EA.hy926 or HUVEC were successfully elicited by IFNγ treatment, although little or no expression was observed in quiescent cells. Pre-incubation with anti-blood group A/B antibody had resistance to HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC against IFNγ-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This finding was ascribed to decreased expression of HLA-DR by post-translational regulation and increased expression of CD55/59, which was related to ERK and mTOR pathway inhibition. mTOR-i also inhibited HLA-DR expression by itself. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR-I and anti-blood group A/B ligation had an additive effect in preventing HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC. Anti-blood group A/B antibody might play a preventive role in CAMR. Inhibition of the ERK and mTOR pathways may contribute to the development of a novel treatment in the maintenance period after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dermatophytosis: association between ABO blood groups and reactivity to the trichophytin Dermatofitose: associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO e reatividade à tricofitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Regina VILANI-MORENO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the relationship between dermatophytosis and ABO blood groups through blood typing, identification of isolated dermatophytes and specific cellular immune response of 40 individuals carriers of this mycosis. They verified that the fungus Trichophyton rubrum, isolated from 54.5% of the patients, was more frequent in individuals belonging to blood group A. The cellular immune response, evaluated through the trichophytin antigen, was positive in 25% of the studied patients; the presence of immediate reactions (30 minutes was verified in 35%. The blood group distribution among patients with dermatophytosis and control groups was, respectively: 47.5% X 36% in group A, 40% X 50% in group O, 12.5% X 11% in group B. Even though the authors have found a higher number of patients belonging to blood group A infected by T. rubrum, these results suggest that there is no statistical evidence that these individuals are more susceptible to dermatophytosis.Os autores investigaram a relação entre dermatofitose e grupo sanguíneo ABO através da tipagem sanguínea, identificação do dermatófito isolado e resposta imune celular específica de 40 indivíduos portadores desta micose. Verificaram que o fungo Trichophyton rubrum foi isolado em 54,5% dos pacientes, sendo mais frequente em indivíduos pertencentes ao grupo sanguíneo A. A resposta imune celular, avaliada através do antígeno tricofitina, foi positiva em 25% dos pacientes estudados; a presença de reações imediatas (30 min foi verificada em 35%. A distribuição dos grupos sanguíneos entre pacientes com dermatofitose e grupo controle foi a seguinte: 47,5% x 36% grupo A, 40% x 50% grupo O, 12,5% x 11% grupo B. Embora os autores tenham encontrado um número maior de pacientes pertencentes ao grupo sanguíneo A e infectados pelo T. rubrum, não obtiveram evidência estatística de que esses indivíduos sejam mais suscetíveis as dermatofitoses.

  19. Funções biológicas dos antígenos eritrocitários Biological functions of blood group antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Bonifácio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos de grupos sanguíneos eritrocitários são estruturas macromoleculares localizadas na superfície extracelular da membrana eritrocitária. Com o desenvolvimento de estudos moleculares, mais de 250 antígenos são conhecidos e estão organizados em 29 sistemas de grupos sanguíneos reconhecidos pela Sociedade Internacional de Transfusão Sanguínea (ISBT. Estudos têm revelado que os antígenos de grupo sanguíneo estão expressos na membrana eritrocitária com ampla diversidade estrutural, incluindo epítopos de carboidratos em glicoproteínas e/ou glicolipídios e em proteínas inseridas na membrana via um domínio, via domínios de multipassagem ou ligados a glicosilfosfatidinositol. Além das diversidades estruturais, muitas funções importantes têm sido associadas aos antígenos eritrocitários recentemente identificadas, podendo ser esquematicamente divididas em: estruturais, transportadores, receptores e moléculas de adesão, enzimas, proteínas controladoras do complemento e outras. Esta revisão tem como foco as funções potenciais das moléculas que expressam os antígenos eritrocitários.Erythrocyte blood group antigens are macromolecules structures located on the extracellular surface of the red blood cell membrane. The development of molecular studies allowed the recognition of more than 250 antigens by the International Society for Blood Transfusion (ISBT. These studies have also shown that blood group antigens are carried on red blood cell membrane of wide structural diversity, including carbohydrate epitopes on glycoproteins and/or glycolipids and on proteins inserted within the membrane via single or multi-pass transmembrane domains, or via glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkages. In addition, to their structural diversity, many important functions associated with blood group antigens have been recently identified and can be didactically divided into: structural proteins, transporters, receptors and adhesion

  20. Body mass index and blood pressure among men of three ethnic groups of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken from 2009-2011 to understand the association between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) (systolic or SBP and diastolic or DBP) among randomly chosen men, aged 30 to 59 years, of three endogamous communities in Darjeeling, West Bengal, India: Dhimal (n = 88), Mech (n = 71), and Rajbanshi (n = 83). Analysis of variance was applied. Remarkable rates of BMI-based undernutrition (chronic energy deficiency or CED) were recorded among Dhimals (31%) and Rajbanshis (18%). Notable prevalence of overweight (20%) was recorded among men of Mech community. None were found to be obese in three samples. Mean SBP and DBP were found to rise consistently at levels of BMI (undernutrition, normal, and overweight). BMI was observed to rise consistently at levels of blood pressures (normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive). Among Mech, this pattern was found to be more conspicuous. DBP was found to be more sensitive with changes of BMI in men.

  1. Targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR): protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Claire; Bray, Emma P; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M; Haque, M Sayeed; Hobbs, F D Richard; Jones, Miren I; Jowett, Sue; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Little, Paul; Mant, Jonathan; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2013-03-23

    Self-monitoring of hypertension with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower systolic blood pressure for at least one year. However, few people in high risk groups have been evaluated to date and previous work suggests a smaller effect size in these groups. This trial therefore aims to assess the added value of self-management in high risk groups over and above usual care. The targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR) trial will be a pragmatic primary care based, unblinded, randomised controlled trial of self-management of blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. Eligible patients will have a history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease and will be recruited from primary care. Participants will be individually randomised to either usual care or self-management. The primary outcome of the trial will be difference in office SBP between intervention and control groups at 12 months adjusted for baseline SBP and covariates. 540 patients will be sufficient to detect a difference in SBP between self-management and usual care of 5 mmHg with 90% power. Secondary outcomes will include self-efficacy, lifestyle behaviours, health-related quality of life and adverse events. An economic analysis will consider both within trial costs and a model extrapolating the results thereafter. A qualitative analysis will gain insights into patients' views, experiences and decision making processes. The results of the trial will be directly applicable to primary care in the UK. If successful, self-management of blood pressure in people with stroke and other high risk conditions would be applicable to many hundreds of thousands of individuals in the UK and beyond. ISRCTN87171227.

  2. Variables That Affect Results of PFA-100 in a Group of Healthy Blood Donors in the Slovak Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinkova L.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The platelet function analyzer (PFA-100 is a system analyzing platelet function determined for detection of the functional inherited and acquired platelet disorders, screening of von Willebrand disease (vWD and recently also considered as useful for monitoring of antiplatelet treatment. The PFA-100 test uses a high shear flow system to simulate in vitro the conditions to which platelets are subjected at the site of a damaged blood vessel wall.

  3. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Nami; Mezaki, Takuma; Nozawa, Yoko; Nakano, Yoshikatsu; Lien, Yi-Ting; Fukami, Hironobu; Hayward, David C; Ball, Eldon E

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) caused by rising temperatures (bleaching), reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa), and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi). Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species) spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore termed the first

  4. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Okubo

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium caused by rising temperatures (bleaching, reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa, and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi. Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore

  5. Cadets and midshipmen from eleven universities and service academies to participate in Military Leadership Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Corps of Cadets will host an on-campus Military Leadership Conference from Thursday, Feb. 9 through Saturday, Feb. 11, with student and faculty representatives from eleven service academies and university military programs participating.

  6. Familial and sporadic breast cancer cases in Iceland: a comparison related to ABO blood groups and risk of bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvadottir, L; Tulinius, H; Robertson, J M

    1988-10-15

    This study was aimed at determining whether the familial clustering often observed in breast cancer is associated with genetic factors. We compared familial and sporadic breast cancer cases with respect to ABO blood group distribution and the risk of bilateral disease, using the data from the Icelandic Cancer Registry which contains genealogical information for about 30% of the breast cancer cases diagnosed in Iceland since 1911. Cases were classified as familial if at least one first-degree relative had breast cancer. Using this criterion, we identified 184 familial cases and 572 sporadic cases. The familial cases had a 2-fold higher prevalence of blood group B than did the sporadic cases, and the frequency of this blood group in non-affected relatives of cases was significantly reduced. Familial cases were about 2.7 times more likely to suffer from bilateral breast cancer than were the sporadic patients. These results support the presence of a genetic factor in the etiology of familial breast cancer.

  7. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation:  Blood Group A1B Donor Into A2B Recipient With Anti-A1 Isoagglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation of the blood group A2B in a recipient was successfully performed in the setting of receiving a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO blood group, including ABO genotyping. The donor and recipient were tested for ABO, non-ABO, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. The donor and recipient were typed for HLA antigens, including T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and immunoglobulin G anti-A1 was demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor-recipient pair was a four-antigen HLA mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests were compatible. The transplant procedure was uneventful; the patient experienced immediate graft function with no episodes of rejection or readmissions more than 2 years later. It may be safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group AB mismatch barrier in the setting of low titer anti-A1 isoagglutinins without the need for pretransplant desensitization even if the antibody produced reacts with anti-human globulin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Expression of lectin, interleukin-2 and histopathologic blood group binding sites in prostate cancer and its correlation with integrated optical density and syntactic structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, K; Bubenzer, J; Kayser, G; Eichhorn, S; Zemlyanukhina, T V; Bovin, N V; Andre, S; Koopmann, J; Gabius, H J

    1995-04-01

    The binding of several biotinylated biologic probes was determined in sections of 20 surgical specimens of prostate cancer and of 21 biopsy specimens of hyperplastic prostate. Whereas neither the immunomodulatory, galactoside-specific lectin from Viscum album nor the human beta-galactoside-specific lectin (M(r) 14 kd) or its specific antibody discerned any remarkable differences, the lectin from Urtica dioica (UDA) and interleukin-2, the in vitro production of which is enhanced by this lectin, exhibited obvious preference for hyperplastic cells. In addition, the presence of binding sites for chemically synthesized blood group determinants was tested. Carcinoma cases revealed a higher percentage of binding of synthetic blood group trisaccharide H than hyperplasia cases. Due to these differences, diverse parameters, derived from measurement of integrated optical density (IOD) and from syntactic structure analysis, were correlated with the extent of binding of these biologic probes for the tumor cases. Primarily, parameters that are related to computation of a minimum spanning tree were significantly different in positive and negative cases for both UDA and interleukin-2. For the binding of blood group trisaccharide H the 5C exceeding rate, the 2CV deviation index and the distance of neighboring tumor cells with an IOD > 5 were clearly dissimilar. Our results thus suggest an extension of the panel of biologic probes for prostate cancer and substantiate the usefulness of correlations of binding of selected biologic probes to features derived from the assessment of IOD and syntactic structure analysis.

  10. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP in patients with hypertension.Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga or to the control group (recipient of yoga training. The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points.Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women and control (53% women groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05, emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001, problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001, and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001 were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention.Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension.

  11. A mouse chromosome 4 balancer ENU-mutagenesis screen isolates eleven lethal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskowitz Ivan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ENU-mutagenesis is a powerful technique to identify genes regulating mammalian development. To functionally annotate the distal region of mouse chromosome 4, we performed an ENU-mutagenesis screen using a balancer chromosome targeted to this region of the genome. Results We isolated 11 lethal lines that map to the region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit117 and D4Mit281. These lines form 10 complementation groups. The majority of lines die during embryonic development between E5.5 and E12.5 and display defects in gastrulation, cardiac development, and craniofacial development. One line displayed postnatal lethality and neurological defects, including ataxia and seizures. Conclusion These eleven mutants allow us to query gene function within the distal region of mouse chromosome 4 and demonstrate that new mouse models of mammalian developmental defects can easily and quickly be generated and mapped with the use of ENU-mutagenesis in combination with balancer chromosomes. The low number of mutations isolated in this screen compared with other balancer chromosome screens indicates that the functions of genes in different regions of the genome vary widely.

