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Sample records for elevates progesterone levels

  1. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. It also...... of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles. There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular...... should document the cause and origin of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles....

  2. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Average profiles of salivary progesterone in women vary significantly at the inter- and intrapopulation level as a function of age and acute energetic conditions related to energy intake, energy expenditure, or a combination of both. In addition to acute stressors, baseline progesterone levels differ among populations. The causes of such chronic differences are not well understood, but it has been hypothesised that they may result from varying tempos of growth and maturation and, by implication, from diverse environmental conditions encountered during childhood and adolescence.To test this hypothesis, we conducted a migrant study among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi women aged 19-39 who migrated to London, UK at different points in the life-course, women still resident in Bangladesh, and women of European descent living in neighbourhoods similar to those of the migrants in London (total n = 227. Data collected included saliva samples for radioimmunoassay of progesterone, anthropometrics, and information from questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and health. Results from multiple linear regression, controlled for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show that women who spend their childhood in conditions of low energy expenditure, stable energy intake, good sanitation, low immune challenges, and good health care in the UK have up to 103% higher levels of salivary progesterone and an earlier maturation than women who develop in less optimal conditions in Sylhet, Bangladesh (F9,178 = 5.05, p < 0.001, standard error of the mean = 0.32; adjusted R(2 = 0.16. Our results point to the period prior to puberty as a sensitive phase when changes in environmental conditions positively impact developmental tempos such as menarcheal age (F2,81 = 3.21, p = 0.03 and patterns of ovarian function as measured using salivary progesterone (F2,81 = 3.14, p = 0.04.This research demonstrates that human females use an extended period of the life cycle prior

  3. Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Progesterone is also used to bring on menstruation (period) in women of childbearing age who have ... in the uterus. It works to bring on menstruation by replacing the natural progesterone that some women ...

  4. Endometrial Receptivity Profile in Patients with Premature Progesterone Elevation on the Day of hCG Administration

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    Delphine Haouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.

  5. Does elevated progesterone on day of oocyte maturation play a role in the racial disparities in IVF outcomes?

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    Hill, Micah J; Royster, G Donald; Taneja, Mansi; Healy, Mae Wu; Zarek, Shvetha M; Christy, Alicia Y; DeCherney, Alan H; Widra, Eric; Devine, Kate

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if premature progesterone elevation on the last day of assisted reproduction technique stimulation contributes to racial disparities in IVF outcome. A total of 3289 assisted reproduction technique cycles were evaluated in Latino, Asian, African American, and white women. Live birth was more likely in white women (42.6%) compared with Asian (34.8%) and African American women (36.3%), but was similar to Latino women (40.7%). In all racial groups, progesterone was negatively associated with live birth and the negative effect of progesterone persisted when adjusting for confounders. Although the effect of elevated progesterone was similar in all racial groups, the prevalence of elevated progesterone differed. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/ml occurred in only 10.6% of cycles in white women compared with 18.0% in Latino and 20.2% in Asian women. Progesterone > 2 ng/ml occurred in only 2.3% of cycles in white women compared with 6.3% in Latino, 5.9% in Asian and 4.4% in African American women. The increased prevalence of premature elevated progesterone persisted when controlling for IVF stimulation parameters. In conclusion, premature progesterone elevation had a negative effect on live birth in all racial groups studied. The prevalence of elevated progesterone was higher in racial minorities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Progesterone withdrawal effects in the open field test can be predicted by elevated plus maze performance.

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    Löfgren, Magnus; Johansson, Inga-Maj; Meyerson, Bengt; Lundgren, Per; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2006-08-01

    Allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one) is a ring-A-reduced metabolite of progesterone, which is naturally produced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy and by stressful events. The steroid hormone inhibits neural functions through increased chloride ion flux through the GABA(A) receptor. The effects and subsequent withdrawal symptoms are similar to those caused by alcohol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates. This study examined the withdrawal effects of progesterone with regards to the influence of individual baseline exploration and risk taking. Rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) before hormonal treatment, in order to evaluate differences in risk taking and exploration of open and elevated areas. Treatment consisted of ten consecutive once a day progesterone or vehicle s.c. injections. On the last day of treatment, estradiol was injected in addition to progesterone, followed by a 24-h withdrawal before testing in the open field test (OF). Progesterone-treated rats showed a withdrawal effect of open area avoidance in the OF. The vehicle-treated control rats showed strong correlations between the EPM and OF parameters. This relationship was not found for the progesterone group at withdrawal. Rats with greater numbers of open arm entrance in the EPM pretest showed an increased sensitivity to progesterone withdrawal (PWD) compared to rats with low exploration and risk taking. The results indicate that the effects of PWD relate to individual exploration and risk taking. Furthermore, the possible analogy of PWD and PMS/PMDD in relation to individual traits is discussed.

  7. Elevated progesterone in GnRH agonist down regulated in vitro fertilisation (IVFICSI) cycles reduces live birth rates but not embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoud, Robert; Kwik, Michele; Ryan, John; Al-Jefout, Moamar; Foley, Jane; Illingworth, Peter

    2012-02-01

    To assess the impact of pre-hCG elevated progesterone on live birth outcomes during GnRH agonist long down regulated protocol assisted reproduction cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Single Centre Private IVF Clinic. A total of 582 consecutive cycles of IVF/ICSI in 2003. All patients underwent a long down-regulation protocol, controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF/ICSI. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured just prior to HCG administration. 253 patients were followed to 2009 for outcomes of their frozen embryo cycles. Live birth rate in fresh and frozen cycles. Patients in the upper quartile pre-hCG progesterone concentration (≥ 5.4 pmol/L) had a higher final estradiol level, more oocytes collected and more usable embryos, when compared to those with lower quartiles. They also had lower live birth rates per cycle started (21.9% vs. 15%, P live birth rates from frozen embryo cycles were not significantly different between the groups. Pre-hCG progesterone elevation leads to lower live birth rates in stimulated IVF cycles. Live birth rates achieved with frozen embryos in the high progesterone cycles suggest, that pre-hCG progesterone elevation negatively affects endometrial receptivity without adversely affecting embryo quality.

  8. Progesterone regulates corticosterone elevation and alterations in spatial memory and exploratory behavior induced by stress in Wistar rats

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    Yolanda Diaz-Burke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is sensitive to high levels of glucocorticoids during stress responses; it suffers biochemical and cellular changes that affect spatial memory and exploratory behavior, among others. We analyzed the influence of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG on stress-induced changes in urinary corticosterone (CORT levels, spatial memory and exploratory behavior.Castrated adult male rats were implanted with PROG or vehicle (VEHI,and then exposed for ten days to chronic stress created by overcrowding or ultrasonic noise. PROG and CORT levels were assessed in urine using highperformanceliquid chromatography (HPLC. Implanted PROG inhibited the rise of stress-induced CORT, prevented spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze, and eliminated increased exploratory behavior in the hole-board test. These results suggest a protective role of PROG, possibly mediated by its anxiolytic mechanisms, against corticosteroids elevation and the behavioral deficit generated by stressful situations.

  9. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    1995-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  10. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

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    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  11. Progesterone treatment shows greater protection in brain vs. retina in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion: Progesterone receptor levels may play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachael S; Sayeed, Iqbal; Oumarbaeva, Yuliya; Morrison, Katherine C; Choi, Paul H; Pardue, Machelle T; Stein, Donald G

    2016-11-22

    To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κB and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κB at 24 h in brain and 48 h in retina, and TNF-α at 24 h in brain.Progesterone treatment in MCAO animals significantly attenuated levels of the following markers in brain: pNF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and CD11b, with significantly increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB. Retinas from progesterone-treated animals showed significantly reduced levels of nuclear NF-κB and IL-6 and increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB, with a trend for reduction in other markers. Post-MCAO, progesterone receptors A and B were upregulated in brain and downregulated in retina. Inflammatory markers increased in both brain and retina after MCAO, with greater increases observed in brain. Progesterone treatment reduced inflammation, with more dramatic reductions observed in brain than retina. This differential effect may be due to differences in the response of progesterone receptors in brain and retina after injury.

  12. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    between estrogen receptor content and any of the serum sex hormones. The progesterone/estrogen receptor ratio, calculated from the biochemical values, correlated positively (p levels of free estradiol. This relation was not affected by tumor histologic grade or stage. Furthermore......OBJECTIVE. To study a possible relationship between serum levels of estrogens and androgens and the tumor content of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in endometrial cancer. STUDY DESIGN. Fifty postmenopausal patients were included. Receptors were determined biochemically in tissue...... cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p levels. No correlations were observed...

  13. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  14. The relationship between fat and progesterone, estradiol, and chorionic gonadotropin levels in Quebec cow's milk.

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    Gilman, A R; Buckett, W; Son, W Y; Lefebvre, J; Mahfoudh, A M; Dahan, M H

    2017-11-01

    The majority of milk in industrialized countries is obtained from pregnant cows, which contains increased levels of estrogen and progesterone compared to non-pregnant cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of hormones present in milk with different fat content because previous studies on humans have shown potential effects of increased milk consumption on serum and urine hormone levels as well as on sperm parameters. However, it is unclear whether consumption of milk at the currently recommended levels would lead to systemic effects. Samples of cow's milk of varying fat concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3.25, 10, and 35%) were analyzed via competitive ELISA assays. Progesterone concentrations were significantly correlated to increasing fat content of milk (r = 0.8251, p = 0.04). Research on conditions in which additional progesterone may have an effect on human health should consider inclusion of limitation of milk intake and its effects. Further studies are needed to determine the concentration of progesterone in milk of different fat content in other regions and countries and to quantify the potential pathophysiologic role.

  15. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

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    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  16. The progesterone level, leukocyte count and disgust sensitivity across the menstrual cycle.

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    Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Borkowska, Barbara; Nowak, Judyta; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    According to the compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis, women in the luteal phase, characterized by a high progesterone level, which suppresses various mechanisms of immune response, should exhibit higher disgust sensitivity, compared to the follicular phase. In this study we test the hypothesis on the compensatory role of disgust sensitivity at the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when immune functions are expected to change due to a rise in progesterone level. Disgust sensitivity, progesterone level (P) and white blood cell count (WBC), a general marker of immunocompetence, were measured in 30 healthy women of reproductive age. Disgust sensitivity was evaluated with: 1) Disgust Scale Revised (DS-R) containing three subscales: Core Disgust, Animal Reminder and Contamination Disgust, 2) Pathogen Disgust and Moral Disgust domains of the Three-Domain Disgust Scale. Measurements were conducted twice - in menstruation (the lowest P) and in the mid-luteal phase (the highest P). The results were analyzed longitudinally and using cross-sectional comparisons. Progesterone level, WBC count, and the level of disgust sensitivity in Animal Domain were higher in the mid-luteal phase comparing to menstruation. The level of disgust sensitivity (DS-R score, Animal, Contamination, Pathogen Disgust) correlated only with P (not WBC) and only in the mid-luteal phase (not in menstruation) in between-subjects comparisons. On the base of these results, we hypothesize that the level of disgust sensitivity in the whole menstrual cycle of a woman is "adjusted" to the luteal phase with the highest P level i.e. when immunosuppression is the greatest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Progesterone levels and follicular dynamic during holstein cows postpartum under low tropic conditions in Colombia

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    Carolina Pinzón S.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Holstein cows were selected at random and followed, every three days, from the 7th day postpartum until they got pregnant again or day 120 postpartum. Ovarian activity was determined through use of dynamic follicular ultrasounds and the measurement of progesterone levels (RIA. The intervals: delivery first estrus observed, first insemination, first ovulation, first rise in progesterone (>1ng/ml and first dominant follicle were 67.3, 70.3, 27, 36 and 26 days respectively. The conception rate at first insemination was 54.4%. The patterns of follicular growth were inconsistent during the first 15 days postpartum. Some cows showed inactive ovaries and others showed follicles with diameters over 10mm. 72.6% of the cows had “silent” estrous cycles with a luteal phase shorter than those with estrus behavior (12 vs. 15 days and lower progesterone concentration at day 15 ( 1.994 vs. 3.3873 ng/ml. Earlier luteal activity (day 3 was observed in pregnant cows than in open cows (day 6. Pregnant cows had higher progesterone levels at day 15 (over 3 ng/ml while open cows levels went down gradually revealing early luteolysis. Results show that the beginning of postpartum ovarian activity (follicular and hormonal dynamic is not determined by the first estrous behavior. Use of RIA is a tool to detect where in the cycle is the subject animal when there are no external signs of estrus. The delay in reproductive activity, as evaluated based the wide range of open days and the number of services per pregnancy, is not due to a lack of early ovarian activity. It is necessary to analyze together other factors, such as productive pressure and nutritional problems that could be affecting reproductive efficiency in future investigations.

  18. Serum progesterone elevation adversely affects cumulative live birth rate in different ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a large retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between serum progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and cumulative live birth rate in patients with different ovarian response during in vitro fertilization (IVF), we carried out this retrospective cohort study including a total of 4,651 patients undergoing their first IVF cycles from January 2011 to December 2012. All patients with a final live birth outcome (4,332 patients) were divided into three groups according to ovarian response: poor ovarian responder (≤5 oocytes, 785 patients), intermediate ovarian responder (6-19 oocytes, 3065 patients) and high ovarian responder (≥20 oocytes, 482 patients). The thresholds for serum P elevation were 1.60 ng/ml, 2.24 ng/ml, and 2.50 ng/ml for poor, intermediate, and high ovarian responders, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was calculated in each group. The relationship between serum P level and cumulative live birth rate was evaluated by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was inversely associated with serum P level in patients with different ovarian response. For all responders, patients with elevated P level had significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, but lower high quality embryo rate, and lower cumulative live birth rate compared with patients with normal serum P level. In addition, serum P level adversely affected cumulative live birth rate by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent of ovarian response. Serum P elevation on the day of HCG administration adversely affects cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle in patients with different ovarian response.

  19. Increasing progesterone levels are associated with smoking abstinence among free-cycling women smokers who receive brief pharmacotherapy.

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    Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Hartwell, Karen J; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-04-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory research suggests that (a) progesterone may decrease drug reward, craving, and smoking behavior, and (b) estradiol may enhance drug reward and smoking behavior. A modest majority of treatment research examining the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and outcomes suggests that the luteal menstrual phase, with its uniquely higher progesterone levels, is associated with better cessation outcomes. However, no studies to date have examined the effects of naturally occurring variation in progesterone and estradiol levels on medication-assisted smoking cessation. The present study sought to fill this notable gap in the treatment literature. Weekly plasma progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained from nicotine-dependent female smokers enrolled in a 4-week cessation trial. Participants (N = 108) were randomized to receive a 4-week course of either varenicline (VAR) tablets and placebo patches or placebo tablets and nicotine patches. Plasma samples were obtained 1 week before their cessation attempt and weekly during medication administration. Abstinence was assessed weekly. Weekly hormone data replicated commonly observed menstrual cycle patterns of progesterone and estradiol levels. Importantly, increases in progesterone level were associated with a 23% increase in the odds for being abstinent within each week of treatment. This effect was driven primarily by nicotine patch-treated versus VAR-treated females. This study was the first to identify an association between progesterone level (increasing) and abstinence outcomes in free-cycling women smokers who participated in a medication-based treatment. Furthermore, the potential benefits of progesterone may vary across different pharmacotherapies. Implications of these findings for smoking cessation intervention are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  20. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Elevated Troponin Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    becomes debatable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no such reported cases in the medical literature of acute pancreatitis with non ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction. The most common cause of elevated troponin levels in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the myocyte‑necrosis, mainly.

  1. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P coconut oil lowered P4 levels in diestrus in a dose-dependent fashion and did not prolonged the luteal phase of the mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels of Oxidized LDL, Estrogens, and Progesterone in Placenta Tissues and Serum Paraoxonase Activity in Preeclampsia

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    Şerefden Açıkgöz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro literature studies have suggested that atherosclerotic oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL inhibits trophoblast invasion. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of OxLDL and to examine the relationship between antioxidative estradiol, estriol, and prooxidative progestin in normal and preeclamptic placental tissues and measure the serum activity of antioxidative paraoxonase (PON1. The study included 30 preeclamptic and 32 normal pregnant women. OxLDL was determined with ELISA, estradiol, unconjugated estriol, and progesterone that were determined with chemiluminescence method in placental tissues. Serum PON1 activity was determined with spectrophotometric method. Levels of OxLDL (, estriol (, estradiol (, and progesterone ( were lower in the placental tissues of preeclamptic group compared to the normal pregnant women. Serum PON1 activity was higher in preeclamptic group ( and preeclamptic group without intrauterine growth restriction ( compared to normal pregnant women. Tissue estriol of preeclamptic group without/with IUGR (, was lower than the normal group. Results of our study suggest that the events leading to fetoplacental insufficiency lead to a reduction in the levels of estriol limit deposition of OxLDL in placental tissues. The serum PON1 activity is probably important in the inhibition of OxLDL in preeclampsia.

  3. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Salience of emotional displays of danger and contagion in faces is enhanced when progesterone levels are raised.

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    Conway, C A; Jones, B C; DeBruine, L M; Welling, L L M; Law Smith, M J; Perrett, D I; Sharp, M A; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2007-02-01

    Findings from previous studies of hormone-mediated behavior in women suggest that raised progesterone level increases the probability of behaviors that will reduce the likelihood of disruption to fetal development during pregnancy (e.g. increased avoidance of sources of contagion). Here, we tested women's (N=52) sensitivity to potential cues to nearby sources of contagion (disgusted facial expressions with averted gaze) and nearby physical threat (fearful facial expressions with averted gaze) at two points in the menstrual cycle differing in progesterone level. Women demonstrated a greater tendency to perceive fearful and disgusted expressions with averted gaze as more intense than those with direct gaze when their progesterone level was relatively high. By contrast, change in progesterone level was not associated with any change in perceptions of happy expressions with direct and averted gaze, indicating that our findings for disgusted and fearful expressions were not due to a general response bias. Collectively, our findings suggest women are more sensitive to facial cues signalling nearby contagion and physical threat when raised progesterone level prepares the body for pregnancy.

  5. Effect of feeding level on luteal function and progesterone concentration in the vena cava during early pregnancy in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athorn, R Z; Stott, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Kennaway, D J; Langendijk, P

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of feeding level on progesterone concentration in the caudal vena cava during early pregnancy in gilts. Twenty-four Landrace gilts were allocated to either a high (2.8±0.02) or a low (1.5±0.01 kg day⁻¹) feeding level at Day 0 of pregnancy. Serial blood samples were collected every 15 min for 3 h before and 3 h after feeding on Days 6 and 9 of pregnancy. Embryo survival and development as well as in vitro luteal progesterone production were assessed at Day 10 of pregnancy. Progesterone concentration in the vena cava was pulsatile with gilts on the high feeding level having more pulses compared with Low gilts on Day 9 of pregnancy (Pgilts on the high feeding level (Pgilts compared with 77±3% for Low gilts (P<0.05). No difference in embryo development between the treatments was seen. There was no difference between treatments in in vitro secretion of progesterone by luteal tissue. In conclusion, a high plane of nutrition positively affects progesterone secretion by the ovaries in early pregnancy.

  6. Progesterone elevation and probability of pregnancy after IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis of over 60 000 cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, C A; Kolibianakis, E M; Bosdou, J K; Tarlatzis, B C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG administration with the probability of pregnancy in fresh, frozen-thawed and donor/recipient IVF cycles. METHODS A literature search in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE CENTRAL and ISI Web of Science was performed aiming to identify studies comparing the probability of pregnancy in patients with or without PE after ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Standard meta-analytic methodology was used for the synthesis of results and meta-regression for exploration of heterogeneity. RESULTS Sixty-three eligible studies were identified evaluating 55 199 fresh IVF cycles, nine studies evaluating 7229 frozen-thawed cycles and eight studies evaluating 1330 donor/recipient cycles. In fresh IVF cycles, a decreased probability of pregnancy achievement was present in women with PE (when PE was defined using a threshold ≥ 0.8 ng/ml) when compared with those without PE. The pooled effect sizes were 0.8-1.1 ng/ml: odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 1.2-1.4 ng/ml: OR = 0.67; 1.5-1.75 ng/ml: OR = 0.64; 1.9-3.0 ng/ml: OR: 0.68 (P probability of pregnancy achievement in fresh IVF cycles in women undergoing ovarian stimulation using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins. On the other hand, an adverse effect of PE does not seem to be present in frozen-thawed and donor/recipient cycles.

  7. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  8. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  9. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or

  10. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  11. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p

  12. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike

    2014-10-01

    Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation results in supraphysiologic DHEA-S serum levels and progesterone assay interference that may impact clinical management in IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Thomas, Semara; Ng, Susan; Fano, Maria; Ruiz, Andrew; Scott, Richard T; Forman, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is often prescribed for poor responders in IVF in an effort to improve response to ovarian stimulation. The effect of DHEA supplementation and resultant supraphysiologic DHEA-S serum levels on sex steroid assays has not been evaluated in this population. This study seeks to determine the relationship between DHEA supplementation and progesterone measurements to characterize the degree of interference with particular immunoassays. Characterization was accomplished in two phases. First, DHEA-S standard control reagents with no progesterone present were assayed for both DHEA-S and progesterone levels. Second, serum pools from 60 unique IVF patients' serum were used to create six pooled serum samples: three from patients on DHEA supplementation and three from patients not on DHEA supplementation. The three pools were composed of patients whose serum fell into low, medium, and high progesterone ranges. Baseline DHEA-S and progesterone were measured, and the mean level of DHEA-S in the mid-range progesterone pool was used as the mid-point for addition of DHEA-S standard to the serum pools from patients without DHEA supplementation. Progesterone from these pools was then measured on three commercially available immunoassay systems. The first experiment revealed a linear increase in progesterone when analyzing the DHEA-S standard ranging from 0.5 ng/mL in the blank control (no DHEA-S) to up to 2.0 ng/mL in the high control (DHEA-S >700 μg/mL), indicating that the DHEA-S cross-reacts with the progesterone assays. In the second experiment, patients' serum DHEA-S and progesterone were measured from pooled serum samples of those taking DHEA and those not taking DHEA. Adding DHEA-S to the pooled serum of those not taking DHEA resulted in a linear increase in progesterone levels on two of three commercially available immunoassays (p DHEA-S can interfere with standard progesterone immunoassays used in clinical ART programs, and thus serum

  14. Effect of feeding allowance level on embryonic survival, IGF-1, insulin, GH, leptin and progesterone secretion in early pregnancy gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, W; Ai-rong, Z; Yan, L; Sheng-yu, X; Hai-yan, G; Yong, Z

    2009-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding allowance level on embryonic survival, uterine development and reproductive hormone secretion in early gestation gilts. A total of 54 F1 crosses of Landrace x Large white gilts were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of high (H, 2 x maintenance), medium (M, 1.2 x maintenance) and low (L, 0.6 x maintenance) feeding level after mating. Blood samples and uterine flushings were collected on day 12, 25 and 35 of pregnancy, and embryonic survival rate was estimated. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF)-1, insulin, growth harmone (GH), leptin and progesterone in serum and uterine flushings were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Embryonic survival was affected by dietary treatment; total number of viable embryos and embryo survival of group M were higher than other groups in the early pregnancy (p allowance level. In serum, concentrations of IGF-1, leptin and insulin tended to be greater in H than in M and L during the early gestation, while concentrations of GH were greater in M and progesterone were the lowest in H. At the same time, feed allowance level affected the concentration of IGF-1, insulin, GH, leptin and progesterone in uterine flushings. These data demonstrated that feed allowance level after mating has important consequence on embryo survival, embryo development and uterine development, possibly mediated by nutrition level inducing changes in concentrations of reproductive hormones and/or intermediary metabolites in early pregnancy.

  15. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma.

  16. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  17. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. BfR does not see any association between progesterone levels in milk and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) expresses its opinion on a possible associa-tion between rising milk consumption and the onset of cancer. In particular breast and pros-tate cancer are said to be attributable to the increased consumption of milk and dairy prod-ucts. The reasons given are the natural, hormonal ingredients in milk. Besides carbohy-drates, proteins, vitamins and trace elements, milk also contains hormones like, for instance, progesteroneProgesterone is a fem...

  19. High progesterone levels during the luteal phase related to the use of an aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, C; Marci, R; Vallone, R

    2017-01-01

    cancer, several studies have demonstrated that progesterone could expand a transformation-sensitive stem cell population in the mammary glands. The estrogen negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the disruption of steroid biosynthesis and could represent an intriguing reason......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hormonal profile in three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in the presence of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In IVF University referral center, a case series of three breast cancer patients who underwent...... behind this phenomenon. Our results highlight the need to evaluate further the increase in progesterone levels in the luteal phase in women with breast cancer undergoing COS with letrozole....

  20. Progesterone and oestrone levels in the gonads and pyloric caeca of the male sea star Asterias rubens: A comparison with the corresponding levels in the female sea star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, P.A.; Dieleman, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. Levels of progesterone and oestrone were estimated by means of RIA in the gonads and pyloric caeca of male specimens of Asterias rubens throughout the reproductive cycle. 2. 2. The patterns obtained appeared to be sex-specific on comparison with those of female specimens of A. rubens and it

  1. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Ambrosius, Katarina; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Twetman, Svante

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary buffer capacity and menarche, and to explore any association with levels of the sex hormone progesterone in stimulated whole saliva in adolescent girls. The material comprised 162 girls, 12 years of age at baseline in the 6th grade, who were followed for 3 years. Every 4th month, a stimulated whole saliva sample was collected, secretion rate and buffer capacity were determined, and information was gathered on menarche, ongoing menses, and caries increment. Once yearly, the salivary concentration of progesterone was determined with an enzyme immunoassay kit. The results showed a significantly impaired salivary buffer capacity over the years (P buffer capacity was significantly correlated with low secretion rate (r = 0.42; Pbuffer capacity did not differ from the postmenarche scores. The concentration of progesterone in saliva increased with age but displayed no significant relationship to buffer capacity, flow rate, or caries increment. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that the salivary buffer capacity may be impaired over the adolescent years in females, but the reason remains unclear.

  2. Endogenous progesterone levels and frontotemporal dementia: modulation of TDP-43 and Tau levels in vitro and treatment of the A315T TARDBP mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa N. T. Dang

    2013-09-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is associated with motor neurone disease (FTD-MND, corticobasal syndrome (CBS and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS. Together, this group of disorders constitutes a major cause of young-onset dementia. One of the three clinical variants of FTD is progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA, which is focused on in this study. The steroid hormone progesterone (PROG is known to have an important role as a neurosteroid with potent neuroprotective and promyelination properties. In a case-control study of serum samples (39 FTD, 91 controls, low serum PROG was associated with FTD overall. In subgroup analysis, low PROG levels were significantly associated with FTD-MND and CBS, but not with PSPS or PNFA. PROG levels of >195 pg/ml were significantly correlated with lower disease severity (frontotemporal dementia rating scale for individuals with CBS. In the human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cell line, exogenous PROG (9300–93,000 pg/ml had a significant effect on overall Tau and nuclear TDP-43 levels, reducing total Tau levels by ∼1.5-fold and increasing nuclear TDP-43 by 1.7- to 2.0-fold. Finally, elevation of plasma PROG to a mean concentration of 5870 pg/ml in an Ala315Thr (A315T TARDBP transgenic mouse model significantly reduced the rate of loss of locomotor control in PROG-treated, compared with placebo, mice. The PROG treatment did not significantly increase survival of the mice, which might be due to the limitation of the transgenic mouse to accurately model TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. Together, our clinical, cellular and animal data provide strong evidence that PROG could be a valid therapy for specific related disorders of FTD.

  3. Prostaglandin treatment is associated with a withdrawal of progesterone and androgen at the receptor level in the uterine cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladic-Stjernholm, Ylva; Vladic, Tomislav; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Sahlin, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Treatment with prostaglandin(PG)-E2 is clinically efficient for cervical priming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PG-E2 on the expression of the progesterone (PR), androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors in human uterine cervix in prolonged pregnancy. The study groups were postterm nulliparous women with unripe cervices undergoing cervical priming with PG-E2 before labor induction. Responders (n = 12) who delivered vaginally were compared with non-responders (n = 10), who underwent cesarean section due to failure to progress to the active phase of labor. Controls (n = 18) with vaginal partus at a normal gestational age served as a reference group. Cervical levels of PR-A and PR- B isoforms, AR and GR, serum levels of their ligands and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were quantified. The responder group displayed lower total PR-AB and AR protein levels as compared to non-responders, and lower PR-B and AR protein levels as compared to controls. In addition, the PR mRNA level was lower in responders as compared to non-responders. The GR protein level did not differ between the groups. We conclude that successful PG-E2 priming was followed by a progesterone and androgen withdrawal at the receptor level in the uterine cervix. PMID:19852793

  4. Prostaglandin treatment is associated with a withdrawal of progesterone and androgen at the receptor level in the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman-Ordeberg Gunvor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment with prostaglandin(PG-E2 is clinically efficient for cervical priming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PG-E2 on the expression of the progesterone (PR, androgen (AR and glucocorticoid (GR receptors in human uterine cervix in prolonged pregnancy. The study groups were postterm nulliparous women with unripe cervices undergoing cervical priming with PG-E2 before labor induction. Responders (n = 12 who delivered vaginally were compared with non-responders (n = 10, who underwent cesarean section due to failure to progress to the active phase of labor. Controls (n = 18 with vaginal partus at a normal gestational age served as a reference group. Cervical levels of PR-A and PR- B isoforms, AR and GR, serum levels of their ligands and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were quantified. The responder group displayed lower total PR-AB and AR protein levels as compared to non-responders, and lower PR-B and AR protein levels as compared to controls. In addition, the PR mRNA level was lower in responders as compared to non-responders. The GR protein level did not differ between the groups. We conclude that successful PG-E2 priming was followed by a progesterone and androgen withdrawal at the receptor level in the uterine cervix.

  5. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  6. Serial hCG and progesterone levels to predict early pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies of uncertain viability: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puget, Claire; Joueidi, Yolaine; Bauville, Estelle; Laviolle, Bruno; Bendavid, Claude; Lavoué, Vincent; Le Lous, Maela

    2018-01-01

    To assess the value of serial hCG and progesterone serum level in the diagnosis of early pregnancy viability. It was a prospective cohort study. Women with a pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV), defined as the presence of an intra-uterine embryo with a crown-rump length hCG levels on the first day and 48h after as well as the initial progesterone level were evaluated to diagnose pregnancy viability. Pregnancy viability was assessed by TVS 7 to 14days after inclusion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an hCG H48/H0 ratio increase hCG H48/H0 ratio increase >75% to diagnose a viable pregnancy were 100%, 31%, 45.9% and 100%, respectively. hCG H48/H0 ratio increase hCG H48/H0 ratio increase >75% was associated with 100% of viable pregnancies in 100% of the cases. Serial hCG levels alone permitted an early viability diagnosis within 48h for 41.1% of patients with PUV instead of 7 to 14days with TVS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNA array and microarray evaluation of endometrial receptivity in patients with high serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of higher progesterone (P level on endometrial receptivity. Methods This was a prospective analysis conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of Peking University Third Hospital. All patients received IVF treatment and canceled embryo transfer in the same cycle and were divided into group 1 (normal P; 7 patients and group 2 (elevated P; 12 patients. Endometrial biopsies were performed 6 days after oocyte retrieval. The global miRNA and mRNA gene expressions in endometrial biopsies were investigated with a V4.0 miRNA probe and 22 K Human Genome Array. Fold ratios were derived to compare gene regulation between the groups. Spp1 and Ang gene expression was selected to verify the array results by RT-PCR and the protein expression of osteopontin and VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method. Results There were 4 miRNA (all down-regulated and 22 mRNA (13 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated exhibiting differential expression between the groups on the microRNA and microarray chips. miRNA-451, Spp1, and Ang expression in RT-PCR verified the array results. Osteopontin and VEGF were also shown to have positive expression in the endometrium. Conclusions Data from microRNA and microarray analysis suggests dissimilar endometrial receptivity in patients with high P levels on the day of hCG, and elevated osteopontin and decreased VEGF had poor pregnancy rates.

  8. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    . Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The present review is based......, and medication. We provide an overview of the pathogenesis of lactate level elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical end point of resuscitation...

  9. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jerome M; Davis, Lori K; Murr, Ashley S; Cooper, Ralph L

    2013-10-01

    Multiple exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATRZ) were shown to suppress the LH surge in both cycling female rats and those ovariectomized (OVX) and primed with estradiol (E2). A single ATRZ administration was found to induce a prompt and marked increase in progesterone (P4). As exogenous P4 is known to have a differential effect on the LH surge depending on its temporal relationship with the surge, it was hypothesized that a single treatment in an OVX, E2-primed rat would augment the surge, whereas several exposures would cause a decrease. Following four daily treatments with 100 mg/kg, LH surge was suppressed. In contrast, a single ATRZ exposure elevated the surge. Two treatments were without effect. The single administration caused a large increase in P4 at 30 and 60 min that was likely attributable to adrenal secretion. Four exposures also elevated P4 after the final treatment, although the duration of the increase was shortened. A single treatment with 0, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg ATRZ showed similar elevations at the highest concentration in P4, the LH peak, and area under the curve (AUC), whereas four exposures reduced the AUC. An increase at 1 h in the expression of Kiss1 in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus suggests that this regional kisspeptin neuronal population has a role in the ATRZ augmentation of the surge. These data support the hypothesis that ATRZ-induced changes in adrenal P4 can either augment or attenuate the surge depending on the temporal proximity of exposure to the rise in LH.

  10. Reproductive impacts of elevated selenium levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1. Evaluate selenium levels in Neotropical migrants and riparian obligate birds on Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. 2....

  11. Waktu Inseminasi Buatan yang Tepat pada Sapi Bali dan Kadar Progesteron pada Sapi Bunting (THE OPTIMUM TIME FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BALI CATTLE AND THE PROGESTERONE LEVEL IN PREGNANT COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims were to determine the proper time for insemination and the progesterone level ofpregnant Bali cattle. Complete randomized design method was used in this study. The study consisted ofthree treatment groups i.e. Group I, animals were inseminated at 0 hour (on estrus, group II, inseminatedat 12 h post-estrus and group III inseminated at 24 h post-estrus. Estrus was observed two times a day ie.in the morning (6:00 to 8:00 am and afternoon (16:00 to 18:00 pm which was characterized by transparentvaginal discharge. The results showed that the highest percentage of pregnancy occurred when the cattlewere inseminated at 24 h post-estrus (100%, however, statistically this was not significant different (P>0.05 to animals that were inseminated at 12 h post-estrus (75%. Moreover, no pregnancy (0% wasobserved in cattle that were inseminated at estrus. The progesterone level of pregnant bali cattle increasedas the period of gestation increased, being 15.43 ± 0.50 ng/mL at 30 days of gestation, 17.16 ± 0.34 ng/mLat 60 days of gestation and 20.78 ± 0.59 ng/mL at 90 days of gestation. In conclusion, the best time forinsemination in Bali cattle is at 24 h post-estrus and progesterone level seems to increase as the older thegestation period.

  12. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  13. Elevated peripheral visfatin levels in narcoleptic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexies and a tendency towards obesity. Recent discoveries indicate that the major pathophysiology is a loss of hypocretin (orexin producing neurons due to immunologically mediated degeneration. Visfatin is a recently described proinflammatory adipokine. It is identical to the immune modulating pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF. Our study examines the hypothesis that visfatin levels are altered in narcoleptic patients. METHODS: For the analysis, a total of n = 54 patients (n = 18 males and n = 36 females with the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to DSM-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders were examined (BMI mean 30.3+/-5.5, age mean 52.5+/-16.1 years. As a control group 39 unrelated (n = 12 males and n = 27 females healthy volunteers with no sleep disorder according to DSM-IV were included (BMI mean 28.5+/-4.6, age mean 51.1+/-13.6 years. Peripheral visfatin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit with a measurement range from 0.1-1000 ng/ml. Narcolepsy symptoms, severity and frequency of symptoms as well as the total duration of various aspects of the symptomatology were assessed by unstructured and structured clinical interviews in including the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Sleep Inventory. RESULTS: Circulating visfatin was found to be significantly increased in HLA DR2 positive narcoleptic patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results add to the evidence of disturbed immunological regulation in patients with narcolepsy.

  14. Predictive value of serum progesterone level on β-hCG check day in women with previous repeated miscarriages after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Yong; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages. One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes. The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL. The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.

  15. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Truffle on Estrogen and Progesterone Levels in Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Zabihi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Since the level of sex hormone and multiple sclerosis (MS disease affects one another, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the hydroalcoholic extract of truffle on the hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone administered in experimental model of MS-induced rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 Wistar female rats, weighing 180±10 grams selected into 6 groups each consisting of 7 rats. Normal control didn’t receive any treatment and experimental group was given Cuprizone toxin (as a MS model inducer for 40 days. The experimental groups (2, 3, 4 and 5 in addition to Cuprizone received the normal saline, 110, 220 and 330 mg/kg/0.2ml (i.p. of Hydroalcoholic extract of truffle for 12 days too. Blood samples were taken at the end of the twelfth day from all groups involved and levels of sex hormones were measured. Results: Cuprizone decreases estrogen, progesterone levels and also causes weight loss, while injection of hydroalcoholic extract of truffle increased serum levels of estrogen (in experimental group 4 and progesterone (in experimental group 4 & 5 compared to MS-induced group. Conclusion: Results of the study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of truffle (at dosages of 220 and 330 mg/kg could increase estrogen and progesterone levels in rats experienced experimental multiple sclerosis.

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensler, J M; Silverman, B L; Sanghavi, J; Goolsby, C; Speck, G; Brizio-Molteni, L; Molteni, A

    2000-10-01

    The etiology of gynecomastia is unknown. There seems to be no increased incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia; however, patients with Klinefelter syndrome exhibit an increased incidence of malignancy. The authors reviewed the results of 34 patients with gynecomastia diagnosed in adolescence who, following initial evaluation, had a mastectomy. The estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed in these patients. Three of the patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. These three patients exhibited elevated amounts of estrogen and progesterone receptors. None of the patients who were not diagnosed with this syndrome demonstrated significant elevation of their estrogen or progesterone receptors. The presence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with Klinefelter syndrome provides a potential mechanism by which these patients may develop breast neoplasms. The absence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia may serve to clarify why these patients' disease rarely degenerates into malignancy.

  17. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  18. A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome.

  19. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abu‐Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren‐Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns‐Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    ...)‐mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β‐sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients...

  20. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  1. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  2. Relationship of hyperactivity to moderately elevated lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, O.J.; Hoffman, S.P.; Clark, J.; Grad, G.; Sverd, J.

