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Sample records for elephantopus mollis kunth

  1. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

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    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  2. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

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    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC 50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  3. Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3) on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae)

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    Suárez, Diego; Fernández Alonso, José Luis; Marina Melgarejo, Luz

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural) y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre...

  4. Effect of light and gibberellic acid (AG3) on the germination of minthostachys mollis kunth. Griseb. (labiatae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Diego; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis; Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) griseb, is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light) and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds) for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  5. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught from the Venezuelan Andes.

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    Mora, Flor D; Araque, María; Rojas, Luis B; Ramirez, Rosslyn; Silva, Bladimiro; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2009-07-01

    Chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught var. mollis collected in January 2008 at Tuñame, Trujillo State, Venezuela, were separated and identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and thirteen components (98.5% of the sample) were identified by comparison with the Wiley GC-MS library data base. The two major components were pulegone (55.2%) and trans-menthone (31.5%). The essential oil showed a significant inhibitory effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi (4 microg/mL).

  6. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3) EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB.(LABIATAE) Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3) on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae)

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO SUÁREZ; JOSÉ LUIS FERNÁNDEZ ALONSO; LUZ MARINA MELGAREJO

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural) y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre...

  7. EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus mollis H.B.K., induces apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through thioredoxin- and reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathways

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    Hongyu eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (EM is a traditional herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, the efficacy of EM in treating human leukemia is currently unknown. In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in EM23-mediated apoptosis was suggested by observed disruptions in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23 caused a marked increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger, almost fully reversed EM23-mediated apoptosis. In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR, two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. Concomitantly, Trx regulated the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 and its downstream regulatory targets, the p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. EM23-mediated activation of ASK1/MAPKs was significantly inhibited in the presence of NAC. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB was suppressed by EM23, as suggested by the observed blockage of p65 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation and reversion of IκBα degradation following EM23 treatment. Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.

  8. Quantitative variations in the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth.) Griseb. in response to insects with different feeding habits.

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    Banchio, Erika; Zygadlo, Julio; Valladares, Graciela R

    2005-08-24

    Plants display a diverse array of inducible changes in secondary metabolites following insect herbivory. Herbivores differ in their feeding behavior, physiology, and mode of attachment to the leaf surface, and such variations might be reflected in the induced responses of damaged plants. Induced changes were analyzed for Minthostachys mollis, a Lamiaceae with medicinal and aromatic uses, and four species of folivore insects with different feeding habits (chewing, scraping, sap-sucking, and puncturing). In M. mollis leaves experimentally exposed to the insects, levels of the two dominant monoterpenes pulegone and menthone were assessed 24 and 48 h after wounding. Menthone content generally decreased in the essential oil of damaged leaves, whereas pulegone concentration increased in all treatments. These changes occurred also in the adjacent undamaged leaves, suggesting a systemic response. The relatively uniform response to different kinds of damage could be attributable to the presence of such a strongly active compound as pulegone in the essential oil of M. mollis. The effects of wounding on essential oil concentration may be significant from a commercial point of view.

  9. Estudio comparativo del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb "Muña" de tres regiones peruanas por cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas

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    Fuertes Ruitón, César M.; Munguía Chipana, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    A Study of the chemical composition of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb, has been done by means of chromatographic and spectronic methods, in order to determine the composition according to the place of selling. We found the following: in the essential oil from Tarma (Junín, región A. A. Cáceres): l-tetradecene (23,14%), 2S-transmenthona (23,00%) and pulegone (13,21%), in the essential oil from Huaraz (Ancash. Región Chavín): 2S-trans-menthona (41,48%), pulegone (16,02...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

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    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  11. Katak (Molly).

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    Pope, Mary L.; And Others

    This story about a girl named Molly is a preprimer designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. It follows the first preprimer, "Denny." Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the…

  12. Effects of Minthostachys mollis essential oil and volatiles on seedlings of lettuce, tomato, cucumbre and Bidens pilosa.

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    Alonso Amelot, Miguel; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Avila Nuñez, Jorge Luis; Oliveros Bastidas, Alberto; Avendaño Meza, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Effects of Minthostachys mollis essential oil and volatiles on seedlings of lettuce, tomato, cucumbre and Bidens pilosa. (Alonso Amelot, Miguel; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Avila Nuñez, Jorge Luis; Oliveros Bastidas, Alberto y Avendaño Meza, Mairsabel) Abstract The extraction and chemical composition of essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb (Lamiaceae) and its inhibitory effects on germation and shoot/root elongation of lettuce, tomato, cucumber and Bidens pilosa (L...

  13. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

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    ... Molly often actually get other drugs such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") instead (see " Added Risk of MDMA "). Some people take MDMA in combination with other drugs such as alcohol or marijuana. How does MDMA affect the brain? MDMA increases ...

  14. Synergistic effect of Elephantopus scaber L and Sauropus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effect of Elephantopus scaber L and Sauropus androgynus L ... Hematopoietic cells were isolated from bone marrow at 12 days post-infection. Prolactin ... breast milk after birth [2]. .... hosts as a natural means of protection against.

  15. Synergistic effect of Elephantopus scaber L and Sauropus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of Elephantopus scaber L. and Sauropus androgynus (L.) merr formulations in prolactin and erythrocyte cell production in pregnant typhoid mice. Methods: In the experiment, 21 pregnant BALB/c mice, divided into seven treatment groups (n = 3) were used. All groups, except control group ...

  16. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3) ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE)

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis; Melgarejo Luz Marina; Suárez Peñaranda Diego Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías...

  17. guadua Angustifolia Kunth

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    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga a compresión evaluada al límite de proporcionalidad en elementos cortos de Guadua angustifolia kunth fue relacionada con algunos parámetros físicos tales como el diámetro externo e interno, espesor de la pared, densidad aparente, número de entrenudos y contenido de humedad. Los elementos de Guadua fueron sometidos a compresión según las normas ISO-TC 165 dadas por el INBAR (1999. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que para predecir el comportamiento de la carga en el límite de proporcionalidad de elementos cortos de Guadua, los parámetros de mayor incidencia son el diámetro externo (De y el espesor total de la pared (e, para los cuales se obtuvo una correlación con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Un valor de 27,15 MPa con un coeficiente de variación del 16% fue encontrado para el esfuerzo a compresión evaluado al límite de proporcionalidad. Además se estableció un modelo aproximado para la densidad aparente de la Guadua según el contenido de humedad.

  18. Análisis fitoquímico y efecto sinérgico protector de las hojas de minthostachys mollis y malva sylvestris sobre la mucosa gástrica de rattus rattus var. albinus

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    Castillo Saavedra, Ericson Félix

    2010-01-01

    The peptic ulcer is a lesion that affects an area of the gastrointestinal mucose usually in the stomach or duodenum produced by a disbalance between defensives and protects factors. This report was oriented on determinating phytochemistry of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb, Malva sylvestris L., and analyze if these plants in study had synergistic protect effect in the acute injure of gastric mucose induced by ethanol in Rattus rattus var. albinus. Phytochemical screening was realized usin...

  19. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3 ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE

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    Diego Fernando Suárez Peñaranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías de propagación que permitan la recuperación y conservación de las poblaciones naturales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca, luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró un efecto negativo de la oscuridad en el proceso de germinación y no se observó efecto del AG3 sobre la germinación de M. mollis en presencia de la luz. Los porcentajes de germinación obtenidos en los tratamientos de iluminación fueron superiores al 80% sobresaliendo el tratamiento de luz roja que arrojó los mejores resultados tanto en el porcentaje como en la velocidad de germinación. Los resultados indican que la germinación en M. mollis es dependiente de la luz debido a que sus semillas son fotoblásticas positivas.

  20. Nota sobre Bromus Willdenowii Kunth

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    Pinto Escobar Polidoro

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedente de Suramérica fue introducida en Norteamérica una planta que es utilizada como buen forraje y que corresponde a una especie del género Bromus de la sección Ceratochloa (Gramineae referida a Bromus unioloides Kunth. HITCHCOCK (1934 después de examinar fragmentos del ejernplar de Commerson "ex agro bonaerinsi" (C, considerado como tipo nomenclatural y asumir que el ejemplar había sido obtenido en Lima (Perú, 10 asignó a Bromus catbarticus Yah!. Posteriormente PARODI (1956 Y HUBBARD (1956, rechazaron el nornbre de Bromus catbarticus Yah 1 como nomen confussum y propusieron la validez de Bromus unioloides Kunth.

  1. Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic efficacy of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn in Wistar rats

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    Kannakuzhiyil Oommen Sheeba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was studied by determining superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and Fe 2+ ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity of methanolic extract. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity was studied by estimating AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, total protein, albumin levels and by histopathological examination in CCl4 toxicity induced experimental rats. The peroxidative hepatic damage was studied by assessing TBARS, CD, SOD, CAT and GSH in liver. Results: Methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root at doses of 75mg and 150mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the levels of AST, ALT, ALP & GGT and increased the level of TP and Albumin. The levels of TBARS and CD were decreased and the level of GSH increased. The levels of SOD and CAT were decreased. Histopathological changes induced by CCl4 were reduced by the treatment of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root. The effect was compared with reference drug curcumin. Conclusions: The antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root was probably due to free radical scavenging activity

  2. The Effect of Elephantopus scaber L. on Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

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    Chin-Chuan Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx is a physiological response for maintaining homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of Elephantopus scaber L.- (ESL- induced liver regeneration on growth factors (HGF and IGF-1, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis suppressed. In this study, we fed five Chinese medicinal herbs (1 g/kg/day, Codonopsis pilosula (CP, Dangshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB, Danshen,, Bupleurum kasi (BK, Chaihu, Elephantopus scaber L. (ESL, Teng-Khia-U, and Silymarin (Sm, 25 mg/kg for 7 days to male Spraue-Dawley rats. Then surgical 2/3 PHx was conducted and liver regeneration mechanisms were estimated on the following 24 hrs and 72 hrs. The activities of growth factors (HGF and IGF-I and cell cycle proteins were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. Histological analysis and apoptosis were detected by H&E stain and TUNEL. The results showed that extraction of Elephantopus scaber L. (ESL and Silymarin (Sm, positive control were increased protein expression levels of HGF and IGF-1 which leads into cell cycle. These results suggest that the ESL plays a crucial role in cell cycle-induced liver regeneration and apoptosis. These results suggested that the ESL plays a crucial role in cell cycle-induced liver regeneration and suppressed hepatocytes apoptosis.