  12. Noninvasive determination of fetal rh blood group, D antigen status by cell-free DNA analysis in maternal plasma: experience in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Martinhago, Ciro Dresch; Camano, Luiz; Daher, Silvia; Pares, David Baptista da Silva; Minett, Thais; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Rh blood group, D antigen (RHD) fetal genotyping, using real-time polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood samples, in a racially mixed population. We performed a prospective study conducted between January 2006 and December 2007, analyzing fetal RHD genotype in the plasma of 102 D- pregnant women by real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting exons 7 and 10 of the RHD gene. Genotype results were compared with cord blood phenotype obtained after delivery or before the first intrauterine transfusion when necessary. Most of the participants (75.5%) were under 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 87.5% had at least one relative of black ancestry. By combining amplification of two exons, the accuracy of genotyping was 98%, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 92%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.5, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0. The two false-positive cases were confirmed to be pseudogene RHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were no differences between the patients with positive or negative Coombs test ( P = 0.479). Determination of fetal RHD status in maternal peripheral blood was highly sensitive in this racially mixed population and was not influenced by the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  14. Order of blood draw: Opinion Paper by the European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kristensen, Gunn; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-01-01

    It has been well reported over recent years that most errors within the total testing process occur in the pre-analytical phase (46%-68.2%), an area that is usually outside of the direct control of the laboratory and which includes sample collection (phlebotomy). National and international (WHO, CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have been a number of studies recently looking at whether order of draw remains a problem with modern phlebotomy techniques and materials, or it is an outdated practice followed simply because of historical reasons. In the following article, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols are not always followed or possible, EFLM WG-PRE supports the continued recommendation of ensuring a correct order of draw for venous blood collection.

  15. Blood Component Therapy and Coagulopathy in Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Literature from the Trauma Update Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Daniele; Cortegiani, Andrea; Chieregato, Arturo; Russo, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Concetta; De Blasio, Elvio; Mengoli, Francesca; Volpi, Annalisa; Grossi, Silvia; Gianesello, Lara; Orzalesi, Vanni; Fossi, Francesca; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration). Randomized controlled trials were selected along with observational studies that used a multivariable approach to adjust for confounding. Strict criteria were adopted for quality assessment based on a two-step approach. First, we rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Then, this rating was downgraded if other three criteria were not met: high reporting quality according to shared standards, absence of internal methodological and statistical issues not detailed by the GRADE system, and absence of external validity issues. With few exceptions, the GRADE rating, reporting and methodological quality of observational studies was "very low", with frequent external validity issues. The only two randomized trials retrieved were, instead, of high quality. Only weak evidence was found for a relation between coagulopathy and mortality. Very weak evidence was found supporting the use of fibrinogen administration to reduce mortality in trauma. On the other hand, we found high evidence that the use of 1:1 vs. 1:2 high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios failed to obtain a 12% mortality reduction. This does not exclude lower mortality rates, which have not been investigated. The use of tranexamic acid in trauma was supported by "high" quality evidence

  16. Grupos sanguíneos e lúpus eritematoso crônico discoide Blood groups and discoid lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Almeida Tamega

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Lesão discoide é a manifestação cutânea mais comum do lúpus eritematoso, e formas cutâneas crônicas apresentam características imunológicas próprias, direcionadas ao polo Th1. Diversas doenças possuem associação com grupos sanguíneos, o que não foi ainda estudado no lúpus discoide. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre tipos sanguíneos (ABO e Rh e lúpus eritematoso discoide. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo tipo transversal envolvendo tipagem sanguínea ABO e Rh, inquérito de dados clínicos e dosagem de FAN e C4 de portadores de lúpus discoide sem critérios de doença sistêmica, atendidos em hospital universitário. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 69 pacientes, sendo 71,0% do sexo feminino (p 1:160, em 31,9%; e níveis baixos de C4, em 8,7%. Não houve diferença significativa entre as frequências dos grupos sanguíneos dos pacientes e da população local; entretanto, o grupo A foi associado às formas disseminadas da doença (OR 4,1 e p Background: Discoid lesion is the commonest cutaneous finding in lupus erythematosus and chronic types have their own immunological features, with Th1 inflammation profile. Although many diseases have association with blood-group systems, this fact was not enlightened in discoid lupus erythematosus. Objective: To investigate the association between blood groups (ABO and Rh and discoid lupus erythematosus. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study assessing clinical information, blood group systems (ABO and Rh, FAN and C4 serum levels from discoid lupus patients without characteristics of systemic disease, was carried out at a clinic from a Brazilian university hospital. Results: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 71.0% were females (p1:160 in 31.9%, and low levels of C4 in 8.7%. There was no significant difference between the frequency of blood groups from discoid lupus patients and local population, however, blood group A was associated to

  17. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies and comparison with blood group antigens in dialysis patients in the East Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, B; Kurtoglu, E L; Taskapan, H; Piskin, T; Sahin, I; Otlu, G; Unal, B

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of that study was to investigate HLA class I and class II allele and haplotype frequencies in renal dialysis patients who live in East Anatolia in Turkey. Our second aim was to investigate whether there was a relationship between ABO and D blood group antigens and HLA alleles and haplotypes for the study group. HLA class I and II polymorphisms in 408 renal dialysis patients were studied using sequence-specific primers (SSP) and sequence-specific oligonucleotides (SSO). Blood group antigens were detected by agglutination methods on microplates. A total of 16 HLA-A, 34 HLA-B, and 15 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. The most frequent HLA-A alleles were HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, and HLA-A*11. The most frequent HLA-B alleles were HLA-B*35, HLA-B*51, and HLA-B*44. In case of HLA-DRB1; HLA-DRB1*11, HLA-DRB1*04, and HLA-DRB1*13 were first 3 alleles with higher frequency, in order. In the combination of those 3 alleles, the most frequent HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11, HLA-A*11-B*35-DRB1*11, A*24-B*35-DRB1*11. The frequency of ABO, D blood group antigens were observed as 0.168 for A Rh(+), 0.019 for A Rh(-), 0.057 for B Rh(+), 0.013 for B Rh(-), 0.123 for O Rh(+), 0.014 for O Rh(-), 0.018 for AB Rh(+), and 0.001 for AB Rh(-). While A Rh(+) samples with HLA-A*02 and HLA-DRB1*11 had the highest frequencies (0.067 and 0.088, respectively), O Rh(+) samples with HLA-B*51 had the highest frequency (0.06). According to haplotype frequencies HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 is also found at higher frequencies in Bulgarian and Armenian populations. In case of HLA-associated diseases, the east Anatolian population could be susceptible to myastenia gravis, Behçet's disease, and systemic sclerosis due to the high frequencies of HLA-A*24, HLA-B*51, and HLA-DRB1*11 respectively. We did not observe a correlation between blood group antigens and HLA alleles or haplotypes in renal dialysis patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro activities of 22 beta-lactam antibiotics against penicillin-resistant and penicillin-susceptible viridans group streptococci isolated from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, F; Liñares, J; Pallares, R; Carratala, J; Benitez, M A; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1995-01-01

    A total of 410 strains of viridans group streptococci isolated consecutively from blood were tested by the microdilution method for in vitro susceptibility to 22 beta-lactam antibiotics. One hundred thirty-eight strains (33.6%) were resistant to penicillin with a MIC range of 0.25 to 8 micrograms/ml. MICs of all beta-lactam agents tested were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for susceptible strains. These antibiotics were classified into three groups according to their in vitro activities (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates are inhibited). Beta-Lactams of the first group (these included imipenem, cefpirome, FK-037, cefditoren, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime) showed activities higher than or similar to that of penicillin against penicillin-resistant viridans group streptococci. However, 80% of highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis organisms required cefotaxime and ceftriaxone MICs of > or = 2 micrograms/ml (range, 2 to 16 micrograms/ml). Beta-Lactams of the second group (cefpodoxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin, and cefuroxime) showed lower activities than penicillin. Finally, antibiotics of the third group (cephalothin, oxacillin, ceftazidime, cefixime, cefaclor, cefetamet, cefadroxil, cephalexin, and ceftibuten) showed poor in vitro activities. Therefore, some of the beta-lactam agents included in the first group could be an acceptable alternative in the treatment of serious infections due to strains highly resistant to penicillin, although clinical experience is needed. PMID:8619576

  19. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Vitiazeva

    Full Text Available Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer.In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn. The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes.The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC.Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas appear to be different from

  20. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    of expression of these antigens in the benign lesions was similar to that of normal oral mucosa, i.e. expression of: N-acetyllactosamine on basal cells, H antigen on parabasal cells, and Lex and Ley on spinous cells. However, lesions with epithelial dysplasia showed H antigen on all spinous cells, and often......The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...

  1. A dispermic chimera was identified in a healthy man with mixed field agglutination reaction in ABO blood grouping and mosaic 46, XY/46, XX karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaozhen; Ying, Yanlin; Xu, Xianguo; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhimei; Lan, Xiaofei; Ma, Kairong; He, Ji; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2013-04-01

    Chimerism is the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in one organism. Here, we reported the identification of dispermic chimerism in a 25-year-old male. Blood grouping was performed with standard gel centrifugation test cards. ABO and HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci genotyping was determined with PCR sequence-based typing. A quantitative analysis of dual red cells populations was measured by flow cytometer. The karyotype was analyzed by G-banded chromosomes. Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis was performed on blood, buccal mucosal and hair shafts samples. A mixed-field agglutination with anti-B antibody was observed with gel centrifugation tests, which showed a double populations of O and B groups RBCs. Two groups RBCs were also observed by flow cytometer with nearly 90% O group cells and 10% B group cells. The normal O01,O02,B101 alleles were identified in DNA sample of the proband. STR analysis revealed three alleles for D8S1179,D3S1358,TH01,D13S317,D16S539,D2S1338,D19S433,TPOX and D18S51 loci. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci had three alleles and a karyotypic mosaic was found with 60% 46, XY and 40% 46, XX karyotype in the proband. In all studies, the third allele was attributable to a dual paternal contribution. A individual with dispermic chimerism was identified, which would generate by fertilization of an oocyte and the corresponding second polar body by two different sperms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Morrison, Cecily; Clarkson, P John

    2014-01-17

    The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial.

  3. Peer group normalization and urine to blood context in steroid metabolomics: the case of CAH and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkin, Edward; Ben-Dor, Amir; Shmoish, Michael; Hartmann, Michaela F; Yakhini, Zohar; Wudy, Stefan A; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-10-01

    Traditional interpretation of GC-MS output involved the semi-quantitative estimation of outstanding low or high specific metabolites and the ratio between metabolites. Here, we utilize a systems biology approach to steroid metabolomics of a complex steroid-related disorder, using an all-inclusive analysis of the steroidal pathway in the form of a subject steroidal fingerprint and disease signature, providing novel methods of normalization and visualization. The study compares 324 normal children to pure enzymatic deficiency in 27 untreated 21-hydroxylase CAH patients and to complex disease in 70 children with obesity. Steroid profiles were created by quantitative data generated by GC-MS analyses. A novel peer-group normalization method defined each individual subject's control group in a multi-dimensional space of metadata parameters. Classical steroid pathway visualization was enhanced by adding urinary end-product sub-nodes and by color coding of semi-quantitative metabolic concentrations and enzymatic activities. Unbiased automated data analysis confirmed the common knowledge for CAH - the inferred 17-hydroxyprogesterone was up-regulated and the inferred 21-hydroxylase enzyme activity was down-regulated. In childhood obesity, we observe a general decrease of both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolites, increased androgens, up-regulation of 17,20-lyase, 17-OHase and 11β-HSD1 activity and down-regulation of 21-OHase enzymatic activity. Our study proved novel normalization and visualization techniques are to be useful in identifying subject fingerprint and disease signature in enzymatic deficiency and insufficiency, while demonstrating hypothesis generation in a complex disease such as childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders ... a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups ...

  6. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Adult Congenital Heart Association Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  7. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  8. The influence of lactation products on the temporal expression of histo-blood group antigens in the intestines of suckling pigs: lectin histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D; King, T P

    1991-01-01

    Lectins and carbohydrate-specific monoclonal antibodies were used as cytochemical probes to investigate the possible influence of lactation products on the expression of intestinal membrane and secretory glycoconjugates in suckling piglets. Two different lactational regimes were compared; the first involved normal rearing of piglets for 8 weeks on a single dam and the second involved repeated cross-fostering of littermates onto recently farrowed sows, thereby restricting them to early milk. Five histo-blood group phenotypes were recognized within the piglet population: two immature phenotypes, 'O immature' or 'Oi' and 'A immature' or 'Ai', and three mature forms, 'O', 'A' and '-'. Under the normal suckling regime the transition from immature to mature OA phenotypes was evident at the fifth week post partum. However, in the repeatedly cross-fostered piglets this transition was evident much earlier at 3 weeks post partum. It is suggested that qualitative or quantitative variations in milk composition during the sow's lactation may significantly influence the expression of intestinal histo-blood group antigens in her suckling young.