    Controversy exists with respect to whether moderately elevated lead levels are toxic in certain children with various central nervous system dysfunctions. One way of addressing this controversy is to remove the lead; if the condition is ameliorated a presumption of toxicity becomes reasonable. Such a strategy is reported herein. Children with an operationally defined central nervous system dysfunction (hyperactivity) and moderately elevated lead levels were treated with a lead chelating agent in a random allocation double blind treatment regimen. The finding of statistically significant and obvious behavioral improvement reported by three separate evaluators (i.e., parent, teacher, and treating physician) of the child suggests that the presumption of a toxic relationship between moderately elevated lead levels and hyperactivity is supported. 26 references, 3 tables.

  3. Assessment of Serum Progesterone Level on the Day of hCG Injection in Infertile Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients Referred to Women’s Hospital, Tehran, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Forghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reasons for infertility due to unovulation and recurrent abortions. There is no consensus on effect of serum progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG injection. This study aims to evaluate the effect of plasma levels of progesterone on the day of hCG injection on the rate of pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles of PCOS cases.Materials and Methods: A stratified cohort study was conducted over a period of one year (2009 on 38 infertile women with PCOS who were suitable candidates for the IVF program. Patients were evaluated for other causes of infertility with hysterosalpingography (HSG, laparoscopy and normal sperm analysis. Patients were placed on the long protocol, followed by oocyte pick up, and finally IVF-embryo transfer (ET. Study patients were grouped according to progesterone levels of greater or less than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection. Pregnancy rates were defined in each group. Levels on day of hCG day clinical pregnancy outcome were assessed. Experimental data were then compared against Fisher’s exact test in SPSS version 18.Results: The overall pregnancy rate in this study was 26.3%. In the group with progesterone levels more than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection, the clinical pregnancy rate was 4 (21.1% and chemical pregnancy rate was 3(15.8%. In the group with progesterone levels less than 1.2 ng/ml, the clinical pregnancy rate was 1(5.3% and chemical pregnancy rate was 2(10. 5%.Conclusion: This study showed that PCOS patients with progesterone levels more than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection resulted in higher chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. However, no significant statistical differences were found between the two groups. For further verification, we recommend additional studies with larger numbers of subjects.

  4. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  5. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  6. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypergammaglobulinemia is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) of different causes. On the other hand, elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are the best diagnostic marker for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Thus, the ability to distinguish AIH patients from patients with ...

  7. Effect of monosodium glutamate on the serum estrogen and progesterone levels in female rat and prevention of this effect with diltiazem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Muhammad Sarwar; Qamar, Khadija; Hanif, Ruhila; Khalil, Moazzam

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is found in a wide variety of foods. It induces the uterine fibroid in the rats by increasing the levels of estradiol. Diltiazem is an effective preventive medication. This study was conducted to analyse the effect of monosodium glutamate on the serum estrogen and progesterone levels in adult Sprague Dawley rat and its prevention with diltiazem. This Laboratory based randomized controlled trial was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad from 9th April to 23rd April 2012. In this experimental study, 30 adult female Sprague Dawley rats of average weight of 500 g were randomly assigned into three groups. The experimental group B was given 0.08 mg/kg of monosodium glutamate (MSG) orally and experimental group C was given 0.08 mg/kg of MSG and 10 mg/kg of diltiazem in distilled water orally for 14 days. The control group (A) received only laboratory diet. Using intracardiac route 5 ml blood was taken from each animal for hormonal assay. Hormone assay of the serum in the experimental group B showed increase in serum estrogen and progesterone levels as compared to the group A and there was minor increase in the hormonal levels in group C. MSG causes increase in the serum estrogen and progesterone levels in adult female rats and diltiazem prevents this effect.

  8. Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.

    1986-06-01

    Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

  9. Elevated fingernail cortisol levels in major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herane-Vives, Andres; Fischer, Susanne; de Angel, Valeria; Wise, Toby; Cheung, Eric; Chua, Kia-Chong; Arnone, Danilo; Young, Allan H; Cleare, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    The extent to which cortisol levels are elevated in major depressive episodes (MDE), and hence could act as a biomarker of illness, remains unclear. Although patient characteristics may explain some of this variation - for example elevated cortisol being more often found in patients with severe, psychotic or melancholic depression - problems with the methods used to measure cortisol may also have contributed to the inconsistent findings. Fingernails are a novel sample that can be used to assess aggregate cortisol concentrations over a 15-day period, and may provide a more accurate reflection of longer term cortisol level changes in MDE and help clarify this issue. This methodology has not yet been utilised in MDE. Cortisol levels reflecting a period of 15days were measured using fingernails in a group of 26 subjects experiencing a major depressive episode (MDE) and in an age and gender matched group of 45 healthy controls. Depressed subjects showed significantly higher mean cortisol levels measured in fingernails when compared with control subjects. Higher levels of cortisol were associated with higher depression severity scores, a diagnosis of non-reactive depression, and more prominent melancholic symptoms. Conversely, fatigue was negatively correlated with cortisol levels. There is elevated cortisol in MDE when assessed using an aggregate measure over two weeks.Alterations in fingernail cortisol correlate with key clinical symptoms and subtypes of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of embryos transferred and progesterone levels are the most important predictors of live birth after fresh embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qianfang; Wan, Fei; Appleby, Dina; Hu, Linli; Zhang, Hanwang

    2014-02-01

    To identify the independent predictors of live birth following IVF, and to assess the role of cohort-specific parameters, including antral follicle count (AFC), the number of oocytes retrieved, the total number of embryos, and the total number of good-quality embryos, in fresh IVF cycles. A retrospective cohort study of 2,525 infertile women undergoing IVF between 2002 and 2007. The hypothesis that the number and quality of embryos transferred capture the effects previously attributed to cohort-specific variables was examined using mediation analysis and spline analysis. Independent predictors were identified by a bootstrap algorithm. Multivariable logistic regression was performed and the proportion of explained variation was measured to compare the relative importance of transfer-specific vs. cohort-specific predictors. The number of good-quality embryos transferred and progesterone level on the day of hCG administration ranked as the two most important predictors of live birth. Prospects of pregnancy started to decrease after progesterone level exceeded 0.6 ng/ml. The achievement of live birth in a fresh IVF cycle is primarily determined by the number and quality of embryos transferred, rather than by embryo cohort-specific variables. The associations between cohort-specific variables and live birth in a fresh IVF cycle are completely mediated by the quality of embryos transferred. Progesterone level on the day of hCG administration is an independent predictor of pregnancy and merits further investigation.

  11. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  12. Progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in relation to the pregnancy rates of patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renato de; Cabral, Fernanda Godoy; Carvalho, Waldemar de Almeida Pereira; Cordts, Emerson Barchi; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive capacity for pregnancy of the progesterone level on the day of administering human chorionic gonadotropin, in women submitted to assisted reproductive techniques. An observational study with 914 women submitted to assisted reproductive techniques from August 2014 to June 2016. Total pregnancy rate was 34.58%; in that, the pregnancy rate in women 38 years was, respectively, 42.3%, 38.7% and 16.1% (p<0.001). For embryo transfer in the same cycle, and progesterone of 1.3ng/dL, sensitivity was 4.78%, specificity, 84.18%, accuracy, 56.72%, positive likelihood ratio of 0.3019, and negative likelihood ratio of 1.1312, with receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.46 (95%CI: 0.42-0.49). The progesterone level on the day of administering human chorionic gonadotropin of 1.3ng/dL differs from that empirically adopted at the study site (1.7ng/dL), and has a better predictive capacity for pregnancy in the patients studied. However, the low sensitivity of this examination raises questions about its real importance.

  13. Ulipristal Acetate Antagonizes the Inhibitory Effect of Progesterone on Ciliary Beat Frequency and Upregulates Steroid Receptor Expression Levels in Human Fallopian Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangjing; Zhao, Weihong; Yan, Mingxing; Zhu, Qian; Qin, Guojuan; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a new selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulator used for emergency contraception. However, our understanding of its mechanisms of action on oviductal cilia is limited. The present study focused on the in vitro effects of UPA (0.1, 1, and 10 μmol/L) on the cilia and steroid receptors of human fallopian tubes. The ciliary beat frequency (CBF), the ultrastructure of cilia, and the levels of steroid receptors were measured. The effects of UPA on the progesterone-induced CBF reduction were also studied. Our results show that UPA dose dependently antagonizes the progesterone-induced CBF decrease, but it does not affect the CBF or the ultrastructure of the cilia. The UPA also upregulates the expression levels of the estrogen receptor α and the PR in the fallopian tubes. The results enable us to better understand the mechanisms by which UPA works as an emergency contraceptive and provides a scientific basis for its clinical application. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  15. Elevated fasting insulin level significantly increases the risk of microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Park, Sung Keun; Jung, Ju Young

    2015-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is significantly associated with long-term prognosis in the general population as well as in diabetic patients. It is well known that insulin resistance (IR) can induce microalbuminuria, but an elevated fasting insulin level, which is an early clinical manifestation of IR, as a risk factor for microalbuminuria has not been clarified, so we investigated the association between fasting insulin level and the development of microalbuminuria in a general population. A total of 1,192 non-diabetic Korean men without microalbuminuria in 2005 were followed until 2010. They were categorized into 3 groups according to their fasting insulin levels and monitored for the development of microalbuminuria. The incidence of microalbuminuria was compared among groups, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios for microalbuminuria according to the fasting insulin levels. During 4,013.0 person-years of follow-up, 51 incident cases of microalbuminuria developed between 2006 and 2010. The incidence of microalbuminuria increased in proportion to the fasting insulin levels (tertile 1: 1.8%, tertile 2: 4.5%, tertile 3: 6.5%, Pfasting insulin levels [tertile 1: reference, tertile 2: 2.44 (1.01-5.89), tertile 3: 3.30 (1.40-7.78), respectively, P for trend 0.013]. Elevated fasting insulin level was associated with the future development of microalbuminuria.

  16. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels are elevated in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Fredrik R; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Luckman, Steven P

    2008-03-01

    MMP-3 is capable of degrading a variety of proteins, including agrin, which plays a critical role in neuromuscular signalling by controlling acetylcholine receptor clustering. The degradation of agrin by MMP-3 may disrupt the neuromuscular junction leading to a failure of neuromuscular transmission and muscle weakness. We have therefore examined the levels of MMP-3 in 116 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and 90 healthy controls. A significant elevation in MMP-3 levels was observed in 10% of seronegative and 17% of seropositive MG patients, indicating that MMP-3 may play a pathogenic role in a proportion of MG patients.

  17. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p cabergoline (I) and control (III) groups were similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. [Elevated thyroid hormone levels in the absence of hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, D; Tuval, M; Nakash, I

    1992-03-01

    Elevated blood levels of thyroid hormones may be due to causes other than glandular hyperactivity. We have seen transient increases in total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine index (FTI), free thyroxine (FT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) in 12 women and 3 men with subacute thyroiditis and 2 women with painless (silent) postpartum thyroiditis. Elevated TT4, FTI, and FT4 were found in 11 of 85 patients treated with amiodarone. High TT4, but not FTI or FT4, was seen in 4 women using contraceptives, in 2 pregnant women and in 2 men with liver dysfunction. All hormones, except TSH, were elevated in a patient in whom thyrotoxicosis factitia was later proved. High FTI, TT4 or FT4 but not TT3 were detected in 11 of 20 patients treated with l-throxine after surgical thyroidectomy and in 10 of 68 treated for hypothyroidism. To avoid treating when thyroxicosis is not present and to avoid reducing or stopping vital drug treatment, familiarity with these states which alter blood hormone levels is important.

  19. The impact of progesterone on memory consolidation of threatening images in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L; Fong, Wing Chee; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-11-01

    Recent findings suggest that consolidation of emotional memories is influenced by menstrual phase in women. In contrast to other phases, in the mid-luteal phase when progesterone levels are elevated, cortisol levels are increased and correlated with emotional memory. This study examined the impact of progesterone on cortisol and memory consolidation of threatening stimuli under stressful conditions. Thirty women were recruited for the high progesterone group (in the mid-luteal phase) and 26 for the low progesterone group (in non-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle). Women were shown a series of 20 neutral or threatening images followed immediately by either a stressor (cold pressor task) or control condition. Participants returned two days later for a surprise free recall test of the images and salivary cortisol responses were monitored. High progesterone levels were associated with higher baseline and stress-evoked cortisol levels, and enhanced memory of negative images when stress was received. A positive correlation was found between stress-induced cortisol levels and memory recall of threatening images. These findings suggest that progesterone mediates cortisol responses to stress and subsequently predicts memory recall for emotionally arousing stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD.

  1. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  2. Elevated serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Kyung Soo

    2014-03-01

    Copper takes part in a variety of biological reduction-oxidation (redox) processes, and is an important cofactor of many redox enzymes. Ceruloplasmin, the copper-transporting protein, also possesses an important redox capacity. We assessed serum copper, ceruloplasmin and free-copper levels in 89 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (mean age, 77.83 years; 41 men, 48 women) and in 118 healthy individuals (mean age, 69.93 years; 50 men, 68 women). High (≥75th percentile), medium, and low (≤25th percentile) copper, ceruloplasmin and free-copper groups were classified according to their serum level. Serum copper (P = 0.026) and ceruloplasmin (P = 0.001) levels were significantly higher in the AD group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in serum free-copper levels between AD and healthy elderly groups (P = 0.975). After adjusting for age differences, serum copper (P = 0.049) was still significantly higher in the AD group. Furthermore, serum copper levels correlated with scores on the Boston naming test (r = -0.151, P = 0.037), indicating a close relationship between copper levels and cognitive abilities. The significant association between the copper concentration in peripheral serum and AD with elevated copper levels found in patients with AD is likely linked to the evolution of AD. Serum copper levels were significantly negatively correlated with scores on cognitive test subscores. AD patients may have significantly more "defective" ceruloplasmin, that is, apo-ceruloplasmin lacking its copper, than in healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. Yuzhong Li1, Jing Fan1, Haiying Ma1, Fei Shen1, Ge Zhang1, Jianguang Wang1. , Guangmin Xia2,. Duoqing Fan3 and Suiyun Chen1*. 1School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming ...

  4. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  5. Managing pregnancy of unknown location based on initial serum progesterone and serial serum hCG levels: development and validation of a two-step triage protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, B; Bobdiwala, S; Guha, S; Van Hoorde, K; Al-Memar, M; Harvey, R; Farren, J; Kirk, E; Condous, G; Sur, S; Stalder, C; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2016-11-01

    A uniform rationalized management protocol for pregnancies of unknown location (PUL) is lacking. We developed a two-step triage protocol to select PUL at high risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP), based on serum progesterone level at presentation (step 1) and the serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ratio, defined as the ratio of hCG at 48 h to hCG at presentation (step 2). This was a cohort study of 2753 PUL (301 EP), involving a secondary analysis of prospectively and consecutively collected PUL data from two London-based university teaching hospitals. Using a chronological split we used 1449 PUL for development and 1304 for validation. We aimed to assign PUL as low risk with high confidence (high negative predictive value (NPV)) while classifying most EP as high risk (high sensitivity). The first triage step assigned PUL as low risk using a threshold of serum progesterone at presentation. The remaining PUL were triaged using a novel logistic regression risk model based on hCG ratio and initial serum progesterone (second step), defining low risk as an estimated EP risk of step 1) classified 16.1% PUL as low risk. Second-step classification with the risk model selected an additional 46.0% of all PUL as low risk. Overall, the two-step protocol classified 62.1% of PUL as low risk, with an NPV of 98.6% and a sensitivity of 92.0%. When the risk model was used in isolation (i.e. without the first step), 60.5% of PUL were classified as low risk with 99.1% NPV and 94.9% sensitivity. PUL can be classified efficiently into being either high or low risk for complications using a two-step protocol involving initial progesterone and hCG levels and the hCG ratio. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  7. Progesterone receptor expression declines in the guinea pig uterus during functional progesterone withdrawal and in response to prostaglandins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni N Welsh

    Full Text Available Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone

  8. Progesterone Receptor Expression Declines in the Guinea Pig Uterus during Functional Progesterone Withdrawal and in Response to Prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Toni N.; Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah; Zakar, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone withdrawal, promote

  9. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  10. Comparison of the Levels of LH and FSH, TSH, Prolactin, Progesterone and Estradiol Hormones between Iranian Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hashemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with the prevalence of 5 to 7% among Iranian women is a leading cause of infertility and endocrine disorder. Metabolic disorders such as increased levels of LH and FSH hormones in these patients was common and influences health of women with PCOS in long-term. Treatment of female infertility and other complications in many cases need to regulate hormones and receive exogenous hormone, and then the effect of female hormones on the disease is very important. In this study, levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and other female hormones among Iranian women with PCOS and infertility and healthy people were measured in this regard and values were compared. The result of this study showed that LH and progesterone hormone levels were significantly different in this syndrome than healthy women.

  11. Quantitative analysis of expression level of estrogen and progesterone receptors and VEGF genes in human endometrial stromal cells after treatment with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Hamidreza; Miladpour, Behnoosh; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh; Khademi, Fatemeh; Kasraeian, Maryam; Zal, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of toxic chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and several recognized carcinogens and mutagens. Nicotine has a direct disturbing influence on steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone), which are essential components of the female reproductive system, but the effect of nicotine on the hormone receptors is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of nicotine on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endometrial stromal cells. Expression levels of PR, ER, and VEGF in human endometrial stromal primary cells treated with nicotine (0, 10 -11 , 10 -8 , and 10 -6  μM) for 24 h were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MTT assay demonstrated that nicotine decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR data showed that despite decrease in ER expression in the nicotine-treated groups compared with the control, nicotine exerted an increased inhibitory effect on PR expression compared to that on ER expression. VEGF mRNA expression in nicotine-treated endometrial stromal cells was increased. The results from this study provide novel evidence for inhibitory effects of nicotine on steroid hormones receptor expression in human primary endometrial cells. Also, our data suggest that nicotine might have angiogenesis effects on these cells.

  12. Influence of elevator acceleration induced loading on injury levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funai, K.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Nunen, E. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence on human body of the acceleration caused by the elevator emergency stop has been studied. Experiments were performed with an automotive dummy in an elevator. The study is furthermore based on numerical simulations in MADYMO with an active human model. Kinematics and contact forces of

  13. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Burton

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD, 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3. Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  14. Aldosterone and progesterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma in a cat with a concurrent meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Leshinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 12-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of suspected hyperaldosteronism due to persistent hypokalaemia, hindlimb ataxia, weakness of 1 month’s duration and a left adrenal mass that was detected on abdominal ultrasound. Neurological examination findings at referral were suggestive of a concurrent left forebrain lesion. Hyperaldosteronism and concurrent hyperprogesteronism were confirmed on endocrine testing. On computed tomography (CT of the abdomen and thorax there was no evidence of local vascular invasion by the adrenal mass or of metastatic disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging featured a large, focal rim-enhancing extra-axial left forebrain lesion consistent with a meningioma. Surgical excision of the forebrain mass was followed by adrenalectomy 2 weeks later. The tumours were classified on histopathology as a psammomatous meningioma and an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of the meningioma confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors. The cat remains well 2 years later. Relevance and novel information In humans, elevated serum progesterone levels have been associated with rapid growth of meningiomas due to the presence of progesterone receptors on the tumour. This is the first report of a cat with a progesterone and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and a concurrent meningioma. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effect of elevated progesterone on meningiomas in cats.

  15. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine have been reported to suppress the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in both cycling female rats and those that are ovariectomized (OVX) and exogenously primed with steroids. Additional studies have also found elevations in both ...

  16. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  17. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    the stimulation of C4HD tumor growth in BALB/c mice treated with progesterone is due to the progesterone metabolite 5αP formed at elevated levels in mammary cells as a result of the 5α-reductase action on progesterone. The results provide the first in vivo demonstration that stimulation of breast cell tumorigenesis and tumor growth accompanying progesterone treatment is due to the progesterone metabolite 5αP, and that breast tumorigenesis can be blocked with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated Amylase and Lipase Levels in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Various neurosurgery events and diagnoses may lead to different degrees of serum pancreatic enzyme elevation. Patients with elevated pancreatic enzyme levels have a higher mortality rate than those with normal enzyme levels. We believe that abdominal CT should be indicated for patients if their amylase levels are more than 3-fold the upper normal limit and lipase levels are more than 5-fold.

  19. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...... and their targets. Environmental toxins, such as dioxin, play a possible role in the genesis of endometriosis by permitting an inflammatory milieu. A consequence of impaired progesterone action is that hormonal therapy is rendered ineffective for a subset of women with endometriosis. Synthetic progestins...

  20. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kääb, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ... third of the total observed global sea level rise. It is therefore important to quantify glacier volume changes for the various glaciated regions in the world, both to estimate glacial sea level contribution and to link such contributions to regional climatic changes. In this paper we estimate the contribution of Svalbard glaciers to sea level rise. Various m...

  1. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Acupuncture on the Endometrial Morphology, the Serum Estradiol and Progesterone Levels, and the Expression of Endometrial Leukaemia-inhibitor Factor and Osteopontin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houju Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that acupuncture has beneficial effects on a variety of medical conditions especially in pain relief, nausea, and vomiting, it remains controversial whether it has positive impact on the female reproduction. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the following endometrial receptivity factors: the endometrial morphology, the hormone concentrations, and the protein expression of endometrial leukaemia-inhibitory factor (LIF and osteopontin (OPN could be improved by the acupuncture in clomiphene citrate(CC-induced rat model during implantation period. Results showed that, compared with the CC group, glandular development advanced, the serum estradiol levels decreased significantly, and the glandular area and endometrial LIF and OPN expression were significantly higher in acupuncture group. There were no significant differences in serum progesterone levels, endometrial thickness, and stromal area between groups. These results suggest that acupuncture can improve certain aspects of endometrial receptivity in CC-induced rat model during implantation period, which might result in endometrial state better to female reproduction.

  3. Progestogen levels, Progesterone Receptor Gene polymorphisms, and mammographic density changes: results from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Mammographic Density Study (PEPI-MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Ingles, Sue A.; Van Den Berg, David; Wang, Wei; LaVallee, Chris; Huang, Mei-Hua; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Greendale, Gail A.; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) in postmenopausal women increases breast cancer risk and mammographic density to a higher extent than does estrogen therapy (ET) alone. Data from the randomized placebo-controlled Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial showed that EPT-induced increases in serum estrone and estrone sulfate levels were positively correlated with increases in mammographic density. Here, after adjusting for serum estrone and estrone sulfate levels, we investigated the roles of post-treatment serum progestogen increase and of progesterone receptor gene (PGR) genetic variations on changes in mammographic density. Methods We measured percent mammographic density and serum progestogen levels in 280 PEPI participants randomized to EPT treatment. Analyses of genetic variations in PGR were limited to 260 white women for whom we successfully obtained PGR genotypes. We used linear regression analyses to determine how increase in progestogen levels and PGR genetic variations influenced mammographic density change following EPT. Results The increase in post-treatment serum progestogen level was positively associated with greater increases in mammographic density after adjustment for covariates (P-trend=0.044). Compared to women in the lowest quartile of serum progestogen, women in the highest quartile experienced a 3.5% greater increase in mammographic density (P=0.046). We did not find a strong indication that genetic variations in PGR were associated with mammographic density increase, or modified the association with serum progestogen, however confidence in these null findings is constrained by our small sample size. Conclusions Our results suggest that higher serum progestogen levels resulting from EPT treatment lead to greater increases in mammographic density. PMID:22105149

  4. Bilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis due to Elevated Factor VIII Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patole, Shalom; Ramya, I

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence has shown that high level of factor VIII is associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. High factor VIII levels are associated with a seven-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis is usually associated with nephrotic syndrome, procoagulant state or oral contraceptive pills. We report a case of a lady who presented with bilateral renal vein thrombosis due to high factor VIII levels and oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  5. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  6. Uses of progesterone in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Shantha, S

    1999-01-01

    Progesterone is the natural progestagen produced by the corpus luteum during the luteal phase. It is absorbed when administered orally, but is greater than 90% metabolized during the first hepatic pass. This greatly limits the efficacy of once-daily administration and also results in unphysiologically high levels of progesterone metabolites, particularly those reduced at the 5-a position. These metabolites can cause dizziness and drowsiness to the point of preventing the operation of a motor vehicle. Synthetic progestins, such as medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethindrone acetate (NETA), have been specifically designed to resist enzymatic degradation and remain active after oral administration. However, these compounds exert undesirable effects on the liver and often cause severe psychological side effects. The permeability of the skin does not allow for administration of progesterone in the quantities normally produced by the corpus luteum, i.e., up to 25 mg/day during the mid-luteal phase. To avoid this problem, synthetic progestins such as NETA have been administered transdermally. These compounds, though, just like synthetic estrogens administered non-orally, retain undesirable hepatic effects even when administered transdermally. Transvaginal administration of progesterone is a practical non-oral route available for administering progesterone. Early experience was gained with vaginal suppositories, which lack manufacturing controls. Recently, a new progesterone gel formulation has been designed for vaginal use. The clinical acceptability of this product has been enhanced by the bioadhesive characteristics of its polycarbophil-based gel, which conveys controlled and sustained-released properties. Investigations have shown that because of local direct vagina-to-uterus transport, which results in a preferential uterine uptake of progesterone, this formulation given in conjunction with physiological amounts of estradiol produces endometrial changes similar to

  7. Laughter elevates the levels of breast-milk melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-06-01

    Patients with atopic eczema (AE) often complain of sleep disturbance. Melatonin is involved in sleep, and the levels of blood melatonin in patients with AE are decreased in comparison to healthy subjects. However, the levels of breast-milk melatonin had only been reported in healthy subjects. Laughter increased natural killer cell activity in blood and free radical-scavenging capacity in saliva in healthy subjects. Thus, the effect of laughter on the levels of breast-milk melatonin was studied in mothers with AE. Moreover, the effect of feeding with breast milk after laughter on allergic responses in infants was studied. Forty-eight infants aged 5-6 months were enrolled. All of the infants had AE and were allergic to latex and house dust mite (HDM). Half (n=24) of the mothers of these infants were patients with AE, while another 24 mothers were healthy subjects. The mothers viewed either an 87-min humorous DVD (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin) or an 87-min nonhumorous weather information DVD at 2000 h. After viewing, breast milk was collected sequentially from 2200, 2400, 0200, 0400 to 0600 h. The levels of breast-milk melatonin were measured. In addition, skin wheal responses to HDM and histamine were studied in infants. Laughter caused by viewing a humorous DVD increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers. In addition, allergic responses to latex and HDM of infants were reduced by feeding with breast milk after laughter of mothers with AE or of healthy mothers. Laughter increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers, and feeding infants with increased levels of melatonin-containing milk reduced allergic responses in infants. Thus, laughter of mothers may be helpful in the treatment of infants with AE.

  8. Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M H; Smith, S S

    1998-10-05

    Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135-146; P.R. Finley, P. E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151-152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U. Witte, R.W. Olsen, Sex differences in sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol but not in GABAA receptor binding, Pharm. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 441-447]. In this report, we test the hypothesis that pro-convulsant effects are produced by withdrawal from the GABA-modulatory neurosteroid 3alpha-OH-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) after sustained exposure to elevated circulating levels of its parent compound progesterone (P). Seizure activity was precipitated by picrotoxin or with the BDZ inverse agonist n-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (beta-CC), and a seizure rating determined 24 h after abrupt discontinuation of P following a multiple withdrawal/chronic administration paradigm. In some cases, a pseudopregnant rat model was employed to produce increased ovarian production of P prior to withdrawal (ovariectomy). Rats undergoing P withdrawal exhibited greater seizure-like activity than vehicle-treated controls, and received seizure scores in the same range as rats undergoing BDZ withdrawal. Administration of a 5alpha-reductase blocker, MK-906, along with P, prevented this pro-convulsant effect of P withdrawal, suggesting that the GABA-modulatory 3alpha,5alpha-THP is the active compound responsible for this withdrawal effect. Combined administration of P and diazepam produced synergistic effects upon withdrawal and produced a seizure score higher than observed after withdrawal from either agent alone. These results suggest that P exhibits withdrawal properties via the neuroactive steroid 3alpha, 5alpha-THP, that include exacerbation of

  9. Evaluation of factors associated with elevated newborn 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandi, V Shobi; Shaila, Bhattacharyya

    2017-05-24

    Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) in dried blood spots has been widely used as a newborn screening tool for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Various maternal and neonatal factors can result in falsely high values of 17-OHP. There is a paucity of Indian studies in this regard because routine evaluation of newborn 17-OHP levels as a screening program is not widely practiced in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of various maternal and neonatal factors on newborn 17-OHP levels. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various maternal and neonatal factors on the newborn 17-OHP values. Retrospective data related to a total of 3080 newborn 17-OHP values and clinical characteristics were collected for 3 years (2013-2015). The data were analyzed to determine the influence of various factors on 17-OHP values. The mean value of 17-OHP in our study was 5.486±3.96 ng/mL. Gender and mode of delivery did not significantly affect the 17-OHP levels. The levels were significantly higher in preterm and low birth weight babies as compared to term babies and babies with normal birth weight. Stress factors like pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), early onset sepsis (EOS), neonatal seizures and birth asphyxia significantly increase the neonatal 17-OHP levels. The levels of 17-OHP in newborns was measured around day 3 of life are very sensitive to the influence of gestational age, birth weight and presence of stress factors like maternal PIH, birth asphyxia, neonatal sepsis and neonatal seizures and should be interpreted cautiously.

  10. Brazilian female crack users show elevated serum aluminum levels

    OpenAIRE

    Pechansky,Flavio; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim; Diemen, Lisia von; Bumaguin, Daniela Benzano; Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi,James A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is no information in the literature on the impact of crack smoking using crushed aluminum cans as makeshift pipes, a common form of crack use in Brazil. Since aluminum intake is associated with neurological damage, we measured serum aluminum levels in crack smokers. The objective of this study was to ascertain the levels of aluminum in crack users who smoke on makeshift aluminum pipes. METHOD: 71 female crack smokers, their mean age being 28.0 (± 7.7), provided information ab...

  11. [Reproductive physiology of the European mink: progesterone profile during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskiĭ, S Ia; Zav'ialov, E L; Ternovskaia, Iu G; Gerlinskaia, L A

    2010-04-01

    Reproductive physiology of the European mink, an endangered mustelid species, has been so far scarcely investigated. This study confirms that in European mink embryo implantation occurs on the day 12 of pregnancy. Progesterone profile during pregnancy has been compared in European mink and domestic ferret. In both species, progesterone increases at peri-implantation period, i. e. on day 8 and day 12 after mating. However, toward the end of pregnancy, on day 40 after mating, progesterone concentration in faeces of the ferrets decreases and does not differ from the initial level. In contrast, increase of progesterone during first 12 days of pregnancy in European mink is not as rapid as in ferrets, but in this species, there is no visible decrease of progesterone at the end of pregnancy. Peak levels of progesterone in faeces (day 8, 12) are lower in European mink than in ferret.

  12. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  13. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin [Nuclear Science and Development Center, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Weng, Pao-Shan [Radiation Protection Association ROC, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m{sup 3}/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m{sup 3}. Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  14. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Background: Hypergammaglobulinemia is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) of different causes. On the ... significantly higher serum IgG levels than the non-autoimmune hepatitis CLD patients and the .... the hospital with AIH type 1 based on the AIH diagnostic criteria and the ...

  15. The relationship between elevated magnesium levels and coronary artery ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Mustafa; Ipek, Emrah; Turkmen, Serdar; Ozen, Yücel; Yildirim, Erkan; Sertcelik, Alper; Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) without specific symptoms is the localised or diffuse swelling of the epicardial coronary arteries. Magnessium (Mg) plays an important role in cardiac excitability, vascular tonus, contractibility, reactivity and vasodilatation. In our research, we aimed to study the vasodilatory effect of Mg in the aetiopathogenesis of ectasia. Patients identified during routine coronary angiograms in our clinic between January 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. Sixty-two patients with isolated CAE, 57 with normal coronary angiograms (NCA), 73 with severe coronary artery disease (CAD), and 95 with stenosis of at least one coronary artery and CAE (CAD + CAE) were included in the study. Serum Mg levels were measured in mg/dl after 12 hours of fasting. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of coronary artery disease and medications used. Serum glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), urea, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, sodium and potassium levels were similar in all groups. Serum Mg levels were 1.90 ± 0.19 mg/dl in patients with isolated CAE, 1.75 ± 0.19 mg/dl in those with CAD, 1.83 ± 0.20 mg/dl in those with CAD + CAE, and 1.80 ± 0.16 mg/dl in the NCA group. These results show that Mg levels were higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. The histopathological characteristics of patients with CAE were similar to those with CAD. The specific mechanism of abnormal luminal dilatation seen in CAE however remains to be elucidated. Mg is a divalent cation with powerful vasodilatory effects. In our study, serum Mg levels were found to be statistically higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD.

  16. Enhanced metabolic flexibility associated with elevated adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Scherer, Philipp E

    2010-03-01

    Metabolically healthy individuals effectively adapt to changes in nutritional state. Here, we focus on the effects of the adipocyte-derived secretory molecule adiponectin on adipose tissue in mouse models with genetically altered adiponectin levels. We found that higher adiponectin levels increased sensitivity to the lipolytic effects of adrenergic receptor agonists. In parallel, adiponectin-overexpressing mice also display enhanced clearance of circulating fatty acids and increased expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue with chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding. These adaptive changes to the HFD were associated with increased mitochondrial density in adipocytes, smaller adipocyte size, and a general transcriptional up-regulation of factors involved in lipid storage through efficient esterification of free fatty acids. The physiological response to adiponectin overexpression resembles in many ways the effects of chronic exposure to beta3-adrenergic agonist treatment, which also results in improvements in insulin sensitivity. In addition, using a novel computed tomography-based method for measurements of hepatic lipids, we resolved the temporal events taking place in the liver in response to acute HFD exposure in both wild-type and adiponectin-overexpressing mice. Increased levels of adiponectin potently protect against HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and preserve insulin sensitivity. Given these profound effects of adiponectin, we propose that adiponectin is a factor that increases the metabolic flexibility of adipose tissue, enhancing its ability to maintain proper function under metabolically challenging conditions.

  17. Luteal Support for IVF/ICSI Cycles with Crinone 8% (90 mg Twice Daily Results in Higher Pregnancy Rates Than with Intramuscular Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hong Ho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: The use of vaginal progesterone gel twice daily for luteal support results in better pregnancy outcomes than intramuscular progesterone. A high local progesterone effect from vaginal gel might improve endometrial receptivity under extraordinarily high serum estradiol levels.

  18. Elevated serum osteoprotegerin levels in women: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; Soares Júnior, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    osteoprotegerin has emerged as a new candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, high levels of osteoprotegerin have been linked to vascular calcification, an independent and well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Thus, the action of osteoprotegerin in these situations has been questioned. to evaluate the effect of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on the human body, especially in bone tissue and in vascular diseases. the scientific databases consulted were PubMed-Medline and Cochrane, using keywords (MeSH terms) grouped into the following syntaxes: (Osteoprotegerin OR Osteoclastogenesis Inhibitory Factor OR Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 11b OR Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 11b OR FDCR-1 Protein OR FDCR 1 Protein OR OCIF Protein OR Follicular Dendritic Cell-Derived Receptor-1) AND (Bones AND Bone OR Bones AND Bone Tissue OR Bones OR Bone Tissue OR Cardiovascular Diseases). Osteoprotegerin is present in various organs and binds to two ligands: nuclear factor kB (RANKL) related to the differentiation of osteoclasts, and tumor necrosis factor related to the apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). OPG inhibits the regulation effects of nuclear factor kB on inflammation and on the skeletal and vascular systems, preventing the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, being related to the preservation of bone tissue. a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the association between OPG serum levels, bone integrity and cardiovascular disease can provide important data for future therapeutic interventions.

  19. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  20. miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of progesterone receptor in response to progesterone in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Mukul; Chandrani, Pratik; Gardi, Nilesh; Dhamne, Hemant; Patel, Kuldeep; Yadav, Neelima; Gupta, Sudeep; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Hormonal therapy is an important component of first line of treatment for breast cancer. Response to hormonal therapy is influenced by the progesterone receptor (PR)-status of breast cancer patients. However as an early effect, exposure to progesterone decreases expression of PR in breast cancer cells. An understanding of the mechanism underlying down-regulation of PR could help improve response to hormonal therapy. Methods: We performed small RNA sequencing of breast cancer cells for identification of microRNAs targeting PR in response to progesterone treatment. Biochemical approaches were used to validate the findings in breast cancer cells. Results: Analysis of small RNA sequencing of four breast cancer cell lines treated with progesterone revealed an up-regulation of miR-129-2 independent of the PR status of the cells. We show that miR-129-2 targets 3′UTR of PR to down-regulate its expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-129-2 expression rescues the down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells. Also, the expression levels of miR-129-2 was observed to be elevated in patients with low expression of PR in the TCGA cohort (n = 359). Conclusion: miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells in response to progesterone, while anti-miR-129-2 could potentiate PR expression levels among patients with inadequate PR levels. Thus, modulation of activity of miR-129-2 could stabilize PR expression and potentially improve response to hormonal therapy under adjuvant or neo-adjuvant settings. PMID:28876975

  1. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  2. Elevated blood selenium levels in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Mélanie; Mergler, Donna; Fillion, Myriam; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc

    2006-07-31

    Contaminated fish poses a difficult challenge throughout the world, on the one hand, fish is a very nutritious food source, while on the other hand it accumulates many toxic substances, including mercury (Hg). As part of our efforts in the Brazilian Amazon to maximize nutritional input from fish consumption, a dietary mainstay, and minimize toxic risk, we have been studying the role of selenium (Se), an essential element, that may influence the distribution of Hg in the body and influence Hg neurotoxicity. Se, which is naturally present in the soil, is ingested through consumption of various foods, notably fish, mammals and certain plants. The objectives of the present study were: (i) evaluate whole blood Se (B-Se) and Hg (B-Hg); (ii) characterize B-Se variations with respect to socio-demographic and dietary variables; and (iii) examine the relation between B-Se and B-Hg. A total of 236 persons from six riparian communities of the Tapajós River Basin, a tributary of the Amazon, participated in this study. Whole blood Se and Hg were measured and interview administered questionnaires were used to obtain data on socio-demographic variable, smoking and drinking habits, and fish and fruit consumption. The results show that B-Se are in the upper normal range (median=284.3 microg/L, range=142.1-2029.3 microg/L). No individuals presented B-Se deficiency, but 9 participants from the same extended family had relatively high B-Se levels, potentially a threat to their health. B-Se varied between communities, was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers and farmers, but not associated with age, sex or tobacco consumption. A significant positive relation between B-Se and B-Hg was noted, independently of the overall fish consumption. B-Se increased with consumption of Peacock bass (Cichla sp.), a piscivorous fish species, and coconut pulp (Cocos nucifera L.). The B-Se intercommunity variations may reflect geographic differences in local soil Se levels as well as traditional

  3. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis Presenting as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Sara M; Laufer, Larry R; Farrell, Maureen E

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is an uncommon disease presenting with cyclical skin eruptions corresponding with the menstrual cycle luteal phase. Because symptoms are precipitated by rising progesterone levels, treatment relies on hormone suppression. A 22-year-old nulligravid woman presented with symptoms mistaken for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A cyclic recurrence of her symptoms was noted, and the diagnosis of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis was made by an intradermal progesterone challenge. After 48 months, she remained refractory to medical management and definitive surgical treatment with bilateral oophorectomy was performed. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a challenging diagnosis owing to its rarity and variety of clinical presentations. Treatment centers on suppression of endogenous progesterone and avoidance of exogenous triggers. When these modalities fail, surgical management must be undertaken.