  3. There's something about Molly: The underresearched yet popular powder form of ecstasy in the United States.

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    Palamar, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since the early 2000s; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly," although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA. The author recommends that Molly use and Molly purity be further studied to more adequately inform prevention and harm reduction.

  4. Effect of manure and plants spacing on yield and flavonoid content of Elephantopus scaber L.

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    Riyana, D.; Widiyastuti, Y.; Widodo, H.; Purwanto, E.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    This experiment is aimed to observe the growth and flavonoid contain of Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L.) with different manure types and plants spacing treatment. This experiment is conducted at Tegal Gede Village, Karanganyar District on June until August 2016. The analysis of secondary metabolism was done in B2P2TOOT, Tawangamangu. This experiment is conducted with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two treatment factors, those are manure and plants spacing. Animal manure treatment had 3 levels, those are without manure, cow manure with 20 ton/ha dose, and chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose. Plants spacing treatment had 3 phrase, those are 20 cm × 20 cm; 30 × 30 cm; 40 cm × 40 cm. The result of this experiment shows that chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dosage increase the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s fresh weight, and plant’s dry weight. Plants spacing 40 cm × 40 cm increase for the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s wet weight, and plant’s dry weight. The combination between chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose and plants spacing 40 cm × 40cm treatments show the highest amount of tapak liman extract and alleged having the biggest amount of flavonoid substance.

  5. The cytotoxic effect of Elephantopus scaber Linn extract against breast cancer (T47D) cells

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    Sulistyani, N.; Nurkhasanah

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main cause of death. Elephantopus scaber Linn (ES) which has been used as a traditional medicine contains an antitumor compounds. This study aimed to explore the active fraction from ethanolic extract of ES as anticancer and to determine its inhibition effect on the cell proliferation cycle of breast cancer (T47D) cells. The ES leaf was macerated with ethanol and then evaporated to get the concentrated extract. The extract was fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol respectively. The cytotoxic activity of each fraction was carried out with MTT method, and the inhibition of cell cycle test were observed by flowcytometry method. The result showed that ES and the fractions have cytotoxic activity against T47D cell lines with IC50 values of extract, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol fractions were 58.36±2.38, 132.17±9.69, 7.08±2.11, and 572.89±69.23 µg/mL. The inhibition effect of ethanol extract on the lifecycle of cells was occured in sub G1 phase. There was no prolonging of G1, S, G2/M and polyploidy phase of T47D cell lines. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against T47D cells without prolonging the cell lifecycle.

  6. A Novel Terpenoid from Elephantopus Scaber – Antibacterial Activity on Staphylococcus Aureus: A Substantiate Computational Approach

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    Daisy, P.; Mathew, Salu; Suveena, S.; Rayan, Nirmala A.

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has gained much attention in the last decade as it is a major cause of the Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic patients. The Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESβL) producers are highly resistant to several conventional antibiotics. This limits the therapeutic options.Hence efforts are now taken to screen few medicinal plants, which are both economic and less toxic. Among the several plants screened, we have chosen the acetone extract of Elephantopus scaber from which we purified a new terpenoid for our study. Its structure was generated using CHEMSKETCH software and the activity prediction was done using PASS PREDICTION software. We have confirmed the mechanism of anti-bacterial effect of terpenoid using Computer – Aided Drug Design (CADD) with computational methods to simulate drug – receptor interactions. The Protein-Ligand interaction plays a significant role in the structural based drug designing. In this present study we have taken the Autolysin, the bacteriolytic enzyme, that digest the cell wall peptidoglycon. The autolysin and terpenoid were docked using HEX docking software and the docking score with minimum energy value of -209.54 was calculated. It infers that the terpenoid can inhibit the activity of autolysin by forming a strong atomic interaction with the active site residues. Hence the terpenoid can act as a drug for bacterial infections. Further investigations can be carried out to predict the activity of terpeniod on other targets. PMID:23675090

  7. Shading and vermicompost effect on growth and flavonoid content of Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L.)

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    Dawiyah, R. Y. A.; Yunus, A.; Samanhudi; Widiyastuti, Y.; Widodo

    2018-03-01

    Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L) is one of Indonesian medicinal plants which is well known as weed. In Thailand, Tapak Limanthis plant is use for traditional medicine due to its flavonoids contains. Flavonoid is compound with red, yellow, purple and blue pigments, used for cancer, aphrodiasiac and anti-radical treatments. One obstacle of Tapak liman cultivation is the effort to increase its flavonoids compound. There is a bridge between flavonoids compound with growth and yield of Tapak Liman. For that, this research aims to find out the effect of shade intensity combined with vermicompost dosage on Tapak Liman growth and yield. This research was conducted in Mei to August 2016 at Medicinal Plantation of BPTO, Tanjungsari Village, Tegal Gede, Karanganyar. Complete Randomized Design compiled with split plot and two factors: shade intensity (0%, 50%, 75%) and vermicompost dosage per plant (0 g, 250 g, 500 g, 750 g) used as the experimental design. The variables observed are leaves number,leaves length, canopy diameter, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, chlorophyl analysis and flavonoid identification. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, any significant treatments followed with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at α = 10%. Result showed that 75% shade intesity and 750 g of vermicompost has gave highest yield of leaf and total simplicia of Tapak Liman. Shade intensity of 50% with 250 g of and 500 g/plant of vermicompost dosage showed highest flavonoid rendement (Rf 0,5) with highly contrasting spot colors.

  8. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ploidy determination and overall genetic diversity. Kathrin P. Lampert Dunja K. Lamatsch Susanne Schories Armin Hopf Francisco J. García De León ...

  9. Micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth, commonly known as giant bamboo, using semisolid culture medium, is reported to have low multiplication rates. This study evaluated the multiplication index of G. angustifolia in a temporary immersion system (RITA®), comparing results with those obtained using a ...

  10. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  11. “Synthesis, characterization and studies on antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles using Elephantopus scaber leaf extract”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharat, Sopan N., E-mail: sopankharat@gmail.com; Mendhulkar, Vijay D., E-mail: drmendhulkar@gmail.com

    2016-05-01

    The simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticle in the leaf extract of medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber L. is illustrated in the present work. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized with UV–Vis-spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The UV-spectra show maximum absorbance at 435 nm, NTA analysis shows 78 nm average sizes of nanoparticles, TEM analysis indicates spherical shape of the nanoparticles with the average diameter of 50 nm. The XRD peaks at 2θ range of 30–80° correspond to (111), (200), (220), (311) reflection planes that indicate the structure of metallic silver. FTIR analysis reveals surface capping of phenolic groups. Existence of peaks in the range of 1611 to 1400 cm{sup −1} indicates the presence of aromatic rings in the leaf extract. The peak at 1109 cm{sup −1} is due to the presence of OH groups. The antioxidant activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated performing DPPH assay and it is observed that the photosynthesized nanoparticle also possesses antioxidant potentials. Thus, it can be used as potential free radical scavenger. Silver particles have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this context, the surface coating of plant metabolite constituents has great potentials. Therefore, the present work has been undertaken to synthesize the AgNPs using leaf extract of medicinal plant, E. scaber, to characterize and access their antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using leaf extract of medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber L. • Synthesized nanoparticles (SNP's) were characterized by UV-Spectroscopy, NTA, TEM, XRD and FTIR analysis. • Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed average size of 78 nm in NTA analysis and spherical shape in TEM analysis.

  12. In vitro toxic activity of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Andrade Gomes Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Often found in some Brazilian biomas as caatinga, brejo, restinga and cerrado, the velame, Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth, is popularly known for its medicinal properties used in stomach ache, gastric reflux, vomiting, bloody diarrhea and to reduce fever. In addition to the pharmacological properties, its essential oil has larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, as well as the ethanol extract showed significant insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of preliminary methanolic extract of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth on Artemia salina larvae. The bioassay was carried out at concentrations of 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 1000 µg/ml of methanolic extract of leaves. The extract studied showed a moderate toxicity to Artemia salina, with LC 50 values in the range of 637,29 µg/mL.

  13. Effect of Heating on the Viscosity and Rheology of Grewia mollis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effect of concentration and prolonged heating on the rheological properties of gums from Grewia mollis, Bombax ceiba and their binary mixtures. After extraction, the gums were divided into four batches each. The binary mixture was obtained by triturating Grewia mollis and Bombax ceiba gum in a ...