  9. Predictive blood group genetics in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: a 10-year review of a laboratory evaluation of amniotic fluid-derived DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Eva; Fernandes, Bernard J; Wang, Chen; Denomme, Gregory A

    2007-11-01

    To identify the types of requests, the patterns of testing, and the error rates associated with the genetic identification of fetuses at risk for immune-mediated hemolytic disease. Retrospective review of the laboratory information system for all fetal blood group genotyping tests performed at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada from January 1997 to December 2006. Amniotic fluid-derived DNA, from 220 women (243 pregnancies), was tested for one or more antigens (279 tests) when the father was heterozygous for the inferred blood group antigen or was unavailable. The PCR amplification failure rate of amniotic fluid-derived DNA was 5.0%. When the father was considered hemizygous for RHD or was not available, the fetus was positive in 68.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively. Two amniotic fluid-derived DNA KEL1 SSP-PCR results did not correlate with the result determined from cultured amniocyte DNA. Paternal RHD hemizygosity may be overestimated. Thus, we recommend that RHD zygosity be established by molecular analysis of the RHD breakpoint. Cultured amniocytes should be reserved for testing if the amniotic fluid-derived DNA is inconclusive due to PCR amplification failure. We use PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for RHCE*E/RHCE*e (Rh E/e), KEL1/KEL2 (K/k), FYA/FYB (Fy(a/b)), and JKA/JKB (Jk(a/b)).

  10. Characterization of the recognition of blood group B trisaccharide derivatives by the lectin from Marasmius oreades using frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Hindsgaul, Ole

    2002-03-01

    A novel lectin from the mushroom Marasmius oreades (MOA) has been shown to bind to human blood group B oligosaccharides [1]. In the present work we examine the binding of a series of analogues of the blood group B-trisaccharide, alphaGal(1-3)[alphaFuc(1-2)]betaGal-OR (1, R = (CH2)8COOMe). MOA was biotinylated and immobilized on a micro column (9.8 microL) for evaluation by Frontal Affinity Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (FAC-MS) [2]. The trisaccharide 1 was found to be the epitope needed for maximum recognition (Kd = 3.6 microM). A series of synthetic deoxygenated and O-methylated analogues of the B-trisaccharide (R = OMe) were then screened against the lectin, and the key structural elements for binding were determined. OH-4 of the beta-Gal residue and OH-2 of the alpha-Gal residue were found to be critical for recognition. The FAC-MS technique also proved powerful in evaluating mixtures of compounds. Since the solution NMR structure and crystal structure of the B-trisaccharide are known [3], we propose the specific surface of the trisaccharide that is recognized by the lectin.

  11. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII and von Willebrand factor (VWF. Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg, and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13. We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag, collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA, and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Results Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects (p < 0.05 for all comparison. ADAMTS13 antigen decreased with increasing age, whereas the other parameters increased. Other than ADAMTS13 (p < 0.01, no gender-related variations were observed in the other parameters. Moreover, FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof showed significant and positive relationships with age (r = 0.421, 0.445, 0.410, 0.401, and 0.589, resp.; all p < 0.001, whereas a negative relationship was observed for ADAMTS13 antigen (r = 0.306; p = 0.006. Furthermore, FVIII:C were strongly correlated with VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof (r = 0.746, r = 0.746, and r = 0.576, resp.; p < 0.0001. VWF parameters were also strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.0.847 for VWF:Ag and VWF:CBA; r = 0.722 for VWF:Ag and VWF:Rcof; p < 0.0001. Conclusions ABO blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups.

  12. Further studies of oligosaccharide recognition by the soluble 13 kDa lectin of bovine heart muscle. Ability to accommodate the blood-group-H and -B-related sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, W M; Hounsell, E F; Feizi, T

    1988-01-01

    Oligosaccharide recognition by the 13 kDa soluble lectin from bovine heart muscle has been investigated by inhibition of binding of the 125I-labelled lectin to trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. The results indicate that the Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc) and the Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) backbone structures are the basic recognition units, and that the blood-group-H structure, the blood-group-B structure, the 'B-like' structure [afucosyl-(blood group B)] and the alpha 2-3 sialylated analogu...

  13. Deformations of gauged SO(8) supergravity and supergravity in eleven dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, B. de; Nicolai, H.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that there exists a continuous one-parameter family of gauged SO(8) supergravities, possible eleven-dimensional origins of this phenomenon are explored. Taking the original proof of the consistency of the truncation of 11D supergravity to SO(8) gauged supergravity as a starting

  14. Hepneriana Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini), first record from China, with descriptions of eleven new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meixia; Cao, Yanghui; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-11-15

    A redescription of the erythroneurine leafhopper genus Hepneriana Dworakowska and a key to Chinese species of the genus are provided. Eleven new species, Hepneriana applanata, H. bicruris, H. concava, H. euryaedeaga, H. longa, H. menglunensis, H. paragamma, H. prostrata, H. robusta, H. taibaoensis and H. undulata spp. nov. are described and H. joannae (Dworakowska) is newly recorded from China.

  15. Antidiabetic screening and scoring of eleven plants traditionally used in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Venter, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of indigenous or naturalised South African plants using an optimised screening and scoring method. Eleven plant species were screened against Chang liver, 3T3-L1 adipose and C2...

  16. A Rare Case of Salmonella typhi Meningitis in an Eleven Month Old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are infrequent causes of childhood meningitis. Most reports of Salmonella typhi meningeal infections are confined to neonates. A rare instance of S. typhi in an otherwise healthy eleven month old infant is being reported. Keywords: Salmonella typhi, meningitis, infant.

  17. Predictive performance of eleven pharmacokinetic models for propofol infusion in children for long-duration anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, M.; Masui, K.; Eleveld, D. J.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Uchida, O.

    Background. Predictive performance of eleven published propofol pharmacokinetic models was evaluated for long-duration propofol infusion in children. Methods. Twenty-one aged three-11 yr ASA I-II patients were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol or sevoflurane, and maintained with

  18. Minimal variation in anti-A and -B titers among healthy volunteers over time: Implications for the use of out-of-group blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprogøe, Ulrik; Yazer, Mark H; Rasmussen, Mads Hvidkjær; Antonsen, Berit; Bistrup, Claus; Assing, Kristian

    2017-06-01

    Using potentially out-of-group blood components, like low titer A plasma and O whole blood, in the resuscitation of trauma patients is becoming increasingly popular. However, very little is known whether the donors' anti-A and/or anti-B titers change over time and whether repeated titer measurements on the same donor are required to ensure that each donation produces a low titer product. The anti-A and/or anti-B titers were measured on 56 healthy adult volunteers (47 blood donors; nine blood center personnel) every 3 months for 12 consecutive months using an automated solid phase analyzer. The results were expressed as log2 titer steps (e.g., titer 32 = 5 titer steps). Minor variations in the average anti-A and/or anti-B titers were seen over time; the maximum individual SD in each group was 1.50 (IgG anti-A) or 1.00 (IgM anti-A, IgM, and IgG anti-B). When the SDs for the four titer measurements from all 56 volunteers were combined as appropriate, the highest overall combined SD was 0.47 titer steps for IgG anti-A. This value corresponds to a 95% confidence interval for intraindividual variation in this antibody's titer over 12 months of 0.96 titer steps. Thus, based on one measurement, an IgG anti-A with a titer step of, for example, 6 would be expected to be in the range of titer step 5 to titer step 7 over the course of 1 year with 95% probability. The titers of anti-A and/or anti-B among healthy adults are stable over at least 1 year. This suggests that repeated titer measurements within a year on the same donor are not necessary if donations are made at 3 months or longer intervals. Diagnostic study, level V.

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Educators Resources for Patients View all Guidelines & Quality Care Resources to help practitioners improve patient care ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  1. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  2. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  3. Priorities for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research: A Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Centers for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanie, Prateeti; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Kressin, Nancy R; Wells, Barbara; Wang, Tracy Y; Peterson, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    The Centers for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (CCORs) held a meeting to review how cardiovascular outcomes research had evolved in the decade since the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2004 working group report and to consider future directions. The conference involved representatives from governmental agencies, outcomes research thought leaders, and public and private healthcare partners. The main purposes of this meeting were to (1) advance collaborative high-yield, high-impact outcomes research; (2) identify priorities and barriers to important cardiovascular outcomes research; and (3) define future needs for the field. This report highlights the key topics covered during the meeting, including an examination of the recent history of outcomes research, an evaluation of the current academic climate, and a vision for the future of cardiovascular outcomes research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Advancing the Science of Myocardial Recovery With Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Working Group of the National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Stavros G.; Pagani, Francis D.; Lundberg, Martha S.; Baldwin, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2–3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling. Research in this field could be innovative in many ways and the Working Group specifically discussed opportunities associated with genome-phenome systems biology approaches, genetic epidemiology, bioinformatics and precision medicine at the population level, advanced imaging modalities including molecular and metabolic imaging, and developing minimally invasive surgical and percutaneous bioengineering approaches. These new avenues of investigations could lead to new treatments that target phylogenetically conserved pathways involved in cardiac reparative mechanisms. A central point that emerged from the NHLBI Working Group meeting was that the lessons learned from the MCS investigational setting can be extrapolated to the broader HF population. With the precedents set by the significant impact of studies of other well-controlled and tractable subsets on larger populations, such as the genetic work in both cancer and cardiovascular disease, the work to improve our understanding of cardiac recovery and resilience in MCS patients could be transformational for the greater HF population. PMID:28736756

  5. Age at cancer diagnosis, non-O blood group and asparaginase therapy are independently associated with deep venous thrombosis in pediatric oncology patients: A risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spavor, Maria; Halton, Jacqueline; Dietrich, Kevin; Israels, Sara; Shereck, Evan; Yong, Jian; Yasui, Yutaka; Mitchell, Lesley Gayle

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric oncology patients are at increased risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Determining the sub-population of children at increased DVT risk is critical for optimum clinical management. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to identify clinical risk factors for DVT which are easily identifiable at cancer diagnosis. A Canadian multicenter case control study in survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors who had DVT (Cases) while being treated for pediatric cancer where matched by center with a minimum of two survivors who did not experience DVT (Controls). Clinical information including age at diagnosis, type of cancer and chemotherapy were collected. Genotyping of blood group was done by single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis. 218 subjects were recruited at 4 Canadian pediatric centers. Multivariable analysis demonstrated 3 significant variables (reported as Odds Ratio (OR), (95% CI), p value): age at diagnosis p2-≤7years, >7≤10years, >10years. A significant association with DVT were seen in children 0-≤2years (OR 3.1 (1.1-8.3) p=0.026) and >10years (OR 3.8, 1.7-8.5 p=0.001). Significant associations with DVT remained for non-O blood group, OR 2.2 (1.2-4.4) p=0.016 and asparaginase treatment, OR 2.1 (1.1-4.0) p=0.027. The value for the clinical risk model receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.67. We have shown 3 independent risk factors for DVT in childhood cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer simulation of histo-blood group oligosaccharides: energy maps of all constituting disaccharides and potential energy surfaces of 14 ABH and Lewis carbohydrate antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberty, A; Mikros, E; Koca, J; Mollicone, R; Oriol, R; Pérez, S

    1995-06-01

    The three-dimensional structures of fourteen histo-blood groups carbohydrate antigens have been established through a combination of molecular mechanics and conformational searching methods. The conformational space available for each disaccharide, constituents of these determinants, has been throroughly characterized. The results have been organized in a data bank fashion. Larger relatives, i.e. 14 tri- and tetrasaccharides of histo-blood group antigens, have been modelled using a different method for exploring the complex potential energy surface. This approach is aimed at establishing all the possible families of conformations, along with the conformational pathways. Different conformational behaviours are exhibited by these oligosaccharides. Some of them, i.e. Le(x) and Le(y) tri and tetrasaccharides, are very rigid; 99% of their populations belong to the same conformational family. Others, like H type 1, H type 2 or H type 6 oligosaccharides, are essentially rigid, but a secondary conformational family, corresponding to 3-4% of the total population, can arise. Finally, the H types 3 and 4 trisaccharides, and the A type 1 and A type 2 tetrasaccharides are predicted to behave rather flexibly. The information gathered in the present investigation has been used to analyse the body of experimental evidence, either physical or biological, available for this series of carbohydrate antigens. Of special interest are the several different alignments that can be proposed for these molecules. They yield a realistic definition of the three-dimensional features of the epitopes thereby providing essential information about how carbohydrate antigens are recognized by proteins.