  4. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A linear discriminant function (LDF) was used to estimate the level of milk progesterone which allowed the best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels were measured in milk samples drawn between 20 and 24 days after insemination.

  5. Association between elevated aminotransferase levels and the metabolic syndrome in Northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Beytullah; Ozugurlu, Fikret; Sahin, Semsettin; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Atis, Omer; Akbas, Ali; Akturk, Yeliz; Ozdemir, Metin; Sahin, Idris; Bulut, Yunus; Etikan, Ylker; Firat, M Murat

    2010-01-01

    Elevated aminotransferase levels(ATLs) are alert the physicians for liver-affecting disease and may reflect liver injury. We aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated ATLs and the association of elevated ATLs with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a northern province of Turkey. Elevated ATLs were evaluated among 1,095 individuals of the Tokat Prevalence Study which have been described in detail elsewhere. 1,095 participants had been selected by a simple random sampling method among 530,000 inhabitants in 70 (12 urban and 58 rural) areas in the province of Tokat which is located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The prevalence of elevated serum ALT, AST, and ALT and/or AST were found as 11%, 7.2%, and 13.3%, respectively. Increased BMI, fatty liver, and MetS were higher in our general population with elevated ATLs. After exclusion of individuals with hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection, 132 individuals with elevated ATLs (91 male and 41 female) were evaluated. MetS was found in 59 participants and its prevalence was markedly higher in females with elevated ATLs (p ATLs were evaluated, the ALT levels of the persons who have no risk of MetS (p =0.007) and the persons who have one risk of MetS (p = 0.001) were lower than the persons with MetS. Elevated ATLs are common and it's an important cause is MetS in Northern Turkey.

  6. Levels of estrogen receptor B splice variant (ERBΔ5 mRNA correlates with progesterone receptor in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandušić Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that breast tumors which are estrogen positive ER(+ are more likely to respond to hormone therapy. However, a certain percentage of ER(+/PR(+ tumors do not respond to this therapy. Identification of the second estrogen receptor, named estrogen receptor beta (ERβ, as well as the existence of numerous isoforms/splice variants of both ERα and ERβ, suggests that a complex regulation of estrogen action exists. In this study, we analyzed the expression ratio of ERβ1 isoform and ERβΔ5 splice variant mRNAs, and its correlation with ER/PR status by quantitative RT-PCR and clinical and histopathological parameters. We found that the relative proportion of ERβΔ5 in the total ERβ1 transcript 'pool' inversely correlates with the PR level (p = -0,359, p< 0,003, Spearman. It may be that the ERβΔ5 variant modulates the ERα activity of downstream targets. In addition, we suggest that the determination of the expression profiles of ERα and ERβ isoforms and splice variants in the defined groups of patients are necessary for elucidating their involvement in endocrine resistance.

  7. A Survey of the Relationship between Serum Testosterone Level and Expressions of Androgen, Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors and HER2 in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vojdani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women. This tumor is hormone dependent tumor and oncologists use estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 for treatment of this malignancy. Androgens like testosterone and their receptors (AR have a role in the pathophysiology of breast cancer but their clinical values are not clear. Method: AR expression was evaluated in 49 patients with breast cancers using immunohistochemistry. Testosterone was evaluated with ELISA. The relation of clinical characteristics and biomarkers with AR and testosterone were analyzed. According to the percentage of stained cells AR categorized to: AR-absent (0%, AR-poorly (1%-10%, AR-moderately (>10%-50%, and AR-highly (>50% positive. Results: Among 49 patients with breast cancer, 34% were AR-positive and 44% of ERpositive and 22% of ER negative patients were AR-positive. There was no significant association between mean of testosterone and AR, ER, PR and HER2. AR was positive more frequently but not significantly statistically in older patients and patients less than 45 years of age. Testosterone level was higher in ER positive patients than ER negative and lower in AR positive patients than AR negative patients, but these findings were not statistically significant. ten persent of breast cancers were triple negative and AR was negative in all of them. Conclusion: Androgens and AR have role in pathophysiology of breast cancer and in the future one can use the potency of this pathway for the treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Feeding soybean meal increases the blood level of isoflavones and reduces the steroidogenic capacity in bovine corpora lutea, without affecting peripheral progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Vanhaecke, L; Heyerick, A; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-01-30

    Thirty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were followed from 14 days pre partum until the fourth ovulation post partum. Housing conditions and basic ration were identical for all animals. Concentrates were individually supplemented according to the daily milk production level, using two different types of protein rich concentrates: soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Soybean and rapeseed meal are known to be respectively high and low in isoflavones. Cows were randomly divided into three groups and blocked for parity. Group I (n=11) was supplemented with soybean meal and acted as control group. Groups II (n=11) and III (n=11) were respectively supplemented with soybean and rapeseed meal and were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum at day 9 of the first three postpartal estrous cycles. Soybean meal supplementation to lactating dairy cows (1.72 kg on average) induced an increase in the blood concentration of equol, dihydrodaidzein, o-desmethylangolensin in both soy groups and resulted in a reduced area occupied by steroidogenic (P=0.012) and endothelial cells (P=0.0007) in the luteal biopsies. Blood concentrations of equol and glycitein were negatively correlated with the areas occupied by steroidogenic (r=-0.410 with P=0.0002, respectively r=-0.351 with P=0.008) and endothelial cells (r=-0.337 with P=0.01, respectively r=-0.233 with P=0.085) in the 3 first estrous cycles. The latter however did not affect the diestrous peripheral blood progesterone concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ''Blood-spot 17-hydroxy-progesterone'' level in neonates and infants suffering from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyom, J.; Babosa, M.; Dizseri, T.; Galambosi, L.; Hervei, S.; Marossy, P.; Solyom, E.; Vagvoelgyi, E. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary); Pecsi Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Foevarosi Heim Pal Korhaz, Budapest (Hungary)

    1982-01-01

    A new radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure was developed to measure the blood serum concentration of 17-hydroxy-progesterone. Blood samples of neonates were dried on filter paper and the measurement was carried out from 3 ..mu..l serum extracted from the filter. The method is suitable for early diagnosis of CAH and for routine neonate-screening.

  10. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression levels do not differ between lobular and ductal carcinoma in patients with hormone receptor-positive tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M.H.; Siesling, Sabine; van de Vijver, Koen K.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.G.; Voogd, Adri C.

    Background Differences in estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) expression between invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) could be an underlying reason for the difference in chemo-sensitivity and response to hormonal therapy between ILC and IDC. The aim of this study was

  11. Enhanced abundance of tintinnids under elevated CO2 level from coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Gadi, S.D.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Priyan, R.K.; Manjari, D.T.; DileepKumar, M.

    was obtained between phytoplankton and MZP abundance which indicated that phytoplankton community structure can considerably be controlled by MZP in this region. The average relative abundances of tintinnids under elevated CO2 levels were found...

  12. The impact of elevated serum IgG4 levels in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito de Valle, Maria; Müller, Tobias; Björnsson, Einar; Otten, Morgane; Volkmann, Martin; Guckelberger, Olaf; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Sadik, Riadh; Schott, Eckart; Andersson, Mats; Berg, Thomas; Lindkvist, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Elevated IgG4 levels have been reported among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Epidemiological data has only been provided from tertiary centres. To investigate the prevalence of elevated IgG4 levels and to compare prognosis between patients with and without elevated IgG4 levels in serum in two European cohorts of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Serum IgG4-levels were measured in a consecutive series of patients from Berlin, and retrospectively collected in a population-based cohort from Sweden (total N=345). Cox's proportional hazard analysis was used to calculate relative risks for liver-related death or liver transplantation and cholangiocarcinoma. Elevated IgG4 values were demonstrated in 10% of patients. A previous history of pancreatitis, combined intra- and extrahepatic biliary involvement and jaundice were independently associated with elevated IgG4 in multivariate analysis. IgG4 status was not associated with an increased risk for the combined endpoint liver-related death or liver transplantation or cholangiocarcinoma. The prevalence of elevated IgG4 values among European patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis is similar to what previously has been reported from the United States. Elevated IgG4 was not associated with an increased risk of liver transplantation or liver-related death or cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Progesterone-dependent immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Polgar, B; Kozma, N; Miko, E; Par, G; Szereday, L; Barakonyi, A; Palkovics, T; Papp, O; Varga, P

    2005-01-01

    The biological effects of progesterone are mediated by a 34-kDa protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF, synthesized by lymphocytes of healthy pregnant women in the presence of progesterone, inhibits arachidonic acid release as well as NK activity, and modifies the cytokine balance. Within the cell the full-length PIBF is associated with the centrosome, while secretion of shorter forms is induced by activation of the cell. PIBF induces nuclear translocation of STAT6 as well as PKC phosphorylation and exerts a negative effect on STAT4 phosphorylation. The concentration of PIBF in pregnancy urine is related to the positive or negative outcome of pregnancy; furthermore, premature pregnancy termination is predictable by lower than normal pregnancy PIBF values. In vivo data suggest the biological importance of the above findings. Treatment of pregnant Balb/c mice with the antiprogesterone RU 486 results in an increased resorption rate, which is associated with the inability of spleen cells to produce PIBF. High resorption rates induced by progesterone receptor block as well as those due to high NK activity are corrected by simultaneous PIBF treatment.

  14. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two of the many factors which may affect the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis using milk progesterone levels are day of sampling and number of samples taken per cow. These two aspects were analysed using information obtained from progesterone profiles encompassing 359 pregnancy tests. Where a single sample was ...

  15. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development.

  16. Elevated serum parathormone level after "concise parathyroidectomy" for primary sporadic hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Sally E; Roberts, Michelle M; Virji, Mohamed A; Haywood, Laura; Yim, John H

    2002-12-01

    Cure after parathyroid exploration is traditionally assessed by serum calcium concentration 6 months postoperatively. Postoperative normocalcemic elevation of serum parathormone (PTH) level has been described but is of unclear significance. In a 6-year prospective study of outcomes in 380 patients undergoing initial parathyroidectomy for primary sporadic hyperparathyroidism, we measured intact serum PTH and calcium levels at more than 5 months. Those with normocalcemic high PTH levels were begun on oral calcium + vitamin supplements and monitored. At more than 5 months postoperatively, normocalcemic elevation in serum PTH level occurred in 28% of patients, was more common after resection of double adenomas (P =.01), and predated the onset of recurrent hypercalcemia in 3 of 3 patients with unrecognized multiglandular disease. Although delayed treatment with calcium and vitamin supplements produced no clear benefit, patients who took such supplements from the date of surgery were much less likely to have an elevated serum PTH level more than 5 months later (P =.0005). After successful parathyroid surgery, compensatory normocalcemic elevation in serum PTH level is frequent and may arise from dietary deficiency. Monitored supplemental intake of calcium and vitamin D appears to prevent or to normalize the condition in most patients. Patients with normocalcemic elevation in serum PTH level should receive evaluation for dietary deficiencies as well as follow-up for possible residual disease.

  17. Progesterone as an immunomodulatory molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Barakonyi, A; Par, G; Polgar, B; Palkovics, T; Szereday, L

    2001-06-01

    Increased progesterone sensitivity of pregnancy lymphocytes is due to activation-induced appearance of progesterone binding sites in the lymphocytes. Following recognition of fetally derived antigens gamma/delta TCR+ cells develop progesterone receptors. Progesterone binding results in the synthesis of a mediator protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF by acting on the phospholipase A2 enzyme interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism, induces a Th2 biased immune response, and by controlling NK activity exerts an anti-abortive effect.

  18. Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Purna A; Jackson, Hartland W; Beristain, Alexander G; Di Grappa, Marco A; Mote, Patricia A; Clarke, Christine L; Stingl, John; Waterhouse, Paul D; Khokha, Rama

    2010-06-10

    Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal cells which in turn respond by upregulating their cognate receptors, transcriptional targets and cell cycle markers. Our findings uncover a dynamic role for progesterone in activating adult MaSCs within the mammary stem cell niche during the reproductive cycle, where MaSCs are putative targets for cell transformation events leading to breast cancer.

  19. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Liao, Yu-Kuei; Hsiao, Li-Chen; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Tok, Teck-Siang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-10-12

    To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years) who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI), levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%), more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, pHemoglobin levels had a significant linear correlation with ALT levels in both genders. Abnormal ALT started to occur if hemoglobin >11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval) were 24.7 (15.0-40.6) for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2); 5.5 (2.9-10.4) for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2); 2.7 (1.3-5.5) for Q5 (top 20th percentile) hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1) for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  20. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Nilsson; Lars Gustafson; Björn Hultberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease) of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy...

  1. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydro Alcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajiuon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: waves cause hormonal disorders, whereas garlic is known as reducing risk factors associated with various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of garlic against a hormonal disorder caused by the waves. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty rats were divided into 5male and 5female groups: control, sham (under exposed, experimental1 (garlic extract, and experimental2 and3 (both extract and microwaves. After a month, the rats were weighed, their blood samples were collected and concentration of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone were measured. Results were analyzed by SPSS, ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: In males, the mean weight were reduced in the control group than in the sham group, but increased in the experimental group than the control group 3. Testosterone concentrations of experimental groups 2 and 3 were decreased but in all groups showed a decline in estrogen. Progesterone also increased in all groups. Conclusion: Weight loss due to radiation observed in males were compensated with compounds such as thiamine, vitamin A contained in garlic allicin. Microwaves and garlic extract have effects on testes which reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. Progesterone increased as a result of waves on the hypothalamus and the stimulatory effect of garlic on the secretion of ovarian hormones. Thus, Garlic cannot overcome all detrimental effects of waves.

  2. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  3. Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein differentially regulate levels of expression of α-, β-, and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and α-sodium potassium pump (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase) in the uteri of sex steroid-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-10-01

    Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein could induce changes in uterine fluid volume and Na(+) concentration. Progesterone upregulates expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase which contributed toward these changes. However, effects of estrogen and genistein were unknown. This study therefore investigated changes in expression of these proteins in the uterus under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences to further understand mechanisms underlying sex steroids and phytoestrogen effects on uterine fluid Na(+) regulation. In this study, uteri of ovariectomized female rats receiving 7-day treatment with genistein (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.8 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day), or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day) were harvested, and expression levels of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were determined by Western blotting (proteins) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Meanwhile, distribution of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase proteins in the uterus was identified by immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were enhanced under progesterone influence. Lower expressions were noted under estrogen and genistein influences compared to progesterone. Under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences, α- and β-ENaC were distributed at apical membrane and γ-ENaC was distributed at apical and basolateral membranes of uterine luminal epithelia. Under progesterone influence, α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was highly expressed at basolateral membrane. In conclusion, high expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase under progesterone influence would contribute toward increased uterine fluid Na(+) reabsorption, whereas lesser expression of these proteins under estrogen and genistein influences would contribute toward lower reabsorption of uterine fluid Na

  4. Elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in HIV-infected persons without hepatitis B or C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Saad; Alrbiaan, Abdullah; Alaraj, Ali; Alhuraiji, Ahmad; Alghamdi, Mohammad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Mortality related to human immunodeficiency (HIV) has improved with the use of antiretroviral therapy; however, liver disease-related mortality remains a major concern for the HIV population. Elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been noted in HIV-infected persons even without viral hepatitis infection. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of chronic alanine ALT elevation among patients infected with HIV who are negative for hepatitis B or C infection. Retrospective chart review. We reviewed the medical records of all patients infected with HIV who had been treated from November 2002 to December 2010. Patients with an unknown or positive HBV or HCV infection status were excluded. We identified patient demographics, route of transmission, peak viral load, and nadir CD4 count. We followed 440 patients for up to 2265 person-years. A total of 123 patients developed chronically elevated ALT levels, with an incidence of 5.8 cases per 100 person-years. Chronically elevated ALT levels were associated with high HIV viral load, mean body mass index, and diabetes mellitus. We found exposure to lamivudine in 58% of the patients, efavirenz in 41%, and zidovudine in 38%. Abdominal ultrasounds revealed fatty liver in 20 of 39 (51%) of the patients. Among patients without viral hepatitis coinfection, the prevalence and incidence of chronic elevated ALT levels were high and accompanied by high HIV RNA levels and increased BMI. The limitations of this report are its retrospective nature and lack of a control group.

  5. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu eMinamisawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2] affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment (ambient + 200 μmol⋅mol−1 using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari and two experimental lines of Koshihikari (chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  6. Determination of plasma progesterone during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, H.J. van der

    A modification of Short's method for the determination of plasma progesterone is described, which allows the estimation of 0.5–1.0 μg per sample. The reliability of the method is tested and plasma levels in cord and peripheral blood during pregnancy are reported.

  7. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC. Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administration; this was followed by the administration of serotonin to experimental animals. ROS, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP expression, and histopathological assessments were performed. Elevated ROS concentrations and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities were detected. Further, we observed an increase in cell surface area and elevated BNP expression which suggests that events associated with cardiac hypertrophy were increased in serotonin-administered diabetic rats. We conclude that serotonin secretion in diabetes could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy, through enhanced ROS production.

  8. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Amelioration of pruritus by UDCA is associated with decreased progesterone disulphates in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Anna; Reilly, Sarah-Jayne; Benthin, Lisbet; Lammert, Frank; Mattsson, Lars-Ake; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2008-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus, elevated bile acids, and, specifically, elevated disulphated progesterone metabolites. We aimed to study changes in these parameters during treatment with dexamethasone or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in 40 out of 130 women included in the Swedish ICP intervention trial (26 randomized to placebo or UDCA, 14 randomized to dexamethasone). Serum bile acid profiles and urinary steroid hormone metabolites were analyzed using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray-mass spectrometry. We found that all patients displayed ICP-typical serum bile acid profiles with >50% cholic acid at baseline but almost 80% UDCA upon treatment with this bile acid. In UDCA-treated patients, relative amounts of disulphated progesterone metabolites in urine decreased by 34%, 48% (P acid levels. In contrast, in patients randomized to dexamethasone or placebo, no changes in steroid metabolites or pruritus scores were observed. UDCA treatment in ICP decreased urinary excretion of disulphated progesterone metabolites, suggesting that amelioration of pruritus is connected to stimulation of hepatobiliary excretion of progesterone disulphates.

  9. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  10. Multiple sclerosis showing elevation of adenosine deaminase levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Sakai, Kenji; Odake, Yasuko; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Kouichi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Yamada, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    An 80-year-old man developed dysarthria, quadriplegia, sensory disturbance and ataxia in all limbs. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple enhanced lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) remarkably elevated. Tuberculosis DNA was not detected, and tuberculosis was not cultured either in the CSF. Brain biopsy revealed the inflammatory demyelinating lesions. With the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, corticosteroid therapy resulted in rapid improvement of his symptoms and MRI abnormalities. CSF levels of ADA also decreased. Multiple sclerosis should be included in differential diagnosis of disorders with ADA elevation in the CSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Progesterone supplementation in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recurrent miscarriages, the loss of three or more consecutive intrauterine pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation with the same partner, affect 1%-1.5% of the pregnant population. The inadequate secretion of progesterone in early pregnancy has been proposed as a cause of recurrent miscarriages. Aims: The aim was to investigate the efficacy of progesterone supplementation in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Settings And Design: This was a 9-year cohort study of women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages who attended a recurrent miscarriage clinic in a tertiary care university hospital. Subjects and Methods: Women with at least three unexplained recurrent miscarriages were included in the study. They were divided into three groups according to their initial and 48-h repeat progesterone levels. For women with inadequate endogenous progesterone secretion, natural progesterone vaginal pessaries 400 mg 12-hourly were offered until 12 weeks gestation. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and 95% confidence intervals calculated for categorical variables and the chi-square test were used to show statistical significance. Medians and ranges were calculated for noncontinuous variables. Results: Pregnancy cycles (n = 203 were analyzed to examine the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation. Overall live birth and miscarriage rates were 63% and 36%, respectively. When analyzed by the number of previous miscarriages there was a reduction in the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation in women with 4 previous miscarriages when compared with historical data. Conclusions: Progesterone supplementation may have beneficial effects in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages.

  12. Carbopol-based gels for nasal delivery of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnam, Grace; Narayanan, N; Ilavarasan, R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nasal absorption of progesterone from carbopol-based nasal gels in rabbits. Progesterone nasal gels were prepared by dispersing carbopol 974 (1%, 1.5%, and 2%) in distilled water followed by addition of progesterone/progesterone-beta cyclodextrin complex dissolved in propylene glycol then neutralization. The potential use of beta cyclodextrin (CD) as nasal absorption enhancer by simple addition, as a physical mixture and as a complex with progesterone was investigated. The absolute bioavailability of progesterone from nasal gels in rabbits was studied by estimating the serum progesterone level by competitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in comparison to intravenous injection. The carbopol gel formulations produced a significant increase in bioavailability. CD complex promotes the nasal absorption of progesterone from carbopol gels as compared with gels where the CD is added by simple addition and gels which do not contain CD. This method of addition of CD as an inclusion complex in the gels could be considered as a preferred platform in nasal drug administration.

  13. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  14. Elevated serum levels of soluble CD154 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeft Andrew S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Cytokines play important roles in mediating inflammation in autoimmunity. Several cytokines are elevated in serum and synovial fluid samples from children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA. Soluble CD154 (sCD154 is elevated in other autoimmune disorders, but has not been characterized in JIA. Our objectives were to determine if sCD154 is elevated in JIA, and to examine correlations between sCD154 and other inflammatory cytokines. Methods Serum from 77 children with JIA and 81 pediatric controls was analyzed for interleukin (IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL13, sCD154, interferon-γ (IFNγ, soluble IL2 receptor (sIL2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, using the Luminex Multi-Analyte Profiling system. Differences in levels of cytokines between cases and controls were analyzed. Logistic regression was also performed. Results sCD154 was significantly elevated in cases compared to controls (p Conclusion Serum levels of sCD154, IL1β, IL6, IL8, sIL2R and TNFα are elevated in most JIA subtypes, suggesting a major role for sCD154, and these cytokines and cytokine receptors in the pathogenesis of JIA.

  15. Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay H. Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8% had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140 mg/dL. IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4% had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD.

  16. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Peri, G.; Setiati, T.E.; Hack, C.E.; Koraka, P.; Soemantri, A.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Brandjes, D.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Mantovani, A.; Gorp, E. van

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  17. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  18. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  19. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depres...

  20. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, ATA; Peri, G; Setiati, TE; Hack, CE; Koraka, P; Soemantri, A; Osterhaus, ADME; Brandjes, DPM; van der Meer, JWM; Mantovani, A; van Gorp, ECM

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  1. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  2. Progesterone and Mental Rotation Task: Is There Any Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Noreika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental rotation task (MRT incorporates elements of spatial abilities, important in many professions, with people of both genders involved. Importantly, these are the areas where spatial tasks might be performed for long time periods; thus adverse effects of mental fatigue are highly unwanted. Substantial variation of MRT performance in relation to estrogen levels has been observed in many studies, whereas the role of progesterone remains elusive. Here we aimed to elucidate the effect of progesterone level on the long-duration (1.5 hours performance of MRT. We included three groups of subjects: a group of males as a control, a group of females in their follicular phase (low progesterone and a group of females in their luteal phase (high progesterone, MRT accuracy and response time, subjective fatigue ratings and cardiovascular measures together with 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed. We found that subjective ratings of fatigue increased, performance accuracy increased, and mean response times decreased during the task in all groups. Females in luteal phase were significantly slower not only than men, but also than females in their follicular phase. An increase in subjective fatigue ratings was positively related to progesterone level—at higher progesterone levels, females felt more tired.

  3. CT Findings of Disease with Elevated Serum D-Dimer Levels in an Emergency Room Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Youn; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Wonju Christian Hospital, Yensei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are the leading causes of elevated serum D-dimer levels in the emergency room. Although D-dimer is a useful screening test because of its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, it has a low specificity. In addition, D-dimer can be elevated in various diseases. Therefore, information on the various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels and their radiologic findings may allow for accurate diagnosis and proper management. Herein, we report the CT findings of various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels in an emergency room setting, including an intravascular contrast filling defect with associated findings in a venous thromboembolism, fracture with soft tissue swelling and hematoma formation in a trauma patient, enlargement with contrast enhancement in the infected organ of a patient, coronary artery stenosis with a perfusion defect of the myocardium in a patient with acute myocardial infarction, high density of acute thrombus in a cerebral vessel with a low density of affected brain parenchyma in an acute cerebral infarction, intimal flap with two separated lumens in a case of aortic dissection, organ involvement of malignancy in a cancer patient, and atrophy of a liver with a dilated portal vein and associated findings.

  4. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology underlying functional constipation is undoubtedly, multifactorial, and not well understood. Progressively, rising progesterone and estrogen levels ... Women with endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism),. Hirschsprung's disease, spinal anomalies, anorectal pathology, inflammatory bowel disease, previous.

  5. Elevated levels of soluble urokinase receptor in serum from mycobacteria infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ravn, P; Hoyer-Hansen, G

    2006-01-01

    In search for a serological marker, which may be used to monitor treatment efficacy in patients with extra-pulmonary mycobacterial infections, serum samples were collected prospectively from patients during a 6-months treatment period. The levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator......). suPAR levels were elevated to more than double (median 7.7 ng/ml, range 5.6-25.8) compared to levels previously reported for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The serum suPAR levels however remained high during the entire treatment period. This may reflect that significant inflammatory activity...

  6. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2014-01-01

    higher IGF-I levels compared with controls (IGF-I SD-score 0·72 vs -0·037, P steroid levels, oestradiol/testosterone ratio or free testosterone were not associated with the presence of gynaecomastia...... with or without adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels were elevated in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia compared with boys without gynaecomastia, whereas sex steroid levels did not differ. We speculate that the GH-IGF-I axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of pubertal gynaecomastia....

  7. HDAC inhibition induces increased choline uptake and elevated phosphocholine levels in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Ward

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS-detectable phosphocholine (PC is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using (13C MRS to monitor [1,2-(13C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by (31P MRS (129±7% of control. Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%, while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase α increased (144% and 161%, respectively relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2 isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18% in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using (1H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow

  8. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  9. Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Despoina; Paternoster, Lavinia; Standl, Marie; Moffatt, Miriam F; Farrall, Martin; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Strachan, David P; Demenais, Florence; Lathrop, Mark; Cookson, William O C M; Richards, J Brent

    2017-05-01

    Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761), childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008), atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835), and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853) and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2). The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63) for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76) for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27) for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54). These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of

  10. Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Manousaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE. These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable.We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761, childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008, atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835, and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853 and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2. The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63 for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76 for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27 for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54. These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of

  11. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia inpatients is associated with aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, R; Lobel, T; Krivoy, A; Shlosberg, D; Weizman, A; Katz, N

    2016-01-01

    An association between inflammation and behavioral domains of mental disorders is of growing interest. Recent studies reported an association between aggression and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the association between aggressive behavior and inflammatory markers in schizophrenia inpatients. Adult schizophrenia inpatients without affective symptoms (n=213) were retrospectively identified and categorized according to their C-reactive protein measurement at admission as either elevated (CRP>1 mg/dL; n=57) or normal (CRPaggression were compared: PANSS excitement component (PANSS-EC), restraints and suicidal behavior during hospitalization. Univariate comparisons between elevated and normal CRP levels were performed and multivariate analysis was conducted to control for relevant covariates. CRP levels significantly correlated with other laboratory markers indicating increased inflammation including leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (r=0.387, Paggressive behavior compared to patients with normal CRP levels (aggression) in schizophrenia inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salom, M; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A

    1995-12-01

    To assess the possibility of achieving a pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum FSH level. A case report. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. An azoospermic patient with small testes and serum FSH level (38.7 mIU/mL) higher than three times normal. Testicular biopsy revealed Sertoli cell-only syndrome with focal spermatogenesis. Intracytoplasmic microinjection of testicular tissue-extracted spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, clinical pregnancy. Eight of 11 (73%) intact oocytes showed two pronuclei. All of them cleaved normally. Four embryos were replaced into the uterine cavity and the other four were cryopreserved. A twin clinical pregnancy was achieved. Spermatozoa may be present in testicular biopsy specimens of azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure despite markedly elevated serum FSH level. These patients can be fertile after intracytoplasmic testicular sperm microinjection.

  13. Blood levels of PAF are elevated during induction of immune complex mediated enteropathy in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Bloch

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection into rats of immune complexes (IC prepared in 5 × antigen excess rapidly induces annular bands of vascular congestion and transmural haemorrhage producing a striped appearance of the small intestine. Indirect evidence suggested a major role for PAF in the induction of lesions. In the present study, we showed that blood and leukocyte levels of PAF were elevated in most rats injected 10 min earlier with sufficient IC to induce lesions of 3+ to 4+ intensity. There was no significant difference in the number of rats with elevated plasma levels of PAF. The possibility that changes in blood PAF levels might be mirrored at sites closer to the lesions was considered. The overall effect of PAF on the small intestine of the rats is to induce stasis of flow; the precise target of PAF in mediating this effect is unknown.

  14. Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Schaaf, Gerben J; Michels, Michelle; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn; Pijnenburg, Joon; Dekkers, Dick H W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verdijk, Lex B; Brusse, Esther; van Schaik, Ron H N; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van Doorn, Pieter A; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2016-02-01

    Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  16. Clinical implications of elevated serum soluble CD137 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchuan Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Research has focused on identifying specific serum biomarkers to detect vulnerable plaques. These markers serve as diagnostic tools for acute coronary syndrome and assist in identifying high-risk patients. However, the existing data are limited and conflicting. This study tested the hypothesis that CD137 levels identify patients with acute coronary syndrome who are at a heightened risk for recurrent cardiac events. METHODS: The levels of soluble CD137 (sCD137 were measured using ELISA in 180 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 120 patients with acute chest pain. Platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic characteristics of sCD137. RESULTS: The levels of sCD137 were elevated in 75 patients with acute coronary syndromes and 20 patients with acute chest pain (>35.0 ng/ml. In patients with acute coronary syndrome, elevated sCD137 levels (>35.0 ng/ml indicated an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (OR =1.93, 95% CI: 1.39-2.54. Elevated serum levels of sCD137 and cTnT were correlated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in both groups after 30 days, six months and nine months of follow-up. The increased sCD137 levels were significantly correlated with the levels of troponin I (r = 0.4799, p<0.001. Importantly, 26 patients with normal cTnI levels had acute coronary syndrome. However, elevated sCD137 levels identified these patients as a being high-risk subgroup (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.25-4.13. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated sCD137 levels indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Soluble CD137 may be a useful prognostic marker or indicator for adverse events in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  17. Associates of an Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Level in Stable Heart Failure Patients: Implications for Targeted Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Jan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistently elevated natriuretic peptide (NP levels in heart failure (HF patients are associated with impaired prognosis. Recent work suggests that NP-guided therapy can improve outcome, but the mechanisms behind an elevated BNP remain unclear. Among the potential stimuli for NP in clinically stable patients are persistent occult fluid overload, wall stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and ischemia. The purpose of this study was to identify associates of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in a stable HF population. Methods. In a prospective observational study of 179 stable HF patients, the association between BNP and markers of collagen metabolism, inflammation, and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left atrial volume index (LAVI, and E/e prime (E/e′ was measured. Results. Univariable associates of elevated BNP were age, LVEF, LAVI, E/e′, creatinine, and markers of collagen turnover. In a multiple linear regression model, age, creatinine, and LVEF remained significant associates of BNP. E/e′ and markers of collagen turnover had a persistent impact on BNP independent of these covariates. Conclusion. Multiple variables are associated with persistently elevated BNP levels in stable HF patients. Clarification of the relative importance of NP stimuli may help refine NP-guided therapy, potentially improving outcome for this at-risk population.

  18. Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration

    OpenAIRE

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Karen M Grewen; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7 h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ amon...

  19. Genetically Elevated Fetuin-A Levels, Fasting Glucose Levels, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majken K.; Bartz, Traci M.; Djoussé, Luc; Kizer, Jorge R.; Zieman, Susan J.; Rimm, Eric B.; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ix, Joachim H.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetic variation, fetuin-A levels, and fasting glucose were assessed in 2,893 Caucasian and 542 African American community-living individuals 65 years of age or older in 1992–1993. RESULTS Common AHSG variants (rs4917 and rs2248690) were strongly associated with fetuin-A concentrations (P AHSG gene are strongly associated with plasma fetuin-A concentrations, but not with risk of type 2 diabetes or glucose concentrations, raising the possibility that the association between fetuin-A and type 2 diabetes may not be causal. PMID:23801724

  20. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Kicovic, P.M.; Silvestri, D.; Cossu, G.; Catarsi, A.L.; Barletta, D.; Gasperi, M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy))

    1981-10-01

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using /sup 3/H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required.

  1. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating leptin...... concentrations in such patients could be caused by altered rates of production or disposal, or both, the aim of the present study was to identify regions of leptin overflow into the bloodstream and of leptin extraction. Patients with arterial hypertension (n=12) and normotensive controls (n=20) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng...

  2. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  3. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from -0.09 to -0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4 × 106 to 80.5 × 106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  4. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  6. Activation of the kinin system in the ovary during ovulation: Role of endogenous progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Virendra B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work by our group and others has implicated a role for kinins in the ovulatory process. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether endogenous progesterone, which is an intraovarian regulator of ovulation, might be responsible for induction of the kinin system in the ovary during ovulation. The gonadotropin-primed immature rat was used as the experimental model, and the role of endogenous progesterone was explored using the antiprogestin, RU486. Results The results of the study revealed that RU486 treatment, as expected, significantly attenuated ovulation. Activity of the kinin-generating enzyme, kallikrein, was elevated in the ovary in control animals prior to ovulation with peak values observed at 4 h post hCG, only to fall to low levels at 10 h, with a recovery at 20 h post hCG. RU486 treatment had no significant effect on ovarian kallikrein activity as compared to the control group. Total ovarian kininogen levels in control animals increased significantly at 12–14 h after hCG – coinciding with initiation of ovulation. Thereafter, ovarian kininogen levels fell to low levels at 20 h, only to show a rebound from 24–38 h post-hCG. RU486 treatment had no significant effect on the rise of total ovarian kininogen levels from 12–14 h after hCG; however, from 30–40 h post hCG, RU486-treated animals had significantly higher total ovarian kininogen levels versus control animals, suggesting that endogenous progesterone may act to restrain elevations of kininogens in the post-ovulatory ovary. This robust elevation of ovarian kininogen levels by RU486 was found to be primarily due to an increase in T-kininogen, which is a potent cysteine protease inhibitor. Conclusions Taken as a whole, these results suggest that endogenous progesterone does not regulate kallikrein activity or kininogens prior to ovulation, but may provide a restraining effect on T-kininogen levels in the post-ovulatory ovary.

  7. Elevated salivary levels of oxytocin persist more than seven hours after intranasal administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 IU or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 AM of 16 IU (n = 18 or 24 IU (n = 10 of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18, and each hour after administration, for 7h in total.Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 IU or 24 IU did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed.

  8. Evidence that exposure to progesterone alone is a sufficient stimulus to cause a precipitous rise in the immunomodulatory protein the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachael A; Check, Jerome H; Dougherty, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    To determine if exposure to progesterone alone is sufficient to increase the production of the immunomodulatory protein known as the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF). Also to determine what method of progesterone delivery or form of P best stimulates PIBF secretion. Serum samples from patients with infertility and paid volunteers were evaluated for both PIBF and progesterone at various times during the follicular phase and the luteal phase in both natural cycles and cycles involving embryo transfer after endogenous and exogenous progesterone exposure and after various synthetic progestins. PIBF was measured by a non-commercial research ELISA assay. Comparisons were made of serum PIBF before and after exposure to progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and oral contraceptives. PIBF was also measured before and after transfer of embryos. Progesterone alone without exposure to the fetal allogeneic stimulus was able to produce a marked increase in serum PIBF. Neither a synthetic progestin (19-nortestosterone derivative) nor 17-hydroxyprogesterone caused an increase in PIBF. Some PIBF is generally detected even in the follicular phase. A previous concept considered that an allogeneic stimulus, e.g., from the fetal semi-allograft, was necessary to induce de novo progesterone receptors in gamma delta T cells, which, in turn, when exposed to a high concentration of progesterone, would secrete high levels of PIBF. These data show that exposure to an allogeneic stimulus is not needed to cause a marked rise in PIBF, merely progesterone alone is sufficient.

  9. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p Greek RA patients present elevated levels of antibodies against P. mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  10. Jew's mellow leaves (Corchorus olitorius) suppress elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innami, Satoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kahoru; Kondo, Mika; Tabata, Kimiko; Koguchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Jun; Furusho, Tadasu

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to explore the suppressive effect of Jew's mellow leaves (JML) on postprandial blood glucose levels in rats and humans. A soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was extracted from the freeze-dried JML powder. An elevation of the postprandial blood glucose level in rats given 1% or 2% JML-SDF solution orally together with 20% glucose solution was significantly suppressed as compared with that observed in the control rats given only glucose solution. When seven healthy young male adults ingested 225 mL of JML mixed juice containing 15 g of freeze-dried powder with 75 g of glucose in the fasting state in the morning, the elevation of the postprandial blood glucose level was significantly suppressed as compared with the control subjects. The diffusion rate of glucose and the permeation rate of glucose in the cultured Caco-2 cells were both significantly reduced by the addition of appropriate amounts of JML-SDF when compared to the controls. These results indicate that the effective substance in JML for suppressing blood glucose elevation is a kind of mucilaginous SDF. The mechanism by which this suppression occurs may be largely attributable to the delayed absorption of glucose from the intestinal membrane in the upper digestive tract by viscous SDF.