  14. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  15. Effects of Alchemilla mollis and Alchemilla persica on the wound healing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Ergene Öz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alchemilla mollis, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds and excessive menstruation. Aqueous methanol extracts of A. mollis and A. persica were evaluated for wound healing acivity by using linear incision and circular excision wound models along with hydroxyproline estimation and histopathological analysis. Anti-inflammatory effect was determined according to Whittle method. The extracts prepared from the aerial parts of A. mollis and A. persica exerted significant wound healing activity with the tensile strength values of 39.3% and 33.3%, respectively, and with the contraction values of 51.4% and 43.5%, respectively. Hydroxyproline estimation and histopathological analysis also confirmed the results. The extracts of A. mollis and A. persica showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with the values of 30.6% and 26.6% respectively. These results showed that A. mollis and A. persica possess significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

  16. Comparison of updates to the Molly cow model to predict methane production from dairy cows fed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Beukes, P C; Hanigan, M D; Waghorn, G; Muetzel, S; McNamara, J P

    2013-08-01

    Molly is a deterministic, mechanistic, dynamic model representing the digestion, metabolism, and production of a dairy cow. This study compared the predictions of enteric methane production from the original version of Molly (MollyOrigin) and 2 new versions of Molly. Updated versions included new ruminal fiber digestive parameters and animal hormonal parameters (Molly84) and a revised version of digestive and ruminal parameters (Molly85), using 3 different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometry constructs to describe the VFA pattern and methane (CH4) production (g of CH4/d). The VFA stoichiometry constructs were the original forage and mixed-diet VFA constructs and a new VFA stoichiometry based on a more recent and larger set of data that includes lactate and valerate production, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria, as well as protozoal pools. The models' outputs were challenged using data from 16 dairy cattle 26 mo old [standard error of the mean (SEM)=1.7], 82 (SEM=8.7) d in milk, producing 17 (SEM=0.2) kg of milk/d, and fed fresh-cut ryegrass [dry matter intake=12.3 (SEM=0.3) kg of DM/d] in respiration chambers. Mean observed CH4 production was 266±5.6 SEM (g/d). Mean predicted values for CH4 production were 287 and 258 g/d for MollyOrigin without and with the new VFA construct. Model Molly84 predicted 295 and 288 g of CH4/d with and without the new VFA settings. Model Molly85 predicted the same CH4 production (276 g/d) with or without the new VFA construct. The incorporation of the new VFA construct did not consistently reduce the low prediction error across the versions of Molly evaluated in the present study. The improvements in the Molly versions from MollyOrigin to Molly84 to Molly85 resulted in a decrease in mean square prediction error from 8.6 to 8.3 to 4.3% using the forage diet setting. The majority of the mean square prediction error was apportioned to random bias (e.g., 43, 65, and 70% in MollyOrigin, Molly84, and Molly85, respectively, on

  17. VIABILIDADE DE SEMENTES DE PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Sidney Alberto do N; Santos,Lenoir Alves dos

    1992-01-01

    A viabilidade e o vigor das sementes de pupunha (Bactris gasipaesKunth) são assoiados com a perda de umidade das mesmas. Partindo de um teor de umidade inicial de 45%, foi observado que abaixo de 38% de umidade a emergência e o vigor das sementes foram afetados negativamente de maneira significativa. Abaixo de 17% de umidade a emergência foi praticamente nula. Baseando-se nestes resultados pode-se enquadrar as sementes de pupunha dentro do grupo das espécies chamadas recalcitrantes. The vi...

  18. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  19. In vitro evaluation of anticancer potentials of lupeol isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. on MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Pitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupeol is a triterpenoid, present in most of the medicinally effective plants and possess a wide range of biological activity against human diseases. The present study aims at evaluating the anticancer potentials of lupeol, isolated from the leaves of Elephantopus scaber L. and thereby explores its action on key cancer marker, Bcl-2. The effect of lupeol on the cell viability of MCF-7 was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays at different concentrations. The efficacy of the compound to induce cell death was analyzed using AO/EtBr staining. Phase contrast microscopic analysis provided the changes in cell morphology of the compound treated normal breast cells (MCF-10A and MCF-7 cells. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins in the normal, cancer and lupeol treated cancer cell was analyzed by western blotting. Lupeol induced an effective change in the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC 50 concentration as 80 μM. Induction of cell death, change in cell morphology and population of the cancer cells was observed in the lupeol treated cells, but the normal cells were not affected. The compound effectively downregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expressions, which directly contribute for the induction of MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Thus, lupeol acts as an anticancer agent against MCF-7 cells and is a potent phytodrug to be explored further for its cytotoxic mechanism.

  20. Effects of mechanical wounding on essential oil composition and emission of volatiles from Minthostachys mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchio, Erika; Zygadlo, Julio; Valladares, Graciela R

    2005-04-01

    Plant tissues may show chemical changes following damage. This possibility was analyzed for Minthostachys mollis, a Lamiaceae native to Central Argentina with medicinal and aromatic uses in the region. Effects of mechanical damage on its two dominant monoterpenes, pulegone and menthone, were analyzed by perforating M. mollis leaves and then assessing essential oil composition at 24, 48, and 120 hr; emission of volatiles was also measured 24 and 48 hr after wounding. Mechanical damage resulted in an increase of pulegone and menthone concentration in M. mollis essential oil during the first 24 hr. These changes did not occur in the adjacent undamaged leaves, suggesting a lack of systemic response. Postwounding changes in the volatiles released from M. mollis damaged leaves were also detected, most noticeably showing an increase in the emission of pulegone. Inducible chemical changes in aromatic plants might be common and widespread, affecting the specific compounds on which commercial exploitation is based.

  1. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce

  2. Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arroyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth para palmito. Se determinó la incidencia de enfermedades en cuatro variedades de palmito de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, durante los 12 primeros meses de desarrollo. Tres de ellas sin espinas (Diamantes-1, Diamantes- 10 y Diamantes-20 y una con espinas (Utilis-Tucurrique. El ensayo se efectuó en la región de Guápiles, Costa Rica, de mayo del 2000 a abril del 2001. Los patógenos que se encontraron en las plantas de pejibaye fueron: Colletotrichum sp., (mancha negra de las hojas; Phytophthora palmivora, (pudrición cogollo u hoja guía; Drechslera setariae, (mancha de anillo; Lasiodiplodia theobromae (hoja deshilachada y Erwinia sp., (pudrición del tallo, quema de hojas y hoja guía. La variedad Utilis-Tucurrique, presentó la mayor susceptibilidad a todas las enfermedades, pero en ningún caso éstas llegaron a un nivel de importancia económica. La incidencia de Erwinia sp. y Phytophothora palmivora mostró mayor relación con la precipitación y alta temperatura.

  3. Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Minthostachys mollis Griseb “RUYAQ MUÑA”

    OpenAIRE

    Carhuapoma Y., Mario; López G., Sofía; Roque A., Mirtha; Velapatiño, Billie; Bell C., Carlos; Whu W., Delia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oil Minthostachys mollis “ruyaq muña”, against Helicobacter pylori, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaves of M. mollis were collected in the district of Huamanguilla (3000-3200 m.s.n.m), Huanta province, Ayacucho region. The essential oil obtained by distillation with water vapor drag. The antibacterial activity was determined by plate cultive excavation method, resulting in ...

  4. There’s Something About Molly: The Under-Researched yet Popular Powder Form of Ecstasy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since at least 2008; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of “Molly”, although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones (“bath salts”) that the name “Molly” may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA. The author recommends that Molly use and Molly purity be further studied to more adequately inform prevention and harm reduction. PMID:27925866

  5. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic selfpollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae e avaliar o papel dos visitantes florais em seu sucesso reprodutivo. Bowdichia virgilioides apresenta padrão de floração anual e do tipo cornucópica. A floração ocorre no início da estação seca, entre os meses de junho e agosto e a frutificação no meio desta estação, entre os meses de julho e outubro. Suas flores são de antese diurna e apresentam néctar como recurso floral. Durante a abertura floral, as anteras se encontram deiscentes e por esta razão há a adesão dos grãos de pólen no estigma da própria flor, promovendo o processo de autopolinização passiva. A esp

  6. Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber L. induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Miaoxian; Chung, Hau Yin; Li, Yaolan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Deoxyelephantopin (ESD) inhibited cell proliferation in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. → ESD induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases via modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. → ESD triggered apoptosis by dysfunction of mitochondria and induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. → ESD also triggered Akt, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. -- Abstract: Deoxyelephantopin (ESD), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in the Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber L. exerted anticancer effects on various cultured cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanisms by which it controls the development of the cancer cells are unavailable, particularly the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. In this study, we found that ESD inhibited the CNE cell proliferation. Cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases was also found. Western blotting analysis showed that modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins was responsible for the ESD-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, ESD also triggered apoptosis in CNE cells. Dysfunction in mitochondria was found to be associated with the ESD-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), the translocation of cytochrome c, and the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Despite the Western blotting analysis showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways (cleavage of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and -10) were triggered in the ESD-induced apoptosis, additional analysis also showed that the induction of apoptosis could be achieved by the caspase-independent manner. Besides, Akt, ERK and JNK pathways were found to involve in ESD-induced cell death. Overall, our findings provided the first evidence that ESD induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in CNE cells. ESD could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).

  7. Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber L. induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Miaoxian [Biology Programme (Formally Biology Dept.), School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chung, Hau Yin, E-mail: anthonychung@cuhk.edu.hk [Biology Programme (Formally Biology Dept.), School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Yaolan [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Pharmacodynamic Constituents of TCM and New Drug Research, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Deoxyelephantopin (ESD) inhibited cell proliferation in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. {yields} ESD induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases via modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. {yields} ESD triggered apoptosis by dysfunction of mitochondria and induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. {yields} ESD also triggered Akt, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. -- Abstract: Deoxyelephantopin (ESD), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in the Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber L. exerted anticancer effects on various cultured cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanisms by which it controls the development of the cancer cells are unavailable, particularly the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. In this study, we found that ESD inhibited the CNE cell proliferation. Cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases was also found. Western blotting analysis showed that modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins was responsible for the ESD-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, ESD also triggered apoptosis in CNE cells. Dysfunction in mitochondria was found to be associated with the ESD-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ({Delta}{Psi}m), the translocation of cytochrome c, and the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Despite the Western blotting analysis showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways (cleavage of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and -10) were triggered in the ESD-induced apoptosis, additional analysis also showed that the induction of apoptosis could be achieved by the caspase-independent manner. Besides, Akt, ERK and JNK pathways were found to involve in ESD-induced cell death. Overall, our findings provided the first evidence that ESD induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in CNE cells. ESD could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).

  8. [The analyses and identification of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici via infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jian-Bo; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-09-01

    In this study, major chemical components of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For Flos rhododendri mollis, the bands at 1,648 and 1,543 cm(-1) were attributed to amide I and amide II , respectively, indicating that it contained proteins probably resulting in immunization. In case of Flos chrysanthemi indici, stretching vibration of C==O function group was responsible for the bands at 1,734 and 1,515 cm(-1), as a result of essential oils, lipids, etc. Since FTIR spectra of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici are almost identical and it is difficult to discriminate them, two-step identification was investigated via secondary derivative of the FTIR spectra. The bands at 1,656 and 1,515 cm(-1) corresponds to flavonoides in Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici. In the secondary derivative of the FTIR spectrum of Flos chrysanthemi indici, characteristic bands of inulin were present at 1,163, 1,077, 1,026, 986 and 869 cm(-1), and therefore Flos chrysanthemi indici contained inulin as well. Tri-step identification was carried out for Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici by means of comparing their 2D-IR correlation spectra in different wave number range. In the characteristic range of flavonoides (1,700-1,400 cm(-1)), Flos rhododendri mollis exhibited 3 obvious autopeaks, while 10 autopeaks were visualized in the 2D-IR correlation spectrum of Flos chrysanthemi indici Moreover, in the characteristic range of glucoside (1,250-900 cm(-1)), 10 and 9 autopeaks were present in the 2D-IR correlation spectra of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici, respectively. Therefore, the tri-step identification of FTIR is a time-saving; accurate, cost-saving and convenient method to effectively distinguish traditional Chinese medicines.