  7. Patients' and clinicians' views on the optimum schedules for self-monitoring of blood pressure: a qualitative focus group and interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sabrina; Hodgkinson, James A; Milner, Siobhan L; Martin, Una; Tompson, Alice; Hobbs, Fd Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McManus, Richard J; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2016-11-01

    Self-monitoring of blood pressure is common but guidance on how it should be carried out varies and it is currently unclear how such guidance is viewed. To explore patients' and healthcare professionals' (HCPs) views and experiences of the use of different self-monitoring regimens to determine what is acceptable and feasible, and to inform future recommendations. Thirteen focus groups and four HCP interviews were held, with a total of 66 participants (41 patients and 25 HCPs) from primary and secondary care with and without experience of self-monitoring. Standard and shortened self-monitoring protocols were both considered. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using the constant comparative method. Patients generally supported structured schedules but with sufficient flexibility to allow adaptation to individual routine. They preferred a shorter (3-day) schedule to longer (7-day) regimens. Although HCPs could describe benefits for patients of using a schedule, they were reluctant to recommend a specific schedule. Concerns surrounded the use of different schedules for diagnosis and subsequent monitoring. Appropriate education was seen as vital by all participants to enable a self-monitoring schedule to be followed at home. There is not a 'one size fits all approach' to developing the optimum protocol from the perspective of users and those implementing it. An approach whereby patients are asked to complete the minimum number of readings required for accurate blood pressure estimation in a flexible manner seems most likely to succeed. Informative advice and guidance should incorporate such flexibility for patients and professionals alike. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  8. Deformations of gauged SO(8) supergravity and supergravity in eleven dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    De Wit, B.; Nicolai, H.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that there exists a continuous one-parameter family of gauged SO(8) supergravities, possible eleven-dimensional origins of this phenomenon are explored. Taking the original proof of the consistency of the truncation of 11D supergravity to SO(8) gauged supergravity as a starting point, a number of critical issues is discussed, such as the preferred electric-magnetic duality frame in four dimensions and the existence of dual magnetic gauge fields and related quantities in ...

  9. Condition of live fire-scarred ponderosa pine eleven years after removing partial cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Steven J. McKay

    2008-01-01

    Our objective is to report mortality rates for ponderosa pine trees in Oregon ten to eleven years after removing a fire-scarred partial cross-section from them, and five years after an initial survey of post-sampling mortality. We surveyed 138 live trees from which we removed fire-scarred partial crosssections in 1994/95 and 387 similarly sized, unsampled neighbor...

  10. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Morrison, Cecily; Clarkson, P John

    2014-01-01

    Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service developm...

  11. [Eleven thesis on the archive of scientific research, for a new patrimonial and scientific policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bertrand

    2015-12-01

    Abstracting the main content of a recent report on the bad state of the archives of scientific research, this paper puts forward eleven thesis likely to feed, in this time of numeric transition to a new documentary regime and to a new patrimonial policy. The recent numeric conditions impose to set new archival pratices, more proactive, anticipative and prospective. Archives of scientific research must be thought in a double memorial and scientific dimension, and not only as a patrimonial or historical one.

  12. Optimizing Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions: An Eleven-Agency FY 2012 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) fiscal year (FY) 2012 effort that used the NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition (NOVA) analysis to identify optimal vehicle acquisition recommendations for eleven diverse federal agencies. Results of the study show that by following a vehicle acquisition plan that maximizes the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, significant progress is also made toward the mandated complementary goals of acquiring alternative fuel vehicles, petroleum use reduction, and alternative fuel use increase.

  13. Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Paulo Henrique Müller da; Brito,José Otávio; Silva Junior,Francides Gomes da

    2006-01-01

    Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

  14. Patients Lacking a KIR-Ligand of HLA Group C1 or C2 Have a Better Outcome after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martínez-Losada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Donor natural killer (NK cells can destroy residual leukemic cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This effect is based on the interaction of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR of donor NK cells with ligands of the major histocompatibility complex found on the surface of the target cells. HLA-C1 subtypes provide the ligand for KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 and the HLA-C2 subtypes for KIR2DL1. We have studied the probability of relapse (PR after single-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT in relation to the potential graft-vs.-leukemia effect mediated by NK cells present in the umbilical cord blood (UCB by analyzing KIR-ligand and HLA-C typing of the receptor. Data from 33 consecutive patients given a single unit UCBT were included. We have considered two groups of patients based on the absence or the presence of one of the C-ligands for inhibitory KIR and the incompatibility HLA-C1/2 between UCB and patients. Group 1 (n = 21: the patient lacks a C-ligand for inhibitory KIR present in UCB NK cells, i.e., patients homozygous C1/C1 or C2/C2. Group 2 (n = 12: patients heterozygous C1/C2 in which KIR-mediated graft-vs.-leukemia effect is not expected (presence of both C ligands for inhibitory KIR in the receptor. With a median follow-up post-UCBT of 93 months, patients with absence of a C-ligand for inhibitory KIRs (Group 1 showed a lower actuarial PR than patients with both C-ligands (group 2: 21 ± 10 vs. 68 ± 18% at 2 year and 36 ± 13 vs. 84 ± 14% at 5 years (p = 0.025, respectively. In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the 2-year PR was 36 ± 21% for group 1 and 66 ± 26% for 2 (p = 0.038. Furthermore, group 1 had a lower incidence of grades II–IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (p = 0.04. In the setting of UCBT, the absence of a C-ligand (C1 or C2 of inhibitory KIR in the patient is associated with lower PR, which is probably due to the graft

  15. Pengaruh Komunikasi Pelayanan dan Kepuasan terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan di 7-Eleven Buaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Marcellinus Logahan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was motivated by low communication in the business retail in terms of service from employees to customers. It influences the decline in customer satisfaction and leads to customer loyalty at a very low level. This study aims to identify and analyze the significance of the influence of customer service (X1 and customer satisfaction (X2 on customer loyalty (Y. Research was conducted in February - May 2013 held at 7-Eleven Buaran Jakarta. Research used quantitative method by using questionnaires filled directly by the visitors of 7-Eleven Buaran with a population of 19.920 people and a sample of 100 people, calculated using the Slovin formula. Validity test, reliability, normality, correlation, regression, hypothesis, and the determination carried out in this study using the data processed using SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions version 16.0. Results indicated that customer service has significant influence by 14.6% on customer loyalty, customer satisfaction has a significant effect of 8.5% on customer loyalty, and customer service and customer satisfaction have significant influence amounted to 15,2%. Thus, this study showed that customer service and customer satisfaction have a significant effect on customer loyalty in 7-eleven Buaran Jakarta.

  16. Crystallization of the lectin IV of Griffonia simplicifolia and its complexes with the Lewis b and Y human blood group determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T; Spohr, U; Lemieux, R U

    1987-08-05

    Single crystals of the lectin IV from Griffonia simplicifolia have been grown in the tetragonal crystal system. The space group is P4(2)2(1)2 with a = 78.95(5) A and c = 89.01(2) A, and there is one subunit of the dimeric glycoprotein in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to at least 2.5 A d spacings and are stable in the x-ray beam for 3 weeks. Crystals of the complex with the Lewis b (Leb) and Y human blood group determinants as the methyl glycosides, alpha-L-Fuc(1----2)beta-D-Gal(1----3)[alpha-L-Fuc(1----4)]beta-D-GlcNAc-OMe (where Fuc is fucose and -OMe is methoxy) and alpha-L-Fuc(1----2)beta-D-Gal(1----4)[alpha-L-Fuc(1----3)]-beta-D-GlcNAc- OMe, respectively, have also been grown and found to be isomorphous with the native lectin. Crystals have also been obtained with several derivatives of the Lewis b-OMe tetrasaccharide including that which has the 6-hydroxyl of the beta-D-GlcNAc unit replaced by iodine. In the latter case, the presence of the iodine atoms was established.

  17. Prevalence of Eligibility Criteria for the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial in US Adults Among Excluded Groups: Age Diabetes Mellitus, or a History of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bress, Adam P; Tanner, Rikki M; Hess, Rachel; Gidding, Samuel S; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Adults diabetes mellitus, or a history of stroke were not enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Estimating the size and characteristics of these excluded groups who meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria may provide information on the potential impact of providers extending the SPRINT findings to these populations. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 (n=25 076) to estimate the percentage and characteristics of US adults ≥20 years in 3 populations (age diabetes mellitus, or history of stroke) excluded from SPRINT who otherwise meet the trial eligibility criteria: age ≥50 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130-180 mm Hg, high cardiovascular disease risk, and not having trial exclusion criteria. Overall, 1.0% (95% CI 0.8-1.3) of US adults age diabetes mellitus, and 19.0% (95% CI 16.0-22.4) with history of stroke met the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. Among US adults with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, other SPRINT eligibility criteria were met by 7.5% (95% CI 6.1-9.2) of those age diabetes mellitus, and 23.0% (95% CI 19.4-27.0) with history of stroke. Among US adults meeting the other SPRINT eligibility criteria, antihypertensive medication was being taken by 31.0% (95% CI 23.9-41.3) of those diabetes mellitus, and 68.9% (95% CI 59.4-77.1) with a history of stroke. A substantial percentage of US adults with diabetes mellitus or history of stroke and a small percentage <50 years old meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Elevated Fasting Blood Glucose Is Predictive of Poor Outcome in Non-Diabetic Stroke Patients: A Sub-Group Analysis of SMART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Ni, Jun; Zhou, Lixin; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Yicheng; Cui, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Although increasing evidence suggests that hyperglycemia following acute stroke adversely affects clinical outcome, whether the association between glycaemia and functional outcome varies between stroke patients with\\without pre-diagnosed diabetes remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the 6-month functional outcome in a subgroup of SMART cohort and further to assess whether this association varied based on the status of pre-diagnosed diabetes. Data of 2862 patients with acute ischemic stroke (629 with pre-diagnosed diabetics) enrolled from SMART cohort were analyzed. Functional outcome at 6-month post-stroke was measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and categorized as favorable (mRS:0-2) or poor (mRS:3-5). Binary logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, history of hypertension and stroke, baseline NIHSS and treatment group, was used in the whole cohort to evaluate the association between admission FBG and functional outcome. Stratified logistic regression analyses were further performed based on the presence/absence of pre-diabetes history. In the whole cohort, multivariable logistical regression showed that poor functional outcome was associated with elevated FBG (OR1.21 (95%CI 1.07-1.37), p = 0.002), older age (OR1.64 (95% CI1.38-1.94), pimportance of glycemic control during acute phase of ischemic stroke especially in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes. Further investigation for developing optimal strategies to control blood glucose level in hyperglycemic setting is therefore of great importance. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00664846.

  19. Secondary elements of blood pH variation can influence the effort effectiveness based on adaptive changes within a group of elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ştefan Adrian; Tomescu, Valeriu; Voidăzan, Septimiu

    2016-01-01

    pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart. Determinations were aimed at adapting the reported biochemical parameters depending on the effort performed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, HCO3, pCO2, pO2, BE, SBE, SBC, Ca++, Mg++, LDH, GPT, T-Pro, and Alb. The mean value of pH found in athletes was 7.41±0.024. The value obtained was significantly correlated to biochemical parameters such as BE (2.32±1.79), SBC (1.67±1.45), SBE (2.70±1.75). However, bicarbonate (HCO3) was statistically significantly related with SBE, SBC, SBE, and pO2, but did not present a strong association with the pH value (p=0.094). However, values such as Alb, Ca++, LDH, BE, SBC are related to pH value as a result of variations in the data submitted. The processed data evidence the fact that blood pH, in this case, is significantly influenced by a number of indices that correlate energy system activity, individual adaptation to effort, and the recovery process. The parameters under investigation (SBE, SBC, SBE, CPK, LDH) are associated with pH changes that could confirm the recovery efficiency of the athlete, along with a possible metabolic acidosis/alkalosis.