  11. Elevated levels of IL-18 in plasma and skeletal muscle in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A M W; Penkowa, M; Iversen, M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is accompanied by enhanced interleukin 18 (IL-18) expression in skeletal muscle, which may precede muscle weight loss. Twenty patients with moderate to severe...... elevated in COPD patients (n = 20) versus healthy controls (n = 20) (221.2 pg/ml [196.0-294.2 pg/pl] vs. 164.8 pg/ml [144.4-193.3 pg/pl], p = 0.04) and IL-18 was expressed in skeletal muscle, with IL-18 mRNA levels being elevated in biopsies from COPD patients (n = 19) versus healthy controls (n = 18) (4.......3 [2.6-5.9] vs. 2.4 [1.6-3.1], p = 0.003). Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a strong expression of IL-18 in Type II muscle fibers from COPD patients. Plasma levels and skeletal muscle mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 did not differ between the groups. Elevated...

  12. The effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in women with elevated androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Gilowska, Małgorzata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-02-01

    In unselected reproductive-aged women, use of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills has been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of women with hyperandrogenism. The study included 16 untreated women with elevated testosterone levels and 15 matched healthy women who were then treated with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol (30μg) and drospirenone (3mg). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, circulating levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Compared to healthy women, women with elevated androgen levels showed increased plasma levels of hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as a higher value of UACR. Oral contraception reduced androgen levels only in hyperandrogenic women. In healthy women, ethinyl estradiol plus drospirenone increased plasma levels of insulin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, while in women with elevated androgen levels their effect was limited only to a small increase in hsCRP. Our results suggest that a deteriorating effect of oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone in hyperandrogenic women is weaker than in healthy young women and that ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone combination therapy may be safely used in the former group of patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  13. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fangsen; Lin, Mingzhu; Huang, Peiying; Zeng, Jinyang; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Zhibin; Li, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence from animal studies indicates that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine hormone that regulates glucose, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis, is regulated by T3. However, the role of FGF21 in hyperthyroid patients is unknown. The objective was to study serum FGF21 levels in hyperthyroid patients and the association of serum FGF21 levels with hyperthyroidism. This was a case-control study. A total of 119 hyperthyroid patients and 108 healthy subjects were recruited. Of them, 41 hyperthyroid patients received thionamide treatment for 3 months until euthyroidism was obtained. Serum FGF21 levels were determined using the ELISA method. Serum FGF21 levels were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid patients as compared with normal subjects [median 290.67 (interquartile range, 156.60-502.33) vs 228.10 (169.85.25-320.10) pg/mL; P hyperthyroid patients declined markedly from 249.10 (139.10-444.00) to 106.90 (38.70-196.15) pg/mL (P hyperthyroidism. With adjustment for potential confounders, serum FGF21 remained independently associated with hyperthyroidism, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.123 (95% confidence interval, 1.306-7.468) (P = .010). Serum FGF21 levels were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism and declined after thionamide treatment. And serum FGF21 level was independently associated with hyperthyroidism.

  15. Elevated acetoacetate and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in cord blood of infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurepa, Dalibor; Pramanik, Arun K; Kakkilaya, Venkatakrishna; Caldito, Gloria; Groome, Lynn J; Bocchini, Joseph A; Jain, Sushil K

    2012-01-01

    Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) are at increased risk for metabolic complications. Type 1 and some type 2 diabetic patients have elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The aim of this study was to examine how hyperketonemia in diabetic mothers affects markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in their offspring. Blood was obtained from 23 diabetic mothers and 13 healthy mothers and their infants' umbilical cords at delivery. Interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and protein carbonyl (protein oxidation) levels were determined by ELISA. U937 human monocyte cell culture was used to examine the effect of AA and BHB on secretion of MCP-1. There was a significant increase in the levels of AA in cord blood of IDMs compared with cord blood of infants of healthy mothers. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation (p IDMs. The level of MCP-1 correlated significantly (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) with the concentration of AA in the IDMs. In further experiments with cultured monocytes treated with exogenous AA (0-4 mM), a significant increase in MCP-1 secretion was observed in AA- but not BHB-treated monocytes. Blood levels of AA and MCP-1 are elevated in IDMs, which may contribute to the development of the metabolic complications seen in IDMs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Elevated levels of serum antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; Lv, P; Gao, X M

    2009-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether levels of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCMAs), a serological marker for Crohn's disease, seronegative spondyloarthritis and Behcet's disease, also correlate with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans. Serum samples from healthy volunteers (n = 152) and patients with SLE (n = 40) were compared for ASCMA-IgA, -IgG and -IgM levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. ASCMA-IgG, but not IgM and IgA, prevalence was significantly raised in active SLE patients (57.5%) compared with healthy controls (8.5%). ASCMA-IgG levels in SLE patients during remission were relatively lower, indicating a possible correlation with disease activity. These results differ from a previous study, which did not detect a difference between ASCMA levels in SLE patients and healthy control. It remains to be evaluated whether elevated ASCMA-levels are common to all rheumatic disorders.

  17. Systemic administration of monosodium glutamate elevates intramuscular glutamate levels and sensitizes rat masseter muscle afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian E; Dong, Xudong; Mann, Mandeep K; Svensson, Peter; Sessle, Barry J; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; McErlane, Keith M

    2007-11-01

    There is evidence that elevated tissue concentrations of glutamate may contribute to pain and sensitivity in certain musculoskeletal pain conditions. In the present study, the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) was injected intravenously into rats to determine whether it could significantly elevate interstitial concentrations of glutamate in the masseter muscle and whether MSG administration could excite and/or sensitize slowly conducting masseter afferent fibers through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. The interstitial concentration of glutamate after systemic injection of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline (control) or MSG (10 and 50mg/kg) was measured with a glutamate-selective biosensor. The pre-injection baseline interstitial concentration of glutamate in the rat masseter muscle was 24+/-11 microM. Peak interstitial concentration after injection of 50mg/kg MSG was 63+/-18 microM and remained elevated above baseline for approximately 18 min. In vivo single unit recording experiments were undertaken to assess the effect of MSG (50mg/kg) on masseter afferent fibers. Injection of MSG evoked a brief discharge in one afferent fiber, and significantly decreased ( approximately 25%) the average afferent mechanical threshold (n=10) during the first 5 min after injection of MSG. Intravenous injection of ketamine (1mg/kg), 5 min prior to MSG, prevented the MSG-induced decreases in the mechanical threshold of masseter afferent fibers. The present results indicate that a 2- to 3-fold elevation in interstitial glutamate levels in the masseter muscle is sufficient to excite and induce afferent mechanical sensitization through NMDA receptor activation. These findings suggest that modest elevations of interstitial glutamate concentration could alter musculoskeletal pain sensitivity in humans.

  18. Fever of unknown origin: temporal arteritis presenting with persistent cough and elevated serum ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Parchuri, Suhba; Mohan, Sowjania

    2006-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) at the present time is most frequently caused by neoplasm and less commonly by infection. Currently, collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) are an uncommon cause of FUO because most are readily diagnosable by serologic methods and do not remain undiagnosed for sufficient time to present as FUOs. CVDs presenting as FUOs not readily diagnosable with specific tests include late-onset rheumatoid arthritis, adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica/temporal arteritis (TA). TA, or giant cell arteritis, is an uncommon arteritis of the mid- and large-sized extracranial arteries of the head and neck and is a rare cause of FUO. TA is characterized by headache, scalp tenderness, jaw pain on chewing, and sudden loss of vision. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, and night sweats may also be present. With TA, respiratory symptoms occur in 9% and are the presenting feature in 4%. Laboratory abnormalities associated with TA include a highly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anemia, and thrombocytosis, and mildly increased alkaline phosphatase/serum transaminases. We present a patient with FUO caused by TA whose predominant presenting symptom was persistent cough that overshadowed head and neck symptoms of TA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TA presenting as an FUO, with a highly elevated serum ferritin level. We conclude that highly elevated serum ferritin levels in patients with FUO should alert the clinician to consider TA in the differential diagnosis.

  19. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    cohort: 72.6%]. Thirty-day mortality was elevated for patients with Cbl levels of 601-800pmol/L or >800pmol/L, compared to patients with levels of 200-600pmol/L [(MRR (95% confidence interval): 601-800pmol/L vs. 200-600pmol/L: 1.9 (1.6-2.2); >800pmol/L vs. 200-600pmol/L: 2.7 (2.4-3.1)]. This association...... study using data from Danish medical registries during 1998-2014. The study included 25,017 patients with a cancer diagnosis and Cbl levels of 200-600pmol/L (reference/normal range), 601-800pmol/L and >800pmol/L measured up to one year prior to diagnosis, and a comparison cohort of 61,988 cancer...... using the Charlson comorbidity index. RESULTS: Survival probabilities were lower among patients with elevated Cbl levels than among patients with normal levels and among members of the comparison cohort [(1-year survival,%) Cbl: 200-600pmol/L: 69.3%; 601-800pmol/L: 49.6%; >800pmol/L: 35.8%; comparison...

  2. Metastatic prostate cancer with elevated serum levels of CEA and CA19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dar Juang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is well known as a specific tumor marker for prostate cancer, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA- and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9-elevating adenocarcinomas originating in the prostate gland are rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 in a 78-year-old man in whom prostate cancer (T3N1M1 had been diagnosed 2 years ago and who was treated with androgen deprivation therapy. He visited the emergency department because of a loss of appetite and abdominal pain. The serum CEA and CA19-9 levels were increased to 218.9 ng/mL (normal, <5 ng/mL and 212 ng/mL (normal, <27 ng/mL, respectively. The serum PSA level was slightly elevated (4.41 ng/mL. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver metastases, para-aortic lymph node enlargement, and lung metastases. A liver biopsy was performed and the specimen showed high-grade adenocarcinoma with focal positive staining for PSA. Despite chemotherapy with docetaxel, the patient died 3 months after treatment. Based on this case and a review of the literature, an aggressive variant of prostatic carcinoma with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 and a low PSA level was shown to progress rapidly with a poor prognosis.

  3. Elevated hydroxylactam of hemopyrrole level in urine in perpetrators of extremely violent acts diagnosed with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Janusz; Gosek, Paweł; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Wardeński, Ryszard; Stępień, Tomasz

    2017-06-18

    Hydroxylactam of hemopyrrole (HPL) is an abnormal side product of porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, which may have a devastating impact on the behavior. The link between an aggressive behavior and an increased HPL level was postulated in the 1960s. Further researches concerning HPL brought contrary results and did not clarify its function and possible role in the pathogenesis of aggression. In our research we hypothesize that a heightened level of HPL may correspond to an extreme aggressive behavior in subjects diagnosed with psychosis. We performed an analysis of HPL level in urine samples, collected from 36 male subjects diagnosed with a mental illness who presented an extreme aggressive behavior. The control group included 22 male subjects, matched with age. The variable HPL/creatinine quotient differs significantly between the study group and the control group. We used successfully proprietary method for marking HPL level in urine, developed for the purposes of the project. The results of our study indicate that in a group of subjects with a history of an extreme aggressive behavior a corrected level of HPL may be elevated, compared to subject without history of extreme aggressive behavior. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reasons of HPL elevation and its clinical implications in this group of patients.

  4. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobinblood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Conclusion Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the Institute of Health

  5. Cardiac findings in asymptomatic chronic hemodialysis patients with persistently elevated cardiac troponin I levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerinis, Ioannis; Nguyen, Quan-Vinh; Magnin, Jean-Luc; Descombes, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of higher than normal cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels in asymptomatic chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients remains a source of discussion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of higher than normal cTnI levels in asymptomatic HD patients, as determined by the last generation of immunoassay, and to perform further cardiological investigations in those patients with persistently elevated cTnI levels. All chronic HD patients in our center who had exhibited no symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) during the previous four weeks were screened. cTnI levels were determined before dialysis in all patients using the last generation AccuTnI assay (UniCel DxI 800, Beckman Coulter). The cTnI levels of those patients with elevated cTnI at the screening evaluation were then measured monthly for six months. We were thus able to identify a group of patients with persistently elevated cTnI levels (> 3 consecutive months) who subsequently underwent cardiac echography and dipyridamole-exercise (D-E) thallium testing. If stress myocardial ischemia was detected, a coronary angiography was then performed. Fifty patients (32 males) were included: mean age 62.8 +/- 13.6 years, 20 (40%) with a history of CAD, and 21 (42%) diabetic. At the initial screening, the mean cTnI concentration was 0.05 +/- 0.06 microg/L and the cTnI levels were higher than normal (> 0.09 microg/L) in six patients (12%). In the follow-up, the cTnI normalized immediately in two patients but remained persistently elevated (range, 0.10-0.48 microg/L) in four (8%). These four patients (all males, one diabetic) had a mean age of 70.2 +/- 6.6 years, and all had heart failure with a history of severe CAD with previous myocardial infarction (n = 4), coronary stenting (n = 3), and/or bypass (n = 2). D-E thallium imaging showed reversible myocardial ischemia in all. The stress ischemia involved one to four cardiac segments and was slight to moderate in three patients

  6. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and exercise capacity in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and elevated p-lactate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Birgit Thorup; Calbet, José A L; Møller, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy or elevated p-lactate levels.......To investigate the skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy or elevated p-lactate levels....

  7. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  8. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  9. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in north central Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, John H; Jackman, Alan P; Triska, Frank J; Sheibley, Richard W; Avanzino, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO(3)(-) transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO(3)(-) concentrations decreased from approximately 3 mg N L(-1) beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L(-1) at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl(-) concentrations and NO(3)/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO(3)(-) dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect located approximately 5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO(3)(-) sink. Subsurface NO(3)(-) injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L(-1) was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO(3)(-) retention under both background and elevated NO(3)(-) levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO(3)(-) was followed by transient NO(2)(-) formation and, in the presence of C(2)H(2), by N(2)O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO(3)(-) associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO(3)(-) levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO(3)(-) transport to the channel.

  10. Elevated brain 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate levels in Huntington disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo; Bates, Gillian P; Graham, Rona K; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R; MacDonald, Marcy E; Slow, Elizabeth J; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Woodman, Ben; Schwarcz, Robert

    2006-07-01

    The brain levels of the endogenous excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) and its bioprecursor, the free radical generator 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), are elevated in early stage Huntington disease (HD). We now examined the status of these metabolites in three mouse models of HD. In R6/2 mice, 3-HK levels were significantly and selectively elevated in the striatum, cortex and cerebellum starting at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, both 3-HK and QUIN levels were increased in the striatum and cortex of the full-length HD models, beginning at 8 months (YAC128) and 15 months (Hdh(Q92) and Hdh(Q111)), respectively. No changes were seen in 13-month-old shortstop mice, which show no signs of motor or cognitive dysfunction or selective neuropathology. These results demonstrate both important parallels and intriguing differences in the progressive neurochemical changes in these HD mouse models and support the hypothesis that QUIN may play a role in the striatal and cortical neurodegeneration of HD.

  11. Elevated levels of tryparedoxin peroxidase in antimony unresponsive Leishmania donovani field isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyllie, Susan; Mandal, Goutam; Singh, Neeloo; Sundar, Shyam; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of the anti-oxidant metabolism of Leishmania parasites, dependent upon the unique dithiol trypanothione, has been implicated in laboratory-generated antimony resistance. Here, the role of the trypanothione-dependent anti-oxidant pathway is studied in antimony-resistant clinical isolates. Elevated levels of tryparedoxin and tryparedoxin peroxidase, key enzymes in hydroperoxide detoxification, were observed in antimonial resistant parasites resulting in an increased metabolism of peroxides. These data suggest that enhanced anti-oxidant defences may play significant in clinical resistance to antimonials. PMID:20553768

  12. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN...... serum free T3, even after correction for age, BMI and pubertal stage. After inclusion of IGF1 in the model the differences disappeared. TSH, T4, free T4 and T3 did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the GH/IGF1 axis and thyroid hormones interact and influence the development...

  13. Elevated Levels of Plasma Superoxide Dismutases 1 and 2 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To measure plasma levels of superoxide dismutases 1, 2, and 3 (SOD1, 2, 3 and determine whether SODs can function as biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients & Methods. Patient groups were as follows: patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP, n=33, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=49, and controls (n=42. Protein quantification was done using ELISA. Results. The concentrations of plasma SOD1 and SOD2 were higher in CAD than in healthy controls. No difference in SOD3 levels between CAD and control groups was found. Limited correlations were found between SODs and gender, age, and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Conclusions. Plasma levels of SOD1 and SOD2 were elevated in patients with CAD and might serve as surrogate biomarkers for CAD.

  14. Predictors of Elevated Cardiac Enzyme Levels in Hospitalized Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and No Known Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinales, Karyne L; Najib, Mohammad Q; Marella, Punnaiah C; Katayama, Minako; Chaliki, Hari P

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively studied the predictive capabilities of elevated cardiac enzyme levels in terms of the prognosis of patients who were hospitalized with atrial fibrillation and who had no known coronary artery disease. Among 321 patients with atrial fibrillation, 60 without known coronary artery disease had their cardiac enzyme concentrations measured during hospitalization and underwent stress testing or cardiac catheterization within 12 months before or after hospitalization. We then compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the 20 patients who had elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the 40 patients who had normal levels. Age, sex, and comorbidities did not differ between the groups. In the patients with elevated cardiac enzyme levels, the mean concentrations of troponin T and creatine kinase-MB isoenzymes were 0.08 ± 0.08 ng/mL and 6.49 ± 4.94 ng/mL, respectively. In univariate analyses, only peak heart rate during atrial tachyarrhythmia was predictive of elevated enzyme levels (P <0.0001). Mean heart rate was higher in the elevated-level patients (146 ± 22 vs 117 ± 29 beats/min; P=0.0007). Upon multivariate analysis, heart rate was the only independent predictor of elevated levels. Coronary artery disease was found in only 2 patients who had elevated levels and in one patient who had normal levels (P=0.26). Increased myocardial demand is probably why the presenting heart rate was predictive of elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Most patients with elevated enzyme levels did not have coronary artery disease, and none died of cardiac causes during the 6-month follow-up period. To validate our findings, larger studies are warranted.

  15. Elevated cerebral spinal fluid cytokine levels in boys with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy correlates with MRI severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF of these boys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.0001, IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.005, MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p = 0.002, and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001 were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p = 0.0001. The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008 respectively, as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p = 0.002. Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p = 0.0001 for both, as well as Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.0007. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies.

  16. Monocyte subset distribution in patients with stable atherosclerosis and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Kastl, Stefan P; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Wonnerth, Anna; Goliasch, Georg; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Katsaros, Katharina M; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Dostal, Elisabeth; Binder, Christoph J; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic plasma lipoprotein currently established as an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease and as a predictor for acute thrombotic complications. In addition, Lp(a) is the major carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). Today, atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are crucially involved. Circulating monocytes can be divided according to their surface expression pattern of CD14 and CD16 into at least 3 subsets with distinct inflammatory and atherogenic potential. The aim of this study was to examine whether elevated levels of Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins (OxPL/apoB) are associated with changes in monocyte subset distribution. We included 90 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Lp(a) and OxPL/apoB were measured, and monocyte subsets were identified as classical monocytes (CMs; CD14++CD16-), intermediate monocytes (IMs; CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical monocytes (NCMs; CD14+CD16++) by flow cytometry. In patients with elevated levels of Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL), monocyte subset distribution was skewed toward an increase in the proportion of IM (7.0 ± 3.8% vs 5.2 ± 3.0%; P = .026), whereas CM (82.6 ± 6.5% vs 82.0 ± 6.8%; P = .73) and NCM (10.5 ± 5.3 vs 12.8 ± 6.0; P = .10) were not significantly different. This association was independent of clinical risk factors, choice of statin treatment regime, and inflammatory markers. In addition, OxPL/apoB was higher in patients with elevated Lp(a) and correlated with IM but not CM and NCM. In conclusion, we provide a potential link between elevated levels of Lp(a) and a proatherogenic distribution of monocyte subtypes in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cytokine Levels in Boys with Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy Correlates with MRI Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Troy C.; Stadem, Paul S.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Raymond, Gerald; Miller, Weston P.; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these boys. Methodology/Principal Findings Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.0001), IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.005), MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p = 0.002), and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001) were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p = 0.0001). The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008 respectively), as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p = 0.002). Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p = 0.0001 for both), as well as Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.0007). Conclusions/Significance IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies. PMID:22359672

  18. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels and herbivore damage alter host plant preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, J. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Anderson, Peter, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Crop Sciences, Alnarp (SE)); Oleszek, W.; Stochmal, Anna [Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Dept. of Biochemistry, Pulawy (Poland); Agrell, Cecilia [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the moth Spodoptera littoralis and two of its host plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were examined, using plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} conditions. To determine strength and effects of herbivore-induced responses assays were performed with both undamaged (control) and herbivore damaged plants. CO{sub 2} and damage effects on larval host plant preferences were determined through dual-choice bioassays. In addition, larvae were reared from hatching to pupation on experimental foliage to examine effects on larval growth and development. When undamaged plants were used S. littoralis larvae in consumed more cotton than alfalfa, and CO{sub 2} enrichment caused a reduction in the preference for cotton. With damaged plants larvae consumed equal amounts of the two plant species (ambient CO{sub 2} conditions), but CO{sub 2} enrichment strongly shifted preferences towards cotton, which was then consumed three times more than alfalfa. Complementary assays showed that elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no effect on the herbivore-induced responses of cotton, whereas those of alfalfa were significantly increased. Larval growth was highest for larvae fed undamaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} level, and lowest for larvae on damaged alfalfa from the high CO{sub 2} treatment. Development time increased on damaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} treatment, and on damaged alfalfa in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. (au) These results demonstrate that elevated CO2 levels can cause insect herbivores to alter host plant preferences, and that effects on herbivore-induced responses may be a key mechanism behind these processes. Furthermore, since the insects were shown to avoid foliage that reduced their physiological performance, our data suggest that behavioural host plant shifts result in partial escape from negative consequences of feeding on high CO2 foliage. Thus, CO2 enrichment can alter

  19. Elevated free tear lactoferrin levels in leprosy are associated with type 2 reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ebenezer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the association of demographics, leprosy and ocular characteristics with altered levels of lactoferrin in the tears of normal subjects and leprosy patients, and to detect the presence of antibodies to lactoferrin in these tear samples. Method: We collected light-stimulated tears from 298 leprosy patients and an equal number of normal subjects using the glass capillary method. Free lactoferrin levels were estimated using ELISA and the presence of antibodies to lactoferrin was detected using the immuno-blotting method. Significant associations were looked for between tear lactoferrin levels and demographic characteristics, leprosy characteristics such as type of disease, duration of disease, reactions, deformity and bacterial load, and ocular complications, using chi-square and regression analysis. Results: Tear lactoferrin levels with a mean (SD of 2.55 (2.83mg/ml in the control group were significantly different (P Conclusion: Age is inversely related to tear lactoferrin levels in normal subjects. Free lactoferrin levels in tears are significantly higher in leprosy patients compared with normal controls. Type 2 reactions in leprosy are significantly associated with elevated tear lactoferrin levels.

  20. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pfasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma zinc α2-glycoprotein levels are elevated in smokers and correlated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Su-Chiu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lue, Bee-Horng; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is a strong risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Zinc α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a protein involved in metabolic syndrome. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoking on plasma ZAG levels and its relations to metabolic syndrome. A group of 41 cigarette smokers and 47 non-smokers were enrolled. ZAG levels were measured to correlate to participants' demographic and metabolic parameters. Plasma ZAG levels of smokers were higher than those of controls (P ZAG levels were positively correlated with male gender (P = 0.0002), number of cigarettes smoked per day (P ZAG levels (P = 0.0034). Plasma ZAG levels elevated progressively with the number of metabolic syndrome components (P = 0.0143). In the multiple regression analysis, plasma ZAG was an independent factor for metabolic syndrome. Plasma ZAG levels are high in smokers and correlate with metabolic syndrome. Our results indicate ZAG is an independent risk factor, but also interacted with smoking, for the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. Elevated endothelin-1 level is a risk factor for nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesdonk, Heinrich V; Raffel, Miriam; Speer, Thimoteus; Bomberg, Hagen; Schmied, Wolfram; Klingele, Matthias; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia may occur after cardiac surgery, commonly in conjunction with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Some evidence suggests that endothelin-1 serum levels are increased in patients with mesenteric ischemia, but the association of endothelin-1 and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia has not been studied. The objective was to investigate whether elevated levels of endothelin-1 could be found in patients exhibiting nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. In an observational cohort study, nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia developed in 78 of 865 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Control patients were identified from the cohort through 1:1 propensity score matching. Preoperative and postoperative endothelin-1 serum levels were determined by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios (with 95% confidence interval) were calculated by logistic regression analyses to determine the risk of endothelin-1 for the development of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia had higher preoperative (11.3 vs 9.3 pg/mL; P = .001) and postoperative (15.7 vs 11.1 pg/mL, P mesenteric ischemia increased with each picogram/milliliter endothelin-1 level preoperatively (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.49) and each picogram/milliliter postoperatively (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.72). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that elevated endothelin-1 serum levels had a high accuracy to predict nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (optimal cutoff value of 14.5 pg/mL, area under the curve of 0.77, sensitivity 51%, and specificity 94%). Endothelin-1 seems to predispose patients undergoing cardiac surgery to develop nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. In addition, it may be a useful marker to identify patients at risk for nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  4. The effect of educational level elevation on the mathematical skill in hearing-impaired students

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    Azam Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There is a relation between language skills and science learning in educational approach. Hearing-impairment and delay in learning of language skills influence the progress of learning. The aim of this research was to study the effect of educational level elevation on growth of mathematical skill. Therefore, third grade hearing-impaired students of secondary school, and forth grade hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students of elementary school were compared in terms of mathematical skill.Methods: The research was cross-sectional and the internationally standardized mathematics questions (2007 were selected as the tools of the test. The sample included 31 students of 4th grade elementary and third grade of secondary school with sever hearing loss from exceptional schools, and 17 normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to the exceptional schools in Robatkarim, Karaj, and Shahriyar cities, Iran.Results: According to data analysis there was a meaningful difference between hearing-impaired students of forth and third grades and normal-hearing students in the three fields of knowledge, application and argument (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant improvement was seen in the mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students by educational level elevation. Writing mathematical books for the pre-elementary courses, revision of teaching methods, and increasing teaching hours are necessary in mathematics.

  5. Elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine in schizophrenia: a guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 metabolic pathway abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoluwa Okusaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. RESULTS: Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001 and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001 but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches.

  6. Does elevated osteopontin level play an important role in the development of scoliosis in bipedal mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with elevated serum chromogranin A levels in patients with autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan

    2016-11-01

    Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.

  8. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K.; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W.; Frederiksen, Sara B.; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J.; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D.; Peters, Ralph S.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities. PMID:28004657

  9. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W; Frederiksen, Sara B; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D; Peters, Ralph S; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-12-22

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities.

  10. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  11. Elevated Hypothalamic Glucocorticoid Levels Are Associated With Obesity and Hyperphagia in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Charlotte; Harno, Erika; Davies, Alison; Small, Helen; Allen, Tiffany-Jayne; Wray, Jonathan R; Lawrence, Catherine B; Coll, Anthony P; White, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Glucocorticoid (Gc) excess, from endogenous overproduction in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or exogenous medical therapy, is recognized to cause adverse metabolic side effects. The Gc receptor (GR) is widely expressed throughout the body, including brain regions such as the hypothalamus. However, the extent to which chronic Gcs affect Gc concentrations in the hypothalamus and impact on GR and target genes is unknown. To investigate this, we used a murine model of corticosterone (Cort)-induced obesity and analyzed Cort levels in the hypothalamus and expression of genes relevant to Gc action. Mice were administered Cort (75 μg/mL) or ethanol (1%, vehicle) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Cort-treated mice had increased body weight, food intake, and adiposity. As expected, Cort increased plasma Cort levels at both zeitgeber time 1 and zeitgeber time 13, ablating the diurnal rhythm. Liquid chromatography dual tandem mass spectrometry revealed a 4-fold increase in hypothalamic Cort, which correlated with circulating levels and concentrations of Cort in other brain regions. This occurred despite decreased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd11b1) expression, the gene encoding the enzyme that regenerates active Gcs, whereas efflux transporter Abcb1 mRNA was unaltered. In addition, although Cort decreased hypothalamic GR (Nr3c1) expression 2-fold, the Gc-induced leucine zipper (Tsc22d3) mRNA increased, which indicated elevated GR activation. In keeping with the development of hyperphagia and obesity, Cort increased Agrp, but there were no changes in Pomc, Npy, or Cart mRNA in the hypothalamus. In summary, chronic Cort treatment causes chronic increases in hypothalamic Cort levels and a persistent elevation in Agrp, a mediator in the development of metabolic disturbances.

  12. Long-term surface elevation change in salt marshes : a prediction of marsh response to future sea-level rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, HJ; Bakker, JP

    Accretion rates and surface elevation changes were measured in three natural salt marshes in the Wadden Sea. Derived from these measurements, a simple predictive model was made which describes changes in surface elevation during more than 100 years of salt-marsh development at several sea-level rise

  13. Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxu Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-34 (IL-34 was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. In all, 78 SLE patients and 53 healthy controls were enrolled in the research. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was employed to measure the concentrations of serological IL-34. Then serum IL-34 levels between the SLE group and healthy controls were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the serum IL-34 levels and disease activity indexes and other established serum markers were assessed. Furthermore, the serum IL-34 levels of 20 active SLE patients were reevaluated when diseases were in the remission stage from corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Their levels were remarkably associated with accumulation of the clinical features of SLE. Additionally, IL-34 titers were positively correlated with the SLE disease activity indexes, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA titers and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, and inversely with complement3 (C3 levels. Moreover, serum IL-34 levels were significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment-naive SLE patients and we saw a significant decrease after effective treatment.

  14. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Surveillance of elevated blood lead levels in children in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Valdez-Abrego, Camilo; Adame-Lopez, Beatriz; Gurrola-Mendez, Aurora

    2012-09-01

    Because children exposed to lead have a very high health risk, surveillance and prevention programs are very important to avoid short- and long-term health effects. To describe the trend for the blood lead levels over a 12-year period in environmentally exposed children and to document the actions implemented to reduce the blood lead levels. We performed a retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-15 years who were enrolled in the Coahuila Health Secretary's Childhood Blood Lead Level Surveillance program. This database includes children from the city of Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, where the biggest smelter in Latin America is located. A total of 151,322 observations were analyzed in the study. The percentage of samples with elevated blood lead levels decreased from 84.9% to 10.4% during 1998-2010, and the decrease was greater in girls than in boys. According to the results of our study, the majority of strategies and activities to decrease blood lead levels in an environmentally exposed population should be focused on children aged 0-5 years, on the home environment, on preventing fugitive emissions from smelters and other sources and on the proper disposal and confinement of industrial residues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective memory complaints in aging are associated with elevated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Dziobek, Isabel; McHugh, Pauline; Sweat, Victoria; de Leon, Mony J; Javier, Elizabeth; Convit, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The origin and clinical significance of subjective memory complaints among middle aged and older individuals is not well understood. Associations with objective memory impairments, personality traits or mood disturbances have been reported. Elevated cortisol levels occur in aging and depression and causal links to cognitive or emotional problems have been suggested. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between basal and feedback indices of cortisol regulation and subjective memory impairment in a sample of healthy middle aged and older subjects (mean age 61.8 years) with (n=27) and without (n=19) subjective memory complaints. Participants with memory complaints had both higher basal cortisol levels and higher cortisol levels after dexamethasone. There was a significant group by gender interaction for basal cortisol levels, where women without memory complaints showed significantly lower cortisol levels, whereas no such difference was found for the men. All effects were not due to slight differences in depression scores. Differences in personality traits or in stress susceptibility might underlie the present findings. Future studies of memory complaints should take a comprehensive approach including relevant endocrine parameters.

  17. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  18. Elevated serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5a levels in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jhih; Huang, Tsai-Wang; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chu, Der-Ming; Chen, Wei-Liang; Wu, Li-Wei

    2017-09-29

    Tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a is expressed in tumor-associated macrophages and is a biomarker of chronic inflammation. Herein, we correlated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels with metabolic syndrome status and made comparisons with traditional markers of inflammation, including c-reactive protein and interleukin-6. One hundred healthy volunteers were randomly selected, and cut-off points for metabolic syndrome related inflammatory biomarkers were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Linear and logistic regression models were subsequently used to correlate inflammatory markers with the risk of metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two participants met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, and serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels of >5.8 μg/L were associated with metabolic syndrome (c-statistics, 0.730; p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 0.618-0.842). In addition, 1 μg/L increases in tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels were indicative of a 1.860 fold increase in the risk of metabolic syndrome (p = 0.012). Elevated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, with a cut-off level of 5.8 μg/L.

  19. Clinical significance of elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in acute viral hepatitis A (AHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung In; Kim, Su Sun; Choi, Bo Youn; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung Jun; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Hyoung Su; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Hak Yang; Jang, Myoung Kuk

    2013-10-01

    The clinical course of acute viral hepatitis A (AHA) is highly variable. Serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) level is often elevated in various types of acute liver injuries, indicating active liver regeneration. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum AFP level in the aspect of the early recovery in AHA. A total of 238 patients with AHA, confirmed by IgM anti-hepatitis A virus, were included. The patients were classified according to serum AFP level. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model using dichotomized clinical variables was performed to identify the independent predictors for early recovery (ALT normalization within 2 weeks). The median age (range) was 30 (17-50) years and male dominant (62%, 147/238). Compared to low AFP group, high AFP group (>10 ng/mL) had significantly lower platelet counts (p AFP level (>10 ng/mL) was the only independent predictor for early recovery (Hazard ratio (HR); 2.392, 95% CI; 1.564-3.659, p = 0.0001). High serum AFP level (>10 ng/mL) may indicate the already-started recovery through active liver regeneration or the early recovery within 2 weeks in AHA.

  20. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    kernel of three data points was used to smooth the progesterone time series. The time between start of progesterone rise and end of progesterone decline was identified by fitting a simple model consisting of base length and a quadratic curve to progesterone data, and this luteal like phase (LLP) was used...... to classify progesterone profiles without recourse to an a priori set of rules, which arbitrarily segment the natural variability in these profiles. Using data-derived profile shapes may allow a more accurate assessment of the effects of for example nutritional management or breeding system on progesterone...

  1. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  2. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Elevated miR-499 levels blunt the cardiac stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T C Shieh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The heart responds to myriad stresses by well-described transcriptional responses that involve long-term changes in gene expression as well as more immediate, transient adaptations. MicroRNAs quantitatively regulate mRNAs and thus may affect the cardiac transcriptional output and cardiac function. Here we investigate miR-499, a microRNA embedded within a ventricular-specific myosin heavy chain gene, which is expressed in heart and skeletal muscle.We assessed miR-499 expression in human tissue to confirm its potential relevance to human cardiac gene regulation. Using a transgenic mouse model, we found that elevated miR-499 levels caused cellular hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. Global gene expression profiling revealed altered levels of the immediate early stress response genes (Egr1, Egr2 and Fos, ß-myosin heavy chain (Myh7, and skeletal muscle actin (Acta1. We verified the effect of miR-499 on the immediate early response genes by miR-499 gain- and loss-of-function in vitro. Consistent with a role for miR-499 in blunting the response to cardiac stress, asymptomatic miR-499-expressing mice had an impaired response to pressure overload and accentuated cardiac dysfunction.Elevated miR-499 levels affect cardiac gene expression and predispose to cardiac stress-induced dysfunction. miR-499 may titrate the cardiac response to stress in part by regulating the immediate early gene response.

  4. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-01-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  5. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Winnie CW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects. The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol. Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%. We invited 47 (9% subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months. None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol. Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  6. Elevated Serum Level of HMGB1 in Patients with the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

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    Valeria Manganelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy problems are common in patients with rheumatic disease; indeed, autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies can affect pregnancy progress and lead to maternal complications. Recent studies have highlighted a close association between HMGB1, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Thus, in this investigation, we analyzed serum levels of HMGB1, an alarmin which plays a pivotal role in inducing and enhancing immune cell function. Sera from 30 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (11 primary and 19 secondary APS, 35 subjects with pregnancy morbidity, and 30 healthy women were analysed for HMGB1 and its putative receptor RAGE (sRAGE by Western blot and for TNF-α by ELISA. Results revealed that APS patients showed significantly increased serum levels of HMGB1, sRAGE, and the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, as compared to healthy women. However, also, the pregnancy morbidity subjects showed significantly increased levels of HMGB1 and sRAGE as well as TNF-α compared to healthy women. Our findings suggest that in subjects with pregnancy morbidity, including obstetric APS, elevated levels of HMGB1/sRAGE may represent an alarm signal, indicating an increase of proinflammatory triggers. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of HMGB1/sRAGE as a possible tool to evaluate the risk stratification of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Elevated IL-5 levels in pleural fluid of patients with paragonimiasis westermani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H; Mukae, H; Matsumoto, N; Tokojima, M; Katoh, S; Matsukura, S; Ogawa, K; Kohno, S; Nawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of eosinophilic pleural effusion in patients with paragonimiasis, we measured the levels of IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in pleural effusions. Samples were obtained from 11 patients with Paragonimus westermani infection. In addition, samples from 12 patients with pleural transudates, 16 with tuberculous pleurisy, seven with empyema and 20 with lung cancer were also examined. Eosinophilia was remarkable in peripheral blood (range 4–34%, median 23·4%) and pleural fluid (range 0–95%, median 71%) of paragonimiasis patients. IL-5 concentrations in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis were markedly higher than those in other groups. Although marked elevation of GM-CSF and IFN-γ levels was observed in pleural effusion of empyema and tuberculosis patients, it was marginal in the pleural effusion of paragonimiasis patients. In paragonimiasis patients, IL-5 levels in the pleural effusion correlated well with the percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood and pleural fluid. Such a correlation was not observed between GM-CSF levels in pleural effusion and percentages of eosinophils in pleural fluid or peripheral blood. Our findings suggest that in paragonimiasis IL-5 in the local inflammatory site is particularly important in mediating eosinophilia in peripheral blood and pleural effusion. PMID:11168004

  8. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

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    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  9. [Association of hypercalcemia, elevated levels of calcitriol and tuberculosis in patients on hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C

    2000-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is associated with numerous chronic granulomatous processes and chronic infections. Increased production of calcitriol by activated macrophages has been shown to be the cause in most cases. In this article, we describe three cases of hypercalcemia associated with inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels and suppressed PTH in hemodialysis. In addition to conventional techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis we used Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) to detect mycobacterial DNA in pleural effusion with acid-fast stain and culture negativity. Antituberculous therapy was associated with a decrease in the levels of calcium, as well as in serum calcitriol concentrations, and a substantial increase in the levels of iPTH. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 remained unchanged. These findings suggested ectopic production of calcitriol. The discussion reviews the previously reported cases of hypercalcemia and tuberculosis that occurred during hemodialysis, and concludes that ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas is extremely unusual and its demonstration requires a high index of suspicion. Molecular techniques are a potentially useful approach for early and rapid diagnosis of tuberculous infection in dialysis patients.