  9. Respostas de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) jovens ao alagamento

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Cláudio José Reis de; Ishida Françoise Yoko

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do encharcamento do solo sobre a condutância estomática, o conteúdo relativo de água, o teor de clorofila e a concentração de N, P, K e de açúcares solúveis nos tecidos das folhas, bulbos e raízes de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) jovens. Plantas com seis meses de idade foram submetidas ao alagamento das raízes por períodos contínuos de sete, 14 e 21 dias. O alagamento induziu o fechamento dos estômatos, apesar de os tecidos das folhas te...

  10. Cytotoxic components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Shin, Sim Kae; Wahab, Norhanom Abdul; Yaacob, Hashim

    2009-05-06

    Dihydroactinidiolide (1) and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and beta-sitosterol (4)], together with the previously isolated individual compounds beta-sitosterol (4), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5), alpha-tocopherol (6), phytol (7) were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi), human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116), human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7) and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549); and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50 )value of 0.81microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  11. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  12. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  13. Identification of myocardial diffuse fibrosis by 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... and ECV. To assess correlation of T 1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse...... fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction. RESULTS: A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two...

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  15. Actividad biológica de los aceites esenciales de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Mejía, Carlos Andrés; Castaño Osorio, Jhon Carlos; Ríos Vázquez, Eunice

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. es una arvense nativa del norte de Suramérica conocida por su contenido de alcamidas alifáticas, se usa popularmente como anestésico y analgésico contra los dolores de muelas y de garganta. Objetivos: obtener, analizar y evaluar la actividad biológica de los aceites esenciales de las flores y hojas de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. Métodos: se obtuvieron los aceites esenciales de Acmella ciliata por hidrodestilación e hidrodestilación asistida por mi...

  16. MORPHOANATOMY OF Garcinia madruno (KUNTH HAMMEL (CLUSIACEAE UNDER WATERLOGGED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA DO COUTO ABREU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Garcinia madruno (Kunth Hammel is a neotropical tree that naturally occurs in terra firme forests and is important as a source of income and medicine for Amazonian populations. This study describes and compares the morphoanatomical responses of plants under conditions of stress and normoxia. Young plants of Garcinia madruno were subjected to two water regimes: daily controlled irrigation and waterlogged for 84 days. Hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and anatomical characteristics of the roots and leaves were evaluated on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84. There were no changes in leaf structure, but cracks and hypertrophic lenticels appeared on the stems, there was an increase in blackness of the roots and the plants formed adventitious roots to adapt to the flooded environment. The anatomical changes in the roots of the flooded plants were thickening of the exodermis in the main root and of the pericycle in the lateral roots, and a large increase in the amount of aerenchyma. Histochemical tests detected starch in the midrib, mesophyll, stem and root of flooded plants, and in the petiole of control plants. In the waterlogged plants, phenolic compounds were found in the petiole and alkaloids were found in the midrib, petiole and root.

  17. Cytotoxic Components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroactinidiolide (1 and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2, stigmasterol (3 and β-sitosterol (4], together with the previously isolated individual compounds β-sitosterol (4, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5, α-tocopherol (6, phytol (7 were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB, human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi, human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116, human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7 and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549; and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5 were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC50 value of 0.81µg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  18. The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish ( Poecilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult male molly fishes were reared up to ten days in control water or in water containing sodium perchlorate at concentrations of 1, 5, 25 and 125 ppm. Remarkable steatosis, fibrosis, hyperemia and necrosis were distinguished in parallel with increasing sodium perchlorate concentrations. The striking cellular damages ...

  19. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient asexual species.

  20. Postglacial recolonization and the biogeography of Palmaria mollis (Rhodophyta) along the Northeast Pacific coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, S.C; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively

  1. Hepatic lesions in mollies (Poecilia latipinna) collected from Bayou Trepagnier, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajah, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mollies, Poecilia latipinna, are small fish species belonging to the Family Poeciliidae. Mollies are surface feeders and are commonly found in Louisiana waters. Bayou Trepagnier is located in the Lake Pontchatrain Basin, in St. Charles Parish of Louisiana, which receives treated wastewater and stormwater from an oil refinery and manufacturing complex. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of refinery discharges on mollies from Bayou Trepagnier. Fish were caught by beach seine, examined for gross lesions and then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological analysis. Paraffin-embedded fish were cut at 6 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lesions observed in mollies were grouped into (1) neoplasms, (2) preneoplastic lesions, and (3) cytotoxic lesions. Hepatocellular carcinoma was the only neoplasm found in these fish. The preneoplastic lesions include basophilic foci, eosinophilic foci, and clear-cell foci. Cytotoxic lesions observed were fatty change, focal necrosis, hyaline degeneration of hepatocytes, and fatty change in pancreatic acinar cells. These preliminary results suggest the presence of carcinogens in Bayou Trepagnier

  2. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez from Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria da Paz; Silva,Tatiana Maria D.; Silva,João Domingos da; Zoghbi,Maria das Graças B.; Andrade,Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).

  3. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  4. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same...

  5. Antimycobacterial activity of Juglans regia, Juglans mollis, Carya illinoensis and Bocconia frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva; Verde-Star, María Julia; Salinas-González, Noé; Rosales-Hernández, Bibiana; Estrada-García, Iris; Mendez-Aragón, Patricia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; González-Garza, María Teresa; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2008-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 2 million people per year. Alternative antimycobacterial drugs are urgently needed; studies have shown that medicinal plants traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases are a potential source of compounds to treat tuberculosis. This paper studied the antimycobacterial activity of 28 extracts from four different plant species that have been used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat tuberculosis. Bark and leaf crude extracts of Juglans regia L., Juglans mollis Engelm., Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch and Bocconia frutescens showed in vitro anti-M. tuberculosis activity. Hexane bark extracts from C. illinoensis, J. mollis and J. regia were the most active with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31, 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Ethanol bark extracts from C. illinoensis and J. mollis showed activity at 100 and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts had the lowest activity. Methanol and hexane leaves extracts from B. frutescens had a MIC of 125 microg/mL. None of the aqueous extracts showed antimycobacterial activity. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, S.; Arias, N.P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O.

    2012-01-01

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in NaOH or NH 4 OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  7. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Giełwanowska; Anna Bochenek; Ewa Szczuka

    2012-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, ...

  8. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  9. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  10. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of a wheat-Leymus mollis alien multiple substitution line from octoploid Tritileymus x Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y H; Zhao, J X; Du, W L; Li, Y L; Wang, J; Wang, L M; Wu, J; Cheng, X N; Yang, Q H; Chen, X H

    2014-05-23

    Leymus mollis (Trin.) Pilger (NsNsXmXm, 2n = 28), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many traits that are potentially valuable for wheat improvement. In order to exploit and utilize the useful genes of L. mollis, we developed a multiple alien substitution line, 10DM50, from the progenies of octoploid Tritileymus M842-16 x Triticum durum cv. D4286. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of mitosis and meiosis (metaphase I), using labeled total DNA of Psathyrostachys huashanica as probe, showed that the substitution line 10DM50 was a cytogenetically stable alien substitution line with 36 chromosomes from wheat and three pairs of Ns genome chromosomes from L. mollis. Simple sequence repeat analysis showed that the chromosomes 3D, 6D, and 7D were absent in 10DM50. Expressed sequence tag-sequence tagged sites analysis showed that new chromatin from 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns of L. mollis were detected in 10DM50. We deduced that the substitution line 10DM50 was a multiple alien substitution line with the 3D, 6D, and 7D chromosomes replaced by 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns from L. mollis. 10DM50 showed high resistance to leaf rust and significantly improved spike length, spikes per plant, and kernels per spike, which are correlated with higher wheat yield. These results suggest that line 10DM50 could be used as intermediate material for transferring desirable traits from L. mollis into common wheat in breeding programs.

  11. Riipaisevia melodioita ja tulista taiturointia : Karakteerierot Max Bruchin Viulukonsertossa nro 1 g-molli Op. 26

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusirati, Veera

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelen Max Bruchin Viulukonserttoa nro 1 g-molli op. 26 ja sen tul-kitsemista ja harjoittelua viulistin näkökulmasta. Syvennyn erityisesti pohtimaan, miten kon-serttoon sisältyvät karakteerierot saisi mahdollisimman hyvin kuulumaan soitossa. Lisäksi kerron Bruchin elämästä ja urasta säveltäjänä. Tarkastelen konserttoa analysoimalla teosta tyylillisesti ja rakenteellisesti ja partituuria tut-kimalla. Lisäksi olen tutkinut teosta soittamalla ja harjoittelemalla sitä. ...

  12. Constituintes químicos das folhas e do caule de Coccoloba mollisCasaretto (Polygonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Patrícia Emanuella S.; Santos,Wagner S. dos; Conserva,Lucia M.; Lemos,Rosangela P. de Lyra

    2008-01-01

    O estudo químico das frações neutra em hexano das folhas e em diclorometano do caule de Coccoloba mollis resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno pentacíclico (simiarenol), que pela primeira vez ocorre em Polygonaceae, dois fitoesteróides (sitostenona e sitosterol), um diterpeno (trans-fitol) e de um benzenóide (ácido vanílico) que está sendo descrito pela vez neste gênero. A identificação estrutural destes compostos foi feita com base na análise dos dados espectrais (IV, EM e RMN, incluindo D...