  20. Evaluating the maintenance of disease-associated variation at the blood group-related gene B4galnt2 in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, Marie; Abou Chakra, Maria; Hindersin, Laura; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Traulsen, Arne; Baines, John F

    2017-08-14

    B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g. in the C57BL/6 J strain, directs intestinal expression of B4galnt2, which is the pattern observed among vertebrates, including humans. An alternative allele class found in the RIIIS/J strain and other mice instead drives expression in blood vessels, which leads to a phenotype similar to type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD), a common human bleeding disorder. We previously showed that alternative B4galnt2 alleles are subject to long-term balancing selection in mice and that variation in B4galnt2 expression influences host-microbe interactions in the intestine. This suggests that the costs of prolonged bleeding in RIIIS/J allele-bearing mice might be outweighed by benefits associated with resistance against gastrointestinal pathogens. However, the conditions under which such trade-offs could lead to the long-term maintenance of disease-associated variation at B4galnt2 are unclear. To explore the persistence of B4galnt2 alleles in wild populations of house mice, we combined B4galnt2 haplotype frequency data together with a mathematical model based on an evolutionary game framework with a modified Wright-Fisher process. In particular, given the potential for a heterozygote advantage as a possible explanation for balancing selection, we focused on heterozygous mice, which express B4galnt2 in both blood vessels and the gastrointestinal tract. We show that B4galnt2 displays an interesting spatial allelic distribution in Western Europe, likely due to the recent action of natural selection. Moreover, we found that the genotype frequencies observed in nature can be produced by pathogen-driven selection when both heterozygotes and RIIIS/J homozygotes are protected against infection and the fitness cost of bleeding is roughly half that of infection. By comparing the results of our models to the

  1. Comparison of gel column agglutination with monoclonal antibodies and card agglutination methods for assessing the feline AB group system and a frequency study of feline blood types in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Baggiani, Luciana; Perego, Roberta; Milici, Alessandra; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2011-03-01

    A new commercial gel column agglutination system is reported to have high sensitivity in detecting cats with blood type AB. The aims of this study were to compare gel column agglutination and card agglutination methods for feline blood-typing and to determine the frequency distribution of feline blood types in northern Italy. Blood-typing was performed on 120 cats using both a commercial gel column containing monoclonal antibodies (ID Gel-Test Micro Typing System) and a card agglutination method (RapidVet-H Feline). Results were confirmed with back-typing. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for the 2 methods. A second group of 140 Domestic Shorthair (DSH) cats was blood-typed using the gel column technique to determine the frequency distribution of feline blood types in northern Italy. The card agglutination method demonstrated poor sensitivity in identification of type-AB cats (61%) and was only 95% specific when identifying type-B cats. The gel column agglutination technique demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity for typing all 3 blood types (A, B, and AB). The frequency distribution study of 140 cats demonstrated that 127 (90.7%) cats were type A, 10 (7.1%) were type B, and 3 (2.1%) were type AB. When blood-typing cats of breeds with a relatively high frequency of blood types B and AB, methods that use monoclonal antibodies for detection of blood types B and AB are recommended. Alternatively, blood type can be confirmed by more sensitive supplemental testing, such as back-typing. The high frequency of blood type A in DSH cats in northern Italy was comparable to previously reported frequencies in Italy and world-wide. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. The 2.2 A resolution structure of the O(H) blood-group-specific lectin I from Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, G F; Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    2000-12-01

    The tertiary and quaternary structure of the lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UE-I) has been determined to 2.2 A resolution. UE-I is a dimeric metalloglycoprotein that binds the H-type 2 human blood group determinant [alpha-L-Fucalpha(1-->2)-beta-D-Galbeta(1-->4)-beta-D-Glc NAcalpha-]. Nine changes from the published amino acid sequence were necessary to account for the electron density. The quaternary structural organization of UE-I is that of the most commonly occurring legume lectin dimer. The tertiary structure of the monomeric subunits is similar to that in the conventional lectin subunit; however, some structural differences are noted. These differences include a four-stranded anti-parallel "S" sheet in UE-I versus the five-stranded S sheet in other lectin monomers. The Ala residue of the Ala-Asp cis-peptide bond present in the carbohydrate-binding site of the conventional lectin monomer is replaced with a Thr in the UE-I structure. Also, a novel disulfide bridge linking Cys115 and Cys150 is present. There are two metallic ions, one calcium and the other manganese, per subunit. N-linked oligosaccharides are at residues 23 and 111 of each subunit. One molecule of R-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (R-MPD) is present in a shallow depression on the surface of each subunit. In order to examine the binding of the H-type 2 blood group determinant by UE-I, its beta-methyl glycoside (H-type 2-OMe) was docked into the binding site of R-MPD. The epitope previously identified for H-type 2-OMe by chemical mapping proved, with only minor adjustment of amino acid residues, to be complementary to the shallow cavity occupied by R-MPD in the structure. Several key interactions have been proposed between the H-type 2-OMe and UE-I. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. [PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE COMBINATION OF BLOOD GROUP SPECIFICITY AND INTERLEUKIN 28B GENE POLYMORPHISM FOR ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THERAPY WITH THE USE OF PEGYLATED INTERFERON α-2 AND RIBAVARIN IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GENOTYPE 1 HEPATITIS C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurtsov, P P; Kukhareva, E I

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prognostic value of the combination of blood group specificity and interleukin 28B gene polymorphism for the achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR) to antiviral therapy (AVT) with the use of pegylated interferon α-2 and ribavarin in patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C (CHC-1). The secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of these genetic factors on the progress of hepatic fibrosis in case of failure of the above treatment. A total of 146 patients with CHC-1 were examined. We studied the RNA genotype of hepatitis C virus, blood group specificity, IL-28B gene polymorphism, and severity of hepatic fibrosis (puncture biopsies). Dynamics of hepatic fibrosis was followed up in 40 patients who failed to develop the virologic response. 20 control patients did not receive AVT. The multifactor significance criterion was used to identify the initial factor that produced the highest effect on SVR. SVR was observed in 56.8% of the patients. Its efficiency was most significantly influenced by. the combination of blood group specificity and interleukin 28B gene polymorphism (p = 0.000024). Combination of blood group (0)1 with C/C or T/T IL-28B genotypes, A(II) with C/T or T/T and B(III) with T/G was associated with SVR in 100, 88.2, and 94.4% cases respectively. It was absent in patients with blood group A(II) in combination with double-nucleotide substitution in rs8099917 of the IL-28B gene (TG and GG genotypes); these patients suffered progressive fibrosis. SVR occurred in 83.8% of the patients with blood group B(III). The knowledge of blood group in patients with CHC-1 and IL-28B gene polymorphism treated with the use of pegylated interferon α-2 and ribavarin allows to predict SVR with a probability of 100% in case of blood group 0(1) and C/C or T/T genotypes, 88.2% in case of blood group A(II) and single-nucleotide C>Tsubstitution in rs8099917 locus of the IL-28B gene, 94.4% in case of blood group B(II) and single-nucleotide T

  4. A skin disease, a blood disease or something in between? An exploratory focus group study of patients' experiences with porphyria cutanea tarda*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J; Gjengedal, E; Sandberg, S; Råheim, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is characterized by fragile skin with blistering on sun-exposed areas. Symptoms typically develop in late adulthood and can be triggered by iron overload, alcohol intake, oestrogens and various liver diseases. Treatment consists of phlebotomy to reduce iron, or increasing urinary porphyrin excretion by administering chlorochin. To optimize patient care, health personnel need to understand the subjective experiences of PCT. Objectives To explore the experiences of persons with PCT with regard to symptoms, treatment, follow-up and prevention of the disease. Methods Interpretive description was used as a qualitative approach. Twenty-one participants attended three focus groups. All participants had experienced PCT symptoms during the last 5 years. Results Participants' experiences varied from trivializing symptoms and fragile skin to what was described as a desperate situation, with huge blisters, skin falling off and feeling as if one was in a ‘horror movie’. For some, itching was very troublesome, preventing sleep and delaying skin healing. In managing PCT a shift in focus from skin to blood was described. PCT was perceived as a chronic and systemic disease causing a range of health problems. Strategies for preventing symptoms ranged from doing nothing to frequent controls and check-ups. Conclusions Participants had a systemic perception of PCT, and a tendency to attribute a range of health problems to the condition. This study adds insight into the experiences patients have with PCT. PMID:24958197

  5. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  6. [Discovery of a novel A2 allel in ABO blood group system and investigation of its distribution in Han population of Chinese Fujian province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai; Chi, Quan; Ren, Ben-Chun

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of A2 subgroup in Han Population of Chinese Fujian province and its molecular mechanisms. One individual with serologic ABO blood grouping discrepancy was identified with commercially available monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and lectin: anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, anti-A1, and anti-H reagents according to the routine laboratory methods. DNA sequences of exon 6, 7 and intron 6 of ABO gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA and direct DNA sequencing or sequencing after gene cloning. Red cells of 3 176 A or AB unrelated individuals were tested with anti-A1. The results showed that this individual was identified as A2 subgroup by serological technology, sequencing analysis indicated the A2 subgroup with novel A variant allele, the novel A allele being different from the allele A101 by 467C > T and 607G > A missense mutation in exon 7, no A2 subgroup was identified from the 3 176 individuals by using standard serological technology. It is concluded that a novel A allele responsible for A2 subgroup composing of 467C > T and 607G > A has been firstly confirmed, and the A2 subgroup is very rare in Chinese Fujian Han population.

  7. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J; Forrest, David W; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Beck, Dano W; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (pinfection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates.

  8. Smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension: possible etiologic role for Peyronie’s disease? Analysis in 279 patients with a control group in Sicily

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavone, Carlo; D’Amato, Francesco; Dispensa, Nino; Torretta, Federico; Magno, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    ...), the second one composed by patients with other andrological diseases (control arm). For each patient we evaluated the age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension and erectile function...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Eleven-Phase Induction Machine with Different PWM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Masoud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase induction machines are used extensively in low and medium voltage (MV drives. In MV drives, power switches have a limitation associated with switching frequency. This paper is a comparative study of the eleven-phase induction machine’s performance when used as a prototype and fed sinusoidal pulse-width-modulation (SPWM with a low switching frequency, selective harmonic elimination (SHE, and single pulse modulation (SPM techniques. The comparison depends on voltage/frequency controls for the same phase of voltage applied on the machine terminals for all previous techniques. The comparative study covers torque ripple, stator and harmonic currents, and motor efficiency.

  10. Renewable energy clusters recurring barriers to cluster development in eleven countries

    CERN Document Server

    Jaegersberg, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Taking eleven countries in Europe, Canada, South Africa, America, Latin America and Australia, this book discusses recurring barriers to cluster development in the renewable energy sector. The authors look at the real-world dynamics and tensions between stakeholders on the ground, with a particular focus on the relationships between SMEs and other actors. This trans-regional study is unique in its scale and scope, drawing on a decade of field research to show how by learning from the successes and failures of other clusters, costs and risk can be reduced. The book fills a significant gap in the literature for policymakers, managers and economic developers in a key market.

  11. Extending MESSENGER's Mercury dual imager's eight-color photometric standardization to cover all eleven filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Hash, Christopher D.; Denevi, Brett W.; Murchie, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    The photometric standardization model derived from the Mercury Dual Imaging System's (MDIS) eight-color photometric observations has been extrapolated to provide photometric parameters for the remaining three colors, such that images acquired through each of the eleven narrow-band filters can be photometrically standardized using a consistent model. The resulting photometric standardization parameters for the three filters not included in the original eight-color analysis display spectral variations commensurate with those observed within the original eight-color photometry. Some caution should be exercised on spectral interpretations based strongly on the behavior in the 698.8-nm filter.

  12. Wegener's granulomatosis in North India. Radiologic manifestations in eleven patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambery, P.; Katariya, S.; Sakhuja, V.; Kaur, U.; Behera, D.; Malik, S.K.; Deodhar, S.D.

    The chest radiograph in Wegener's granulomatosis reveals several striking, but not pathognomonic abnormalities. Nine (82%) of eleven patients with Wegener's granulomatosis had abnormal chest radiographs. Infiltrates were seen in all patients and were nodular in seven (77%). Six patients had cavities which were most often unilateral and thick walled. Serial radiographs showed the simultaneous appearance and resolution of infiltrates in 4 of 7 instances. Bilateral pulmonary involvement (67%), pleural effusion (33%), and pericardial effusion (22%) were also seen. Paranasal sinus involvement was seen in 4 of 5 studies. The chest radiograph was interpreted as tuberculosis in eight patients, resulting in delayed diagnosis and incorrect treatment.