  10. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SOLUBLE ST2 PROTEIN IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Aniuska; Warke, Rajas V.; de Bosch, Norma; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Levels of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (IL-1RL-1 / ST2) are elevated in the serum of patients with diseases characterized by an inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of soluble ST2 (sST2) in dengue infected patients during the course of the disease. Twenty four patients with confirmed dengue infection, classified as dengue fever, and eleven patients with other febrile illness (OFI) were evaluated. Levels of sST2 in serum and laboratory variables usually altered during dengue infections were measured. Dengue infected patients had higher serum sST2 levels than OFI at the end of the febrile stage and at defervescence (p=0.0088 and p=0.0004 respectively). Patients with secondary dengue infections had higher serum sST2 levels compared with patients with primary dengue infections (p=0.047 at last day of fever and p=0.030 at defervescence). Furthermore, in dengue infected patients, we found a significant negative correlation of sST2 with platelet and WBC counts, and positive correlation with thrombin time and transaminases activity. We suggest that sST2 could be a potential marker of dengue infection, could be associated with severity or could play a role in the immune response in secondary dengue virus infection. PMID:18226917

  11. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone

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    Anifandis George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been suggested that inhibin secretion is altered in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. However, the contribution of a preceding luteal phase has not been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether progesterone in the context of a simulated luteal phase affects basal and FSH-induced inhibin secretion in women with PCOS and elevated LH. Methods Ten women with PCOS and 8 normally cycling women participated in an experimental procedure (Exp involving the administration of a single injection of recombinant FSH (450 IU sc. In the women with PCOS, the procedure was performed before (Exp 1 and after a 20-day treatment with progesterone (Exp 2, while in the normal women on day 2 of the cycle (Exp 3. Inhibin A and B levels were measured in blood samples taken before and 24 hours after the FSH injection. Results Basal LH levels were significantly higher and inhibin A levels were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group, while inhibin B levels were comparable in the two groups. In the PCOS group, after treatment with progesterone inhibin A and LH but not inhibin B levels decreased significantly (p Conclusions In women with PCOS, as compared to control women, the dissimilar pattern of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion in response to FSH appears to be independent of a preceding simulated luteal phase. It is possible that compared to normal ovaries, the PCOS ovaries are less sensitive to endogenous LH regarding inhibin A secretion and more sensitive to exogenous FSH stimulation in terms of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion.

  12. Elevated Fibrinogen Levels Associate with Risk of Pulmonary Embolism, but not with Deep Venous Thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether elevated plasma fibrinogen associates with both deep venous thrombosis(DVT) and its complication pulmonary embolism(PE), and whether elevated fibrinogen is a direct cause of these disorders. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that elevated plasma fibrinogen...

  13. Elevated level of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients with cardiac ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Guo, Austin; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Porat, Eyal; Snir, Eitan; Thompson, Carl I.; Abraham, Nader G.; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the blood system to sites of ischemia and endothelial damage, where they contribute to the repair and development of blood vessels. Since numerous eicosanoids including leukotrienes (LTs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) have been shown to exert potent pro-inflammatory activities, we examined their levels in chronic diabetic patients with severe cardiac ischemia in conjunction with the level and function of EPCs. Results Lipidomic analysis revealed a diabetes-specific increase (p<0.05) in inflammatory and angiogenic eicosanoids including the 5-lipoxygenase-derived LTB4 (4.11±1.17 vs 0.96±0.27 ng/ml), the lipoxygenase/CYP-derived 12-HETE (117.08±35.05 vs 24.34±10.03 ng/ml), 12-HETrE (17.56±4.43 vs 4.15±2.07 ng/ml), and the CYP-derived 20-HETE (0.32±0.04 vs 0.06±0.05 ng/ml) the level of which correlated with BMI (p=0.0027). In contrast, levels of the CYP-derived EETs were not significantly (p= 0.36) different between these two groups. EPC levels and their colony forming units were lower (p<0.05) with a reduced viability in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetics. EPC function (Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) and MTT assay) also negatively correlated with the circulating levels of HgA1C. Conclusion This study demonstrates a close association between elevated levels of highly pro-inflammatory eicosonoids, diabetes and EPC dysfunction in patients with cardiac ischemia, indicating that chronic inflammation impact negatively on EPC function and angiogenic capacity in diabetes. PMID:23291334

  14. Elevated Perioperative Transaminase Level Predicts Intrahepatic Recurrence in Hepatitis B-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Curative Hepatectomy

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    Yue-Sun Cheung

    2008-04-01

    CONCLUSION: An elevated perioperative ALT level, which reflects increased hepatitis activity, is an independent risk factor for intrahepatic recurrence of hepatitis B-related HCC. It is also associated with a poorer disease-free survival rate.

  15. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  16. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst with unusually elevated serum SCC level, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor

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    Noriyuki Inaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is one of the developmental cysts which arise from remnants of embryonic tissues. We report a rare case of retrorectal epidermoid cyst, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. Serum SCC value as tumor marker was elevated to the high level. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs were all normal. This tumor existed in the retroperitoneal cavity and compressed the rectum. Later, complete tumor resection was performed by laparotomy. Histological study revealed the epithelium of this tumor consisted of only squamous cells without atypia, and the diagnosis of this tumor was retrorectal epidermoid cyst. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is very rare, and difficult to diagnose before surgery. However, if we haveknowledge of developmental cysts, and by careful digital examination and image diagnosis, a differential diagnosis can be made.

  17. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illicitly distilled alcohol--Alabama, 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The use of automobile radiators containing lead-soldered parts in the illicit distillation of alcohol (i.e., "moonshine") is an important source of lead poisoning among persons in some rural Alabama counties. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight persons were diagnosed with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) at a local hospital and were reported to the notifiable disease surveillance system maintained by the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH). None of these patients had known histories of occupational or other potential sources of lead exposure, but all reported recent histories of moonshine ingestion. This report summarizes the results of an investigation of these cases conducted by the ADPH during December 1991.

  18. Stress-induced progesterone secretion and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus are modulated by pubertal development in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D; Bellani, Rudy; McEwen, Bruce S

    2005-12-01

    Male rats show a differential adrenocortical response to stress before and after pubertal development, such that prepubertal animals have a more prolonged stress-induced corticosterone response compared to adults. Whether pubertal maturation affects other adrenocortical responses to stress is currently unknown. To address this question, we assessed stress-induced progesterone secretion in both intact and gonadectomized prepubertal (28 days of age) and adult (77 days of age) male rats either before or after exposure to a 30 min session of restraint stress. We found that prepubertal males show a greater and more prolonged stress-induced progesterone response compared to adults. We also found a similar effect in castrated prepubertal and adult males, indicating the differential stress-induced progesterone response is not gonadal in origin. We also examined progesterone receptor (PR) levels by immunohistochemistry in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a key regulatory nucleus of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and found lower PR protein expression in the PVN of prepubertal compared to adult males. These data indicate that in addition to corticosterone, stress-induced adrenocortical progesterone levels are differentially affected by pubertal maturation. Furthermore, these data raise the possibility of different progesterone sensitivity of the PVN before and after puberty. The significance of this differential response is presently unknown. However, given the pleiotropic effects of progesterone on male physiology and behaviour, it is likely that the disparate post-stress exposure to progesterone affects the prepubertal and adult male differently.

  19. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  20. Arrangement of experiments for simulating the effects of elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on field-sown crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental plants: spring wheat, winter wheat, spring barley, meadow fescue, potato, strawberry and black currant were sown or planted directly in the field, part of which was covered by an automatically controlled greenhouse to elevate the temperature by 3°C. The temperature of the other part of the field (open field was not elevated, but the field was covered with the same plastic film as the greenhouse to achieve radiation and rainfall conditions comparable to those in the greenhouse. To elevate the CO2 concentrations, four open top chambers (OTC were built for the greenhouse, and four for the open field. Two of these, both in the greenhouse and in the open field, were supplied with pure CO2 to elevate their CO2 level to 700 ppm. The temperatures inside the greenhouse followed accurately the desired level. The relative humidity was somewhat higher in the greenhouse and in the OTC:s than in the open field, especially after the modifications in the ventilation of the greenhouse and in the OTC:s in 1994. Because the OTC:s were large (3 m in diameter, the temperatures inside them differed very little from the surrounding air temperature. The short-term variation in the CO2 concentrations in the OTC:s with elevated CO2 was, however, quite high. The control of the CO2 concentrations improved each year from 1992 to 1994, as the CO2 supplying system was modified. The effects of the experimental conditions on plant growth and phenology are discussed.;

  1. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  2. Progesterone stimulates adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene expression. potential mechanism for the lipogenic effect of progesterone in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, D; Le Liepvre, X; Ferre, P; Dugail, I

    2001-04-13

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a nutritionally regulated lipogenic enzyme, is transcriptionally controlled by ADD1/SREBP1c (adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c), through insulin-mediated stimulation of ADD1/SREBP1c expression. Progesterone exerts lipogenic effects on adipocytes, and FAS is highly induced in breast tumor cell lines upon progesterone treatment. We show here that progesterone up-regulates ADD1/SREBP1c expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and the primary cultured preadipocyte from rat parametrial adipose tissue. In MCF7, progesterone induced ADD1/SREBP1c and Metallothionein II (a well known progesterone-regulated gene) mRNAs, with comparable potency. In preadipocytes, progesterone increased ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA dose-dependently, but not SREBP1a or SREBP2. Run-on experiments demonstrated that progesterone action on ADD1/SREBP1c was primarily at the transcriptional level. The membrane-bound and mature nuclear forms of ADD1/SREBP1 protein accumulated in preadipocytes cultured with progesterone, and FAS induction could be abolished by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative form of ADD1/SREBP1 in these cells. Finally, in the presence of insulin, progesterone was unable to up-regulate ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA in preadipocytes, whereas its effect was restored after 24 h of insulin deprivation. Together these results demonstrate that ADD1/SREBP1c is controlled by progesterone, which, like insulin, acts by increasing ADD1/SREBP1c gene transcription. This provides a potential mechanism for the lipogenic actions of progesterone on adipose tissue.

  3. Does plasma copeptin level at admission predict final infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Vijai; Beig, Jahangir Rashid; Tramboo, Nisar A; Rasool, Roohi; Choh, Nasir A; Bashir, Shazia; Rather, Hilal A; Lone, Ajaz A

    2016-09-15

    Copeptin is a novel biomarker of potential diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma copeptin levels at admission and final infarct size in STEMI patients. This observational study was conducted in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical sciences, Srinagar, for a period of 1year. 60 patients with STEMI admitted within 24h of symptom onset were included in the study. Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined by ELISA from blood samples drawn at the time of admission. Infarct size was estimated on cardiac MRI after 5-14days of admission, in successfully reperfused patients. Correlations between plasma copeptin levels, infarct size and various clinico-hemodynamic variables were studied. Plasma copeptin concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with MRI determined infarct size (r=0.957; p≤0.0001). Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with anterior wall infarction (p≤0.0001), longer symptom duration (p=0.018), advanced Killip class (p≤0.0001), higher body mass index (p=0.019) and extensive coronary artery disease (p≤0.0001). On multivariate analysis, copeptin levels at admission independently predicted final infarct size, irrespective of the clinico-hemodynamic profile of patients or mode of reperfusion (p≤0.0001). The only independent predictor of copeptin level was symptom duration (p=0.018). Copeptin level at admission predicts final infarct size in STEMI patients. Further evidence is however needed before implementation of this biomarker into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vacuum level effects on knee contact force for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-05-24

    The elevated vacuum suspension system (EVSS) has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on knee contact force (KCF) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum levels on KCF for unilateral transtibial amputees (UTA) using the EVSS. Three-dimensional gait was modeled for 9 UTA with five vacuum levels (0-20inHg [67.73kPa], 5inHg [16.93kPa] increments) and 9 non-amputees based on kinematic and ground reaction force data. The results showed that the vacuum level effects were significant for peak axial KCF, which had a relatively large value at 0 and 20inHg (67.73kPa). The intact limb exhibited a comparable peak axial KCF to the non-amputees at 15inHg (50.79kPa). At moderate vacuum levels (5inHg [16.93kPa] to 15inHg [50.79kPa]), co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings at peak axial KCF was similar for the intact limb, but was smaller for the residual limb comparing with the non-amputees. The intact limb showed a similar magnitude of quadriceps and hamstrings force at 15inHg (50.79kPa) to the non-amputees, but the muscle coordination patterns varied between the residual and intact limbs. These findings indicate that a proper vacuum level may partially compensate for the lack of ankle plantarflexor and reduce the knee loading. Of the tested vacuum levels, 15inHg (50.79kPa) appears most favorable, although additional analyses with more amputees are suggested to confirm these results prior to establishing clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the aqueous humor after phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Motofumi; Inoue, Toshihiro; Inatani, Masaru; Tsuboi, Naoko; Shobayashi, Kohei; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2012-12-03

    To elucidate the impact of phacoemulsification on aqueous monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, and identify its cell origin. For clinical study, aqueous humor samples were collected before and after surgery (17.0 ± 4.0 months postoperatively) from 21 cataract cases that underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Aqueous MCP-1 levels were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. For animal experiments, rabbits underwent phacoemulsification (± IOL). Aqueous humor samples were collected from nonoperated eyes and operated eyes, and immunoassays were performed. Eyes were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies. In the clinical study, mean (± SD) aqueous MCP-1 levels were higher postoperatively (1773.5 ± 321.2 pg/mL) than preoperatively (796.9 ± 211.3 pg/mL; P animal experiments, mean aqueous MCP-1 levels (pg/mL) were higher in postoperative eyes on day 30 (207.1 ± 62.9) than in nonoperated eyes (31.2 ± 12.5; P = 0.018). IOL implantation did not affect the changes in MCP-1 levels. After phacoemulsification, MCP-1 mRNA expression was increased in the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and capsular bag. Expression of MCP-1 mRNA in the capsular bag, but not the other tissues, increased from day 30 to 90. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive immunoreactivity for MCP-1 in cells of the posterior capsule after phacoemulsification. aqueous MCP-1 levels were elevated in both human and animal eyes after phacoemulsification. Proliferated Lens epithelial cells on the capsule might be the major cell origin for prolonged MCP-1 production after phacoemulsification. (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ number, UMIN000005788.).

  6. The dialectic role of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Johannes C; Ott, Johannes

    2009-04-20

    Progesterone is known to be metabolized into various metabolites exerting various effects, predominantly into 5alpha-pregnanes and 4-pregnenes. Studies on uterine tissues showed numerous progesterone-converting enzymes such as 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR), 5beta-reductase, 3alpha-, 3beta-, 20alpha-, and 20beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductases and others. The main progesterone-metabolizing enzymes in human breast tissues are 5alphaR, 3alpha-HSO 3beta-HSO, and 20alpha-HSO. Tumor genesis in the breast has been shown to be enhanced by high 5alphaR activity and suppression of 3alpha-HSO and 20alpha-HSO. A major determinant of 5alphaR, the breast's gate-keeping enzyme activity is the genetic variation in the enzyme's gene. Two polymorphisms within the steroid 5alphaR type 2 gene, Ala>Thr at codon 49 and Val>Leu at codon 89 have been reported to strongly affect the enzyme's activity, even in regard to breast cancer risk. As steroid hormones are known to be converted into many other steroids occupying different receptors and thereby exerting various different effects, progesterone receptors are important factors when mediating the hormone's effects. The progesterone receptor (PR) gene is transcribed from one gene by two alternative promoters and translated into PR-B, a potent transcriptional activator, and PR-A, the shorter isoform, necessary to oppose the effects of PR-B. In addition, endocrine reactions are modulated by epigenetics. The expression of progesterone receptors has been shown to be up- and downregulated by various epigenetic mechanisms. Many factors must be also taken into account in hormonal (replacement) therapy. Thus natural steroids should not be disparaged as treatment options for gender-specific diseases. An update on endocrinological knowledge and experience is rather mandatory for gynaecologists.

  7. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Renal Impairment among ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Yacov; Gal-Oz, Amir; Flint, Nir; Keren, Gad; Arbel, Yaron

    2016-05-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with adverse outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relation between UA and acute kidney injury (AKI) in this population is unclear. We evaluated the effect of elevated UA levels on the risk to develop AKI among consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,372 consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI between January 2008 and February 2015. Patients were stratified into quartiles according to UA levels as follows: quartile 1, 6.7 mg/dl. STEMI patients with elevated UA levels had a higher frequency of AKI (4 vs. 6% vs. 10 vs. 24%; p < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis of patients with reduced baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (≤60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), an elevated UA level was associated with a significant risk to develop AKI, with 46% of patients developing AKI in the highest UA quartile. In a multivariate logistic regression model, for every 1-mg/dl increase in the UA concentration, the adjusted risk for AKI increased by 46% (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.66; p < 0.001). Among STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, elevated UA levels are an independent predictor of AKI.

  8. Elevated levels of serum advanced glycation end products in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyogo, Hideyuki; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Iwamoto, Keiko; Arihiro, Koji; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Sato, Takashi; Ochi, Hidenori; Nonaka, Michihiro; Nabeshima, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Motoki; Ishitobi, Tomokazu; Chayama, Kazuaki; Tazuma, Susumu

    2007-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE), senescent macroprotein derivatives formed at an accelerated rate in diabetes, play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Recently, AGE have also been found to be involved in insulin resistance. Although non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is generally considered a hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance, there are no reports showing the link of AGE to NASH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of AGE in patients with NASH. Glyceraldehyde-derived AGE levels were assayed from serum obtained from 106 patients: 66 with NASH, 10 with simple steatosis, and 30 controls. Serum glyceraldehyde-derived AGE levels (U/mL) were significantly elevated in NASH patients (9.78 +/- 3.73) compared with simple steatosis (7.17 +/- 2.28, P = 0.018) or healthy controls (6.96 +/- 2.36, P = 0.003). Moreover, these were inversely correlated with adiponectin, an adipocytokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, immunohistochemistry of glyceraldehyde-derived AGE showed intense staining in the livers of NASH patients. The present data suggest that the sustained increase of glyceraldehyde-derived AGE could at least in part contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH. The serum glyceraldehyde-derived AGE level may be a useful biomarker for discriminating NASH from simple steatosis.

  9. Perturbation of the yeast N-acetyltransferase NatB induces elevation of protein phosphorylation levels

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    Timmers Marc HTH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The addition of an acetyl group to protein N-termini is a widespread co-translational modification. NatB is one of the main N-acetyltransferases that targets a subset of proteins possessing an N-terminal methionine, but so far only a handful of substrates have been reported. Using a yeast nat3Δ strain, deficient for the catalytic subunit of NatB, we employed a quantitative proteomics strategy to identify NatB substrates and to characterize downstream effects in nat3Δ. Results Comparing by proteomics WT and nat3Δ strains, using metabolic 15N isotope labeling, we confidently identified 59 NatB substrates, out of a total of 756 detected acetylated protein N-termini. We acquired in-depth proteome wide measurements of expression levels of about 2580 proteins. Most remarkably, NatB deletion led to a very significant change in protein phosphorylation. Conclusions Protein expression levels change only marginally in between WT and nat3Δ. A comparison of the detected NatB substrates with their orthologous revealed remarkably little conservation throughout the phylogenetic tree. We further present evidence of post-translational N-acetylation on protein variants at non-annotated N-termini. Moreover, analysis of downstream effects in nat3Δ revealed elevated protein phosphorylation levels whereby the kinase Snf1p is likely a key element in this process.

  10. Do elevated TSH levels predict early pregnancy loss in ART patients?

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    Gingold, Julian A; Zafman, Kelly; Rodriguez-Purata, Jorge; Whitehouse, Michael C; Lee, Joseph A; Sandler, Benjamin; Copperman, Alan B

    2016-12-01

    The upper limit of normal TSH has been revised from 5 mIU/L to 2.5 mIU/L. We sought to evaluate IVF patients and the association between abnormal TSH and early pregnancy loss. A retrospective study of patients who had TSH levels measured within the 2 weeks prior to their fresh autologous IVF cycles (2002-2014). Cohorts were stratified by oocyte age (pregnancy loss or delivery. Model was assessed by chi-square of ANOVA with significance at p 5 mIU/L), mildly elevated ((2.5-5] mIU/L) or suppressed (≤0.5 mIU/L) in 46, 317 and 65 of the 1201 total cycles, respectively. Treatment resulted in 630 pregnancies, 524 clinical pregnancies and 409 deliveries. Pregnancy loss rates were increased in patients ≥38 yo (p pregnancy loss rate was not associated with TSH level (p > 0.30) compared with euthyroid patients after adjusting for oocyte age. Early pregnancy loss rate in IVF patients appears to have no relation to recent TSH levels.

  11. Elevated serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Joo; Kim, Donghee; Park, Hyo Eun; Chung, Goh Eun; Choi, Seung Ho; Choi, Su-Yeon; Lee, Whal; Kim, Joo Sung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-10-01

    Inverse correlations of high serum bilirubin with metabolic and cardiovascular disease have been suggested. However, anti-atherogenic effects of bilirubin have not been well-established in terms of the presence of plaques and stenosis identified in coronary computed tomography (CT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2862 men who were free of cardiovascular disease and underwent coronary CT as part of a routine medical screening examination. Coronary stenotic lesions were considered to be incidences of coronary atherosclerosis, and stenosis was classified as stenosis atherosclerosis and stenosis ≥50% in subjects with elevated bilirubin levels (>1.2 mg/dL) were lower than those in subjects with normal bilirubin levels (≤1.2 mg/dL) (19.9% vs. 27.9%, p atherosclerosis (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94 in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile) and calcified plaque (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.84) were inversely associated with the bilirubin grade in a dose-dependent manner. The serum bilirubin level was inversely associated with coronary atherosclerosis and calcified plaques in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that serum bilirubin could be used as a protective biomarker of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Elevated serum aldosterone levels in dialysis patients: Are we underusing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Velasco, S; Gutierrez, C; Gonzalez Villalba, M J; Heras, M; Molina, A; Callejas, R; Rodríguez, A; Calle, L; Lopes, V

    Serum aldosteronelevels (SA) are a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in the general population. To analyze SA levels in dialysis patients and its relationship with characteristics of dialysis; comorbidity; blood pressure and the use of blocking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system agents (BSRAA). We determined SA in 102 patients: 81 on hemodialysis (HD) and 21 on peritoneal dialysis. Mean age 71.4±12 years; 54.9% male; 29.4% diabetics. Mean time on dialysis 59.3±67 months. In 44 HD patients plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured. Mean SA was 72.6±114.9ng/dl (normal range 1.17-23.6ng/dl). A total of 57.8% of patients had above normal levels which were not related to dialysis characteristics or comorbidity. Only 21% of patients with heart failure and 19.2% with ischemic heart disease used BSRAA. A number of 25 patients treated with BSRAA had significantly lower levels of SA. There was an inverse correlation between AS and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and direct with PRA. The logistic regression analysis conducted to find SA levels above the median associated factors showed that SBP was the only independent risk variable in the overall population (OR 0.97; P=.022); in the 44 patients in whom PRA was determined this was the only independent risk factor (OR 2.24; P=.012). A high percentage of dialysis patients have elevated levels of SA that are associated to diminished SBP and activated PRA and not to dialysis characteristics. In patients with a history of heart disease we underuse BSRAA. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of plastic polymers in remediating wine with elevated alkyl-methoxypyrazine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are odour-active compounds that elicit atypical green aromas and flavours in some wines, and are resilient to removal using traditional wine-making approaches. They originate either as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles inadvertently introduced during wine processing ("ladybug taint") or as grape-derived constituents that are undesirable at elevated levels. In this study we investigated the capacity of a selection of plastic polymers to reduce concentrations of three MPs: isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP). In Trial 1, red wine was spiked with IPMP (20 ng/l), SBMP (20 ng/l) and IBMP (20 ng/l), then separately treated with 13 plastic polymers (surface area 350 cm(2)/l). Three polymers were then identified for further testing based on the results from Trial 1: silicone, ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and a poly-lactic acid-based biodegradable polymer. In Trial 2, the efficacy of these selected polymers to reduce MP levels in red wine was tested as a function of contact time. Solid-phase micro-extraction multi-dimensional GC-MS was used to measure MP levels before and after treatment with the polymers. Results showed significant reductions in all target odorants after 24 h treatment: silicone reduced IPMP and IBMP by 96% and 100%, respectively, while the biodegradable polymer decreased IPMP and IBMP concentrations by 52% and 36%, respectively. EVA was less effective in lowering MP levels (7% IPMP and 23% IBMP after 24 h). Taken overall, the data suggest the potential for the use of poly-lactic acid and silicone in treating wines contaminated by ladybug taint, as well as in reducing high levels of grape-derived MPs.

  14. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

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    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  15. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  16. Determination of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for the determination of the hormones estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in topically applied products. The developed method was then used to conduct a postmarket survey of consumer products for these hormones. Each product was first mixed with Celite and then extracted with methanol. Extracts were cleaned on a Waters Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge, and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC. The analytes were separated using an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (5 μm, 250 mm by 4.6 mm) analytical column and detected by their absorbance at 230 nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved by a 1.0-ml/min linear gradient from 30% acetonitrile and 70% water to 80% acetonitrile and 20% water over 30 min. A final 5 min hold time and a re-equilibration time of 10 min were used to prepare the column for subsequent analysis. Recovery from two different brand lotions spiked with three different levels of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone ranged from 81.8% to 101%. In this study, a total of 70 cosmetic products were surveyed. Twenty two (63%) of the 35 products were labeled as containing an estrogen and/ or progesterone and also provided quantitative label information about the hormone ingredient. The most frequently labeled hormones were progesterone (66%), estriol (46%), estradiol (11%), and estrone (6%). Six products labeled as containing estriol were found to contain estradiol. An estrogen and/or progesterone were found in 34 products at concentrations ranging from 86.0 to 26,800 μg/g. Progesterone was not found in one product labeled as containing this hormone. An additional 35 products, which did not list hormones on their labels, were analyzed and estrogen or progesterone was not detected in these products.

  17. Progesterone modulates the proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gongjie; Cai, Chuan; Dai, Juan; Liu, Yali; Zhang, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Wen, Li; Ding, Yin

    2010-08-01

    Hormone deficiency has been recognized as a risk factor for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women. However, the anabolic effects of progesterone on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) are still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to detect the expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) in hPDLCs and investigate the bone-sparing effects of progesterone. We detected PgR expression in hPDLCs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. After progesterone stimulation, the percentage of hPDLCs entering the S + G2M phase of the cell cycle increased significantly, accompanied by an increased cell growth curve. In both basic culture medium and osteogenic medium, progesterone activated alkaline phosphatase-positive cells and alizarin red-positive nodules. Moreover, mineralization-related markers were up-regulated by progesterone in both time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. In contrast, these effects of progesterone were blocked by the PgR antagonist (RU486). Our results demonstrated that the PgR is expressed in hPDLCs at the gene and protein level, and that progesterone can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of the hPDLCs. These findings suggest that progesterone may play a significant role in osteoblastic function of hPDLCs and may influence the maintenance of alveolar bone mass.

  18. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Elevated levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, cause 'pessimistic' judgment bias in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Oluwaseun S; Beard, Andrew P; Guy, Jonathan H; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-07-31

    Pessimistic judgment biases, whereby humans or non-human animals interpret ambiguous information negatively, are hypothesised to be one of the suite of adaptive changes that comprise the vertebrate stress response. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether experimentally elevating levels of the glucocorticoid stress hormone, corticosterone, in broiler chickens produced a pessimistic judgment bias. We trained young chickens to discriminate a stimulus (paper cone) placed at two locations in an arena, one associated with reward (mealworms) and one with punishment (air puff). During seven days of non-invasive administration of either corticosterone or vehicle control, we tested the birds' responses to the cone placed at ambiguous locations between the trained locations. Corticosterone-treated birds were more likely than controls to respond as if punishment was likely when the cone was placed near to the punished location. The degree of this 'pessimism' was associated with smaller relative spleen weight, which is a documented consequence of chronic stress in chickens. We conclude that changes in corticosterone levels in chickens are sufficient to cause a specific change in decision making, dubbed 'pessimism', whereby corticosterone-treated birds showed an increased expectation of punishment in the face of ambiguous information. Pessimism could be a useful welfare indicator in chickens.

  20. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

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    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  1. Immunological Roles of Elevated Plasma Levels of Matricellular Proteins in Japanese Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Beata Shiratori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated matricellular proteins (MCPs, including osteopontin (OPN and galectin-9 (Gal-9, were observed in the plasma of patients with Manila-type tuberculosis (TB previously. Here, we quantified plasma OPN, Gal-9, and soluble CD44 (sCD44 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and another 29 cytokines by Luminex assay in 36 patients with pulmonary TB, six subjects with latent tuberculosis (LTBI, and 19 healthy controls (HCs from Japan for a better understanding of the roles of MCPs in TB. All TB subjects showed positive results of enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOTs. Spoligotyping showed that 20 out of 36 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strains belong to the Beijing type. The levels of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44 were higher in TB (positivity of 61.1%, 66.7%, and 63.9%, respectively than in the HCs. Positive correlations between OPN and Gal-9, between OPN and sCD44, and negative correlation between OPN and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response, between chest X-ray severity score of cavitary TB and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response were observed. Instead of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44, cytokines G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, and IL-1RA levels were higher in Beijing MTB-infected patients. These findings suggest immunoregulatory, rather than inflammatory, effect of MCPs and can advance the understanding of the roles of MCPs in the context of TB pathology.

  2. Hemodynamic shear stress stimulates migration and extravasation of tumor cells by elevating cellular oxidative level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shijun; Fu, Afu; Chiew, Geraldine Giap Ying; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2017-03-01

    Cancer cells are shed into the blood stream and are exposed to hemodynamic shear stress during metastasis. It has been shown that shear stress can destroy circulating tumor cells (CTCs) both in vitro and in vivo. However, it remains unclear whether shear stress can modulate the properties and functions of tumor cells in a manner that might help CTCs to exit circulation. In this study, we established a microfluidic circulatory system to apply physiological fluid shear stress on breast cancer cells and demonstrated that an arterial level of shear stress significantly enhanced tumor cell migration in transwell and wound healing assays, and enhanced extravasation in a transendothelial assay. Circulatory treatment elevated the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is an early and indispensable event for activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Subsequently, ERK1/2 activation promoted the migration of tumor cells and enhanced their extravasation. Finally, reducing cellular ROS production suppressed tumor cell extravasation in both a transendothelial assay and a zebrafish model. This new understanding of how fluid shear stress promotes tumor cell migration has important implications in cancer treatment and can help us to identify potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

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    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  4. Elevated soluble endothelial protein C receptor levels at ICU admission are associated with sepsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, A G; Kotanidou, A; Mastora, Z; Maniatis, N A; Albani, P; Jahaj, E; Koutsoukou, A; Armaganidis, A; Orfanos, S E

    2015-02-01

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a protein that regulates the protein C anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in the septic process is under investigation. In this study, we assessed the role of sEPCR levels as an early indicator of sepsis development. Plasma sEPCR levels were measured in 59 critically-ill non-septic patients at the time of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for sepsis development and Cox-Regression models were fitted for variables to examine their relationship with time to sepsis development. Thirty patients subsequently developed sepsis and 29 did not. At ICU admission, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were significantly higher in the subsequent sepsis group as compared to the non sepsis group (mean ± SD: 6.4±2.7 and 5±2.3, respectively, P=0.037). sEPCR levels were also higher in the patients who subsequently developed sepsis compared to the patients who did not (median and interquartile range: 173.4 [104.5-223.5] ng/mL vs. 98.3 [69.8-147.7] ng/mL, respectively; P=0.004). Cox regression analysis identified sEPCR as the only parameter related to sepsis development with time (relative risk: 1.078, 95% confidence interval: 1.016-1.144, by 10 units; P=0.013). Upon ICU admission, sEPCR levels in initially non-septic critically-ill patients appear elevated in the subjects who will subsequently become septic.

  5. Severe lymphopenia is associated with elevated plasma interleukin-15 levels and increased mortality during severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuei-Pin; Chang, Hou-Tai; Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Chang, Lih-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yung; Cheng, Aristine; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Meng-Rui; Chen, Yi-Jung; Hou, Hsin-Han; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Ho, Chao-Chi; Huang, Miao-Tzu; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis-related mortality has been found increased in RAG-1 knockout mice. However, in patients admitted to medical intensive care units, it is unknown whether severe lymphocyte depletion at admission is associated with increased interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-15 levels in circulation, and increased mortality. We prospectively enrolled 92 patients who were admitted to medical intensive care units for severe sepsis or septic shock. At admission, 24 patients (26.1%) had severe lymphopenia, defined as lymphocyte counts of less than 0.5 × 10(3)/μL. Severe lymphopenia was associated with significantly higher plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and was also independently associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.532; 95% confidence interval, 1.482-8.416; P = 0.004). The levels of plasma IL-15, but not IL-7, were increased modestly in patients with severe lymphopenia compared with those without (median, 12.2 vs. 6.4 pg/mL; P = 0.005). The elevated plasma IL-15 levels were contrarily associated with significantly decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In conclusion, severe lymphopenia was associated with increased mortality in patients with severe sepsis. We found that patients with sepsis with severe lymphopenia had down-regulated B-cell lymphoma 2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, despite increased plasma IL-15 concentrations. Whether IL-7 and IL-15 are insufficient in patients with severe lymphopenia during severe sepsis warrants further investigations.

  6. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hofmann

    Full Text Available NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN.We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2. At the same time anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9, stress (PSQ-20 and disordered eating (EDI-2 were measured psychometrically.No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70. The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3 and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05. EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02, while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05.Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN.

  7. β-Alanine Dose for Maintaining Moderately Elevated Muscle Carnosine Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    STEGEN, SANNE; BEX, TINE; VERVAET, CHRIS; VANHEE, LANDER; ACHTEN, ERIC; DERAVE, WIM

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONChronic β-alanine (BA) supplementation is an increasingly popular nutritional strategy, because it can elevate muscle carnosine content and thereby enhance high-intensity exercise performance...

  8. Stress-induced increases in progesterone and cortisol in naturally cycling women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ycaza Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies with animals of both sexes show that the adrenal glands release progesterone in addition to cortisol in response to stress. However, little is known about the progesterone response to stress in naturally cycling women. We investigated the effect of stress on estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol levels in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We found that physical stress (the cold pressor test had no effect on estradiol levels, but increased progesterone and cortisol. We also found positive correlations between baseline progesterone and cortisol levels, as well as between the change in progesterone and cortisol before and after water exposure in both the stress and control sessions. Mediation analyses revealed during the stress session, the change in progesterone from baseline to 42-min post-stress onset was mediated by the magnitude of change in cortisol levels across the same time span. Overall, these findings reveal that progesterone released in response to stress as observed in animals and men extends to women during the low ovarian output follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and that the mechanism of release may be similar to the mechanism of cortisol release.

  9. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cancer. Correlation with histologic subtype and degree of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R H; Lakatua, D J; Haus, E; Yasmineh, W J

    1986-09-01

    Microscopic review of 490 consecutive human breast biopsy and mastectomy specimens were correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor content of the tissue, by subtype and degree of differentiation. Of the 4 grades of differentiation, the less differentiated Grade III and IV tumors showed significantly lower levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors in infiltrating ductal and lobular carcinoma (P less than 0.001). In contrast, patients with medullary carcinoma had the lowest tissue levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors with approximately 80% of the cases with less than 10 fmol/mg protein. Patients with mucinous carcinoma had the highest percentages of positive estrogen and progesterone receptor levels (75% and 87%, respectively). Sixty-three percent of the patients with Grade IV infiltrating ductal carcinoma were younger than 53 years of age (P less than 0.001). Patients younger than 53 years of age with Grade II and III infiltrating ductal carcinoma also had significantly lower levels of estrogen receptors, but not of progesterone receptors, than those patients older than 53 years of age (P less than 0.001). Nineteen of 20 "normal" breast tissue specimens were negative (less than 3 fmol/mg protein) for estrogen and progesterone receptors. About 50% of 17 tissue specimens from benign breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, sclerosing adenosis) showed positive estrogen (greater than 10 fmol/mg protein) or progesterone receptor values. In two patients with gynecomastia, no estrogen or progesterone receptors were detectable.

  10. Serum progesterone as an indicator of cyclic activity in post-partum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Serum progesterone as an indicator of cyclic activity in post-partum goat does. V.M. Mmbengwa ... Reproduction is a major factor contributing to the efficiency of meat and milk production (Khanum et al.,. 2008). .... where energy intake was limited, exhibited low levels of serum progesterone concentrations and consequently.

  11. Association of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with elevated serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-like material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    1996-01-01

    in nontesticular non-germ cell tumors including non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) as well. It has never been investigated whether testicular NHL is also associated with elevated S-hCG-1. In the present study the relationship of testicular NHL with increased S-hCG-1 was investigated. In the Danish population-based NHL...... registry, LYFO registry, 12 cases with testicular involvement of the lymphoma at the time of diagnosis and that had S-hCG-1 measured prior to treatment were identified, and cases with elevated S-hCG-1 were analyzed clinicopathologically. Of these, 2 patients had elevated levels. Both cases were high...

  12. Progesterone Negatively Regulates BCRP in Progesterone Receptor-Positive Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP plays a crucial role in multidrug resistance (MDR. Previous studies have shown that steroid hormones, like progesterone (PROG, regulate BCRP expression. The presence of a progesterone response element (PRE in the BCRP promoter, suggests that PROG may regulate transcription of BCRP. Methods: To investigate the role of PROG in the regulation of BCRP expression, two constructs encoding full-length BCRP driven by either an endogenous PRE promoter or a constitutive CMV promoter, were transfected into T47D cells that express the progesterone receptor (PR or into PR-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Results: After treatment with PROG, qPCR and Western blotting analyses indicated that BCRP mRNA and BCRP protein levels were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner in PR-positive cells, but PROG had no significant effect on BCRP levels in the PR-negative cells. The effect observed in PR-positive cells was reversed by co-treatment with RU-486, a specific PROG inhibitor. Cytometric analysis confirmed that BCRP-mediated drug efflux was inhibited and chemosensitivity to mitoxantrone was markedly increased by PROG treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that PROG reverses BCRP-mediated MDR by down-regulating BCRP expression in breast cancer cells by affecting transcription from the PRE-containing BCRP promoter. Our studies suggest that breast cancer patients with BCRP-mediated MDR may be successfully treated with PROG.