  13. PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE Geranium chilloense WILLD. EX KUNTH. PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE PLANTAS COMPLETAS

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Thaly; Córdova, Adriana; Vaca, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth es conocida con el nombre de Geranio de los Chillos, es una planta ornamental silvestre, nativa de Los Andes se encuentra distribuida en las quebradas del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito y forma parte de la historia de la flora nativa de Quito ya que ha sido descrita desde la expedición de Alexander Humboldt y Aimé Bonpland en 1802. El presente estudio presenta un protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth, para la ...

  14. Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletados em Manaus, B

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria da Paz; Silva, Tatiana Maria D.; Silva, João Domingos da; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B.; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois compone...

  15. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  16. Who is 'Molly'? MDMA adulterants by product name and the impact of harm-reduction services at raves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleemi, Sarah; Pennybaker, Steven J; Wooldridge, Missi; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-08-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), often sold as 'Ecstasy' or 'Molly', is commonly used at music festivals and reported to be responsible for an increase in deaths over the last decade. Ecstasy is often adulterated and contains compounds that increase morbidity and mortality. While users and clinicians commonly assume that products sold as Molly are less-adulterated MDMA products, this has not been tested. Additionally, while pill-testing services are sometimes available at raves, the assumption that these services decrease risky drug use has not been studied. This study analyzed data collected by the pill-testing organization, DanceSafe, from events across the United States from 2010 to 2015. Colorimetric reagent assays identified MDMA in only 60% of the 529 samples collected. No significant difference in the percentage of samples testing positive for MDMA was determined between Ecstasy and Molly. Individuals were significantly less likely to report intent to use a product if testing did not identify MDMA (relative risk (RR) = 0.56, p = 0.01). Results suggest that Molly is not a less-adulterated substance, and that pill-testing services are a legitimate harm-reduction service that decreases intent to consume potentially dangerous substances and may warrant consideration by legislators for legal protection. Future research should further examine the direct effects of pill-testing services and include more extensive pill-testing methods.

  17. [Prediction of the suitable distribution and responses to climate change of Elaeagnus mollis in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin Bo; Gao, Chen Hong; Qin, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the responses of the habitats of endangered species to climate change is of great significance for biodiversity conservation and the maintenance of the integrity of ecosystem function. In this study, the potential suitable distribution habitats of Elaeagnus mollis in Shanxi Province was simulated by the maximum entropy model, based on 73 occurrence field records and 35 environmental factors under the current climate condition. Moreover, with the Fifth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the dynamics of distribution pattern was analyzed for E. mollis under different climate scenarios. The results showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value was 0.987, indicating that the data fitted the model very well and that the prediction was highly reliable. Results from the Jackknife test showed that the main environmental variables affecting the E. mollis distribution were the precipitation seasonality, the range of annual temperature, annual mean temperature, isothermality, annual precipitation, and pH of topsoil, with the cumulative contribution reaching 94.8%. At present, the potential suitable habitats of E. mollis are mainly located in two regions, the southern of Lyuliang Mountain and Zhongtiao Mountain in Shanxi Province. Under different climate scenarios, the total suitable area of E. mollis would shrink in 2070s. In RCP 2.6 the suitable area would firstly increase and then decrease, while in RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 it would response sensitively and first decrease and then increase. Its spatial distribution in two suitable regions would show divergent responses to climate change. The distribution in southern Lyuliang Mountain would fluctuate slightly in latitudinal direction, while that in Zhongtiao Mountain would migrate along elevation.

  18. Close genetic proximity between cultivated and wild Bactris gasipaes Kunth. revealed by microsatellite markers in Western Ecuador.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Billotte, N.; Lara, C.; Vigouroux, Y.; Ludena, B.; Pham, J.L.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm or Pejibaye) is the only domesticated palm of the Neotropics. The genetic relationships between the crop and its wild relatives are still unclear. We undertook field and laboratory work in order to describe differentiation and relationships between the wild and

  19. [Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker: Species associated to folial spot in pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morejón, K; Kimati, H; Fancelli, M I

    1998-03-01

    One species of hiphomycetos group, belonging to the genus Bipolaris Shoemaker that was identified like Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker is recorded for the first time on pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) from Brazil. The comparison with other close species reported like pathogenic folial spot in genus Arecaceae is made. Its morphological and cultural characteristics are described.

  20. Notes on Two Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan: Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. (Convolvulaceae and Acalypha aristata Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. and Acalypha aristata Kunth, originally native to tropical America, were recently found naturalized in disturbed sites of Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the two species. In addition, their distributions and notes on ecology are provided.

  1. Tapak liman (Elephantopus scaber L) extract-induced CD4+ and CD8+ differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cell proliferation in mice (Mus musculus L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djati, Muhammad Sasmito; Habibu, Hindun; Jatiatmaja, Nabilah A.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-11-01

    Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L) is a traditional medicinal plant containing several active compounds that potentially affecting hematopoietic stem cells, such as epifrieelinol, lupeol, stigmasterol, triacontane-1-ol, dotriacontane-1-ol, lupeol acetate, deoxyelephan-topin, isodeoxyelephantopin, polyphenol luteolin-7, as well as various flavonoids and glucosides. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of leaf extract of Tapak Liman on hematopoietic stem cells in mice BALB/c, by observation of the relative number of cells expressing CD4/CD8, CD4/CD62L, and TER119/B220 in the spleen, and TER119/B220, TER119/VLA-4 and TER119/CD34 in bone marrow, after being administered leaf extract for 2 weeks. This experiment used 12 female mice, which were divided into three treatment groups, P1= 0.5 g.g bw-1.day-1, P2= 1.0 g.g bw-1.day-1 and P3=2.0 g.g bw-1.day-1 Tapak Liman leaf extract as well as a control. The relative numbers of cells expressing surface molecules were analyzed by flowcytometry and quantitative data were tested using one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the leaf extract of Tapak Liman has no significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation; on the other hand, it had a significant effect on both proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes (B220+) in bone marrow (p=0.044) and increased the expression of CD4+, CD8+ molecule in B cells (p=0.026) and erythroid cells in spleen and bone marrow, based on the estimation of cells that expressed TER119+VLA-4+, identified as important in the development pathway of erythrocytes. An increased cell percentage of TER11+VLA-4+ occurred for treatment P2, 12% higher than the control. The increased expression of TER119+VLA-4+ was assumed to be due to the iron content in Tapak Liman, which functioned to stimulate the progenitor hematopoietic cells to proliferate and differentiate into a precursor of erythroid cells (TER119+VLA-4+). There was an increasing number of cells expressing the surface molecules TER119

  2. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

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    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  3. Flash Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Oil from Elaeagnus mollis Diels Seeds.

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    Kan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Ding, Qingzhen; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2017-04-03

    A flash extraction method was used to isolate Elaeagnus mollis oil (EMO). The optimal extraction parameters, sample/solvent ratio and extraction temperature, were determined to be 1:10 (g/mL) and 40°C, respectively. Especially, the extraction yield reached 49.30% when the extraction time was as short as 2 min. No obvious difference was observed in fatty acid composition, iodine value, saponification number, total phenolic content and tocopherol content between flash-extracted EMO and Soxhlet-extracted EMO, but their physicochemical values were lower than those of cold-pressed EMO. Cold-pressed EMO had higher oxidation stability, DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities than flash-extracted EMO and Soxlet extracted EMO. The flash extraction is demonstrated to be an alternative, efficient method for the vegetable oil production.

  4. Nutrição mineral da fava d'anta Mineral nutrition of Dimorphandra mollis

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    Candido Alves da Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar as limitações nutricionais na produção, no crescimento, nutrição e teores de flavonóides totais em fava-d'anta, um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com amostras de 0-20 cm de profundidade de um Latossolo Vermelho sob vegetação de cerrado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 13 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da adubação com elemento faltante (omitindo-se a calagem e cada um dos nutrientes N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe e Zn. Verificou-se que a fava d'anta é tolerante à acidez do solo e sensível à deficiência de fósforo e potássio. O teor de flavonóides totais não variou entre os tratamentos.Aiming to characterize the nutritional limitations on growth, nutrition and total flavonoids concentration of the Dimorphandra mollis, an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with 0-20 cm samples of an Oxisol under Cerrado vegetation. The experimental design was completely randomized with 13 treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of fertilization with missing element technique (with omission of liming and each one of the macro and micronutrients N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe and Zn. Dimorphandra mollis plant is tolerant to acid soil and responsive to the omission of phosphorus and potassium. The total flavonoids concentration was not influenced by the treatments.

  5. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

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    Ewa Kulczykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops: masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT and isotocin (IT, counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae from Western Ghats region, Karnataka, India

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    Rajesh K. Joshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis as obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Twentyseven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%, followed by α-humulene (17.3%, piperitenone oxide (8.5%, cis-piperitone oxide (6.0% and E-β-farnesene (5.9%. The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%, followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065±0.008-0.937±0.139mg/mL, 0.468±0.069-3.333±0.527 mg/mL and 0.117±0.0170.338±0.062mg/mL respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be

  7. Cardiac MOLLI T1 mapping at 3.0 T: comparison of patient-adaptive dual-source RF and conventional RF transmission.

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    Rasper, Michael; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Sträter, Alexandra S; Settles, Marcus; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Rummeny, Ernst J; Huber, Armin M

    2017-06-01

    To prospectively compare image quality and myocardial T 1 relaxation times of modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) imaging at 3.0 T (T) acquired with patient-adaptive dual-source (DS) and conventional single-source (SS) radiofrequency (RF) transmission. Pre- and post-contrast MOLLI T 1 mapping using SS and DS was acquired in 27 patients. Patient wise and segment wise analysis of T 1 times was performed. The correlation of DS MOLLI measurements with a reference spin echo sequence was analysed in phantom experiments. DS MOLLI imaging reduced T 1 standard deviation in 14 out of 16 myocardial segments (87.5%). Significant reduction of T 1 variance could be obtained in 7 segments (43.8%). DS significantly reduced myocardial T 1 variance in 16 out of 25 patients (64.0%). With conventional RF transmission, dielectric shading artefacts occurred in six patients causing diagnostic uncertainty. No according artefacts were found on DS images. DS image findings were in accordance with conventional T 1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Phantom experiments demonstrated good correlation of myocardial T 1 time between DS MOLLI and spin echo imaging. Dual-source RF transmission enhances myocardial T 1 homogeneity in MOLLI imaging at 3.0 T. The reduction of signal inhomogeneities and artefacts due to dielectric shading is likely to enhance diagnostic confidence.