  13. Elevated Fasting Blood Glucose Is Predictive of Poor Outcome in Non-Diabetic Stroke Patients: A Sub-Group Analysis of SMART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yao

    Full Text Available Although increasing evidence suggests that hyperglycemia following acute stroke adversely affects clinical outcome, whether the association between glycaemia and functional outcome varies between stroke patients with\\without pre-diagnosed diabetes remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the fasting blood glucose (FBG and the 6-month functional outcome in a subgroup of SMART cohort and further to assess whether this association varied based on the status of pre-diagnosed diabetes.Data of 2862 patients with acute ischemic stroke (629 with pre-diagnosed diabetics enrolled from SMART cohort were analyzed. Functional outcome at 6-month post-stroke was measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS and categorized as favorable (mRS:0-2 or poor (mRS:3-5. Binary logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, history of hypertension and stroke, baseline NIHSS and treatment group, was used in the whole cohort to evaluate the association between admission FBG and functional outcome. Stratified logistic regression analyses were further performed based on the presence/absence of pre-diabetes history.In the whole cohort, multivariable logistical regression showed that poor functional outcome was associated with elevated FBG (OR1.21 (95%CI 1.07-1.37, p = 0.002, older age (OR1.64 (95% CI1.38-1.94, p<0.001, higher NIHSS (OR2.90 (95%CI 2.52-3.33, p<0.001 and hypertension (OR1.42 (95%CI 1.13-1.98, p = 0.04. Stratified logistical regression analysis showed that the association between FBG and functional outcome remained significant only in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes (OR1.26 (95%CI 1.03-1.55, p = 0.023, but not in those with premorbid diagnosis of diabetes (p = 0.885.The present results demonstrate a significant association between elevated FBG after stroke and poor functional outcome in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes, but not in diabetics. This finding confirms the importance of glycemic

  14. Simultaneous determination of eleven characteristic lignans in Schisandra chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junyang; Mao, Chunqin; Gong, Xiaodong; Lu, Tulin; Chen, Han; Huang, Zhijun; Cai, Baochang

    2013-04-01

    Schisandra chinensis, one of the well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicines, is derived from the dry ripe fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. according to the 9th China Pharmacopeia. Lignans are the main components isolated from extracts of S. chinensis and their content varies depending on where S. chinensis was collected. We have established a qualitative and quantitative method based on the bioactive lignans for control of the quality of S. chinensis from different sources. To develop a high-performance liquid chromatography method, an Elite ODS C18 column (250 mm Χ 4.6 mm, 5μm) at a column temperature of 30°C and flow rate of 1.0ml/min using acetonitrile (A) and water (B) as the mobile phase with a linear gradient and the peaks were monitored at 217 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.9995) within test ranges. This method showed good repeatability for the quantification of these eleven components in S. chinensis with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 0.43% and 1.21%, respectively. In the recovery test, results of accuracy ranged from 99.51% to 101.31% with RSD values less than 2. The validated method can be successfully applied to quantify the eleven investigated components in 22 samples of S. chinensis from different sources.

  15. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Crystallography of a Lewis-binding norovirus, elucidation of strain-specificity to the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as host susceptible factors in a strain-specific manner. The crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of two A/B/H-binding noroviruses, the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1 and a predominant GII.4 strain (VA387, have been elucidated. In this study we determined the crystal structures of the P domain protein of the first Lewis-binding norovirus (VA207, GII.9 that has a distinct binding property from those of Norwalk virus and VA387. Co-crystallization of the VA207 P dimer with Le(y or sialyl Le(x tetrasaccharides showed that VA207 interacts with these antigens through a common site found on the VA387 P protein which is highly conserved among most GII noroviruses. However, the HBGA-binding site of VA207 targeted at the Lewis antigens through the α-1, 3 fucose (the Lewis epitope as major and the β-N-acetyl glucosamine of the precursor as minor interacting sites. This completely differs from the binding mode of VA387 and Norwalk virus that target at the secretor epitopes. Binding pocket of VA207 is formed by seven amino acids, of which five residues build up the core structure that is essential for the basic binding function, while the other two are involved in strain-specificity. Our results elucidate for the first time the genetic and structural basis of strain-specificity by a direct comparison of two genetically related noroviruses in their interaction with different HBGAs. The results provide insight into the complex interaction between the diverse noroviruses and the polymorphic HBGAs and highlight the role of human HBGA as a critical factor in norovirus evolution.

  17. The alphaGal epitope of the histo-blood group antigen family is a ligand for bovine norovirus Newbury2 expected to prevent cross-species transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Zakhour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Among Caliciviridae, the norovirus genus encompasses enteric viruses that infect humans as well as several animal species, causing gastroenteritis. Porcine strains are classified together with human strains within genogroup II, whilst bovine norovirus strains represent genogroup III. Various GI and GII human strains bind to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family which may be shared among mammalian species. Genetic relatedness of human and animal strains as well as the presence of potentially shared ligands raises the possibility of norovirus cross-species transmission. In the present study, we identified a carbohydrate ligand for the prototype bovine norovirus strain Bo/Newbury2/76/UK (NB2. Attachment of virus-like particles (VLPs of the NB2 strain to bovine gut tissue sections showed a complete match with the staining by reagents recognizing the Galalpha1,3 motif. Alpha-galactosidase treatment confirmed involvement of a terminal alpha-linked galactose. Specific binding of VLPs to the alphaGal epitope (Galalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta-R was observed. The binding of Galalpha3GalalphaOMe to rNB2 VLPs was characterized at atomic resolution employing saturation transfer difference (STD NMR experiments. Transfection of human cells with an alpha1,3galactosyltransferase cDNA allowed binding of NB2 VLPs, whilst inversely, attachment to porcine vascular endothelial cells was lost when the cells originated from an alpha1,3galactosyltransferase KO animal. The alphaGal epitope is expressed in all mammalian species with the exception of the Hominidaea family due to the inactivation of the alpha1,3galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1. Accordingly, the NB2 carbohydrate ligand is absent from human tissues. Although expressed on porcine vascular endothelial cells, we observed that unlike in cows, it is not present on gut epithelial cells, suggesting that neither man nor pig could be infected by the NB2 bovine strain.

  18. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  19. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...... infectious complications. RESULTS: Overall, 19 per cent of 288 non-transfused and 31 per cent of 452 transfused patients developed postoperative infectious complications (Prisk of death was significantly......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...

  20. Blood lactate levels differ significantly between surviving and nonsurviving patients within the same risk-adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) group after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Gonen, Yael; Vardi, Amir; Keidan, Ilan; Mishali, David; Rubinshtein, Marina; Yakov, Yusim; Paret, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between lactate levels in the first hours after surgery for congenital heart defects and the results of Risk-Adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) scoring and to evaluate serial lactate levels over time to determine whether they can serve as a supplementary tool for postoperative assessment within the same RACHS-1 group of patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data retrieved from a clinical database of 255 children who had surgery for congenital heart defects between 1999 and 2001 at Sheba Medical Center. Lactate levels were measured postoperatively four times (mg/dL units). The last sample was taken at the end of the surgical procedure, and lactate levels were measured at admission to the pediatrics critical care unit, then 6 and 12 h after admission. The lactate level was measured via arterial blood gases. A total of 27 deaths occurred, yielding a mortality rate of 7.4% when Norwood operations were excluded and 10.16% when they were included. The mean initial postoperative lactate level was significantly lower for survivors (42.2 ± 32.0 mg/dL) than for nonsurvivors (85.4 ± 54.1 mg/dL) (p 0.96 for all). The Pearson correlations between postoperative lactate levels (last lactate measurement taken in the operating room) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration (r = 0.549), clamp duration (r = 0.586), and the inotropic score (r = 0.466) (p maximum lactate levels (during the first 12 postoperative hours) and CPB duration (r = 0.496), clamp duration (r = 0.509), and the inotropic score (r = 0.633) (p < 0.001 for all) were extremely positive. The early elevation of lactate levels in RACHS-1 subgroups 1 to 3 were highly correlated with poor prognosis and death (p < 0.03). In addition, the lactate levels differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors within the same RACHS-1 subgroup. The survivors in RACHS-1 subgroups 1 to 3 had lower mean lactate levels than the

  1. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stress at university: survey of students at eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Labeeb, Shokria; Stock, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between perceived stress and a range of self reported symptoms and health complaints in a representative sample of students at one university in Egypt. The data (3,271 students) was collected during the academic year 2009-2010 at eleven faculties at the university of Assiut city, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured health complaints (22 symptoms) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were also collected. Factor analysis generated four groups of health complaints: psychological, circulatory/breathing, gastrointestinal, and pains/aches, and the internal consistency of each group of symptoms was computed using reliability analyses (Cronbach's alpha). Perceived stress was categorized into four levels based on quartiles. Multiple binomial or multinomial logistic regression analyses analysed the relationship between each of the four groups of symptoms and other students' general characteristics adjusted for the effect of all other groups of symptoms. The symptoms most often reported as having occurred sometimes/very often in the last 12 months were fatigue (85.3%), difficulties to concentrate (78.1%), headache (77.9%), and mood swings (74.5%), while nervousness/anxiety (63.2%) and sleep disorder (63.7%) affected many students. Multinominal logistic regression revealed a clear association and a linear trend between increasing level of stress and a higher frequency of psychological symptoms that remained significant after adjustment for other groups of symptoms. There were no associations between perceived stress and circulatory/breathing symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or for pains/aches. Poor health was consistently associated with higher frequency of symptoms across all symptom groups except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Higher health awareness was associated with lower frequency of psychological and circulatory/breathing symptoms but not for the other two symptom groups. Better

  2. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus or = 21...... days (odds ratio, 2.5 versus no transfusion) to be independent variables predicting infectious complications. CONCLUSION: Blood storage time may, along with other risk factors, play a significant role in blood transfusion-associated development of postoperative infectious complications....

  3. Structures of the lectin IV of Griffonia simplicifolia and its complex with the Lewis b human blood group determinant at 2.0 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, L T; Vandonselaar, M; Prasad, L; Quail, J W; Wilson, K S; Dauter, Z

    1993-04-05

    The structures of the fourth lectin isolated from Griffonia simplicifolia (GS4) and its complex with the methyl-glycoside of the Lewis b human blood group determinant (Le(b)-OMe) are reported at high resolution. The native GS4 crystal is isomorphous with the complexed GS4 crystal. The space group is P4(2)2(1)2 with unit cell dimensions a = 78.9 A, c = 89.1 A with one subunit of the lectin (bound to 1 Le(b)-OMe in the complex) in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The native GS4 structure was solved by the molecular replacement technique and least-squares refined (PROLSQ and X-PLOR). The orientation of the Le(b)-OMe tetrasaccharide in the complex was established from a 2.8 A difference map with coefficients (Fcomplex--Fnative) and calculated phase angles from the native model. Both the final native and complex GS4 models consist of 1904 protein non-hydrogen atoms, one sulfate ion, one Ca ion, one Mn ion and three covalently-bound sugar residues N-linked to Asn18. In addition, the complex model has 47 Le(b)-OMe non-hydrogen atoms. The two structures have 135 water molecules in common in addition to eight and nine unique water molecules in the native and complex structures, respectively. The root-mean-square deviations from ideal bond distances and angles are 0.016 A, 3.2 degrees and 0.016 A, 3.0 degrees, for the native and complexed GS4, respectively. The R index for all unique data from 8 to 2.0 A is 0.187 for the native (19,204 reflections) and 0.181 for the complex (19,212 reflections). The tertiary structure of each subunit is similar to that of other leguminous lectins but the quaternary structure of the molecular dimer is different from that of any other lectin reported to date. The co-ordination about the Ca ion is pentagonal bipyramidal (with 1 long Ca(2+)-oxygen bond) and the co-ordination about the Mn ion is octahedral. Two conserved residues (Asp149 and Ser155) appear to be important because they are hydrogen-bonded to each other and to groups that co

  4. [Introduction; questionnaire survey on postgraduate psychiatric education in the eleven Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizono, Masahisa

    2003-01-01

    Postgraduate psychiatric education should be considered from the viewpoint of the interrelationship between the quality assurance of psychiatric services and postgraduate education of mental health worker, especially psychiatrist, and its constancy with undergraduate psychiatric education. Drs. N. Sartorius, N. Shinfuku, K. Maeda, A. Maruyama and M. Nishizono have conducted some questionnaire surveys on postgraduate psychiatric education in eleven Asian countries. In this symposium, some trends of postgraduate psychiatric education in Asian countries based on the survey were reported. And, actual situations and problem resolving strategies in three countries, Korea, China and Japan models were presented. This symposium was expected to join with another symposium "The Undergraduate Psychiatric Education in Asian Countries" proposed by Prof. E-H Kua.

  5. Teaching Process Simulation in Eleven Easy Lessons Using Excel and Its Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Arthur E.

    The primary market driver for improving process technology is innovation, which requires a skilled and educated workforce. However, many Materials Science and Engineering departments have eliminated extractive metallurgy and chemical thermodynamics from their curricula, yet these topics contain the necessary fundamentals for process innovation. As a result, most MS&E students are ill-prepared for careers in processing. The dearth of process-oriented MS&E curricula has prompted some Universities to develop a "shared" effort to offer distance education between multiple institutions [1]. A target audience for a shared process simulation course would not only benefit students, but also be a basis for an on-line course for practicing engineers faced with new or changing career choices. To fill the gap, the basics of a process simulation course was developed in an abbreviated form as series of eleven articles and Excel workbooks published in Industrial Heating magazine between July 2012 and July 2013.