  13. Summertime observations of elevated levels of ultrafine particles in the high Arctic marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan D.; Bozem, Heiko; Thomas, Jennie L.; Law, Kathy; Hoor, Peter; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Herber, Andreas; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by increasing levels of open ocean in the Arctic summer and the lack of prior altitude-resolved studies, extensive aerosol measurements were made during 11 flights of the NETCARE July 2014 airborne campaign from Resolute Bay, Nunavut. Flights included vertical profiles (60 to 3000 m above ground level) over open ocean, fast ice, and boundary layer clouds and fogs. A general conclusion, from observations of particle numbers between 5 and 20 nm in diameter (N5 - 20), is that ultrafine particle formation occurs readily in the Canadian high Arctic marine boundary layer, especially just above ocean and clouds, reaching values of a few thousand particles cm-3. By contrast, ultrafine particle concentrations are much lower in the free troposphere. Elevated levels of larger particles (for example, from 20 to 40 nm in size, N20 - 40) are sometimes associated with high N5 - 20, especially over low clouds, suggestive of aerosol growth. The number densities of particles greater than 40 nm in diameter (N > 40) are relatively depleted at the lowest altitudes, indicative of depositional processes that will lower the condensation sink and promote new particle formation. The number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN; measured at 0.6 % supersaturation) are positively correlated with the numbers of small particles (down to roughly 30 nm), indicating that some fraction of these newly formed particles are capable of being involved in cloud activation. Given that the summertime marine Arctic is a biologically active region, it is important to better establish the links between emissions from the ocean and the formation and growth of ultrafine particles within this rapidly changing environment.

  14. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  15. Elevated levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondkar AA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar,1 Taif A Azad,1 Faisal A Almobarak,1 Hatem Kalantan,1 Saleh A Al-Obeidan,1 Khaled K Abu-Amero1,2 1Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which plays a role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the plausible role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG, we investigated whether there is any relationship between the levels of plasma TNF-α and PEG or any of its clinical indices in comparison to normal controls.Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective analysis. Plasma samples from 49 PEG patients and 88 non-glaucomatous controls were evaluated for TNF-α levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on a biochemical/ELISA analyzer.Results: The two study groups were similar in age, sex and systemic disease distribution. The mean TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in the PEG patients (5.54±4.58 pg/mL than in the control subjects (0.93±1.49 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] =3.50–5.72; p=0.000. The overall dose–response trend was significant (χ2=57.07, df=2; p=0.000. A moderate positive and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and cup/disc ratio, an important clinical index for PEG. Besides, binary logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of PEG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level as compared to no association with age and sex. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.777 (95% CI =0.682–0.872 and statistically significant (p=0.000.Conclusion: Elevated systemic levels of inflammatory marker, TNF-α, are associated with PEG and may possibly serve as a biomarker for undiagnosed early

  16. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages......, whereas corresponding hazard ratios for ischemic heart disease were 1.0 (0.8-1.2), 1.2 (1.0-1.5), and 1.3 (1.0-1.6) (p-trend = 0.01). Stratifying for CRP or other risk factors gave similar results. A doubling in plasma YKL-40 was associated with multifactorially and CRP-adjusted increased risk of 20% (95...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  18. Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  19. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, p; Kronborg, Gitte; Nielsen, H

    2004-01-01

    This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were incr...

  20. Elevated Levels of Peripheral Kynurenine Decrease Bone Strength in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Kalaska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 3 months after 5/6 Nx or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats presented higher concentrations of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone both 1 and 3 months after nephrectomy. These animals revealed higher concentrations of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the serum and higher gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR as a physiological receptor for kynurenine and AhR-dependent cytochrome in the bone tissue. Furthermore, nephrectomy significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the bone without affecting their resorptive activity measured in serum. These changes were particularly evident in rats 1 month after 5/6 Nx. The main bone biomechanical parameters of the tibia were unchanged between nephrectomized and sham-operated rats but were significantly increased in older compared to younger animals. A similar trend was observed for geometrical parameters measured with calipers, bone mineral density based on Archimedes' method and image of bone microarchitecture obtained from micro-computed tomography analyses of tibial cortical bone. In nephrectomized animals, peripheral kynurenine levels correlated negatively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics, bone geometry, and bone mineral density values. In conclusion, our data suggest that CKD-induced elevated levels of peripheral kynurenine cause pathological changes in bone

  1. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Jalkanen

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC. The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5% and CLI (53.5%. As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all. In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all, and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all. The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it.

  2. Surgical treatment of patients with mildly elevated parathormone and calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Punam P; Allan, Bassan J; Lew, John I

    2014-06-01

    Patients with mildly elevated parathormone (PTH) and calcium levels consistent for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) may present with more underlying multiglandular disease (MGD) and higher operative failure and recurrence rates than those with conventional, or "classic" pHPT. This study compared the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients with biochemically mild versus conventional pHPT. A series of 707 consecutive patients underwent initial targeted parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathormone monitoring (IPM) at a single institution. Biochemically mild (BM) pHPT was defined as PTH > 65 and 10.4 and operative indication, preoperative laboratory values, imaging, IPM dynamics, and postoperative laboratory values were retrospectively reviewed. Additional assessments included presence of MGD, bilateral neck exploration (BNE), single-gland volume, and operative failure or success, and recurrence. Of 60 patients with BM-pHPT, 46 reported preoperative bone pain, kidney stones, fatigue, and/or mental disturbances. The remaining 14 BM-pHPT patients underwent parathyroidectomy based on published asymptomatic guidelines. Patients with BM-pHPT had significantly more kidney stones, MGD, and BNE. Average single-gland volume and postoperative PTH levels were significantly lower in BM-pHPT patients. There were no significant differences between groups regarding preoperative localization accuracy, IPM dynamics, or operative success/failure, recurrence rates. BM-pHPT patients had more MGD requiring BNE but achieved operative success rates similar to those of patients with conventional disease. IPM successfully identifies MGD in BM-pHPT patients, who should be counseled regarding more extensive operations than limited parathyroidectomy.

  3. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G. [Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2{+-}12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2{+-}34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p<0.001), and 89.9{+-}67.8 pg/ml in 23 patients with renal anemia (p=0.001). VEGF levels in cancer patients were significantly correlated with hemoglobin (hb) levels and platelet counts (each p=0.001), but not with type of tumor, stage, histology or age. Patients with cancers had higher plasma levels of VEGF than patients with non-malignant diseases in case of hb{>=}12 g/dl (33.1{+-}17.5 vs. 16.6{+-}13.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and in case of hb between 11.0 and 11.9 g/dl (56.1{+-}26.4 vs 18.5{+-}14.5 pg/ml, p=0.038). In case of a hb<11 g/dl, plasma VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with and without cancers (67.0{+-}47.5 vs 88.9{+-}68.8 pg/ml, n.s.). In a multivariate model, a significant association between low hb levels and increased plasma levels of VEGF was confirmed. In 16 patients with renal anemia, changes in hb under erythropoietin treatment were inversely correlated with changes in plasma VEGF levels with decreasing VEGF after increase in hb (p=0.01). Conclusions: Anemic patients have elevated levels of VEGF. The data suggest that anemia might impact on the progression of

  4. Risk factors and consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels during pregnancy: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Eilers, Paul H C; Yassine, Siham; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-05-01

    To determine sociodemographic and life style-related risk factors and trimester specific maternal, placental, and fetal consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 7317 mothers, we measured haemoglobin levels in early pregnancy [gestational age median 14.4 weeks (inter-quartile-range 12.5-17.5)]. Anaemia (haemoglobin ≤11 g/dl) and elevated haemoglobin levels (haemoglobin ≥13.2 g/dl) were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal blood pressure, placental function and fetal growth were measured in each trimester. Data on gestational hypertensive disorders and birth outcomes was collected from hospitals. Older maternal age, higher body mass index, primiparity and European descent were associated with higher haemoglobin levels (P pregnancy (mean differences 5.1 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8, 6.5 and 4.1 mmHg, 95% CI 3.0, 5.2, respectively) and with a higher risk of third trimester uterine artery notching (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0, 1.7). As compared with maternal normal haemoglobin levels, not anaemia, but elevated haemoglobin levels were associated with fetal head circumference, length, and weight growth restriction from third trimester onwards (P pregnancy. Elevated haemoglobin levels are associated with increased risks of maternal, placental, and fetal complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Levels, LPA Risk Genotypes, and Increased Risk of Heart Failure in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sough to test whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and corresponding LPA risk genotypes (low number of kringle IV type 2 repeats, rs3798220 and rs10455872, minor allele carriers) are associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein......(a) levels represent a genetically determined risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and aortic valve stenosis (AVS). It is presently unknown whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels also cause heart failure (HF). METHODS: We combined 2 general population studies, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10......,855) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 87,242), which totaled 98,097 Danish participants, of whom 4,122 were diagnosed with HF (1976 to 2013). We conducted observational and genetic instrumental variable analyses in a Mendelian randomization study design, assessing evidence of causality, and we performed...

  6. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, Melanie, E-mail: lemire.melanie@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Fillion, Myriam [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando [Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee [Instituto de Biofisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 {mu}g/g; range: 0.4-158.4 {mu}g/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 {mu}g/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 {mu}g/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 {mu}g/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 {mu}g/g, 1.9-1437 {mu}g/g) and Sr (38.7 {mu}g/g, 3.3-173 {mu}g/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  7. [Hormone profile and follicle development in ovarian stimulation treatment for in vitro fertilization. II. Prolactin, estradiol and progesterone profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudik, R; Fliess, F R; Kunkel, S

    1989-01-01

    144 patients were treated by 5 different stimulation protocols in the IVF-program of the University Women's Hospital Rostock (Clomiphene/hCG, Clomiphene/Anthrogon/hCG, Pergonal/hCG, Anthrogon/hCG, Folistiman/hCG). Estradiol-17 beta and progesterone were determined during the follicular phase of 172 cycles by RIA. The results were compared between the treatment groups by means of Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's nonparametric test. Additionally, in 37 cycles prolactin was determined. The levels of estradiol-17 beta in all treated groups were higher as compared with spontaneous cycles. Between the groups statistically significant differences were found in start and velocity of E2-rise, in the average level of E2, and in the level of preovulatory peaks. The latent phase of stimulation was significantly longer in patients treated with pergonal than in Anthrogon treated patients. Moreover, in the Anthrogon group the rate of "high responder" was higher. On average, in patients with a very fast growth rate of estradiol-17 beta (greater than 1.9 nmol/l) during the late follicular phase the percentage of less mature oocytes was increased after follicular puncture. The levels of progesterone started to rise in all groups between day-2 and -1 (day 0: day of LH-peak). On day 0, patients with Pergonal and Anthrogon had the significantly highest level. Levels above the 1s-range occurred in 12 patients during the follicular phase. This elevation of progesterone took place in 3 patients without any rise of basal LH-levels. 80.4% of 37 patients investigated were found to have prolactin levels above 500 mE/l during the late follicular phase. This transient hyperprolactinemia correlated with the rise of estradiol levels and continued during the early and mid luteal phase. Hence preventive administration of bromocryptine appears to be advisable in cycles stimulated with gonadotropins.

  8. Recurrent arterial thrombosis associated with the antithrombin basel variant and elevated lipoprotein(a) plasma level in an adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Szabolcs; Péter, Andrea; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Balogh, Sándor; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna

    2012-05-01

    Both myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are rare in the young. Yet a 15-year-old male patient suffered a myocardial infarction and later an ischemic stroke despite uninterrupted antiplatelet therapy. His medical history involved the surgical correction of an incomplete atrioventricular canal defect at the age of 13 years. No cardiovascular risk factors other than elevated lipoprotein(a) level could be identified. His antithrombin (AT) activity was decreased and DNA sequence analysis revealed heterozygosity for AT Basel (p.Pro41Leu), a variant with impaired heparin binding. This report supports a possible additional pathophysiological role for AT Basel and elevated lipoprotein(a) level in arterial thrombogenesis.

  9. Testes biopsy analysis and hormonal reproduction levels of pig tail macaque (Macaca nemestrina injected with testosterone enanthate (TE and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA

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    Dadang Kusmana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the testes biopsy and to know the lnrmone level reproduction of pig tail macaque (Macaca nemestrina injected with testosterone enanthate (TE and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA. Six pig tail male macaques, age 6 - 8 years old were used as sanrple. Three months after adaptation period, each animal was injected intra muscularly with 32 mg TE each week starting at week zero up to the sixth week. The treatment was continued every 3 weeks after the sixth week up to the 24th week. 40 mg of DMPA was injected intramuscularly at week zero, and continued every week up to week 18. Volume of the testes was taken every three weeks and blood samples for examination of gonadotropin hormone and steroid hormone were taken at 6 week intervals. Testes biopsy was perfomed at week 30 and week 48. Preparation of testes histological slides were made using the paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin-Eosin (HE. The results of this study showed that both testes volume decreased i.e. 18.35 cm3 ± 9.35 and 19.02cm3 ± 10.88 (at week zero to 6.70 cm3 ± 3.80 and 7.02 cm3 ± 4.61 (lowest volume at week 21. In recovery period, the testes volume increased to 20.34 cmr ± 7.87 and 21.75 cm3 ± 7.09. The diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the score of spermatogenesis (right and left testes at week 30 were 0.13 mm ± 0.027 and 0.13 mm ± 0.026 and score were 5.08 ± 2.67 and 5.41 ± 2.51. At week 48, both diameter of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis score increased to become 0.18 mm ± 0.029 and 0.18 mm ± 0.026, and score were 7.51 ± 2.14 and 7.57 ± 1.59, During this period, hyalinization and fibrosis of seminiferous tubule occurred. By week 6, the total testosterone, free testosterone, and estrogen hormone levels increased quite sharply and then decreased but still higher than base levels of hormone. In the recovery period, estrogen hormone increased significantly until the

  10. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

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    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  11. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  12. Angiopoietin-2 and biliary diseases: elevated serum, but not bile levels are associated with cholangiocarcinoma.

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    Torsten Voigtländer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC is challenging especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC and often delayed due to the lack of reliable markers. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2 has been employed as a biomarker of angiogenesis and might be involved in tumor neoangiogenesis. AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of Angpt-2 as a biomarker to detect patients with CC. METHODS: Bile and serum Angpt-2 levels were measured in patients with CC (n=45, PSC (n=74, CC complicating PSC (CC/PSC (n=11 and patients with bile duct stones (n=37 in a cross sectional study. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 was compared to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry from human CC liver tissue samples was performed to localize the origin of Angpt-2. RESULTS: Serum Angpt-2 concentration was significantly elevated in patients with CC compared to control patients (p<0.05. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis resulted in a higher area under the curve (AUC value compared to CA19-9 (AUC: 0.85 versus 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.74-0.93 versus 0.65-0.87, respectively. Angpt-2 was also detectable in bile, but was not associated with the presence of CC. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong induction of Angpt-2 expression in the tumor vasculature. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Angpt-2 in serum might be a promising protein candidate locally derived from the tumor vasculature in patients with CC. Measurement of Angpt-2 in serum may be useful for diagnosis and further clinical management of patients with CC.

  13. Elevated plasma levels of endostatin are associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of albuminuria (≥30 mg/24 h). After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3-357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7-134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = -0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of -26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (≥131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2-45.5; p < 0.0001). These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Elevated blood lead levels and reading readiness at the start of kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Pat; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lee, Rebecca; Simon, Peter; Diener-West, Marie; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and reading readiness at kindergarten entry, an early marker of school performance, in a diverse urban school population. Kindergarten reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, Rhode Island, were linked to state health department records of blood lead testing by using individual identifiers. The study population (N = 3406) was 59% Hispanic. For each child, the geometric mean BLL was estimated by using all previously reported BLLs. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, year enrolled, race, child language, and free/reduced lunch status as a measure of socioeconomic status. The median geometric mean BLL was 4.2 µg/dL; 20% of children had at least 1 venous BLL ≥10 µg/dL. Compared with children with BLLs readiness were 1.21 (1.19 to 1.23) and 1.56 (1.51 to 1.60) for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively. On average, reading readiness scores decreased by 4.5 (95% CI: -2.9 to -6.2) and 10.0 (95% CI: -7.0 to -13.3) points for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively, compared with BLLs readiness at kindergarten entry. The high prevalence of elevated BLLs warrants additional investigation in other high-risk US populations. Results suggest benefits from additional collaboration between public health, public education, and community data providers.

  15. Unique Molecular Patterns Uncovered in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Elevated Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels: Implications for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    Full Text Available Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG occurs in 10-20% of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD. The risk of resistance is about two-fold higher in patients with elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT levels. We sought to understand the biological mechanisms underlying IVIG resistance in patients with elevated GGT levels.We explored the association between elevated GGT levels and IVIG-resistance with a cohort of 686 KD patients (Cohort I. Gene expression data from 130 children with acute KD (Cohort II were analyzed using the R square statistic and false discovery analysis to identify genes that were differentially represented in patients with elevated GGT levels with regard to IVIG responsiveness. Two additional KD cohorts (Cohort III and IV were used to test the hypothesis that sialylation and GGT may be involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis.Thirty-six genes were identified that significantly explained the variations of both GGT levels and IVIG responsiveness in KD patients. After Bonferroni correction, significant associations with IVIG resistance persisted for 12 out of 36 genes among patients with elevated GGT levels and none among patients with normal GGT levels. With the discovery of ST6GALNAC3, a sialyltransferase, as the most differentially expressed gene, we hypothesized that sialylation and GGT are involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis. We then confirmed that in Cohort III and IV there was significantly less reduction in neutrophil count in IVIG non-responders.Gene expression analyses combining molecular and clinical datasets support the hypotheses that: (1 neutrophil apoptosis induced by IVIG may be a mechanism of action of IVIG in KD; (2 changes in sialylation and GGT level in KD patients may contribute synergistically to IVIG resistance through blocking IVIG-induced neutrophil apoptosis. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanism of action in IVIG resistance, and

  16. Gestational exposure to elevated testosterone levels induces hypertension via heightened vascular angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome, who often develop gestational hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that increased gestational testosterone levels induce hypertension via heightened angiotensin II signaling. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate from Gestational Day 15 to 19 to induce a 2-fold increase in plasma testosterone levels, similar to levels observed in clinical conditions like pre-eclampsia. A subset of rats in these two groups was given losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist by gavage during the course of testosterone exposure. Blood pressure levels were assessed through a carotid arterial catheter and endothelium-independent vascular reactivity through wire myography. Angiotensin II levels in plasma and angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in mesenteric arteries were also examined. Blood pressure levels were significantly higher on Gestational Day 20 in testosterone-treated dams than in controls. Treatment with losartan during the course of testosterone exposure significantly attenuated testosterone-induced hypertension. Plasma angiotensin II levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone-treated rats; however, elevated testosterone levels significantly increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein levels in the mesenteric arteries. In testosterone-treated rats, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, whereas contractile responses to K(+) depolarization and phenylephrine were unaffected. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces hypertension in pregnant rats via heightened angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated maternal testosterone levels with gestational

  17. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data.

  18. Single-item screens identified patients with elevated levels of depressive and somatization symptoms in outpatient physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Dennis L; Werneke, Mark W; George, Steven Z; Deutscher, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Develop efficient and accurate screening tools to identify elevated levels of depressive or somatization symptoms, which can adversely affect functional status outcomes. We conducted a secondary analysis of prospectively collected depressive and somatization symptoms (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised) data from 10,920 patients receiving outpatient physical therapy for a variety of neuromusculoskeletal diagnoses. Item response theory methods were used to analyze data, with particular emphasis on differential item functioning among groups of patients, and to identify potential screening items. Screening item accuracy for identifying patients with elevated symptoms was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analyses. Seven items for depressive and 10 items for somatization symptoms represented unidimensional scales. Differential item functioning was negligible for demographic and clinical variables known to affect functional status outcomes. Items providing maximum information at the 88th percentile for depressive and 77th percentile for somatization scales accurately dichotomized patients into elevated versus not elevated symptom levels. Lack of differential item functioning suggested depressive and somatization screening could be useful in routine clinical practice and allowed the development of single-item screens that accurately identified patients with elevated depressive or somatization symptoms. Item response theory-based single-item screens may facilitate evaluation and management of heterogeneous populations receiving outpatient physical therapy.

  19. Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature

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    Senthil Chinnasamy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20% and temperature (30, 40 and 50oC. The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 µg mL-1 and biomass (210 µg mL-1, which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%, were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30oC under elevated CO2 (6%. Although increases in temperature above 30oC resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30oC, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures.

  20. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Fatma Çetinözman Aksoy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune progesteron dermatitis (AIPD is a rare disorder which is characterized by cyclical premenstrual flares of cutaneous or mucocutaneous manifestations. We present a 36-year-old woman with a 2-year history of oral ulcers and a rash which presents a week before every menstruation. She also had a history of recurrent herpes labialis infection; however herpes simplex virus could not be detected by PCR in oral lesions. Routine laboratory investigations, as well as serum complement levels were normal, except for elevated ANA titer (1/160. Histopathological examination of one of the papules was consistent with erythema multiforme and immunobullous diseases were ruled out by negative immunofluorescence studies. Based on the history and the clinical features, AIPD was suspected and the diagnosis was confirmed by flare of the lesions after progesterone challenge test. Subsequently, oral tamoxifen was started which controlled her flares significantly and no major side effects except amenorrhea was observed during treatment. Next she was given spironolactone which did not control her symptoms, therefore oral prednisolone had to be introduced. Due to its rare occurence, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment alternatives of AIPD are discussed in this study based on the review of the medical literature.

  1. The effects of progesterone on oxytocin mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the female rat can be altered by the administration of diazepam or RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Shughrue, P J; Merchenthaler, I; Amico, J A

    1999-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT) facilitates the onset of maternal behaviour in the late pregnant rat, enhances uterine contractility at parturition, and elicits milk ejection during lactation. If the rising estradiol (E2 and declining progesterone (P) of late pregnancy is reproduced in a virgin ovariectomized rat by implanting E2- and P-filled capsules for 2 weeks followed by removal of P-containing implants 36-48 h prior to death, OT messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels increase in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei (PVN and SON) of the rat. Both E2 administration and P withdrawal are necessary to increase OT mRNA, but the mechanisms of these effects are not understood. P may work within the PVN although P receptors are reported to be sparse or non-existent in the PVN or outside the PVN on PR-containing neurones that project to OT-containing neurones or via membrane bound receptors that are known to bind neurosteroids and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). To determine the mechanism through which P may inhibit or P withdrawal may increase OT mRNA levels, virgin ovariectomized (OVX) rats received sequential E2 and P via Silastic implants for 14 days. On day 13, prior to removal of P capsules on day 14, the rats were given the benzodiazepine agonist, diazepam, or saline injections subcutaneously (s.c.) twice daily until death on day 16. OT mRNA levels were increased in the steroid-treated group that received saline but not diazepam. In experiment 2, P capsules were removed on day 14 or pharmacological P withdrawal was induced by injecting RU486 injections s.c. twice daily until death 48 h later. OT mRNA levels were increased in the steroid-treated group that received RU486. Subsequent studies demonstrated the expression of PR mRNA within the rat PVN. The data suggest that gonadal steroids may influence PVN OT mRNA levels by modulating the GABA(A) receptor or by directly altering gene transcription via the PR.

  2. Pravastatin inhibits tumor growth through elevating the levels of apolipoprotein A1

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    Chun Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that pravastatin elevated ApoA1, an HDL major constituent with anti-inflammatory characteristics, which displayed strong adversary associations with tumor developments and growth. Increasing the amounts of ApoA1 by pravastatin coupled with DOX may improve the therapeutic efficacy for cancer treatment.

  3. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction

  4. Plasma proteome profiling of atherosclerotic disease manifestations reveals elevated levels of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mickley, Hans

    2014-01-01

    an increased expression profile from group 1 to 4. The top-most elevated protein, vinculin (Vcl) displayed a similar profile. Immunoassays confirmed the expression profile of apo(a) and CRP. A 5-plex SRM-MS assay for Vcl, SAA, CRP, apo(a) and thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) was developed for multiplex verification...

  5. Specific interactions of steroids, arylhydrocarbons and flavonoids with progesterone receptors from the cytosol of the fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenasi, Helena; Breskvar, Katja

    2004-08-01

    Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans) transforms fungitoxic progesterone into the less toxic 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone which is then able to exit the mycelia into the surrounding water. Hydroxylation of progesterone is an inducible process in which cytosolic progesterone receptors could be involved. In the present study, we characterised receptors with respect to ligand specificity and to their involvement in progesterone induction of hydroxylase. EC(50) values of different ligands (steroids, xenobiotic arylhydrocarbons and natural flavonoids) were determined by competition studies using 40nM ((3)H)progesterone. C21 and C19 3-oxo-4-ene steroids were good competitors (EC(50) of progesterone 2.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(-7)M, EC(50) of androsten-3,17-dione 24 +/- 2 x 10(-7)M). The presence of hydroxyl groups in steroids significantly decreased the affinity for receptors. The arylhydrocarbons alpha-naphthoflavone and ketoconazole exhibited EC(50) values of 0.3 +/- 0.01 x 10(-7)M and 27 +/- 5 x 10(-7)M, respectively, whereas beta-naphthoflavone and benzo(a)pyrene were not able to displace labelled progesterone completely. The competition curves obtained by natural flavonoids also did not reach the bottom level of non-labelled progesterone, indicating the interaction at some allosteric binding site(s) of progesterone receptors. All ligands were examined for their involvement in progesterone-hydroxylase induction. Steroid agonists induced the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner in accordance with their affinity for receptors, whereas arylhydrocarbons and natural flavonoids did not induce the enzyme. The agonistic action of steroids, together with the antagonistic action of alpha-naphthoflavone, strongly suggests the involvement of progesterone receptors in progesterone signalling resulting in the induction of progesterone-hydroxylase.

  6. Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  7. Elevated Serum Levels of Alpha-fetoprotein in Patients with Infantile Hemangioma Are Not Derived from within the Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinte eItinteang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The embryonic-like stem cell origin of infantile hemangioma (IH and the observed elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in patients with hepatic IH led us to investigate if this tumor was the source of AFP.Materials and Methods: We measured serial serum levels of AFP in patients with problematic proliferating IH treated with surgical excision or propranolol treatment. We also investigated the expression of AFP in extra-hepatic IH samples using immunohistochemical staining, mass spectrometry, NanoString gene expression analysis and in situ hybridization.Results: Serum levels of AFP normalized following surgical excision or propranolol treatment. Multiple regression analysis for curve fittings revealed a different curve compared to reported normal values in the general populations. AFP was not detected in any of the IH samples examined at either the transcriptional or translational levels.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the association of proliferating IH with elevated serum levels of AFP which normalized following surgical excision or propranolol treatment. We have shown that IH is not the direct source of AFP. An interaction between the primitive mesoderm derived IH, and the endogenous endodermal tissues, such as liver, via an intermediary, may explain the elevated serum levels of AFP in infants with extra-hepatic IH.

  8. Stratified analysis and clinical significance of elevated serum triglyceride levels in early acute pancreatitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianhua; He, Wenhua; Zhu, Yin; Zhu, Yong; Zeng, Hao; Liu, Pi; Xia, Liang; Lu, Nonghua

    2017-06-27

    Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the three most common causes of AP, which is associated with the AP prognosis that has not been clearly defined. In this retrospective study, 1539 AP patients, who had serum triglyceride (TG) levels measured within the first 72 h, were assessed. The study groups consisted of patients with normal, mild, moderate, and severe/very severe HTG levels based on the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. We collected baseline demographic information, laboratory values, complications, and clinical outcome data in different HTG severity groups to analyze the clinical significance of elevated TG levels in AP. Our study included 1539 AP patients; of these, 1078 (70%) had a normal TG levels, and 461 (30%) had elevated TG levels. The rates of severe AP increased in HTG groups of increasing severity (4% vs. 8% vs. 12%; P trend HTG group, respectively. The proportion of persistent organ failure (POF), multiple organ failure (MOF), and persistent Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) increased with higher grades of HTG (P trend HTG group (57/112 patients; 51%; P trend HTG and certain AP complications. In addition to other factors, an elevated TG level could be associated with the severity and prognosis of AP, including pancreatic necrosis, POF, MOF, persistent SIRS, ICU admission, and mortality.

  9. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  10. PLASMA PROGESTERONE LEVELS TN LACTATING EWES AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (PMSG/PROG/PMSG) were included in the crperinrent because of preliminary success with this tre'atrnent irr post partum cattle (Lishman, unpublished). Seven ewes ovulated following the second PMSG injection. but none were detected in oestrus. Further. although corpora lutea had a nornral lifi:-span, peak progesterclne ...

  11. Troponin I level in risk stratification of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Shahriar, Shahina Sobhan and Ziarrat Islam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the role of troponin I in risk stratification of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 40 smoker and 40 non-smoker patients. The troponin I was significantly higher (p<0.001 in smokers (35.5 ± 5.22 ng/mL than non-smoker (0.27 ± 0.01 ng/mL. The duration of hospital stay was longer in Group I (106.6 ± 2.36 hour than in Group II (49.20 ± 1.01 hour. The major adverse cardiac event was higher in smoker (71.79% compared to non-smokers (10.8%. So, it may be concluded that higher value of troponin I with history of smoking in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction may be considered as ‘high risk group’ patients.

  12. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  13. Treatment of postmenopausal women with topical progesterone creams and gels: are they effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, F Z

    2014-12-01

    Topical progesterone creams and gels can be obtained over the counter and/or by prescription from custom-compounding pharmacies and are used by thousands of postmenopausal women for hormonal treatment. However, the effectiveness of these preparations for protecting the endometrium from unopposed estrogen is controversial, due largely to the very low serum progesterone levels that are achieved. Despite these low serum levels, salivary and capillary blood levels are very high and a protective endometrium has been reported in a limited number of studies. Topical alcohol-based, but not water-based, gels appear to yield luteal-phase serum progesterone levels but studies with these preparations are scant. Long-term studies with percutaneous progesterone creams and gels are likely to provide valuable information for treatment of postmenopausal women with this popular route of administration.

  14. Short-term influence of elevation of plasma homocysteine levels on cognitive function in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Lehrl, S; Richter-Schmidinger, T; Kreusslein, A; Hauenstein, T; Bayerl, F; Jung, P; Kneib, T; Kurz, A; Kornhuber, J; Bleich, S

    2010-04-01

    Acute homocysteine elevation has been shown to have a significant impact on cognitive function in animal models. Investigation of the short-term impact of elevation of plasma homocysteine levels through a dietary intervention on cognitive abilities of young healthy adults. 100 healthy medical students of both genders were enrolled in the study. Homocysteine levels and cognitive abilities were measured at 08:30 (before breakfast) and at 15:00 (two hours after lunch and six hours after breakfast). Food intake was restricted to specified comestibles. The cognitive assessment comprised a version of the Short Test for General Intelligence, three subtests of the Syndrome Short Test and the Stroop test. At 15:00 plasma homocysteine was significantly elevated in 56 participants (P 0.05) and the direction of the changes did not differ between them. Accordingly, the multiple linear regression analysis did not reveal an important influence of homocysteine elevation on cognitive performance variations. Significant increase of plasma homocysteine is not associated with a straightforward inhibitory or facilitatory short-term effect on physiological cognitive parameters in young healthy adults.

  15. Effect of mifepristone on steroid receptor expression and biotransformation of oestrogen and progesterone in rat uterus and deciduoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Urmila; Kumar, Anand; Sharma, Kanhaiya; Kaushal, Mishi; Mehra, Raj

    2006-01-01

    [corrected] Mifepristone is a synthetic antiprogestin which terminates early pregnancy. Since it interferes with the progesterone maintained decidua, we compared the effect of mifepristone on oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and on the biotransformation of these hormones in normal and deciduous uterus. Ovariectomized rats were treated with an oestrogen-progesterone hormone regimen and deciduoma was induced by trauma in one horn of the rat uterus while the other served as a control under an identical hormonal milieu. Hormone receptor and biotransformation studies were done using radiolabelled oestradiol and progesterone with high specific activity. The artificially formed decidual tissue was comparable with that of early pregnancy. Mifepristone replenished oestrogen and progesterone receptors which were suppressed by progesterone in both the normal and decidualized uterine horns. Inhibition of oestrogen receptors by progesterone correlated with decreased oestradiol levels at the site of action. Metabolism of progesterone to less potent compounds was promoted by mifepristone. The enzymatic activities of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (which metabolizes oestradiol), and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5alpha-reductase (which metabolize progesterone) were altered by mifepristone. The effect of mifepristone in varying the hormone receptor population and the availability of different levels of active metabolites of ovarian hormones have an Important role in the antiprogestin action of mifepristone.

  16. Development of a TIRF-based biosensor for sensitive detection of progesterone in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppel, Nina D; Pröll, Florian; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2007-04-15

    A total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF)-based biosensor for progesterone in bovine milk was developed and tested by measuring the progesterone level in daily milk samples for 25 days, covering a whole estrus cycle. The detection is based on total internal reflectance fluorescence. The assay has been designed as a binding-inhibition test with a progesterone derivative covalently immobilized on the sensor surface and a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody as biological recognition element. First an existing progesterone assay was optimized by reducing the assay time per measurement, resulting in an assay time of about 5 min and reaching a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ng mL(-1) and a quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.34 ng mL(-1). After calibration the assay was tested by measuring the progesterone level in daily milk samples over several weeks. An estrus cycle of a cow could be measured. As results become available within minutes without any preparation or pre-concentration of the milk samples the fully automated TIRF-based biosensor for progesterone can be used in-line in the milking parlor and thus could be an important tool for reproductive management of dairy cattle detecting heat and predicting pregnancy, which are critical parameters in milk production.

  17. Magnesium lithospermate B extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza elevates intracellular Ca(2+) level in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chung, Tse-Yu; Li, Feng-Yin; Fan, Ruey-Jane; Tzen, Jason Tc

    2010-08-01

    To examine if magnesium lithospermate B (MLB), a potent inhibitor of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, leads to the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) level as observed in cells treated with cardiac glycosides. Viability of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with various concentrations of ouabain or MLB was measured. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels were visualized using Fluo4-AM (fluorescent dye) when cells were treated with ouabain or MLB in the presence or absence of KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor) and 2-APB (IP(3) receptor antagonist). Molecular modeling was conducted for the docking of ouabain or MLB to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Changes of cell body and dendrite morphology were monitored under a microscope. severe toxicity was observed in cells treated with ouabain of concentration higher than 1 micromol/L for 24 h while no apparent toxicity was observed in those treated with MLB. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels were substantially elevated by MLB (1 micromol/L) and ouabain (1 micromol/L) in similar patterns, and significantly reduced in the presence of KB-R7943 (10 micromol/L) or 2-APB (100 micromol/L). Equivalent interaction with the binding cavity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was simulated for ouabain and MLB by forming five hydrogen bonds, respectively. Treatment of ouabain (1 micromol/L), but not MLB (1 mumol/L), induced dendritic shrink of SH-SY5Y cells. Comparable to ouabain, MLB leads to the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) level presumably via the same mechanism by inhibiting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The elevated Ca(2+) levels seem to be supplied by Ca(2+) influx through the reversed mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and intracellular release from endoplasmic reticulum.

  18. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  19. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts.

  20. Serum hepcidin levels are innately low in HFE-related haemochromatosis but differ between C282Y-homozygotes with elevated and normal ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Klaver, Siem M; Jacobs, Esther M G; van Tits, Lambertus J H; Janssen, Mirian C H; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2008-09-01

    HFE C282Y-homozygosity has been associated with low hepcidin expression, leading to increased ferritin levels. However, serum hepcidin protein levels have not been documented in humans. In the current study, we compared serum hepcidin levels of newly diagnosed HFE C282Y-homozygotes with (N = 15) and without (N = 7) elevated serum ferritin levels to levels of 40 controls (20 heterozygotes and 20 wild types). In addition, hepcidin levels of four C282Y homozygotes were investigated during the course of all phlebotomy treatment phases. Serum hepcidin levels were lower in HFE C282Y-homozygotes (median; 25th-75th percentile: 1.88; 0.78-2.77 nmol/l) compared to controls (2.74; 1.45-5.39). Hepcidin/ferritin ratios were also lower in homozygotes. Homozygotes with an elevated serum ferritin had a higher serum hepcidin but a lower hepcidin/ferritin ratio than those with normal ferritin (2.28; 1.62-3.23 nmol/l hepcidin vs. 0.80; 0.60-1.29 and 3.63; 2.72-7.59 pmol hepcidin/microg ferritin vs. 13.2; 5.15-14.2). Serum hepcidin decreased during the depletion phase of phlebotomy and remained low during maintenance. This study showed that serum hepcidin is innately low in HFE-related haemochromatosis. Elevated ferritin levels were associated with increased hepcidin levels while erythropoiesis lead to lower hepcidin levels. During depletion, therefore, hepcidin levels are decreased, which may exacerbate intestinal iron absorption.

  1. [Progesterone and prevention of preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V

    2015-10-01

    The literature confirms the interest of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in specific indications for patients carrying a singleton pregnancy. In contrast, randomized trials have shown no benefit using progesterone in the prevention of prematurity in twins and even an adverse effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. PROGESTERONE: BIOSYNTHESIS FROM PREGNENOLONE IN HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENNETT, R D; HEFTMANN, E

    1965-08-06

    After administration of pregnenolone-4-C(14) to Holarrhena floribunda leaves, radioactive progesterone was isolated and purified to constant specific activity by chromatography, conversion to a derivative, and recrystallization. The result suggests that the biogenetic sequence leading to progesterone is the same in plants as in animals.