  8. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

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    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  9. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  10. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez from Manaus, Brazil Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletados em Manaus, B

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    Maria da Paz Lima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%.Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois componentes foram identificados, dos quais 1-nitro-2-feniletano, como esperado, foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (71,2%-68,2%.

  11. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

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    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  12. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

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    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  13. Erich Fromm's productivity: creativity as exemplified by Joyce's blooming of Leopold and Molly.

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    Harrell, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    According to Erich Fromm, the productive character expresses what he called the life force in ways that are, by nature, artistic in quality. His valuing of the vital and the artistic, fueled by this life force in our potential to be human, serves as the cornerstone of his model of psychoanalysis. Gilbert Rose, author of Necessary Illusion: Art as "Witness", also has identified the parallel between analytic and artistic processes, building on the assumption that the therapeutic alliance and the aesthetic alliance are one and the same. In elaborating this assumption and extending the parallel between Rose and Fromm, I draw the conclusion that the qualities of relationships have an impact on one's ability to express oneself creatively, to live an artistic life--that is, to live productively. Psychoanalysis is, in practice, a process that is artistic, creative, and re-creative in nature. To the degree that authentic expression of emotionally charged implicit knowledge of the ineffable (the emotional life that resides deep in the bodymind) results in transformation and healing, the process is artistic in nature. This process is exemplified by examining the life and literary creations of James Joyce, especially Joyce's characters of Molly and Leopold Bloom in Ulysses.

  14. Malaria Disease Mapping in Malaysia based on Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) Model

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    Azah Samat, Nor; Mey, Liew Wan

    2017-09-01

    Disease mapping is the visual representation of the geographical distribution which give an overview info about the incidence of disease within a population through spatial epidemiology data. Based on the result of map, it helps in monitoring and planning resource needs at all levels of health care and designing appropriate interventions, tailored towards areas that deserve closer scrutiny or communities that lead to further investigations to identify important risk factors. Therefore, the choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important because production of disease risk map relies on the model used. This paper proposes Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model to estimate the relative risk for Malaria in Malaysia. The analysis involved using the number of Malaria cases that obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The outcomes of analysis are displayed through graph and map, including Malaria disease risk map that constructed according to the estimation of relative risk. The distribution of high and low risk areas of Malaria disease occurrences for all states in Malaysia can be identified in the risk map.

  15. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  16. Durabilidade natural do estipe de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae II: insetos Natural durability of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm, Arecaceae stipe II: insects

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    Raimunda Liege Souza de Abreu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados os resultados da durabilidade natural do estipe (madeira de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunha, quando submetido ao ataque de insetos xilófagos, em ensaios em ambiente florestal e urbano. Foram utilizados dez palmeiras, cinco com espinhos e cinco sem espinhos, de plantios da Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, localizada no km 40 da rodovia Manaus-Boa Vista (BR 174. De cada uma das palmeiras foram cortados três discos de aproximadamente 30 cm de espessura, retirados da base, do meio e do topo. No ambiente florestal, os discos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, em área próxima ao plantio, no espaçamento de 0,5m, permanecendo durante 18 meses, período no qual foram efetuadas seis inspeções trimestrais para avaliar o grau de deterioração e coleta de insetos. Para o ensaio em condição urbana, os discos foram secionados axialmente para a retirada da medula e distribuídos aleatoriamente, nas posições côncava e convexa, sobre uma estrutura de madeira, localizada no Campus do INPA em Manaus, e inspecionados bimestralmente por um ano. Os resultados do ensaio no ambiente florestal indicaram que a maioria dos discos foi deteriorada por térmitas e a vida útil da base foi em torno de 18 meses, a do meio e do topo em torno de 15. As principais espécies de cupins foram: Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen (Rhinotermitidae responsável pela deterioração da parte basal, mediana e o topo; Nasutitermes similis Emerson (Termitidae que infestou a região da base e do meio; Anoplotermes sp.(Termitidae e Nasutitermes tatarandae (Holmgren (Termitidae responsáveis pela infestação da parte mediana do estipe. No ambiente urbano, o principal responsável pela deterioração das amostras foi o besouro Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollston (Bostrichidae, e em seguida, o térmita N. similis.The durability of the stipe of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Peach palm when under attack by xylophage insects, is evaluated in

  17. Traffic-emitted metal status and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in roadside turfy swamp in the Changbai Mountain area, China.

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    Wang, Hong; Nie, Lei; Xu, Yan; Li, Miao; Lv, Yan

    2018-04-26

    Six traffic-emitted metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) were determined in soil and plants for below- and aboveground parts along different distances from highway to evaluate their behavior and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in turfy swamps. The results indicated that the different plant tissues showed significantly different levels of metal content. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that metal contents leveled off at constant values before they decreased as the distance from the roadside increased. The high R 2 values of the regression model indicated good fit of the exponential function applied to depict the distribution pattern of the metal elements. It was deduced that Cr, Cu, and Cd in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly derived from the soil; Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald absorbed Pb mainly through the stomata from atmospheric depositions; Cr, Cu, and Cd in Carex meyeriana Kunth and Zn in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly affected by soil and atmospheric depositions. After excluding the effects of traffic, only the bioaccumulation factor of Cd (1.34) in Carex meyeriana Kunth and the translocation factor of Zn (1.13) in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were greater than 1, suggesting that Carex meyeriana Kunth could be a good candidate for assimilating Cd from soils and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald could be suitable for the phytoextraction of Zn.

  18. [Bee diversity in Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth (Bignoniaceae): importance for pollination and fruit production].

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    Silva, Cláudia I; Augusto, Solange C; Sofia, Silvia H; Moscheta, Ismar S

    2007-01-01

    Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth is an exotic plant in Brazil, commonly distributed in urban areas, which is considered an invasive species in crop and pasture areas. In this study, the floral biology and the behavior of bees in flowers of T. stans from three urban areas in southeastern Brazil were investigated. In all study sites, T. stans was an important food resource to the Apoidea to 48 species of bees. Centris tarsata Smith and Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the effective pollinators more abundant, while Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the more frequent robber species. The most part of T. stans visitors (87.5%) exploited exclusively nectar, which varied in sugar concentration depending on the day period and flower phase. In all flower stages, higher averages of nectar concentration (26.4% to 32.7%) occurred from 10 am to 2 pm. The presence of osmophore in the petals and protandry were detected. In two urban areas the number of visitors varied significantly during the day. The greatest abundance of pollinators occurred when pollen availability was higher and flowers showed receptive stigma, which could be contributing to the reproductive success of T. stans. The results indicate that the production of fruits increased in plants that received a higher number of effective pollinators.

  19. Efecto de diferentes niveles de aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides kunth en pollos de engorde

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    Liliana Betancourt L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de inclusión de aceite esencial de Lippia origanoides Kunth (AEO que maximice el peso corporal y la eficiencia económica. Materiales y métodos. Los AEO se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por GC/MS. Se evaluaron cuatro niveles, 0, 100, 200 y 300 ppm de AEO en dos grupos de pollos; un grupo retado con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia y otro no retado. El nivel óptimo de inclusión fue estimado mediante una función sinusoidal. Resultados. La suplementación con 100 ppm de AEO redujo el impacto negativo del reto con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia sobre el peso corporal, 1.799, 1.889 y 1.995 g en los grupos retado sin AEO, retado + AEO y control, respectivamente (p<0.001. Se encontró una interacción significativa entre la suplementación con AEO y reto sobre el peso corporal y la conversión de alimento (p<0.05. El nivel de AEO que maximiza el peso corporal en los grupos de pollos no retados fue 65 ppm; mientras que para los grupos retados fue 147 ppm. Conclusiones. Se demostró que los AEO ricos en timol pueden ser un aditivo natural viable para la producción de carne de pollo.

  20. TRADITIONAL USE OF A PROTECTED SPECIES (Litsea glaucescens Kunth IN THE “SIERRA DEL LAUREL

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    Salvador Martín Medina-Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a natural area is proposed to be a protected area, the information that supports the proposal is usually based on the physical environmental, rather than on the social environment and on the management of natural resource. This study was conducted from May 2004 to June 2005 whit the objective to analyze the process of exploitation of Mexican Bay Leaf (Litsea glaucescens Kunth in rural communities of Sierra del Laurel, a priority area in the state of Aguascalientes, México. Thirteen semi-structured interview were applied for local collectors and seven more were applied to inhabitants of the region to understand the trends in the use of resource. Three interviews were also applied to environmental officials from federal and local institutions to know about their position regarding the use of the Mexican Bay Leaf. A participative workshop with producers and collectors was conducted to document their opinion on the status of the population of this specie. Trend in utilization of the Mexican Bay Leaf have led it to be in danger of extinction: there is not organization nor legal utilization schemes among collectors that allow regeneration; the lack of institutional coordination, along whit inefficient implementation of laws and other legal instruments to regulate the management of natural resources, has contributed so that users have not adequate risk management procedures.

  1. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  2. Contribution to the ethnopharmacological and anti-Helicobacter pylori knowledge of Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; Del Carpio, Joel Díaz; Palacios-Espinosa, Juan Francisco; Romero, Irma

    2012-08-30

    Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae) is a Mexican endemic tree; its bark has been traditionally employed in Mexico since prehispanic times to relieve digestive disorders. To perform an acute evaluation of the toxicity, gastroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the anti-Helicobacter pylori action of C. procera bark extracts, in order to determine polypharmalcological activities. Five different polarity extracts (hexanic, CH(2)Cl(2), CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH, methanolic, and aqueous) were prepared. Each of them was evaluated in the following acute mice models: toxicity Lorke test, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, TPA-induced ear edema; and the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity with a broth dilution method. None of the extracts were toxic under acute administration. The methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts possess remarkable gastroprotective activity. All the extracts inhibit H. pylori growth, being the hexanic the most active, and only this one showed significant anti-inflammatory effect. This work demonstrates that C. procera bark has polypharmacological activities; which makes it a promising asset to the development of an integral treatment for gastritis or peptic ulcer related or not to H. pylori. Our findings contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge about this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

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    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  4. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

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    Thiago Bruno Lima Prando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3- were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3- excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.