  6. Pay For Success And Population Health: Early Results From Eleven Projects Reveal Challenges And Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Rosenbaum, Sara; Ku, Leighton; Iovan, Samantha

    2016-11-01

    Pay for success (PFS) is a type of social impact investing that uses private capital to finance proven prevention programs that help a government reduce public expenditures or achieve greater value. We conducted an analysis of the first eleven PFS projects in the United States to investigate the potential of PFS as a strategy for financing and disseminating interventions aimed at improving population health and health equity. The PFS approach has significant potential for bringing private-sector resources to interventions regarding social determinants of health. Nonetheless, a number of challenges remain, including structuring PFS initiatives so that optimal prevention benefits can be achieved and ensuring that PFS interventions and evaluation designs are based on rigorous research principles. In addition, increased policy attention regarding key PFS payout issues is needed, including the "wrong pockets" problem and legal barriers to using federal Medicaid funds as an investor payout source. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Using a genomic assay for the detection of SNPs of Knops blood group antigens leads to the identification of two caucasians homozygous for the SNP associated with the knops SL3 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Sprogoe, U.

    2015-01-01

    previously described to be Sl3- (personal communication from the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol). * Number indicates the nucleotide position of the CR1 gene. Conclusion: In this study, we have set up a genomic assay for identifying the antigens in the Knops system. We found...

  8. Non-immune binding of human IgG to M-related proteins confers resistance to phagocytosis of group A streptococci in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry S Courtney

    Full Text Available The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp are group A streptococcal (GAS receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG₁>IgG₄>IgG₂>IgG₃. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host.

  9. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  10. The effect of crossing legs on blood pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.; Tosun, N.; Elving, L.D.; Deinum, J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether crossing of the legs at the knee or at the ankles during blood pressure measurement in sitting position has an effect on blood pressure. METHODS: One hundred and eleven patients, 60 women, mean age 52+/-17 years (19-80): 49 chronically treated hypertensives, 28

  11. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection......, and pneumonia were prospectively recorded in 303 patients undergoing elective resection for primary rectal cancer in 18 Danish hospitals. Patient risk variables and variables related to operation technique and transfusion were recorded prospectively, whereas amount given before infectious complication...... days (odds ratio, 2.5 versus no transfusion) to be independent variables predicting infectious complications. CONCLUSION: Blood storage time may, along with other risk factors, play a significant role in blood transfusion-associated development of postoperative infectious complications....

  12. A Comparison of Blood-lead Level (BLL) in Opium-dependant Addicts With Healthy Control Group Using the Graphite Furnace/atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS) Followed by Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Amini, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    A comparison of oral/inhaled opium addicts with a healthy control group was investigated. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) followed by chemometric analysis, sub-to-low µg L-1 concentrations of blood lead level (BLL) was detected in both the addict and the control groups. In this study, BLL of 78 subjects (Iranian volunteers) in two opium-addicted (patient group) and healthy control groups was evaluated. All the volunteers were men. The patient group was comprised of 39 patients who used opium orally or by inhalation with a mean age of 48.6 ± 7.3 years. The patient group was selected through systematic incidental sampling from 150 orally or by inhalation opium-addicted patients referred to Shariati Hospital located in Tehran .The control group (39 subjects) was matched with the patient group with regard to age and sex and with a mean age of 44.8 ± 5.6 years. The mean concentration of lead was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.0001) in control group (16.70 ± 12.51 μg/dL) compared to addicts (57.04 ± 46.03 μg/dL). When the addicts were divided into various age groups, there appeared to be a significant difference (p= 0.0451) in blood lead concentration as a function of age, however when the control group was considered, no difference was observed (P = 0.51). Also, a tendency (P = 0.048) towards increasing BLL with respect to BMI was observed due to drug consumption, but there was no significant variation between BLL concentration and BMI when the control group was considered (P = 0.35). It was observed that the BLL in opium-addicts was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. The mean difference of both groups was statistically significant.

  13. Effects of levels and sources of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides on blood glucose stability and behaviour of group-housed pregnant gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Zonderland, J.J.; Altena, H.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    A fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (fNSP)-rich diet (sugarbeet pulp; SBP) was previously shown to reduce within-day variation in blood glucose levels and reduce stereotyped behaviour. The aim of the present experiment was to study (1) whether there is a relationship between fNSP level in a

  14. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duell, Eric J.; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Racine, Antoine; Severi, Gianluca; Canzian, Federico; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Argüelles, Marcial; Sáanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta, Josée Maríia; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Rutch C.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra H M; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ye, Weimin; Johansson, Matthias; Fenger, Claus; Riboli, Elio; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to

  15. The role of cognitive group therapy and happiness training on cerebral blood flow using 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT: a quasi-experimental study of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, M; Bahrieniain, S A; Baghdasarians, A; Emamipur, S; Azizmohammadi, Z; Qutbi, S M; Javadi, H; Assadi, M; Asli, I N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of cognitive group therapy and happiness training objectively in the local cerebral blood flow of patients with major depression (MD). The present research is semi-experimental to pre- and post-test with a control group. Three groups were formed, and this number was incorporated in each group: 12 patients were chosen randomly; the first group of depressed patients benefited from the combination of pharmacotherapy and sessions of cognitive group therapy; the second group used a combination of pharmacotherapy and sessions of happiness training; and a third group used only pharmacotherapy. We compared cognitive-behavioural therapy and happiness training efficacy with only pharmacotherapy in MD patients. We performed brain perfusion SPECT in each group, before and after each trial. The study was conducted on 36 patients with MD (32 women and 4 men; mean age: 41.22 ± 9.08; range: 27-65 years). There were significant differences regarding the two trial effects into two experimental groups (p 0.05). In addition, there was significant difference among the regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal and prefrontal regions into two experimental groups before and after trials (p 0.05). This study demonstrated decreased cerebral perfusion in the frontal regions in MD patients, which increased following cognitive group therapy and happiness training. Because of its availability, low costs, easy performance, and the objective semi-quantitative information supplied, brain perfusion SPECT scanning might be useful to assess the diagnosis and therapy efficacy. Further exploration is needed to validate its clinical role.

  16. [Blood Levels of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) in Men from Different Population Groups and Its Relation to Unfavorable Long-Term Prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragino, Yu I; Astrakova, K S; Shakhtshneider, E V; Stakhneva, E M; Gafarov, V V; Bogatyrev, S N; Voevoda, M I

    2017-04-01

    of the study was to investigate blood levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in men from different population subgroups, their associations with cardiovascular risk factors and with unfavorable 7-years long-term prognosis. The study included three subgroups of men from a population sample of residents of Novosibirsk, 44-73 years old, not receiving lipid-lowering drugs: subgroup of population proper (183 men), subgroup with hypercholesterolemia (46 men), and subgroup with hypocholesterolemia (18 men). Blood level of PCSK9 was determined by ELISA using the test-systems "Human Proprotein Convertase 9/PCSK9 Immunoassay". Study endpoints (myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) were registered during 7 years after baseline examination of subgroups using the data of the Registers of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Distribution of PCSK9 protein in subgroups with hyper- and hypocholesterolemia was normal. In the subgroup of population proper it was abnormal with leftward shift. PCSK9 protein concentration in the subgroup with hypercholesterolemia was 1.2 times higher than in the population subgroup. PCSK9 protein level correlated significantly with blood levels of total cholesterol (CH), low density lipoprotein (LDL) CH, and glucose. Only 15% of PCSK9 variability was due to the influence of other factors (R Square=0.155, pdensity lipoprotein CH (=0.238, p=0.023), triglycerides (=0.253, p=0.049) and LDL CH (=0.751, p=0.009). Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant independent association of PCSK9 protein levels with cardiovascular death during period of registration (7-years) (p=0.048, OR=1.01). This result indicates that in men increase of blood level of PCSK9 protein by 1ng/ml independently of other parameters increases relative risk of cardiovascular death during following 7 years by 1%.

  17. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  18. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity Worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT Analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (WBMT) including the global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Baldomero, Helen; Szer, Jeff; Gratwohl, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Mohty, Mohamad; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Passweg, Jakob; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Apperley, Jane; Seber, Adriana; Gratwohl, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Data on 68,146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCT were registered from unrelated 16,433 than related 15,493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared to 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCT/team). An increase of 67% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A SWOT analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four WHO regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood. PMID:26901703

  19. Cellular and molecular portrait of eleven human glioblastoma cell lines under photon and carbon ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandon, S; Magné, N; Battiston-Montagne, P; Hau-Desbat, N-H; Diaz, O; Beuve, M; Constanzo, J; Chargari, C; Poncet, D; Chautard, E; Ardail, D; Alphonse, G; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C

    2015-04-28

    This study aimed to examine the cellular and molecular long-term responses of glioblastomas to radiotherapy and hadrontherapy in order to better understand the biological effects of carbon beams in cancer treatment. Eleven human glioblastoma cell lines, displaying gradual radiosensitivity, were irradiated with photons or carbon ions. Independently of p53 or O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase(1) status, all cell lines responded to irradiation by a G2/M phase arrest followed by the appearance of mitotic catastrophe, which was concluded by a ceramide-dependent-apoptotic cell death. Statistical analysis demonstrated that: (i) the SF2(2) and the D10(3) values for photon are correlated with that obtained in response to carbon ions; (ii) regardless of the p53, MGMT status, and radiosensitivity, the release of ceramide is associated with the induction of late apoptosis; and (iii) the appearance of polyploid cells after photon irradiation could predict the Relative Biological Efficiency(4) to carbon ions. This large collection of data should increase our knowledge in glioblastoma radiobiology in order to better understand, and to later individualize, appropriate radiotherapy treatment for patients who are good candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Six sigma: program characteristics in eleven companies located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Terezinha Martins Correa Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma combines managerial factors with statistical tools and is deployed in many enterprises today. Rio Grande do Sul is a Brazilian state that has a great industrialization, especially in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. Some of these industries have deployed the Six Sigma program. The aim of this paper is to present characteristics of the Six Sigma program in companies located in this region, through an exploratory study. A literature review subsidized the development of the questionnaire. Eleven companies participated of research in July and August 2008. It used statistical tools and qualitative analysis to analyze the results. Most of the companies that participated is classified as large and uses the DMAIC method to implement Six Sigma. The principal cause of program implementation was process improvement. In only one company the Six Sigma is implemented in all sectors, including administrative areas. Another result is the lack of clearly criteria for defining the career of Belts and the discrepancy of academic formation of these specialists.

  1. Selective harmonic elimination strategy in eleven level inverter for PV system with unbalanced DC sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoudelbourk, Sihem.; Dib, D.; Meghni, B.; Zouli, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the multilevel converters control strategy for photovoltaic system integrated in distribution grids. The objective of the proposed work is to design multilevel inverters for solar energy applications so as to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and to improve the power quality. The multilevel inverter power structure plays a vital role in every aspect of the power system. It is easier to produce a high-power, high-voltage inverter with the multilevel structure. The topologies of multilevel inverter have several advantages such as high output voltage, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices. The proposed control strategy ensures an implementation of selective harmonic elimination (SHE) modulation for eleven levels. SHE is a very important and efficient strategy of eliminating selected harmonics by judicious selection of the firing angles of the inverter. Harmonics elimination technique eliminates the need of the expensive low pass filters in the system. Previous research considered that constant and equal DC sources with invariant behavior; however, this research extends earlier work to include variant DC sources, which are typical of lead-acid batteries when used in system PV. This Study also investigates methods to minimize the total harmonic distortion of the synthesized multilevel waveform and to help balance the battery voltage. The harmonic elimination method was used to eliminate selected lower dominant harmonics resulting from the inverter switching action.