  3. Effects of dexamethasone on progesterone and estrogen profiles and uterine progesterone receptor localization during pregnancy in Sahel goat in Semi-Arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Yahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of dexamethasone in veterinary and human medicine, it is reported to cause some severe pregnancy related side effects like abortion in some animals. The mechanism of the response is not clear but seems to be related to interspecies and/or breed difference in response which may involve alterations in the concentrations of some reproductive hormones. Methods Twenty Sahel goats comprising 18 does and 2 bucks were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after synchronization. Repeated dexamethasone injections were given at 0.25 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested at days 28 and day 78 of gestation through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis using 3 pregnant does randomly selected from each group at each instant. Data were expressed as Means ± Standard Deviations and analyzed using statistical soft ware package, GraphPad Instant, version 3.0 (2003 and progesterone receptor (PR were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Dexamethasone treatments had no significant (p > 0.05 effect on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in pregnant Sahel goats but up regulated PR from 2+ to 3+ in second trimester. Conclusion As dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta is an established fact, the lack of effect on progesterone level in this study may be due to the fact that unlike other species whose progesterone production during pregnancy is placenta – dependent, in goats is corpus luteum - dependent. Consequently dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta reported in literatures did not influence progesterone levels during pregnancy in Sahel goat. The up regulation of progesterone receptor (PR in Sahel goat gravid uterus is a beneficial effects and that dexamethasone can safely be used in corpus luteum – dependent progesterone secreting pregnant animal species like Sahel goat and camel. Therefore

  4. Effects of dexamethasone on progesterone and estrogen profiles and uterine progesterone receptor localization during pregnancy in Sahel goat in Semi-Arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahi, Dauda; Ojo, Nicholas Adetayo; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of dexamethasone in veterinary and human medicine, it is reported to cause some severe pregnancy related side effects like abortion in some animals. The mechanism of the response is not clear but seems to be related to interspecies and/or breed difference in response which may involve alterations in the concentrations of some reproductive hormones. Twenty Sahel goats comprising 18 does and 2 bucks were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after synchronization. Repeated dexamethasone injections were given at 0.25 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested at days 28 and day 78 of gestation through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis using 3 pregnant does randomly selected from each group at each instant. Data were expressed as Means ± Standard Deviations and analyzed using statistical soft ware package, GraphPad Instant, version 3.0 (2003) and progesterone receptor (PR) were scored semi-quantitatively. Dexamethasone treatments had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in pregnant Sahel goats but up regulated PR from 2+ to 3+ in second trimester. As dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta is an established fact, the lack of effect on progesterone level in this study may be due to the fact that unlike other species whose progesterone production during pregnancy is placenta - dependent, in goats is corpus luteum - dependent. Consequently dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta reported in literatures did not influence progesterone levels during pregnancy in Sahel goat. The up regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) in Sahel goat gravid uterus is a beneficial effects and that dexamethasone can safely be used in corpus luteum - dependent progesterone secreting pregnant animal species like Sahel goat and camel. Therefore source of progesterone secretions during pregnancy should be considered

  5. Elevated Levels of Dickkopf-1 Are Associated with β-Catenin Accumulation and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Chondrosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changbao; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ma, Xinlong; Liu, Zhongjun; Liu, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is an antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the biological role of DKK1 and β-catenin involved in chondrosarcoma has not been sufficiently investigated. This study was designed to investigate the expression profiles of DKK1 and β-catenin, and to clarify their clinical values in chondrosarcoma. Methods The mRNA and protein levels of DKK1 and β-catenin in fresh chondrosarcoma and the corresponding non-tumor tissues were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The protein expression patterns of DKK1 and β-catenin were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The associations among DKK1 level, β-catenin accumulation, clinicopathological factors and the overall survival were separately evaluated. Results Both DKK1 and β-catenin levels were remarkably elevated in chondrosarcoma compared with the corresponding non-tumor tissues. High DKK1 level and positive β-catenin accumulation in chondrosarcoma specimens were 58.7% and 53.9%, respectively. Elevated DKK1 level significantly correlated with positive β-catenin accumulation, and they were remarkably associated with histological grade and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society stage. Furthermore, DKK1 level and β-catenin accumulation had significant impacts on the prognosis of chondrosarcoma patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that DKK1 level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Conclusions Elevated DKK1 levels associated with β-catenin accumulation play a crucial role in chondrosarcoma. DKK1 can serve as a novel predictor of poor prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma. PMID:25144498

  6. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks data on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We therefore, conducted a cross-sectional study to examine modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors associated with elevated alanine...... aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women...... and >50 IU/L for men) and calculated prevalence ratios associated with clinical and lifestyle factors using Poisson regression. We examined the association with other biomarkers by linear regression. RESULTS: The median value of ALT was 24 IU/L (interquartile range: 18-32 IU/L) in women and 30 IU...

  7. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a rare cyclic premenstrual allergic reaction to progesterone produced during the luteal phase of a woman's menstrual cycle. Patients present with a variety of conditions including erythema multiforme, eczema, urticaria, angioedema, and progesterone-induced anaphylaxis. Case. Thirty-eight-year-old woman G2P2002 presents with erythema multiforme and urticarial rash one week prior to her menses starting one year after menarche. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms resolved. Conclusion. This is a typical case of progesterone autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on cyclic nature of the dermatitis. This differentiates the condition from other allergies or systemic diseases with skin manifestations. Inhibition of ovulation in such cases results in decrease in progesterone secretion and prevention of symptoms.

  8. Maternal serum cholesterol levels are elevated from the 1st trimester of pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ä; Egan, N; Broadhurst, D I; Khashan, A S; Joyce, C; Stapleton, M; O'Mullane, J; O'Donoghue, K

    2012-11-01

    Cholesterol is monitored in the non-pregnant adult population, where normal values are established. Although reported to be elevated in pregnancy, cholesterol is neither routinely measured nor treated. We aimed to investigate cholesterol levels throughout pregnancy and to establish reference values for cholesterol in healthy pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of serum cholesterol in healthy women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care were recruited and cholesterol levels assayed at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks' gestation and on day 1-3 postpartum. A total of 222 women were recruited. The majority (95%) were white Irish, with a median age of 31 years (range 16-46). Median BMI was 25.9 kg/m2 (range 18-40) and 16% were smokers. Cholesterol levels were elevated in all trimesters of pregnancy, with median values from 1st trimester raised outside the non-pregnant adult range. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels ranged from 0.9 to 3.7 mmol/l and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels ranged from 1.3 to 6.1 mmol/l. Fasting, smoking and obesity did not have any significant effects on results. Total and LDL-cholesterol levels were raised throughout pregnancy. Levels were above non-pregnant adult ranges as early as the 1st trimester. The implications of this on fetus and mother are undetermined and deserve further investigation.

  9. Elevated serum leptin levels are associated with good nutritional status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Kayalar, Arzu Ozdemir; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2015-03-01

    Leptin is a hormone and a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from adipocytes, which functions to suppress appetite in healthy persons. Serum leptin levels are significantly elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) primarily due to decreased clearance by the kidneys The consequence of hyperleptinemia in ESRD is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and nutrition/inflammation status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. 65 chronic, anuric, nonobese (body mass index (BMI) nutrition and inflammation status. Patients were classified into the 3 groups according to serum leptin levels; group 1 (low leptin, n = 9), group 2 (normal leptin, n = 31), and group 3 (high leptin, n = 25). Mean age and duration on dialysis of 65 patients (male/female: 34/31) were 51.6 ± 17.8 years and 78.0 ± 67.9 months, respectively. Serum leptin levels increased with older age, female gender, higher BMI and triceps skinfold thickness. Elevated serum leptin levels were significantly associated with good nutritional status parameters, such as higher albumin (p = 0.001), prealbumin (p = 0.033), total iron binding capacity (p = 0.045), total cholesterol (p = 0.041), and lower malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) (p = 0.002). Serum leptin levels remained a negative correlation with MIS after adjustments made for BMI. No correlation was established between leptin and inflammation parameters including ferritin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necorsis factor alpha (TNF-α). Elevated serum leptin levels seem to be associated with good nutritional status. However, there was no correlation between leptin and inflammatory status.

  10. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  11. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  12. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the reproduction of the freshwater crayfish Cherax albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, E; De Lisa, E; Di Cristo, C; Di Cosmo, A; Paolucci, M

    2010-02-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone in the reproduction of the crayfish Cherax albidus by using vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker. Early-vitellogenic (EV), full-vitellogenic (FV), and non-vitellogenic (NV) females of Cherax albidus were treated with 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, or both for 4 weeks. Levels of VTG mRNA in the hepatopancreas were detected by RT-PCR. The PCR product was sequenced and showed 97% homology with Cherax quadricarinatus VTG. 17beta-estradiol was more effective than progesterone and 17beta-estradiol plus progesterone in increasing the vitellogenin transcript in the hepatopancreas of EV and FV females. On the contrary, progesterone was more effective than 17beta-estradiol and 17beta-estradiol plus progesterone in increasing the vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph of EV and FV females. Hepatopancreas histology and fatty acid composition of females injected with hormones showed major modifications. No effects were registered in NV females. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol and progesterone influence VTG synthesis, although our data indicate that they act through different pathways and are not effective until the proper hormonal environment is established, as demonstrated by their inefficacy in NV females.

  13. Children's Elevated Cortisol Levels at Daycare: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home…

  14. Circulating heat shock protein 60 levels are elevated in HIV patients and are reduced by anti-retroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Anraku

    Full Text Available Circulating heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60 and heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10 have been associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. To determine whether these heat shock proteins might be associated with the immune activation seen in HIV-infected patients, the plasma levels of Hsp60 and Hsp10 were determined in a cohort of 20 HIV-infected patients before and after effective combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART. We show for the first time that circulating Hsp60 levels are elevated in HIV-infected patients, with levels significantly reduced after cART, but still higher than those in HIV-negative individuals. Hsp60 levels correlated significantly with viral load, CD4 counts, and circulating soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide levels. No differences or correlations were seen for Hsp10 levels. Elevated circulating Hsp60 may contribute to the immune dysfunction and non-AIDS clinical events seen in HIV-infected patients.

  15. Circulating heat shock protein 60 levels are elevated in HIV patients and are reduced by anti-retroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anraku, Itaru; Rajasuriar, Reena; Dobbin, Caroline; Brown, Richard; Lewin, Sharon R; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Circulating heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10) have been associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. To determine whether these heat shock proteins might be associated with the immune activation seen in HIV-infected patients, the plasma levels of Hsp60 and Hsp10 were determined in a cohort of 20 HIV-infected patients before and after effective combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). We show for the first time that circulating Hsp60 levels are elevated in HIV-infected patients, with levels significantly reduced after cART, but still higher than those in HIV-negative individuals. Hsp60 levels correlated significantly with viral load, CD4 counts, and circulating soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide levels. No differences or correlations were seen for Hsp10 levels. Elevated circulating Hsp60 may contribute to the immune dysfunction and non-AIDS clinical events seen in HIV-infected patients.

  16. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  17. Genipin crosslinking elevates the strength of electrochemically aligned collagen to the level of tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo Uquillas, Jorge; Kishore, Vipuil; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    Collagen-based tissue mimics are important in clinical research because collagen is the main structural element in tendons. The current study aimed to improve the mechanical strength of Electronically Aligned Collagen (ELAC) threads by optimizing several crosslinking parameters. The results indicated that elevating the concentration of genipin to 2% and the solvent to 90% ethanol significantly enhanced the wet ultimate tensile stress of ELAC threads to 109 MPa with a crosslinking degree of 65%. Furthermore, significantly higher adhesion and proliferation of hMSCs was observed in ELAC threads crosslinked with 2% genipin in 90% ethanol compared to 0.625% genipin in 1X PBS. In conclusion, ELAC threads with mechanical strength on par with native tendon have significant potential to be used as scaffolds in tendon tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis A virus genotype IA-infected patient with marked elevation of aspartate aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshifumi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Takahashi, Koji; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure (ALF) without hepatic encephalopathy with marked elevation of aminotransferase due to hepatitis A, according to the revised Japanese criteria of ALF. This liver biopsy of the patient showed compatible to acute viral hepatitis and she immediately recovered without intensive care. She had no comorbid disorders. Of interest, phylogenetic tree analysis using almost complete genomes of hepatitis A virus (HAV) demonstrated that the HAV isolate from her belonged to the HAV subgenotype IA strain and was similar to the HAJFF-Kan12 strain (99% nucleotide identity) or FH1 strain (98% nucleotide identity), which is associated with severe or fulminant hepatitis A. Careful interpretation of the association between HAV genome variations and severity of hepatitis A is needed and the mechanism of the severe hepatitis should be explored.

  19. Baseline cardiac troponin t levels are elevated in subjects with untreated diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M; Nielsen, M L; Leósdóttir, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cardiac troponins are biomarkers of myocardial injury and serve both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Even mild elevations represent subclinical myocardial damage in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between glucometabolic status...... and cardiac troponin T in middle-aged or older apparently healthy subjects. Design and method: We examined cross-sectional associations between highsensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) and FPG categorized as normal fasting glucose (NFG: FPG/=7.0mmol/L), in 535 men and 226 women aged 56-79 years without.......26). After adjusting for age and sex, FPG category remained significantly predictive of hsTnT (B = 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.59]; p hypertrophy (LVH...

  20. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Effects of progesterone stimulated allopregnanolone on craving and stress response in cocaine dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Covault, Jonathan; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    Fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect physiological and subjective effects of cocaine. Furthermore, our laboratory has demonstrated that following drug-cue exposure, cocaine dependent women with high levels of circulating progesterone display lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure responses and report lower levels of anxiety and drug craving compared to cocaine dependent women with low levels of progesterone. In the current study we examined the role of the progesterone derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on stress arousal, inhibitory control and drug craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Plasma levels of ALLO were measured using GC/MS in 46 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent men and women on day 5 of a 7-day treatment regimen of micronized progesterone (15M/8F) (400mg/day) or placebo (14M/9F) administered in a double blind, randomized manner. As a control, levels of the testosterone derived neurosteroid androstanediol (ADIOL) were also measured. All subjects participated in laboratory sessions on days 5-7 of progesterone/placebo administration in which they were exposed to a series of 5-min personalized guided imagery of either a stressful situation, cocaine use or of a neutral setting and dependent variables including subjective craving, mood, Stroop task as a measure of inhibitory control performance and plasma cortisol were assessed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO level and levels of dependent variables compared between ALLO groups. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly increased ALLO levels with no sex differences. There were no effects of micronized progesterone on the testosterone derived ADIOL. Individuals in the high versus the low ALLO group showed decreased levels of cortisol at baseline, and a higher cortisol response to stress; higher positive mood scores at baseline and improved Stroop performance in the drug-cue and stress conditions, and reduced cocaine

  2. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  3. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level.

  4. Inhalation of progesterone inhibits chronic airway inflammation of mice exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xia; Bao, Wuping; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Chronic ozone exposure leads to a model of mice with lung inflammation, emphysema and oxidative stress. Progesterone plays an important role in attenuating the neuroinflammation. We assume that progesterone will reduce the chronic airway inflammation exposed to ozone and evaluate whether combination of progesterone with glucocorticoids results in synergistic effects. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5ppm, 3h) 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone (0.03 or 0.3mg/L; inhaled) alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) (0.2g/L) after each exposure until the tenth week. Mice were studied 24h after final exposure, cells and inflammatory mediators were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs used for evaluation of glucocorticoids receptors (GR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Exposure to ozone resulted in a marked lung neutrophilia. Moreover, in ozone-exposed group, the levels of oxidative stress-related interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, airway inflammatory cells infiltration density, mean linear intercept (Lm) were greatly increased, FEV25 and glucocorticoids receptors (GR) were markedly decreased. Comparable to BUD, progesterone treatment dose-dependently led to a significant reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, and an increase of FEV25 and GR. Progesterone combined with BUD resulted in dramatic changes, compared to monotherapy of BUD or progesterone. Therefore, these results demonstrate that chronic ozone exposure has profound airway inflammatory effects counteracted by progesterone and progesterone acts synergistically with glucocorticoids in attenuating the airway inflammation dose-dependently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated levels of macromolecular damage are correlated with increased nitric oxide synthase expression in erythrocytes isolated from twin neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmonits, Krisztina N; Ferencz, Ágnes; Zahorán, Szabolcs; Lázár, Renáta; Talapka, Petra; Orvos, Hajnalka; Hermesz, Edit

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy is a state associated with an enhanced metabolism and demand for O2 , which may lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence to oxidative stress. An elevated ROS level may result in delayed development and a low birth weight. The aim of this study was to reveal the consequences of multiple pregnancies on the redox status of neonatal human red blood cells (RBCs) and evaluate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) - expressing RBCs in the generation of oxidative stress. The study presents evidence of higher levels of production of hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite and nitrate content in the RBCs of twin neonates, clearly reflected by an elevated level of protein and lipid damages. This phenotype appears to be a consequence of multiple pregnancies, regardless of the level of maturity or the birth weight of the twins. Besides the higher level of ROS, there was a general decrease in the expression of genes coding for antioxidants. The first data are presented on NOS3-expressing neonatal human RBCs. The number of RBCs producing NOS3 was more than twice as high in twin neonates compared to singletons, with no correlation to maturity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Osland, Michael J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Stagg, Camille L.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Russell, Marc J.; From, Andrew; Spivak, Amanda C.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; Almario, Alejandro E.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient. All created mangrove wetlands were exceeding current relative sea-level rise rates (2.6 mm yr−1), with surface elevation change of 4.2–11.0 mm yr−1 compared with 1.5–7.2 mm yr−1 for nearby reference mangroves. While mangrove wetlands store C persistently in roots/soils, storage capacity is most valuable if maintained with future sea-level rise. Through empirical modeling, we discovered that properly designed creation projects may not only yield enhanced C storage, but also can facilitate wetland persistence perennially under current rates of sea-level rise and, for most sites, for over a century with projected medium accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 6.0). Only the fastest projected accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 8.5) led to widespread submergence and potential loss of stored C for created mangrove wetlands before 2100.

  7. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; van Kruysbergen, Rulanda G P M; de Jong, Frank H; Koper, Jan W; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome is increased in shift workers. This may be due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the behavioral rhythm. The stress hormone cortisol could play a role in this phenomenon because it is secreted in a circadian rhythm, and long-term elevated cortisol leads to components of the metabolic syndrome. We compared cortisol levels in scalp hair of shift and day workers to study changes in long-term cortisol due to shift work. Hair samples were collected from 33 shift workers and 89 day workers. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol levels were measured using ELISA. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Shift workers had higher hair cortisol levels than day workers: 47.32 pg/mg hair [95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.37-58.21] vs. 29.72 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 26.18-33.73) (P shift workers: 48.53 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 36.56-64.29) vs. 26.42 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 22.91-30.55) (P shift workers as well: 27.2 (95% CI = 25.5-28.8) vs. 23.7 (95% CI = 22.8-24.7) in young day workers (P = 0.001). Hair cortisol and BMI were positively correlated (β = 0.262; P = 0.005). Shift work at a young adult age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and increased BMI. Elevated cortisol levels and BMI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk found in shift workers.

  8. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  9. Elevated Level of Serum Triglyceride may be the only threat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heena

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... increased risk of ischemic heart disease (Mayo Clinic staff, 2010). Study by Romon et al. (1992) confirmed that shift work is associated with an increase of TG levels independent of dietary intake, and not influence of cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels. They referred the finding associated with coronary ...

  10. Serum levels of interleukin-6 are not elevated in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Nagelkerken; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSerum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined in 97 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and 79 age- and sex-matched control subject. Median serum levels of IL-6 did not differ significantly between Alzheimer patients (8.6 U/ml) and controls (8.2 U/ml). Median

  11. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  12. Elevated levels of nitric oxide and low levels of haptoglobin are associated with severe malarial anaemia in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, Ben; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2002-01-01

    role in cerebral malaria (CM). Erythrophagocytosis by splenic macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SA. In this study, plasma levels of NO, neopterin, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in paediatric patients with CM, n=77, SA (n=28) and uncomplicated malaria (UM n......=53). Haptoglobin levels were significantly lower in SA (median (interquartile range) 25 (17-59) mg/l) than in both CM and UM (40 (24-80) mg/l and 110 (60-160) mg/l, respectively, P....3 (5.6-17) micromol/l, respectively, Phaptoglobin and NO was seen in the SA group. No such correlation was observed within the UM or CM groups. No significant differences in neopterin levels were observed between any of the three groups, neither...

  13. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

  15. REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PROGESTERONE PROFILE FROM PARTURITION TO PARTURITION IN DW ARF GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz A. Khanum, M. Hussain, M. Ali, R. Kausar and A.M. Cheema1

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to look into the reproductive performance of female Dwarf goat. The serum progesterone profile was used to monitor various reproductive parameters including length of postpartum period, the resumption of cyclicity, gestation period, pre-partum period, parturition, litter size and kidding interval. Most of the animals conceived within 20-65 days of postpartum period. During gestation period, higher levels of progesterone were maintained with wide variations falling in th...

  16. Correlation of serum iron levels with myocardial injury and pump failure in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the correlation of serum iron levels with myocardial injury and pump failure in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: 80 patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction were divided into high iron group (serum iron ≥8.95 μmol/L (n=43 and low iron group (serum iron <8.95 μmol/L (n=37 according to serum iron levels, differences in myocardial injury markers, ventricular remodeling indexes and pump failure-related indexes on admission were compared between two groups of patients, and the correlation of serum iron levels with myocardial damage and pump failure in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was further analyzed. Results: Serum myocardial injury markers troponin I (cTnI, creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, myoglobin (Myo, ischemia modified albumin (IMA and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH content of high iron group on admission were significantly lower than those of low iron group (P<0.05; left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT, left ventricular end-systolic interventricular septal thickness (IVST, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV, left ventricular enddiastolic volume (LVEDV, end-systolic volume index (ESVI, end-diastolic volume index (EDVI, and the left ventricular mass index (LVMI levels under color Doppler ultrasound were lower than those of low iron group (P<0.05; serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, galectin-3, adiponectin (APN, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin and Copeptin content were lower than those of low iron group (P<0.05. Pearson test showed that serum iron level was directly correlated with the degree of myocardial injury and pump failure in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Low serum iron levels is one of key factors causing severe cases and pump failure in STEMI patients, and early iron supplementation is expected to improve outcomes in STEMI patients with iron deficiency.

  17. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  18. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  19. Predominant role of the 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone in elevating blood prolactin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, R; Baselmans, P; Castelein, S; Bosker, F; Bruggeman, R; van den Bosch, RJ

    Objective: The atypical antipsychotic risperidone significantly raises plasma prolactin levels in patients, but clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine do not. The differences in neuroendocrine response may be connected with the metabolism of the medications. The authors examined the contributory role

  20. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998-2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs......) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk...

  1. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function.

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    Christian Shetelig

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1 the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2 possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO and myocardial salvage and 3 the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels.Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography.OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography.OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers.

  2. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  3. Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is suggested to be associated with metabolic and hormonal complications. No previous study has compared the effect of different dopamine agonists on plasma lipids, carbohydrate metabolism markers and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. The study included eight bromocriptine-resistant women with prolactinoma (group 1) and twelve matched women with hyperprolactinaemia unrelated to prolactinoma (group 2). Group 1 was then treated with cabergoline, while group 2 with bromocriptine. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed before and after 6 months of therapy. Both treatments normalized plasma prolactin levels. Cabergoline reduced triglycerides, 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and circulating levels of IGF-1, free fatty acids (FFA), uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. With the exception of a reduction in HOMA-IR, bromocriptine treatment produced no significant effect on the investigated biomarkers. Cabergoline was superior to bromocriptine in affecting 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, as well as circulating levels of IGF-1, FFA, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Our results may suggest that cabergoline is superior to bromocriptine when it comes to affecting atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of cardiovascular risk factors in hyperprolactinaemic patients. These findings seem to support previous observations that cabergoline may be a better treatment for patients with elevated prolactin levels than bromocriptine. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  4. Circulating levels of irisin is elevated in hypothyroidism, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, İhsan; Altay, Mustafa; Topçuoğlu, Canan; Yılmaz, Fatma Meriç

    2016-04-01

    Objective Our objective in this study was to determine the relationship between irisin hormone, which has a similar effect with thyroid hormones on adipose tissue and the metabolism, and the thyroid functions and the obesity secondary to thyroid disease. Subjects and methods Seventy-four patients were included in the study, of the patients, 37 were newly diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis related hypothyroidism but not started on a treatment yet, and the remaining 37 were healthy volunteers without a known disease. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (fT4), anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed in both groups. Serum irisin levels were measured using the commercially available ELISA kit. The hypothyroidism group had higher levels of irisin compared to the control group (2.77 ng/mL vs. 2.15 ng/mL respectively; p = 0.017). Results The hypothyroidism group had higher median levels of irisin in the obese patients than those in the control group (3.10 ng/mL vs. 2.10 ng/mL respectively; p = 0.013). Irisin level was negatively correlated with age in the whole population and patients with hypothyroidism (r = -0.255, p = 0.028; r = -0.346, p = 0.036 respectively). Irisin level was positively correlated with TSH (r = 0.247, p = 0.034) but negatively correlated with the fT4 (r = -0.316, p = 0.006) in the whole population. Obesity, fT4 and irisin levels were identified to be independent predictors in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in literature to identify that obesity, irisin level and fT4 level are independent risk factors for hypothyroidism.

  5. Birth by cesarean section is associated with elevated neonatal plasma levels of dimethylarginines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Gabriella; Sulyok, Endre; Ertl, Tibor; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the effects of vaginal delivery and cesarean section on the L-arginine-nitric oxide system by measuring levels of L-arginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase antagonist asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the cord blood and postnatally. Plasma samples were obtained from the umbilical vein and artery at birth and from peripheral venous blood on the second postnatal day in 30 full-term newborn infants: 10 born vaginally and 20 born by cesarean section. After vaginal delivery, ADMA concentration was higher in the umbilical vein than in the umbilical artery (mean 1.06 vs 0.90 µmol/L [P = 0.027]); and ADMA level fell after birth to 0.66 µmol/L on the second postnatal day (P = 0.007 vs umbilical artery). Newborns born by cesarean section had similar ADMA levels in umbilical arterial and venous blood, 1.19 and 1.18 µmol/L, and the ADMA level fell to 0.84 µmol/L by the second postnatal day (P same in umbilical vein, umbilical artery and postnatal peripheral vein samples. At 2 days of age, both ADMA and SDMA levels stayed higher in infants born by cesarean section than in vaginally born infants. ADMA level falls after both vaginal and cesarean birth, whereas SDMA level does not. The higher ADMA level after cesarean birth compared with vaginal birth may contribute to decreased nitric oxide production and bioavailability in neonatal vascular beds. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Elevated triglyceride levels are associated with cognitive impairments among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tian Nan; Yin, Guang Zhong; Yin, Xiao Li; Wu, Jing Qin; Du, Xiang Dong; Zhu, Hong Liang; Liu, Jia Hong; Wang, Xiao Qiong; Xu, Dong Wu; Tang, Wen Jie; Hui, Li

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive deficits have been identified as one of core clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulating evidence indicated that triglycerides (TG) might be associated with MDD and cognitive decline. This study examined whether patients with MDD had poorer cognitive functions than healthy controls, and further investigate whether TG levels were involved in MDD, and its cognitive impairments in a Han Chinese population. 115 patients with MDD and 119 healthy controls were enrolled. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and serum TG levels were examined using enzymatic colorimetry. TG levels were higher in patients with MDD than healthy controls after controlling for the variables. Cognitive test scores were lower in patients with MDD than healthy controls except for visuospatial/constructional index after controlling for the variables. TG levels were negatively correlated with visuospatial/constructional score, delayed memory score and RBANS total score of MDD. Further multivariate regression analysis showed that TG levels were negatively associated with visuospatial/constructional score, attention score, delayed memory score and RBANS total score of MDD. Our findings supported that serum TG levels might be involved in MDD, and play an important role in cognitive impairments of MDD, especially in delayed memory. Moreover, patients with MDD experienced greater cognitive impairments than healthy controls except for visuospatial/constructional index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic significance of elevated endothelin-1 levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C; London, N J M; Hemingway, D M

    2004-01-01

    Prognostic factors from clinical, laboratory and pathological data of patients with colorectal cancer are essential to identify high-risk groups to whom beneficial adjuvant therapy could be given. Endothelin-1, a growth factor, has been associated with the development and spread of solid tumours. This prospective study was performed to determine whether preoperative plasma big ET-1 levels might be useful as a prognostic indicator in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Sixty-five consecutive patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by biopsy were included prospectively into this study over a 12-month period. Plasma samples from a peripheral vein were obtained prior to surgery. Univariate analysis of survival using age ( 70 years), sex, Dukes' stage (A&B versus C), tumour size ( 50 mm), vascular invasion and plasma big ET-1 levels was performed and significant factors were then analysed with the Cox regression model. Three variables, age, Dukes' tumour stage and plasma big ET-1 levels, were found to have prognostic significance (p70 years (p=0.02), Dukes' C tumours (p=0.04) and plasma big ET-1 levels >4.2 pg/mL (p=0.02). The Cox regression model identified the same three variables as having independent prognostic value for overall survival. Preoperative plasma big ET-1 levels may be useful in predicting overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Plasma big ET-1 levels may be useful in the selection of high-risk lymph node-negative patients with colorectal cancer for adjuvant therapy.

  8. Prognostic implications of elevated whole blood choline levels in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, Oliver; Möckel, Martin; Lueders, Christian; Mügge, Clemens; Zschunke, Gustav A; Lufft, Hans; Müller, Christian; Frei, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    Troponins I and T represent the current biomarker standard for diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Even small increases of cardiac troponins have prognostic implications, but not all patients at risk are correctly classified, particularly at admission. We identified elevated whole-blood choline as a promising marker and performed a prospective study of 327 patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome that focused on the analysis of troponin-negative patients. Diagnostic classification of patients and the definition of troponin cutoffs were performed according to the new European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology criteria. Blood was sampled serially and choline was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in whole blood. Patients were followed for 30 days. In patients with negative troponin I test results at admission (n = 250), choline was a predictor of cardiac death and nonfatal cardiac arrest (hazard ratio 6.0, p = 0.003), life-threatening arrhythmias (hazard ratio 3.75, p = 0.004), heart failure (hazard ratio 2.87, p = 0.002), and coronary angioplasty (hazard ratio 2.57, p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis of troponin-negative patients, choline was the strongest predictor of cardiac death or arrest (odds ratio 6.05, p = 0.01). Choline was not a marker for myocardial necrosis but indicated high-risk unstable angina in patients without acute myocardial infarction (sensitivity 86.4%, specificity 86.2%). Thus, an increased concentration of choline at hospital admission is a predictor of adverse cardiac events in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Whole blood choline may be useful for early risk stratification of these patients, particularly if troponin results are negative on admission.

  9. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels

  10. Elevated serum levels of lipoprotein‑associated phospholipase A2 predict mortality rates in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Jiang, Haiyan; Cui, Xiaohui; Liang, Guiwen; Chen, Yu; Wang, Ting; Sun, Zhichao; Qi, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis remains one of the leading contributors to mortality rates in the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency intensive care unit (EICU). Therefore, any treatments against the agents which produce sepsis in a medical emergency, are welcome. Elevated serum levels of lipoprotein‑associated phospholipase A2 (Lp‑PLA2) have been reported in a small cohort of patients with inflammation. The present study evaluated serum levels of Lp‑PLA2 in patients with sepsis and investigated the role of Lp‑PLA2 in sepsis. The investigation involved the selection of 151 patients with sepsis admitted to the emergency department of the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University (Nantong, China) and 30 healthy controls. All patients (39 with sepsis, 55 with severe sepsis and 57 with septic shock) were examined on admission to the EICU. A complete blood count was performed, and serum levels of Lp‑PLA2, C‑reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin 6, sequential organ failure (SOFA) scores and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were determined on hospital admission. The EICU and overall mortality rates were evaluated at baseline. The present study also assessed various laboratory parameters, clinical data and inflammatory cytokines. The patient follow up duration was 90 days. The data suggested that the serum levels of Lp‑PLA2 on admission to the EICU in patients with sepsis were elevated, compared with those in healthy controls. The concentrations of Lp‑PLA2 were correlated with the severity of disease, and were significantly associated with experimental markers of inflammation and established prognostic scores. In the total cohort, persistently elevated levels of Lp‑PLA2 on admission for EICU treatment was a predictor of poor prognosis, and provided superior diagnostic use, compared with the prognostic scoring systems, including SOFA or APACHE II scores. Taken together, the results suggested that Lp‑PLA2, with respect to other

  11. Elevated plasma gastrin, CEA, and CA 19-9 levels decrease after colorectal cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombski, G; Gasiorowska, A; Orszulak-Michalak, D; Neneman, B; Kotynia, J; Strzelczyk, J; Janiak, A; Malecka-Panas, E

    2003-03-01

    Gastrin stimulates mucosal growth of much of the gastrointestinal tract and has also been implicated in promoting growth of colonic tumors, but its role in colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial. This study determined fasting serum gastrin levels before and after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) and the relationship to the clinical stage of the disease to investigate it possible prognostic role. Fasting radioimmunoassay gastrin, CA 19-9, and CEA levels were measured before and after surgery for CRC. Helicobacter pylori status was also assessed since it causes significant hypergastrinemia. Mean fasting plasma gastrin level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls before surgery but not 59 days after surgery. Mean CEA and CA 19-9 levels were significantly higher in patients with CRC before surgery than after tumor resection. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma gastrin, CEA, and CA 19-9 levels and the CRC stage (Dukes' classification). The significance of gastrin as a marker for diagnosis or prognostic purposes in colorectal cancer needs to be further examined.

  12. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p plasma levels (p Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  13. Elevated Angiopoietin-1 Serum Levels in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schreitmüller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and by massive neuronal loss in the brain. There is epidemiologic and pathologic evidence that AD is associated with vascular risk factors and vascular diseases, contributing to cerebral hypoperfusion with consecutive stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of proangiogenic factors such as Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1. Methods. In the present study, we measured Ang-1 serum levels in 42 patients with AD, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and in 40 healthy elderly controls by ELISA. Results. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control subjects (P=0.003. There was no significant difference between MCI patients and healthy controls (P=0.553 or between AD and MCI patients (P=0.054. The degree of cognitive impairment as measured by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE score was significantly correlated with the Ang-1 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. Conclusions. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in AD patients. We could also show an association between Ang-1 serum levels and the cognitive status in all patients and healthy controls. Thus, serum Ang-1 could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  14. Retrospective evaluation of patients with elevated digoxin levels at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Limon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We investigated the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients presenting at emergency department (ED with digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml. Materials and methods: The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with serum digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml admitted to an ED between January 2010 and July 2011 were investigated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with ECG and clinical findings consistent with digoxin toxicity and no additional explanation of their symptoms were evaluated for digoxin toxicity. Results: In this study 137 patients were included, and 68.6% of patients were women with mean age 76.1 ± 12.2. There was no significant difference between gender and digoxin intoxication. The mean age of intoxicated group was significantly higher than the non-intoxicated group (P = 0.03. The most common comorbidities were congestive heart failure (n = 91 and atrial fibrillation (n = 74. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The levels of hospitalization and mortality in this group were significantly higher. Conclusion: Digoxin intoxication must be suspected in patients present in the ED, particularly those with complaints that include nausea and vomiting, as well as new ECG changes; serum digoxin levels must be determined. Keywords: Digoxin, Digoxin level, Intoxication, Emergency department

  15. Lead powder use for skin care and elevated blood lead level among children in a Chinese rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, We N-Juan; Li, Jin; Liu, Ba O-Ying

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between lead powder use, as folk skin care, and blood lead level (BLL) in children, we studied 222 children up to 14-years old living in a Chinese rural area and administered a face to face interview with their parents to collect information on lead powder use and other potential exposure. We measured children's BLL at baseline and 2 years later after an intervention. The children were divided into three categories according to their use of lead powder: regular use, irregular use and never use. We applied multivariate linear regression to determine the association between lead powder use and elevated BLL. The average BLL of all children was 18 μg/dl; 56% of them had BLL of 10 μg/dl or higher. Lead powder use was significantly associated with elevated BLL. After adjusting for potential confounders the BLL of regular and irregular users was higher than non-users by 3.11 μg/dl and 1.47 μg/dl, respectively. Duration of lead powder use was positively associated with BLL, but the time since last use was inversely associated. A significant BLL reduction was observed 2 years later, and the greatest reduction (21 μg/dl) was seen in the youngest group of regular users. This study showed that traditional use of lead powder for a skin care purpose was a major contributor to elevated BLL in these children.

  16. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  17. Elevated chemerin levels in Pakistani men: an interrelation with metabolic syndrome phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sadia Fatima

    Full Text Available Chemerin is a novel protein linked to adipocyte differentiation and the development of metabolic imbalances. We sought to examine the relationship of chemerin with metabolic syndrome disturbances including body fat percentage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin levels and body fat percentage in lean and obese volunteers. A cross-sectional study of 90 randomly selected healthy males from Pakistan were divided into three groups as per Body Mass Index (BMI criteria for South Asian Population. Anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage, while serum analyses were performed for fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile and serum chemerin. Associations between serum chemerin levels and body fat and other metabolic syndrome parameters were performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Data was presented as Mean±SD. In all statistical analyses p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Circulating chemerin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2 compared with those with a BMI below 25 kg/m(2 (P = 0.001. Serum chemerin levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with serum levels of cholesterol (P = 0.0160; r = 0.255, fasting glucose (P = 0.002; r = 0.323, HOMA-IR (P = 0.004; r = 0.300 and hip circumference (P = 0.021; r = 0.246. This demonstrates that chemerin levels are associated with obesity and dyslipidemia and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This data suggests that chemerin may serve as an independent marker in diagnosing these conditions even before they become clinically symptomatic.

  18. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    plasma levels of FGF23 in uremia. FGF23 mRNA was not detected in normal kidneys, but was clearly demonstrated in injured kidneys, already after four hours in obstructive nephropathy and at 8 weeks in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats. No renal extraction was found in uremic rats in contrast...... to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution...

  19. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  20. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  1. Plasma serotonin levels are elevated in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Caypinar, Sema Suzen; Kanawati, Ammar; Yildiz, Sukru; Ekin, Murat

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between serotonin and hyperemesis gravidarum. Plasma samples of 87 women in their first trimester pregnancies with HG (n = 28), morning sickness of pregnancy (n = 30) and control (n = 29) groups were obtained. Plasma levels of serotonin were compared between the groups, and the correlations with severity of symptoms using modified PUQE (Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis) scoring, BMI, E2, hCG and TSH were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to serotonin levels, the group with hyperemesis gravidarum was found to have significantly higher serotonin levels (p = 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the serotonin level and the PUQE score in all study subjects (r = 0.578, p = 0.0001). A serotonin threshold of >277.58 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 72.4%, negative predictive value of 87.9%, and a likelihood ratio of 5.53 (p = 0.0001). Our findings support the possible role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  2. Basal Plasma Levels of Copeptin are Elevated in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease after Bowel Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of interactions between the enteric nervous system, neuropeptides, and the immune system is growing. The aim of this study was to examine basal plasma levels of a variety of peptide precursors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In two middle-aged cohorts, Malmö Preventive Medicine ( n = 5,415 and Malmö Diet and Cost Study ( n = 6,103, individuals with the diagnosis of IBD were identified. Medical records were scrutinized. Three controls were matched for each patient. Copeptin, midregional fragments of adrenomedullin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and proenkephalin A, as well as N-terminal protachykinin A and proneurotensin were analyzed in the plasma. Sixty-two IBD patients were identified. The only difference between patients and controls was higher copeptin levels in the patients compared with controls ( P = 0.006, with higher copeptin levels in resected than unresected patients ( P = 0.020. There was no difference in any precursor levels between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, between different distributions of disease lesions, or between different treatments.