  5. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg (Myrtaceae

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    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L. and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of echinochloa colona (linn.) link and sporobolus coromandelianus (retz.) kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two plants Echinochloa colona (Linn.) Link and Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.) Kunth, were carried out. The results revealed that the extracts of both plants were active against Gram positive bacteria, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram negative bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungal strains Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The most significant results were obtained from the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of E. colona, i.e. 24 +- 2.64 mm and 23 +- 2.64 mm against S. aureus, respectively. A significant inhibition zone of 23.66 +- 1.52 was observed by petroleum ether extract of S. coromandelianus. The chloroform extracts of S. coromandelianus showed an inhibition zone 72.33 +- 4.09 mm against A. oryzae and 66.33 +- 1.15 mm against A. niger. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using five approaches, i.e. 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) method; ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, metal chelating assay, total phenolic contents (TPC) and flavonoid contents. The results showed that the methanolic extracts of both plants possessed significant antioxidant activity. The results also indicated that methanolic extract of E. colona had total phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 734.25 and 7774.54 mg/ml, however, methanolic extract of S. coromandelianus had phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 366.75 and 3010.90 mg/ml. (author)

  7. Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. Se presenta un estudio de alternativas no tradicionales, para el control del ataque fungoso a las semillas de pejibaye durante el proceso de germinación. Se evaluó el efecto de 13 agentes protectores: Vitavax + Benomil, Bayletón, NaCl, Cloro, Kilol, Alcohol, H2O2, Aserrín, H2O, Gasolina, Diesel, Kerosene y Chile picante. De las sustancias probadas, la inmersión en kerosene y gasolina, mostraron un comportamiento tan efectivo como los fungicidas triadimefom (Bayletón y la mezcla de carboxin + benomyl. Esto debido al efecto fungicida y su posterior evaporación, no interfiriendo con la respiración, como fue el caso del aceite diesel. Se encontró además que el peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2, tuvo un efecto acelerador de la germinación, pero no actuó como buen fungicida. El kilol, mostró un efecto fungicida prometedor a concentración superior a los 10 cc/l de agua

  8. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae in rats

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    Pongri Adarki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50. In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

  9. MDMA (ecstasy/molly) use among African Americans: The perceived influence of hip-hop/rap music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Estreet, Anthony T

    2018-02-12

    Over the past two decades, the demographic profile of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) users has changed. In particular, African American MDMA use has risen in some cities. One explanation of this new trend is the drug's recent popularity (as molly) in hip-hop/rap (HHR) music. Several top rappers endorse the drug as a way to have fun or get women "loose." There are currently no studies, however, that investigate the extent to which African American MDMA users listen to HHR music or the influence that these pro-MDMA messages have on their use of the drug. To address this gap, the current study used survey data to (a) identify the extent to which HHR music is listened to by African American MDMA users and (b) assess the perceived influence of HHR music on their decision to begin using. Qualitative interview data are also presented to contextualize the influence of these messages on their use of MDMA. The findings of this study suggest that African American MDMA users are high consumers of HHR music and that pro-MDMA messages in HHR music are influencing their expectations of the drug and their decision to initiate use. These findings add to the limited amount of research on African American MDMA use and have the potential to inform future interventions.

  10. Sex-specific local life-history adaptation in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Reznick, David N; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-03-10

    Cavefishes have long been used as model organisms showcasing adaptive diversification, but does adaptation to caves also facilitate the evolution of reproductive isolation from surface ancestors? We raised offspring of wild-caught surface- and cave-dwelling ecotypes of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to sexual maturity in a 12-month common garden experiment. Fish were raised under one of two food regimes (high vs. low), and this was crossed with differences in lighting conditions (permanent darkness vs. 12:12 h light:dark cycle) in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to elucidate potential patterns of local adaptation in life histories. Our results reveal a pattern of sex-specific local life-history adaptation: Surface molly females had the highest fitness in the treatment best resembling their habitat of origin (high food and a light:dark cycle), and suffered from almost complete reproductive failure in darkness, while cave molly females were not similarly affected in any treatment. Males of both ecotypes, on the other hand, showed only weak evidence for local adaptation. Nonetheless, local life-history adaptation in females likely contributes to ecological diversification in this system and other cave animals, further supporting the role of local adaptation due to strong divergent selection as a major force in ecological speciation.

  11. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICÓTICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAS HOJAS DE Minthostachys mollis (MUÑA COMPARADO CON EL FLUCONAZOL EN CULTIVO DE Candida albicans

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    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia 0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  12. Actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña comparado con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans

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    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia  0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  13. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

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    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  14. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological, phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mun'im, Abdul; Ramadhani, Fitria; Chaerani, Kartika; Amelia, Lili; Arrahman, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gamma irradiation is an effective technique can be used to reduce contaminants in herbal products. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth belongs to Piperaceae family has some biological activity, such as antioxidant and ACE inhibitor. The aimed of this research was to determine the effects of

  16. Acute and subacute toxicity and chemical constituents of the hydroethanolic extract of Verbena litoralis Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Rachel; Guex, Camille Gaube; da Silva, Andreia Regina Haas; Lhamas, Cibele Lima; Dos Santos Moreira, Karen Luise; Casoti, Rosana; Dornelles, Rafaela Castro; Marques da Rocha, Maria Izabel Ugalde; da Veiga, Marcelo Leite; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Manfron, Melânia Palermo

    2018-05-14

    Verbena litoralis Kunth is a native species of South America, popularly known as gervãozinho-do-campo ou erva-de-pai-caetano. It is used in gastrointestinal disorders, as detoxifying the organism, antifebrile properties and amidaglitis. To identify the chemical constituents of the hydroethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of V. litoralis and to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity in male and female rats. The single dose (2000 mg/kg) of the extract was administered orally to male and female rats. In the subacute study the extract was given at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg during 28 days orally. Biochemical, hematological and histological analyzes were performed, oxidative stress markers were tested and chemical constituents were identified through UHPLC-ESI-HRMS RESULTS: Six classes of metabolites were identified: iridoids glycosides, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids-derived, phenylethanoid-derived, cinnamic acid-derived and triterpenes. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. Our results demonstrated that subacute administration of the crude extract of V. litoralis at 400mg/kg resulted in an increase in AST in males, whereas ALT enzyme showed a small increase in males that received 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the extract. The extract of the aerial parts of Verbena litoralis did not present significant toxicity when administered a single dose. However, when different doses were administered for 28 days, were observed changes in hematological, biochemical and histological parameters in rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Evaluation of uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith propagation with air layering

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    Santiago Durán-Casas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith belongs to the Ericaceae family and grows in páramo and subpáramo areas in Colombia, between 2,200 and 3,500 m a.s.l. This plant presents edible berries that serve as a source of food and small income for local communities. The absence of a propagation protocol for this species limits its use. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asexual propagation of M. rupestris with air layering, using indole-butyric acid (IBA as a rooting hormone at different concentrations: 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg L-1. The results showed that an exogenous application of IBA accelerated the rooting process in the layered zone, with a notable emission of first adventitious roots at 60 days from the start of the experiment. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA had the highest number of roots per layer, being two to three times higher than those presented in the control. No significant differences were seen in root length between treatments. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA showed a high production for the dry weights of the roots and callus, with a higher weight of callus compared to root weight. Air layering negatively affected the longitudinal growth of the branches, since their average growth rate was 1.49 cm per month, while the growth of intact branches was 2.78 cm per month. The results suggest that the best concentration for rooting was 1.200 mg L-1 IBA because it had the largest number and dry weight of roots in air-layered M. rupestris

  18. Anti-nociceptive activity of Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2012-12-18

    Local communities in Malaysia consume Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves as raw vegetables or as a concoction and drink as a tea to treat diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, cancer-related diseases, inflammation, gastric pain, ulcers, and for revitalizing the body. To evaluate anti-nociceptive activity of the extracts and vitexin, isolated for the first time in this species, in two analgesic models; formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. Three and a half kilos of P. bleo leaves were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethanol for 72 h. The crude ethanol extract was treated with activated charcoal overnight and subjected to a liquid-liquid partition yielding hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. All extracts, including the crude ethanol and vitexin isolated from the ethyl acetate partition were tested for peripheral anti-nociceptive activity using formalin test and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, besides having their acute toxicity assays performed. The phytochemical analyses resulted in the isolation of vitexin (1), β-sitosterol glucoside (2) and β-sitosterol (3) isolated from the ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, respectively. This is the first time vitexin and β-sitosterol glucoside are isolated from this species. The anti-nociceptive activities for all extracts were only moderate. Vitexin, which was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract did not show any activity in all models tested when used alone at the same concentration as it appears in the extract. This study showed that all the extracts possess moderate anti-nociceptive activity. Vitexin is not the compound responsible for the anti-nociceptive effect in the ethyl acetate extract. Further investigations are needed to identify the compound(s) that might be responsible for the anti-nociceptive activity in this plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Morpho-anatomical and fingerprinting study of Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Manzano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: The specie Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. (Asteraceae is a South American native wild bush that grows in various provinces of Ecuador and it has been used in traditional medicine for several diseases, highliting its use in treatment of leishmaniasis, a condition of high incidence in the country. Despite its medicinal use, there are few or none botanic, chemical nor biological studies for this species. Aims: In this paper it were comprised the morpho-anatomical characterization of leaves and stems and genetic identification of a DNA fraction of the leaves of V. patens, in order to provide the elements for proper characterization and contribute to the establishment of quality control. Methods: The macromorphological description was made in leaves and stems from the fresh plant. The micromorphological evaluation was performed by paraffin inclusion of the material with cross-section that were clarify in sodium hypochlorite for its posterior safranin and cresil’s blue stained and its glycerinated gel fixation respectively. On obtaining the DNA chloroplast it was followed the internal protocol established by Molecular Biology CIBE´s laboratory. In order to sequence isolated DNA fragments from leaves of V. patens, Macrogen Maryland, USA´S company services were hired. Results: Leaves and stems of the new specie’s micro morphological characteristics were described for the first time and new macro morphological characters were described too from stems particularly. Conclusions: Using molecular and macro-micromorphological assessments is corroborated the identity of the V. patens species growing in Ecuador coast.