  2. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V: Genetic and clinical findings in eleven Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Doudou; Lv, Fang; Xu, Xiaojie; Xia, Weibo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiaoping; Zhou, Peiran; Wang, Jianyi; Yu, Wei; Li, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is a rare inherited disease characterized by multiple fractures, intraosseous membrane calcification, and hypercallus formation. We investigate the causative gene, phenotype and also observe the effects of zoledronic acid in Chinese OI type V patients. The clinical phenotype and causative gene mutation was investigated in eleven patients with type V OI. Patients were given a dose of zoledronic acid 5mg intravenously. Fracture incidence and Z-score of bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated. Serum levels of biomarkers such as cross linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) and safety parameters were assessed. The c.-14C>T mutation in the 5' untranslated region of IFITM5 was detected in all patients. The phenotype was largely variable, and no significant correlation of genotype and phenotype was found. After one dose of zoledronic acid infusion, fracture incidence significantly dropped from 2fractures/year before treatment to 0fracture/year after treatment (P=0.01). Z score of lumbar spine BMD elevated from -2.6 to -1.3 (P<0.001). Serum β-CTX level decreased by 50% (P<0.05). No serious adverse event was found. No obvious correlation was found between the genotype and phenotype. Zoledronic acid had significantly skeletal protective effects in OI of type V. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven extinct or possibly extinct bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2017-03-01

    Natural history museum collections represent a vast source of ancient and historical DNA samples from extinct taxa that can be utilized by high-throughput sequencing tools to reveal novel genetic and phylogenetic information about them. Here, we report on the successful sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome sequences (mitogenomes) from eleven extinct bird species, using de novo assembly of short sequences derived from toepad samples of degraded DNA from museum specimens. For two species (the Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius and the South Island Piopio Turnagra capensis), whole mitogenomes were already available from recent studies, whereas for five others (the Great Auk Pinguinis impennis, the Imperial Woodpecker Campehilus imperialis, the Huia Heteralocha acutirostris, the Kauai Oo Moho braccathus and the South Island Kokako Callaeas cinereus), there were partial mitochondrial sequences available for comparison. For all seven species, we found sequence similarities of >98%. For the remaining four species (the Kamao Myadestes myadestinus, the Paradise Parrot Psephotellus pulcherrimus, the Ou Psittirostra psittacea and the Lesser Akialoa Akialoa obscura), there was no sequence information available for comparison, so we conducted blast searches and phylogenetic analyses to determine their phylogenetic positions and identify their closest extant relatives. These mitogenomes will be valuable for future analyses of avian phylogenetics and illustrate the importance of museum collections as repositories for genomics resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Eleven cases of mucormycosis with atypical clinical manifestations in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunc, Tuba; Demiroglu, Y Ziya; Aliskan, Hikmet; Colakoglu, Sule; Arslan, Hande

    2008-11-01

    We retrospectively investigated 11 cases of mucormycosis with atypical clinical features accompanied by diabetes mellitus and discussed clinical features, results of laboratory investigations and radiological examinations and treatment outcomes of each case. Eleven cases of mucormycosis presenting to our clinic between January 2002 and October 2006 were retrospectively investigated. We will present a total of 11 cases of mucormycosis, including 2 cases of mucormycosis with orbital apex syndrome as an initial sign, 2 cases of mucormycosis involving the carotid artery and cavernous sinus with the resultant fatal stroke, 1 case of disseminated mucormycosis with atypical clinical manifestations. Mucormycosis was accompanied by type II diabetes mellitus in five cases, chronic renal failure and type II diabetes mellitus in four cases and type II diabetes mellitus and chronic myelocytic leukemia in two cases. None of them had diabetic ketoacidosis. Only one patient recovered but with sequels: blindness, complete ophthalmoplegia of the right eye. Ten patients died of mucormycosis. In fact, mucormycosis is a fungal infection which may involve all organs and systems. Mucormycosis must be considered in patients presenting with orbital or preorbital sellulitis, even in the absence of ketoacidosis as in our cases.

  5. Short communication: Longitudinal changes in peripheral blood NK cells during the first year of HIV-1 Infection in CD4Low and CD4High patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yanmei; Song, Jingjing; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Tong; Qi, Shwan M; Wu, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells may modulate the pathogenesis of primary HIV-1 infection. However, the relationship between the number and function of NK cells during an acute HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 disease progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we enrolled two distinct patient groups. One group progressed to where their CD4 cell counts fell below 200 cells/μl within 2 years (CD4Low group), while the CD4 cell counts of the other group remained above 500 cells/μl for over 2 years (CD4High group). We compared the number and function of NK cells during the first year of HIV-1 infection between the two distinct groups. We found that the number of total NK cells and the number of cells in the CD56(dim)CD16(pos) subset rapidly decreased in both groups during early HIV-1 infection. The absolute number of total NK cells and CD56(dim)CD16(pos) NK cells was significantly higher in the CD4High group when compared to the CD4Low group during the first month of infection. No significant difference between the numbers of CD56(bright)CD16(neg) NK cells of the two groups was observed. However, more CD56(neg)CD16(pos) NK cells were found in the CD4Low group than in the CD4High group. We also found that NK cell function increased within the first 3 months of HIV-1 infection in the CD4High group and then exhibited a decreasing trend. However, in the CD4Low group, NK cell function did not increase significantly within the first 3 months of HIV-1 infection but then gradually increased. We concluded, therefore, that robust NK functioning cells that are present during an acute HIV-1 infection might be beneficial in controlling HIV-1 disease progression.

  6. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  7. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  8. Smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension: possible etiologic role for Peyronie’s disease? Analysis in 279 patients with a control group in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pavone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the proportion of patients with Peyronie’s Disease (PD and the possible association with its potential risk factors in the general population of the central and western Sicily in our weekly andrological outpatient clinic. Materials and methods: We recruited a sample of 279 consecutive patients consulting our andrological outpatient clinic. Two arms were created: the first one composed by PD patients (men with symptoms suggestive for PD, the second one composed by patients with other andrological diseases (control arm. For each patient we evaluated the age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension and erectile function. In the PD arm we administered validated questionnaires to determine the erectile function status by the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 and the pain status during erection by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A univariate analysis was conducted using R software. Results: We enrolled 279 consecutive patients. The number of PD patients was 97 (34,7%. The univariate analysis showed a correlation between PD and cigarette smoking (p = 0.0242, blood hypertension (p < 0.001, erectile dysfunction (p < 0.001. No significant association was observed between diabetes and PD (p = 0.358. The median age of PD arm was 60 years and the median age of the control arm was 63,5 years; therefore the median age of PD arm resulted lower than the median age of the control arm (p = 0,031. Conclusions: Peyronie’s disease is more common than we might think; furthermore it can be diagnosed among young patients. According to our results, cigarette smoking and blood hypertension may be considered statically significant risk factors for developing PD. On the contrary diabetes seems not to be a risk factor for PD. According to our results PD should be sought also in young patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm that removing the indicated risk factors may reduce the incidence of PD.

  9. The difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs of Danggui-Shaoyao San in theory of TCM, based on serum pharmacochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunlai; Li, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Dengke; Tao, Chunlei; Han, Lan; Yue, Xiaoli; Pan, Yongfu; Yao, Yao; Peng, Daiyin; Xu, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao San (DSS) is a famous Chinese formula for activating blood circulation and promoting urination. This study was to investigate the difference of material basis between a blood-associated herbs group and a water-associated herbs group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the formula can be divided into a blood-associated herbs group (Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora and Ligusticum chuanxiong) and a water-associated herbs group (Atractylodes macrocephala, Alisma orientale and Poria cocos). The HPLC fingerprint of the formula was established for quality control. Serum samples from rats, orally administrated DSS, and the decomposed recipes of DSS, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and the transitional blood components of DSS were identified. Twenty-one common peaks were identified in the fingerprint of DSS. Contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid and alisol B 23-acetate in co-decoction were significantly higher than those in individual decoction. Eleven peaks belonged to the blood-associated herbs group (four metabolites and seven prototype components; paeoniflorin and ferulic acid appeared in prototype components), whereas six peaks belonged to the water-associated herbs group (three metabolites and three prototype components). It was concluded that the serum pharmacochemistry is a meaningful approach for clarifying the difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs in chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOOD Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... educational meetings and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: ... Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that ...

  12. Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in eleven countries: diagnostic pattern across time, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Gerard H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic panorama of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies across 11 countries. Methods From data collected for surveillance purposes, we describe annual proportions of deaths due to different human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in eleven EUROCJD-consortium countries over the period 1993–2002, as well as variations in the use of diagnostic tests. Using logistic models we quantified international differences and changes across time. Results In general, pre-mortem use of diagnostic investigations increased with time. International differences in pathological confirmation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, stable over time, were evident. Compared to their counterparts, some countries displayed remarkable patterns, such as: 1 the high proportion, increasing with time, of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United Kingdom, (OR 607.99 95%CI 84.72–4363.40, and France (OR 18.35, 95%CI 2.20–152.83; 2 high, decreasing proportions of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France, (OR 5.81 95%CI 4.09–8.24, and the United Kingdom, (OR 1.54 95%CI 1.03–2.30; and, 3 high and stable ratios of genetic forms in Slovakia (OR 21.82 95%CI 12.42–38.33 and Italy (OR 2.12 95%CI 1.69–2.68. Conclusion Considerable international variation in aetiological subtypes of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies was evident over the observation period. With the exception of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France and the United Kingdom, these differences persisted across time.

  13. Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in eleven countries: diagnostic pattern across time, 1993–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Glatzel, Markus; Almazán, Javier; Stoeck, Katharina; Mellina, Vittorio; Puopolo, Maria; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Zerr, Inga; Kretszchmar, Hans A; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Delasnerie-Lauprêtre, Nicole; Alpérovitch, Annick; Van Duijn, Cornelia; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Collins, Steven; Lewis, Victoria; Jansen, Gerard H; Coulthart, Michael B; Gelpi, Ellen; Budka, Herbert; Mitrova, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic panorama of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies across 11 countries. Methods From data collected for surveillance purposes, we describe annual proportions of deaths due to different human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in eleven EUROCJD-consortium countries over the period 1993–2002, as well as variations in the use of diagnostic tests. Using logistic models we quantified international differences and changes across time. Results In general, pre-mortem use of diagnostic investigations increased with time. International differences in pathological confirmation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, stable over time, were evident. Compared to their counterparts, some countries displayed remarkable patterns, such as: 1) the high proportion, increasing with time, of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United Kingdom, (OR 607.99 95%CI 84.72–4363.40), and France (OR 18.35, 95%CI 2.20–152.83); 2) high, decreasing proportions of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France, (OR 5.81 95%CI 4.09–8.24), and the United Kingdom, (OR 1.54 95%CI 1.03–2.30); and, 3) high and stable ratios of genetic forms in Slovakia (OR 21.82 95%CI 12.42–38.33) and Italy (OR 2.12 95%CI 1.69–2.68). Conclusion Considerable international variation in aetiological subtypes of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies was evident over the observation period. With the exception of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France and the United Kingdom, these differences persisted across time. PMID:17096829

  14. Comparative meta-analysis of tuberculosis contact investigation interventions in eleven high burden countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Blok

    Full Text Available Screening of household contacts of tuberculosis (TB patients is a recommended strategy to improve early case detection. While it has been widely implemented in low prevalence countries, the most optimal protocols for contact investigation in high prevalence, low resource settings is yet to be determined. This study evaluated contact investigation interventions in eleven lower and middle income countries and reviewed the association between context or program-related factors and the yield of cases among contacts.We reviewed data from nineteen first wave TB REACH funded projects piloting innovations to improve case detection. These nineteen had fulfilled the eligibility criteria: contact investigation implementation and complete data reporting. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the percentage yield and case notifications for each project. Implementation strategies were delineated and the association between independent variables and yield was analyzed by fitting a random effects logistic regression.Overall, the nineteen interventions screened 139,052 household contacts, showing great heterogeneity in the percentage yield of microscopy confirmed cases (SS+, ranging from 0.1% to 6.2%. Compared to the most restrictive testing criteria (at least two weeks of cough the aOR's for lesser (any TB related symptom and least (all contacts restrictive testing criteria were 1.71 (95%CI 0.94-3.13 and 6.90 (95% CI 3.42-13.93 respectively. The aOR for inclusion of SS- and extra-pulmonary TB was 0.31 (95% CI 0.15-0.62 compared to restricting index cases to SS+ TB. Contact investigation contributed between <1% and 14% to all SS+ cases diagnosed in the intervention areas.This study confirms that high numbers of active TB cases can be identified through contact investigation in a variety of contexts. However, design and program implementation factors appear to influence the yield of contact investigation and its concomitant contribution to TB case detection.

  15. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Review of Eleven Cases in Childhood in North of Iran

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    Ali Nikkhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it is thought to be immune-mediated. The prognosis is favorable, with most children making a full recovery. Objectives: The present report analyzed different clinical presentations, response to treatment and outcome in a series of 11 patients with ADEM who referred to our tertiary center in north of Iran from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective simple descriptive review, eleven cases with ADEM admitted in the neurology ward from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled. The clinical findings and laboratory and imaging results of patients were reviewed. All of these cases were evaluated with neurological examination, serologic tests for bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis (especially, herpes simplex virus and brain MRI without contrast. After discharge, patients were followed for at least six months (6 to 12 months clinically and radiologically. Results: Of 11 children, 8 were male and 3 female. Their ages ranged between 4 and 10 years. The mean interval between the preceding infection and symptoms of encephalomyelitis was nine days. The most common presenting symptoms were ataxia in 45.4%, fever and headache in 36.4% and altered consciousness in 18.2% of patients. Neurological examination revealed pyramidal motor signs such as brisk deep tendon reflexes (hyperreflexia (81.8%, cranial nerve involvement (18.2%, dysarthria (9.1% and abnormal movements (