  3. Elevated thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldaş, Metin; Altinkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Nergiz, Sümeyra; Demircan-Sezer, Selda; Yüksel, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma concentrations of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in relation with hormonal, metabolic, and hemostatic profile in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 38 women with PCOS and 37 age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls were eligible for the study. Hirsutism scores, hormonal, metabolic, and hemostatic profile as well as TAFI levels were evaluated in each subject. Women with PCOS exhibited higher plasma concentrations of TAFI levels than controls (107.42 ± 34.77% versus 91.86 ± 23.88%, p = 0.027). TAFI levels were significantly correlated positively with BMI, fasting insulin levels, modified Ferriman Gallwey scores and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, systolic blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences, whereas negatively correlated with activated partial thromboplastin time (p fibrinolysis. This hypofibrinolytic state may be responsible for the increased cardiovascular disease risk in women with PCOS.

  4. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    state of repair, over-crowding, low parental education and income, and other aspects related to family structure and socio-economic status, were associated with raised blood lead levels. It is suggested that social factors assume importance in predisposing children'to lead in the environment. In particular, the over-crowded ...

  5. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult

  6. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out to determine risk factors for childhood lead exposure. Blood lead levels of inner-city Sub A coloured children living in Woodstock were examined in relation to information obtained by questionnaire on environmental and social factors. The mean blood lead concentration of ...

  7. Maternal levels of free fetal DNA are elevated in pregnancies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tail 7 “maternal b1o0'd offers rnany opportunities forrnon-. Curse, of the: is apoptosis or cell death in the placenta d-theoretioall beincreased in placental dysfunction or infarction. 71 'i V creased only in the subset of FGR cases with. Cbjective, Fetal growth can have'nianydifferent ause No and it at "free real DNAlfiDNA) level.

  8. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  9. Single Cell "Glucose Nanosensor" Verifies Elevated Glucose Levels in Individual Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Raphael A S; Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Mak, Wai Han; Mulato, Marcelo; Singaram, Bakthan; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-02-10

    Because the transition from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism is a hallmark of cancer progression, approaches to identify single living cancer cells by their unique glucose metabolic signature would be useful. Here, we present nanopipettes specifically developed to measure glucose levels in single cells with temporal and spatial resolution, and we use this technology to verify the hypothesis that individual cancer cells can indeed display higher intracellular glucose levels. The nanopipettes were functionalized as glucose nanosensors by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) covalently to the tip so that the interaction of glucose with GOx resulted in a catalytic oxidation of β-d-glucose to d-gluconic acid, which was measured as a change in impedance due to drop in pH of the medium at the nanopipette tip. Calibration studies showed a direct relationship between impedance changes at the tip and glucose concentration in solution. The glucose nanosensor quantified single cell intracellular glucose levels in human fibroblasts and the metastatic breast cancer lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 and revealed that the cancer cells expressed reproducible and reliable increases in glucose levels compared to the nonmalignant cells. Nanopipettes allow repeated sampling of the same cell, as cells remain viable during and after measurements. Therefore, nanopipette-based glucose sensors provide an approach to compare changes in glucose levels with changes in proliferative or metastatic state. The platform has great promise for mechanistic investigations, as a diagnostic tool to distinguish cancer cells from nonmalignant cells in heterogeneous tissue biopsies, as well as a tool for monitoring cancer progression in situ.

  10. Elevated Plasma Stromal-Cell-Derived Factor-1 Protein Levels Correlate with Severity in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Kun Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate differential changes in plasma levels of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 before and after antibiotic treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and observe the association between the severity of CAP and the plasma SDF-1 level. Methods. We gathered blood specimens from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls to measure the plasma concentrations of SDF-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The plasma SDF-1 concentration was elevated significantly in patients with CAP before receiving treatment compared with the controls and decreased significantly after the patients received treatment. Leukocyte (WBC and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein (CRP levels decreased significantly after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, differences in the plasma concentration of SDF-1 were significantly correlated with PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores (r=0.389, P=0.002, and n=61; r=0.449, P<0.001, and n=61; and r=0.363, P=0.004, and n=61, resp.. Conclusions. An elevated plasma SDF-1 concentration can be used as a biological marker for the early diagnosis of CAP and for the early detection of its severity.

  11. Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T

    2008-06-01

    Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike.

  12. Elevated α-Hydroxybutyrate and Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels Predict Deterioration of Glycemic Control in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricò, Domenico; Prinsen, Hetty; Giannini, Cosimo; de Graaf, Robin; Juchem, Christoph; Li, Fangyong; Caprio, Sonia; Santoro, Nicola; Herzog, Raimund I

    2017-07-01

    Traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are weak predictors of changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in youth. To identify early metabolic features of insulin resistance (IR) in youth and whether they predict deterioration of glycemic control. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted at the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Concentrations of α-hydroxybutyrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 78 nondiabetic adolescents during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Associations between baseline metabolic alterations and longitudinal changes in glucose control were tested in 16 subjects after a mean follow-up of 2.3 years. The relationship between metabolite levels, parameters of IR, and glycemic control, and their progression over time. Elevated fasting α-hydroxybutyrate levels were observed in adolescents with reduced insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, Tanner stage, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.014). Plasma α-hydroxybutyrate and BCAAs were increased throughout the course of the OGTT in this group (P hydroxybutyrate decrease from elevated baseline concentrations to normal levels (P = 0.02). Increased baseline α-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were further associated with progressive worsening of glucose tolerance and disposition index. α-Hydroxybutyrate and BCAA concentrations during an OGTT characterize insulin-resistant youth and predict worsening of glycemic control. These findings provide potential biomarkers for risk assessment of type 2 diabetes and new insights into IR pathogenesis.

  13. A case of metastatic cancer with markedly elevated PSA level that was not detected by repeat prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hiromichi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Tokui, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Chikara

    2014-01-29

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used specific tumor marker for prostate cancer. We experienced a case of metastatic prostate cancer that was difficult to detect by repeat prostate biopsy despite a markedly elevated serum PSA level. A 64-year-old man was referred to our hospital with lumbar back pain and an elevated serum PSA level of 2036 ng/mL. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed systemic lymph node and osteoblastic bone metastases. Digital rectal examination revealed a small, soft prostate without nodules. Ten-core transrectal prostate biopsy yielded negative results. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was started because of the patient's severe symptoms. Twelve-core repeat transrectal prostate biopsy performed 2 months later, and transurethral resection biopsy performed 5 months later, both yielded negative results. The patient refused further cancer screening because ADT effectively relieved his symptoms. His PSA level initially decreased to 4.8 ng/mL, but he developed castration-resistant prostate cancer 7 months after starting ADT. He died 21 months after the initial prostate biopsy from disseminated intravascular coagulation. CUP remains a considerable challenge in clinical oncology. Biopsies of metastatic lesions and multimodal approaches were helpful in this case.

  14. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, P; Kronborg, G; Weis, N

    2004-01-01

    increased significantly (median 5.5; range 2.4-21.0 ng/mL) in 141 patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, compared to 31 healthy controls (median 2.6, range 1.5-4.0 ng/mL, p 0.001). Furthermore, suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients who died from the infection (n = 24) compared to survivors...... (n = 117; p hypotension, renal failure, cerebral symptoms and high serum concentrations of protein YKL-40 and suPAR were associated significantly with mortality (p

  15. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  16. A simple hepatic cyst with elevated serum and cyst fluid CA19-9 levels: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanai Hidekatsu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Simple hepatic cysts rarely cause symptoms, however, occasionally they become symptomatic due to mass effect, rupture, hemorrhage, and infection. We report a patient with a large hepatic cyst with elevated serum and cyst fluid CA19-9 levels. We studied serum and cyst fluid CA19-9 levels in this patient, before and after the intracystic instillation of minocycline hydrochloride. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having an infected hepatic cyst, by physical examination and enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Serum (170 U/ml; reference: Conclusion Our study is the first report to reveal the influence of intracystic instillation of minocycline hydrochloride on serum and cyst fluid CA19-9 levels in a patient with a simple hepatic cyst.

  17. Elevated salivary cortisol levels as a result of sleep deprivation in a shift worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, G; Chamoux, A

    2003-03-01

    This paper reports a case from a group of 63 shift-workers for whom adaptation to shift-work was evaluated through measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Workers' saliva was sampled and cortisol levels measured at intervals of 2 h during morning, evening and night shifts. For one subject among the 63, very high values of cortisol (an approximately 6-fold increase) were observed for the morning (M) shift, but with normal values found for evening (E) and night (N) shifts. Individual mean and peak cortisol values were 48.4 and 67.8 nmol/l against group mean and peak cortisol values of 8.9 and 11.0 nmol/l. Retrospective questioning showed that this subject was healthy and there were no indicators of long-term stress. This cortisol rise was deduced to be caused by sleep deprivation as a result of rapidly rotating shift patterns.

  18. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B

    2003-01-01

    -reactive protein were not associated with mortality when levels of TNF-alpha were included in the analysis. Dementia and cardiovascular diseases represented the major causes of comorbid conditions at baseline. TNF-alpha was still associated with mortality in multivariate models that included these parameters...... as confounders. CONCLUSION: TNF-alpha was an independent prognostic marker for mortality in persons aged 100 years, suggesting that it has specific biological effects and is a marker of frailty in the very elderly....

  19. Plasma kynurenine levels are elevated in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, M Elizabeth; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Fuchs, Dietmar; Lapidus, Manana; Grunebaum, Michael F; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Postolache, Teodor T

    2011-08-01

    Inflammation has been linked to depression and suicide risk. One inflammatory process that has been minimally investigated in this regard is cytokine-stimulated production of kynurenine (KYN) from tryptophan (TRP). Recent data suggest that KYN increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with depressive symptoms secondary to immune activation. KYN may alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic tone, thereby contributing to increased arousal, agitation and impulsivity - important risk factors in suicide. We hypothesized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicide attempt would have higher levels of KYN than depressed nonattempters, who in turn would have higher levels than healthy volunteers. Plasma KYN, TRP, and neopterin were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography in three groups: healthy volunteers (n=31) and patients with MDD with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of suicide attempt. Analysis of variance tested for group differences in KYN levels. KYN levels differed across groups (F=4.03, df=(2,58), and p=0.023): a priori planned contrasts showed that KYN was higher in the MDD suicide attempter subgroup compared with MDD non-attempters (t=2.105, df=58, and p=0.040), who did not differ from healthy volunteers (t=0.418, df=58, and p=0.677). In post hoc testing, KYN but not TRP was associated with attempt status, and only suicide attempters exhibited a positive correlation of the cytokine activation marker neopterin with the KYN:TRP ratio, suggesting that KYN production may be influenced by inflammatory processes among suicide attempters. These preliminary results suggest that KYN and related molecular pathways may be implicated in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Muscle cramps and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels induced by beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Watanabe, N; Hashimoto, J; Nishiyama, A; Sakuma, H; Sekino, H; Omata, K; Abe, K

    1995-01-01

    We have assessed the propensity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers to cause muscle cramps and to raise the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level in 78 patients with essential hypertension. After a control period, a beta-adrenoceptor blocker without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA; propranolol, metoprolol or arotinolol) was administered for three months. Thereafter, the patients were randomised to receive a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with ISA (pindolol or carteolol) for three months or a beta-adrenoceptor blocker without ISA for a further three months. This pattern was continued until all beta-adrenoceptor blockers had been given. At the end of each period, CPK and CPK-MB levels were measured. Of the 78 subjects, muscle cramps occurred in 27 during treatment with pindolol and 32 during treatment with carteolol. No complaints were made by subjects treated with propranolol and arotinolol, but muscle cramps were reported in 2 treated with metoprolol. While muscle cramps were caused both by pindolol and carteolol in 16 subjects, they were caused by either of these drugs in the remainder of the subjects. Muscle cramp occurred mainly in the calves when the patients were in bed at night. Serum CPK and CPK-MB levels increased significantly during treatment with pindolol (control period vs pindolol, CPK = 96 vs 133 IU.ml-1, CPK-MB = 14 vs 18 IU.ml-1) or carteolol (CPK = 117 IU.ml-1, CPK-MB = 18 IU.ml-1) while the levels during treatment with propranolol, arotinolol and metoprolol did not change from those in the control period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  2. Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James L; Hediger, Mary L; Molloy, Cynthia A; Chrousos, George P; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Yu, Kai F; Brasington, Mark; England, Lucinda J

    2007-08-01

    Children with autism are known to have larger head circumferences; whether they are above average in height and weight is less clear. Moreover, little is known about growth-related hormone levels in children with autism. We investigated whether children with autism were taller and heavier, and whether they had higher levels of growth-related hormones than control children did. A case-control study design was employed. Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism (n = 71) and age-matched control boys (n = 59) were evaluated at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Height, weight and head circumference were measured. Blood samples were assayed for IGF-1 and 2, IGFBP-3, growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) and for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS). Subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.03) greater head circumferences (mean z-score 1.24, SD 1.35) than controls (mean z-score 0.78, SD 0.93). Subjects with autism also had significantly (P = 0.01) greater weights (mean z-score 0.91, SD 1.13) than controls (mean z-score 0.41, SD 1.11). Height did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.65); subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.003) higher body mass indices (BMI) (mean z-score 0.85, SD 1.19) than controls (mean z-score 0.24, SD 1.17). Levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in the group with autism/ASD were all significantly higher (all P autism/ASD had significantly higher levels of many growth-related hormones: IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. These findings could help explain the significantly larger head circumferences and higher weights and BMIs seen in these subjects. Future studies should examine the potential role of growth-related hormones in the pathophysiology of autism.

  3. Single Cell “Glucose Nanosensor” Verifies Elevated Glucose Levels in Individual Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Raphael A. S.; Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Mak, Wai Han; Mulato, Marcelo; Singaram, Bakthan; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Because the transition from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism is a hallmark of cancer progression, approaches to identify single living cancer cells by their unique glucose metabolic signature would be useful. Here, we present nanopipettes specifically developed to measure glucose levels in single cells with temporal and spatial resolution, and we use this technology to verify the hypothesis that individual cancer cells can indeed display higher intracellular glucos...

  4. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  5. [Elevated levels of leptin and LDL-cholesterol in patients with well controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Mattos Barros; Faria, José Antônio Diniz; Nunes-Silva, Daniela; Lago, Renata; Toralles, Maria Betânia Pereira

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with classic CAH before and after treatment with glucocorticoids/mineralocorticoid and compare the metabolic profile of the well controlled (WC) and poorly controlled (PC) group. We selected newly diagnosed patients and patients monitored for CAH, classical form, regularly using or not glucocorticoids/mineralocorticoid in the Genetics Service Hupes-UFBA, seen from March/2004 to May/2006. All patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation and laboratory tests (glucose, sodium and potassium; total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and uric acid; leptin, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, total testosterone, C peptide, and insulin). Patients with normal androgens were classified as well controlled (WC), and those with high levels of androgens either using or not glucocorticoids/mineralocorticoids were classified as poorly controlled (PC). We studied 41 patients with CAH: 11 in the WC group and 30 in PC group. Leptin and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in WC than in the PC group (p leptin values. No other metabolic abnormality was associated with glucocorticoid use. The reason for lower uric acid levels found in WC CAH patients is unknown and should be further studied.

  6. Elevated levels of TRF2 induce telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges and rapid telomere deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nera, Bernadette; Huang, Hui-Shun; Lai, Thao; Xu, Lifeng

    2015-12-07

    The shelterin protein TRF2 is essential for chromosome-end protection. Depletion of TRF2 causes chromosome end-to-end fusions, initiating genomic instability that can be cancer promoting. Paradoxically, significant increased levels of TRF2 are observed in a subset of human cancers. Experimental overexpression of TRF2 has also been shown to induce telomere shortening, through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that TRF2 overexpression results in replication stalling in duplex telomeric repeat tracts and the subsequent formation of telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs), ultimately leading to stochastic loss of telomeric sequences. These TRF2 overexpression-induced telomere deletions generate chromosome fusions resembling those detected in human cancers and in mammalian cells containing critically shortened telomeres. Therefore, our findings have uncovered a second pathway by which altered TRF2 protein levels can induce end-to-end fusions. The observations also provide mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of genomic instability in tumour cells containing significantly increased TRF2 levels.

  7. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (pareas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose-response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PROGESTERONE EXERTS NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS AFTER BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    Progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. This review assesses recent, primarily in vivo, evidence that progesterone can play an important role in promoting and enhancing repair after traumatic brain injury and stroke. Although many of its specific actions on neuroplasticity remain to be discovered, there is growing evidence that this hormone may be a safe and effective treatment for traumatic...

  9. Progesterone exerts neuroprotective effects after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Donald G

    2008-03-01

    Progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. This review assesses recent, primarily in vivo, evidence that progesterone can play an important role in promoting and enhancing repair after traumatic brain injury and stroke. Although many of its specific actions on neuroplasticity remain to be discovered, there is growing evidence that this hormone may be a safe and effective treatment for traumatic brain injury and other neural disorders in humans.

  10. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  11. Elevated Urinary T Helper 1 Chemokine Levels in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Zeybek, Cengiz; Gök, Faysal; Pekel, Aysel; Muşabak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that T helper (Th) cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and anti-hypertensive treatment on urinary Th1 chemokines. Methods: The study groups consisted of three types of patients: hypertensive obese, healthy, and non-hypertensive obese. Pre-treatment and post-treatment samples of the hypertensive obese group and one sample from the other two groups were evaluated for urinary chemokine: regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP10), and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). In the hypertensive obese group, urine microalbumin: creatinine ratio was examined before and after treatment. We recommended lifestyle changes to all patients. Captopril was started in those who could not be controlled with lifestyle changes and those who had stage 2 hypertension. Results: Twenty-four hypertensive obese (mean age 13.1), 27 healthy (mean age 11.2) and 22 non-hypertensive obese (mean age 11.5) children were investigated. The pre-treatment urine albumin: creatinine ratio was positively correlated with pre-treatment MIG levels (r=0.41, phypertensive and non-hypertensive obese group than in the controls. The urinary IP10 and MIG levels were higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive obese group than in the non-hypertensive obese. Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values indicated significant decreases in RANTES, IP10, and MIG levels in the hypertensive obese group (phypertensive children before the onset of clinical indicators of target organ damage. Urinary RANTES seemed to be affected by both hypertension and obesity, and urinary IP10 and MIG seemed to be affected predominantly by hypertension. PMID:26831550

  12. Elevated plasma SPARC levels are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG, Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  13. Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Curry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microvesicles (MV have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiple organ failure (MOF. Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b to determine their cellular origin; and (c to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods: Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation. Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results: Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55, median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27. Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18% had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions: MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

  14. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  15. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2-/- Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of Intermittent Fasting is Associated with an Elevation of Adiponectin Levels in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ruiqian; Ahmet, Ismayil; Brown, Martin; Cheng, Aiwu; Kamimura, Naomi; Talan, Mark; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that dietary energy restriction, including intermittent fasting (IF), can protect heart and brain cells against injury and improve functional outcome in animal models of myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we report that IF improves glycemic control and protects the myocardium against ischemia-induced cell damage and inflammation in rats. Echocardiographic analysis of heart structural and functional variables revealed that IF attenuates the growth-related increase in posterior ventricular wall thickness, , end systolic and diastolic volumes, and reduces the ejection fraction. The size of the ischemic infarct 24 hours following permanent ligation of a coronary artery was significantly smaller, and markers of inflammation (infiltration of leukocytes in the area at risk and plasma IL-6 levels) were less, in IF rats compared to rats on the control diet. IF resulted in increased levels of circulating adiponectin prior to and after myocardial infarction. Because recent studies have shown that adiponectin can protect the heart against ischemic injury, our findings suggest a potential role for adiponectin as a mediator of the cardioprotective effect of IF. PMID:19423320

  18. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  19. Elevated circulating nitric oxide levels correlates with enhanced oxidative stress in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazit, Fatma; Türkön, Hakan; Pek, Eren; Ozturk, Filiz Halici; Ünsal, Mesut

    2018-02-01

    Since the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for ongoing oxidative stress in hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) patients have not yet been fully elucidated, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and other oxidative stress markers in the disease pathophysiology. Moreover, the relation between oxidative stress markers and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was also investigated. Women with pregnancies complicated by HEG (n = 33) were compared with pregnant women without HEG (n = 30) and with healthy non-pregnant women (n = 31). Serum NO, MDA, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and H. pylori infection status were determined for each subject. Serum NO levels and OSI index were found to be increased (p = .001 and .013, respectively) and TAS levels were decreased (p pregnancy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Current evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a significant factor responsible for a number of complications during pregnancy. What do the results of this study add? Hyperemesis gravidarum is an oxidative stress condition, as reflected by increased nitric oxide (NO) and decreased total antioxidant status activity, regardless of H. Pylori infection. What are the implications for clinical practice and/or further research? Full disclosure of the association between circulating NO and hyperemesis gravidarum would shed light on underlying biological mechanisms and could help clinical management of similar pregnancy-associated morbidity states.

  20. An elevated 1-h post- load glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test detects prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael; Yanogo, Donald; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Benoit; Preumont, Vanessa

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnosis of dysglycemic states by conventional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose) with the 1-h post-load plasma glucose level. 34 individuals (mean age: 55±13years; BMI: 27.7±6.3kg/m(2)) at risk for prediabetes were administered a 75g OGTT. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes were identified according to fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentrations. Subsequently, subjects were divided in 2 groups: group 1 (n=21) with a 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl. HOMA was performed to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. NGT or prediabetes based on conventional criteria correlated with the 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl was associated with higher HbA1c levels (6.1±0.5 vs. 5.5±0.3%, ph PGh post-load plasma glucose value ≥155mg/dl is strongly associated with conventional criteria for (pre)diabetes and alterations of β-cell function. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  2. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  3. Elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormone do not cause the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tammas; Denmark, Lawrence; Lieberman, Daniel Z

    2016-11-03

    Clinicians have been reluctant to use high dose thyroid (HDT) to treat affective disorders because high circulating levels of thyroid hormone have traditionally been equated with hyperthyroidism, and understood as the cause of the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism, such as osteoporosis and cardiac abnormalities. This conclusion is not supported by (HDT) research. A literature review of research related to the morbidity and mortality of HDT treatment was performed. There exists a large body of research involving the use of HDT treatment to prevent the recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer and to treat affective disorders. A review of this literature finds a lack of support for HDT as a cause of osteoporosis, nor is there support for an increase in morbidity or mortality associated with HDT. This finding contrasts with the well-established morbidity and mortality associated with Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and other endogenous forms of hyperthyroidism. The lack of evidence that exogenous HDT causes osteoporosis, cardiac abnormalities or increases mortality compared with the significant morbidity and mortality of hyperthyroidism requires an alternative cause for the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism. One possibility is an autoimmune mechanism. High circulating levels of thyroid hormone is not the cause of the sequela of hyperthyroidism. The reluctance to using high dose thyroid is unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Do Hyoung; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8-1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.59, P kidney disease progression.

  5. Cardioprotective effect of intermittent fasting is associated with an elevation of adiponectin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ruiqian; Ahmet, Ismayil; Brown, Martin; Cheng, Aiwu; Kamimura, Naomi; Talan, Mark; Mattson, Mark P

    2010-05-01

    It has been reported that dietary energy restriction, including intermittent fasting (IF), can protect heart and brain cells against injury and improve functional outcome in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Here we report that IF improves glycemic control and protects the myocardium against ischemia-induced cell damage and inflammation in rats. Echocardiographic analysis of heart structural and functional variables revealed that IF attenuates the growth-related increase in posterior ventricular wall thickness, end systolic and diastolic volumes, and reduces the ejection fraction. The size of the ischemic infarct 24 h following permanent ligation of a coronary artery was significantly smaller, and markers of inflammation (infiltration of leukocytes in the area at risk and plasma IL-6 levels) were less, in IF rats compared to rats on the control diet. IF resulted in increased levels of circulating adiponectin prior to and after MI. Because recent studies have shown that adiponectin can protect the heart against ischemic injury, our findings suggest a potential role for adiponectin as a mediator of the cardioprotective effect of IF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. State dependent effects of elevated hormone: nest site quality, corticosterone levels and reproductive performance in the common eider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, L; Spencer, K A; Nager, R G; Monaghan, P

    2011-06-01

    Nest shelter in incubating birds is of major importance in providing protection against unfavourable conditions such as harshness of the environment and exposure to predators. We examined the link between nest shelter, baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels and hatching success in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) incubating at nest sites with different levels of shelter. Since more sheltered nest sites could be occupied by better-quality females, we also used an experimental manipulation of nest shelter to separate the effects of the physical attributes of the nest site from those of individual quality. We compared birds with naturally sheltered nests, exposed nests and exposed nests provided with artificial nest shelters and measured clutch size, body condition, CORT levels at the end of incubation and hatching success. If nest shelter reduces CORT levels, we predicted that CORT levels would be highest at the least sheltered sites, and that the provision of artificial shelter would reduce CORT levels. We found that nest shelter was not related to CORT levels in incubating eiders. Nest shelter, however, affected body condition, with females at exposed sites losing more body mass during incubation than females at naturally and artificially sheltered nests. Interestingly however, in those birds nesting at the exposed sites, with and without artificial shelter, those with the highest CORT levels had the lowest hatching success. This relationship was not evident in females nesting at naturally sheltered sites. These results suggest that the level of nest shelter does not directly affect CORT levels in females. Instead, we suggest that the relationship between CORT levels and hatching success is state-dependent. Exposed sites are occupied by individuals that laid smaller clutches, and hence are likely to be of lower quality, and the negative effects of elevated CORT on hatching success are more pronounced in these females. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Anxiety levels and wild running susceptibility in rats: assessment with elevated plus maze test and predator odor exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Hugo Medeiros Garrido; Gouveia, Amauri; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius; Hoshino, Katsumasa

    2005-02-28

    It is reported in the literature that nearly 20% of rats are susceptible to displays of wild running (WR) behavior when submitted to high intensity acoustic stimulation. Some characteristics of WR suggest that it can be viewed as a panic-like reaction. This work aimed to test whether WR-sensitive rats show higher levels of anxiety in elevated-plus-maze (EPM) and predator-odor exposure paradigms in comparison with WR-resistant ones. Male adult Wistar rats were submitted to two trials of acoustic stimulation (104 dB, 60 s) in order to assess WR susceptibility. Seven WR-sensitive and 15 WR-resistant rats were evaluated by the EPM test. Other 13 WR-sensitive and 18 WR-resistant animals were submitted to the predator-odor exposure test which consisted of a 10 min-session of free exploration in a specific apparatus containing two odoriferous stimuli: cotton swab imbedded with snake cloacal gland secretion or with iguana feces (control). WR-sensitive rats presented a significantly higher closed-to open-arm-entry ratio in the EPM test. All rats responded with anxiety-like behaviors to the predator odor exposure, although the WR-sensitive ones showed a marked behavioral inhibition regardless of the odor condition. We conclude that WR-sensitive rats present elevated levels of anxiety manifested by means of passive behavioral strategies. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunis Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

  9. Elevation of proteasomal substrate levels sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Roboti, Peristera; Puumalainen, Marjo-Riitta; Fryknäs, Mårten; Wang, Xin; D'Arcy, Padraig; Hult, Malin; High, Stephen; Linder, Stig; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the 20S proteasome are cytotoxic to tumor cells and are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma, whilst the deubiquitinase activity associated with the 19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome is also a valid target for anti-cancer drugs. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs and their selective toxicity towards cancer cells are not known. Here, we show that increasing the cellular levels of proteasome substrates using an inhibitor of Sec61-mediated protein translocation significantly increases the extent of apoptosis that is induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinase activity in both cancer derived and non-transformed cell lines. Our results suggest that increased generation of misfolded proteasome substrates may contribute to the mechanism(s) underlying the increased sensitivity of tumor cells to inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  10. Elevation of proteasomal substrate levels sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sun

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the 20S proteasome are cytotoxic to tumor cells and are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma, whilst the deubiquitinase activity associated with the 19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome is also a valid target for anti-cancer drugs. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs and their selective toxicity towards cancer cells are not known. Here, we show that increasing the cellular levels of proteasome substrates using an inhibitor of Sec61-mediated protein translocation significantly increases the extent of apoptosis that is induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinase activity in both cancer derived and non-transformed cell lines. Our results suggest that increased generation of misfolded proteasome substrates may contribute to the mechanism(s underlying the increased sensitivity of tumor cells to inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  11. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho; Maksimow, Mikael; Hollmén, Maija; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5%) and CLI (53.5%). As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it.

  12. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  13. Circulating extracellular DNA levels are acutely elevated in ischaemic stroke and associated with innate immune system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grant C; Petrone, Ashley B; Tennant, Connie S; Lucke-Wold, Noelle; Kabbani, Yasser; Tarabishy, Abdul R; Chantler, Paul D; Barr, Taura L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the ability of peripheral blood cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels to identify ischaemic stroke early in the acute phase of care, as well as to examine the relationship between peripheral blood cfDNA levels and stroke-induced innate immune system activation. Upon emergency department admission, peripheral blood samples were obtained from 43 patients experiencing acute ischaemic stroke and 20 patients identified as stroke mimics. Plasma cfDNA levels were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), infarct volume and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) were used to assess injury severity, and peripheral blood neutrophil count was used as a measure of innate immune system status. Peripheral blood cfDNA levels were significantly elevated in patients suffering stroke relative to those diagnosed as stroke mimics, and could differentiate between groups with 86% (95% CI = 72-95%) sensitivity and 75% (95% CI = 51-91%) specificity. Furthermore, cfDNA levels displayed significant positive associations between both infarct volume and peripheral blood neutrophil count within the stroke group. These findings suggest that assessment of peripheral blood cfDNA levels may be useful for the identification of ischaemic stroke in the acute care setting, and provide associative evidence that cfDNA is a potential activator of the peripheral innate immune system in response to cerebral ischaemia.

  14. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors Among Residents Younger Than 6 Years, Puerto Rico--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Timothy; Rivera García, Brenda; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A; Azofeifa, Alejandro; OʼNeill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist about blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs (≥5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), evaluated household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children younger than 6 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 2010. We used a population-based, cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years. We estimated the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLLs and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. The analytic data set included 355 households and 439 children younger than 6 years throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children younger than 6 years was 1.57 μg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.88). The weighted prevalence of children younger than 6 years with BLLs of 5 μg/dL or more was 3.18% (95% CI, 0.93-5.43) and for BLLs of 10 μg/dL or more was 0.50% (95% CI, 0-1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence, and maternal education of less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years is comparable with the most recent (2007-2010) US national estimate (BLLs ≥5 μg/dL = 2.6% [95% CI = 1.6-4.0]). Our findings suggest that targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children younger than 6 years can replace island-wide or insurance-specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico.

  16. Genetic predisposition to elevated levels of C-reactive protein is associated with a decreased risk for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan J; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between genetic predisposition to elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)and risk for preeclampsia using validated genetic loci for C-reactive protein. Preeclampsia cases (n = 177) and normotensive controls (n = 116) were selected from live birth certificates to nulliparous Iowa women during the period August 2002-May 2005. Disease status was verified by the medical chart review. Genetic predisposition to CRP was estimated by a genetic risk score on the basis of established loci for CRP levels. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the genotype score and preeclampsia. Replication analyses were performed in an independent, US population of preeclampsia cases (n = 516) and controls (n = 1,097) of European ancestry. The genetic risk score (GRS) related to higher levels of CRP demonstrated a significantly decreased risk of preeclampsia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). When the GRS was analyzed by quartile, an inverse linear trend was observed (p = 0.0006). The results were similar after adjustments for the body mass index (BMI), smoking, and leisure-time physical activity. In the independent replication population, the association with the CRP GRS was also marginally significant (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.02). Meta-analysis of the two studies was statistically significant (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90, 0.99). Our data suggest an inverse, counterintuitive association between the genetic predisposition to elevated levels of CRP and a decreased risk of preeclampsia. This suggests that the blood CRP level is a marker of preeclampsia, but it does not appear to be a factor on the causal pathway.

  17. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  19. The transcriptome and proteome are altered in marine polychaetes (Annelida) exposed to elevated metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Nouwens, Amanda S; Glasby, Chris J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Gibb, Karen S

    2012-05-17

    Polychaetes are often used in toxicological studies to understand mechanisms of resistance and for biomarker detection, however, we know of only a few genetic pathways involved in resistance. We found the marine polychaete Ophelina sp.1 (Opheliidae) in sediment containing high copper levels and investigated this phenomenon by measuring metal accumulation in the worms and changes in gene and protein expression. We sequenced the transcriptome of Ophelina sp.1 from both the impacted and reference sediments using 454-sequencing and analysed their proteomes using differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). We used the sequenced transcriptome to guide protein identification. Transcripts coding for the copper chaperone, Atox1, were up-regulated in the worms inhabiting the high copper sediment. In addition, genes coding for respiratory proteins, detoxification proteins and cytoskeletal proteins were significantly altered in metal-exposed worms; many of these changes were also detected in the proteome. This dual approach has provided a better understanding of heavy metal resistance in polychaetes and we now have a wider range of suitable indicator genes and proteins for future biomarker development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated levels of serum alpha(2) macroglobulin in wild black bears during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Chauhan, Ved; Tsiouris, John A; Mehta, Pankaj D; Burguess, Kelcey; Fenko, Michael D; Spivack, Warren; Vaughan, Michael; Malik, Mazhar

    2003-10-01

    Bear serum alpha(2) macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) was purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and partially characterized by tryptic digestion of alpha(2)M and analysis of the peptides by peptide mass fingerprinting. The molecular weight of bear serum alpha(2)M was 181 kDa, same as for human serum alpha(2)M, on SDS-PAGE. However, the MALDI mass spectrum of the tryptic digested bear serum alpha(2)M showed that it is different from human alpha(2)M or other data bank proteins. Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS of the proteolytic products of bear serum alpha(2)M showed eight peptides that had similarities to human alpha(2)M suggesting that the protein of interest was indeed alpha(2)M of bear. The polyclonal antibody against bear serum alpha(2)M recognized only one protein from the western blot of bear serum proteins. It also recognized human alpha(2)M. The levels of serum alpha(2)M were significantly increased during hibernating state as compared to active state of bears indicating its protective role from the consequences of the metabolic depression during hibernation.

  1. [Metabolic complications of obesity during adolescence, particularly regarding elevated uric acid levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ságodi, László; Fehér, Viktória; Kiss-Tóth, Emőke; Almási, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-05-31

    Obesity is a social problem worldwide that leads to several diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. It is known that hyperuricemia in adults may be associated with these disorders. The aim of the authors was to investigate the frequency of metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia and their relationship among obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study. The authors analysed the data of 162 overweight or obese adolescents (100 boys and 62 girls) who were previously investigated in a paediatric endocrinology consultation. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in all subjects. Healthy, age-matched, non obese girls (n = 20) and boys (n = 26) were used as controls. The age of overweight or obese boys was: 12 ± 2.1 and overweight or obese girls was 11 ± 2.5 years. In the control group the age of boys was 12.9 ± 2.5 years and the age of girls was 13.2 ± 1.6 years. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between uric acid and clinical and laboratory findings associated with metabolic syndrome. Obese or overweight subjects had greater BMI SDS (boys, 3.4 ± 1.3 vs 0.05 ± 0.4 in controls, pmetabolic syndrome was 45/162 (27.8%) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 62/162 (38.3%). Of the 45 subjects with metabolic syndrome, 30 (66.7%) had hyperuricemia. It can be concluded that hyperuricemia is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. The high concentration of uric acid predicts cardiovascular risk in adulthood. It is important for paediatricians to determine and assess uric acid levels in overweight or obese adolescents.

  2. Evaluation of aortic stiffness in Gilbert syndrome patients: a protective effect of elevated bilirubin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Süleyman; Cüre, Erkan; Çiçek, Yüksel; Cumhur Cüre, Medine; Yılmaz, Arif; Kızılkaya, Bayram

    2015-10-01

    Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by an increase in indirect bilirubin (IB). The incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease is decreased in GS. This study aimed to investigate the relation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the presence of GS. The study included 58 GS patients (32 females, age; 27.12 ± 7.27 years, 26 males, age; 26.63 ± 5.84 years) admitted to the internal medicine clinic of the hospital. The control group included 58 healthy individuals (35 females [27.33 ± 8.06 years old, p=0.716] and 23 males [27.38 ± 6.91 years old, p=0.923]). PWV of both groups was measured from the right carotid and femoral arteries. Mean age of the GS group was 26.03 ± 8.22 years, while that of the healthy group was 26.60 ± 5.84 years. The GS group's diastolic blood pressure and PWV were significantly lower than those of the control group: 67.76 ± 8.59 mmHg vs 71.72 ± 7.28 mmHg; p=0.008, and 5.63 ± 1.12 m/s vs 6.18 ± 1.22 m/s; p=0.014 respectively. The GS group's high density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly higher than that of the control group: 1.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L vs 1.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p=0.029. This study found PWV among GS patients to be lower than that among non-smoking and aged-matched healthy controls.

  3. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  4. Porphyromonas Gingivalis Elevated High-Mobility Group Box 1 Levels After Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwantha, Rungtiwa; Shiheido, Yuka; Aoyama, Norio; Sato, Hiroki; Kure, Keitetsu; Laosrisin, Narongsak; Izumi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-10-21

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses. Epidemiological studies suggested a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells following myocardial infarction (MI), HMGB1 is released, activating an inflammatory reaction. However, it remains unclear whether periodontitis is also involved in myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) after MI in mice.C57BL/6J wild type mice in post-MI were inoculated with P.g. in the infected group (P.g.-inoculated MI group) and with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) in the control group (PBS-injected MI group). Plasma samples and twelve tissue samples from mice hearts after MI were obtained. We determined the expression of HMGB1 by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.The level of HMGB1 protein in the P.g.-inoculated MI group was significantly higher than in the PBS-injected MI group on day 5, but not on day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that HMGB1 was mainly expressed in cardiomyocytes, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the PBS-injected MI group, while HMGB1 was seen broadly in degenerated cardiomyocytes, extracellular fields, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the P.g.-inoculated MI group. A significant increase in the number of HMGB1 positive cells was observed in the P.g.-inoculated MI group compared to the PBS-injected MI group.Infection with P.g. after MI enhanced myocardial HMGB1 expression. There is a possible relationship between periodontitis and post-infarction myocardial inflammation through HMGB-1.

  5. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-01

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as