  20. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids and Alkaloids in Abri Herba and Abri Mollis Herba using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Han, Qingjie; Guo, Panpan; Wang, Chunying; Zhang, Zijian

    2016-01-01

    Abri Herba has remarkable properties, such as cleanup heat detoxification, dampness and activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis; as a result, it has been applied to treat acute or chronic hepatitis and mastitis. Abri mollis Herba is often used as Abri Herba. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to compare the similarities and differences of the chemical compositions in the two types of medicinal materials. To establish a high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of 15 flavonoids, two phenolic acids and three alkaloids in Abri Herba and Abri mollis Herba. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol (A), acetonitrile (B) and 0.5‰ acetic acid in water (C) using gradient elution. The detection of the target compounds was performed in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionisation (ESI) source. The developed method is reliable, sensitive and specific. In addition, the method has been successfully applied to differentiate 15 batches of Abri Herba and 27 batches of Abri mollis Herba stems. Furthermore, a comparison of the contents among stems, roots and leaves from the same strain in seven batches of Abri mollis Herba and four batches of Abri Herba has also been performed. HPLC-MS/MS method is sensitive and selective and can be suitable for the reliable quality control of Abri mollis Herba and Abri Herba. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Isolation and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a wheat - Leymus mollis double monosomic addition line and its progenies with resistance to stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Xin; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Tian, Zengrong; Ji, Wanquan

    2017-12-01

    A common wheat - Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm) double monosomic addition line, M11003-4-3-8/13/15 (2n = 44 = 42T.a + L.m2 + L.m3), with stripe rust resistance was developed (where T.a represents Triticum aestivum chromosome, L.m represents L. mollis chromosome, and L.m2/3 represents L. mollis chromosome of homoeologous groups 2 and 3). The progenies of line M11003-4-3-8/13/15 were characterized by cytological observation, specific molecular markers, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Among the progenies, there existed five different types (I, II, III, IV, and V) of chromosome constitution, the formulas of which were 2n = 44 = 42T.a + 1L.m2 + 1L.m3, 2n = 43 = 42T.a + 1L.m2, 2n = 43 = 42T.a + 1L.m3, 2n = 42 = 42T.a, and 2n = 44 = 42T.a + 2L.m2, respectively. Field disease screening showed that types I and III showed high resistance to stripe rust, while types II, IV, and V were susceptible. Leymus mollis was almost immune to stripe rust, whereas the wheat parent, cultivar 7182, was susceptible. Therefore, we concluded that the stripe rust resistance originated from L. mollis. These various lines could be further fully exploited as important disease resistance materials to enrich wheat genetic resources.

  3. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  4. Dechlorophyllation of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. Leaves Methanolic Extract by Electrocoagulation Technique

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    Ratna Budhi Pebriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present of chlorophyll is not expected in the isolation process of plant active constituent. Electrocoagulation is a potential dechlorophyllation method. This research aims to know the effectivity of electrocoagulation in the dechlorophyllation process of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract as well as the effect to the total phenolic content. Electrocoagulation are performed using copper, silver, aluminum and iron plates as the electrode. Dechlorophyllation by extraction using n-hexane is performed as reference. The % absorbance of chlorophyll and % of total phenolic content of dechlorophyllated samples are measured spectrophotometrically. Electrocoagulation process reduces % absorbance of chlorophyll in Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract. The more the duration of electrocoagulaton process the lower the % absorbance of chlorophyll obtained. % absorbance of chlorophyll of the electrocoagulated extract according to paired t-test (P=0.95 are significantly different with the previous. One way ANOVA continued with LSD (P=0.95 shows that the % absorbance of chlorophyll from the electrocoagulated extract are significantly different with those extracted with n-hexane. Electrocoagulation process reduces total phenolic content along with duration of electrocoagulation.

  5. Composición Química y Actividad Antibacteriana del Aceite Esencial de Minthostachys mollis

    OpenAIRE

    Torrenegra-Alarcón, Miladys; Granados-Conde, Clemente; Durán-Lengua, Marlene; León-Méndez, Glicerio; Yáñez-Rueda, Xiomara; Martínez, César; Pájaro-Castro, Nerlis

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluó la composición química y la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial Minthostachys mollis cultivado en el departamento de Norte de Santander, Colombia.El aceite esencial fue obtenido por hidrodestilación convencional, a partir de las hojas; se determinó densidad relativa a 20°C, índice de refracción; solubilidad de los aceites esenciales en etanol (70% v/v) y rotación óptica. La composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases/espectrómetro de masa. La actividad se ...

  6. Anti-neuroinflammatory Activity of Elephantopus scaber L. via Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling and Inhibition of p38 MAPK Pathway in LPS-Induced Microglia BV-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim-Kei Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus scaber L. (family: Asteraceae has been traditionally utilized as a folkloric medicine and scientifically shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in various in vivo inflammatory models. Given the lack of study on the effect of E. scaber in neuroinflammation, this study aimed to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory effect and the underlying mechanisms of ethyl acetate fraction from the leaves of E. scaber (ESEAF on the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced microglia cells (BV-2. Present findings showed that ESEAF markedly attenuated the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus concomitantly with the significant mitigation on the LPS-induced production of NO, iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These inflammatory responses were reduced via the inhibition of p38. Besides, ESEAF was shown to possess antioxidant activities evident by the DPPH and SOD scavenging activities. The intracellular catalase enzyme activity was enhanced by ESEAF in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, the formation of ROS induced by LPS in BV-2 cells was reduced upon the exposure to ESEAF. Intriguingly, the reduction of ROS was found in concerted with the activation of Nrf2 and HO-1. It is conceivable that the activation promotes the scavenging power of antioxidant enzymes as well as to ameliorate the inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Finally, the safety profile analysis through oral administration of ESEAF at 2000 mg/kg did not result in any mortalities, adverse effects nor histopathologic abnormalities of organs in mice. Taken altogether, the cumulative findings suggested that ESEAF holds the potential to develop as nutraceutical for the intervention of neuroinflammatory disorders.

  7. Do benthic sediment characteristics explain the distribution of juveniles of the deposit-feeding sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Matthew J.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2010-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of many deposit-feeding sea cucumbers, the ecology of their juveniles is poorly understood and factors influencing juvenile habitat selection remain largely unexplained. We investigated the importance of the characteristics of the available sediment in determining the highly localised distribution of juveniles of the deposit-feeding Australasian sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis. Wild-caught juveniles were displaced to non-juvenile habitats with surface sediments characterised by lower total organic content (TOM) and nitrogen content, higher chlorophyll- a content and coarser grain size profiles compared to juvenile sites. The growth of displaced individual animals was monitored over 9 months and compared to control animals caged in the juvenile habitats. Displaced juvenile sea cucumbers had high survival rates that did not differ significantly from juvenile habitats. Displaced juveniles exhibited significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those at juvenile sites ( p < 0.001), although the growth of individuals was highly variable within individual cages and among sites. The lower TOM and nitrogen content, and coarser grain size profiles at non-juvenile sites did not result in reductions in juvenile survival or growth. Higher microphytobenthic activity may have resulted in the higher growth rates observed at shallow non-juvenile sites. The SGR of juveniles over the first 6 months of the experiment ranged between 0.45% d - 1 and 0.74% d - 1 for all sites. This was followed by marked growth limitation between 6 and 9 months either as a result of increasing juvenile biomass in cages or seasonal growth limitation. A subsequent reduction in juvenile density resulted in markedly increased growth over the following 3 month period. Juvenile A. mollis show an ability to exploit a variety of benthic sediment food sources, indicating that their highly localised distribution is not due to differences in the food quality of

  8. Detection of "bath salts" and other novel psychoactive substances in hair samples of ecstasy/MDMA/"Molly" users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco; Cleland, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) in the US is commonly adulterated with other drugs, but research has not focused on purity of ecstasy since the phenomenon of "Molly" (ecstasy marketed as pure MDMA) arose in the US. We piloted a rapid electronic survey in 2015 to assess use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and other drugs among 679 nightclub/festival-attending young adults (age 18-25) in New York City. A quarter (26.1%) of the sample provided a hair sample to be analyzed for the presence of select synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and some other NPS. Samples were analyzed using fully validated UHPLC-MS/MS methods. To examine consistency of self-report, analyses focused on the 48 participants with an analyzable hair sample who reported lifetime ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use. Half (50.0%) of the hair samples contained MDMA, 47.9% contained butylone, and 10.4% contained methylone. Of those who reported no lifetime use of "bath salts", stimulant NPS, or unknown pills or powders, about four out of ten (41.2%) tested positive for butylone, methylone, alpha-PVP, 5/6-APB, or 4-FA. Racial minorities were more likely to test positive for butylone or test positive for NPS after reporting no lifetime use. Frequent nightclub/festival attendance was the strongest predictor of testing positive for MDMA, butylone, or methylone. Results suggest that many ecstasy-using nightclub/festival attendees may be unintentionally using "bath salts" or other NPS. Prevention and harm reduction education is needed for this population and "drug checking" (e.g., pill testing) may be beneficial for those rejecting abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Paula M; Rela, Paulo R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical

  10. Development of New Microsatellite DNA Markers from Apostichopus japonicus and Their Cross-Species Application in Parastichopus parvimensis and Pathallus mollis

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    Guiping Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty microsatellite DNA markers were developed for sea cucumber and used to investigate polymorphisms of 60 wild Apostichopus japonicus individuals collected from China. It revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. A total of 164 alleles were detected at 20 loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 17 with an average of 8.2, and the expected heterozygosities of each locus ranged from 0.03 to 0.89 with an average of 0.64. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in Parastichopus parvimensis collected from the United States and Pathallus mollis collected from Peru. The result showed that 17 loci amplified Parastichopus parvimensis DNAs while only 4 loci could amplify Pathallus mollis DNAs. All of the polymorphic markers would be useful for future genetic breeding and the assessment of genetic variation within sea cucumbers.

  11. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

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    S. Satheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  12. Rentabilidade e risco de investimento na produção de palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Araujo Cordeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out an economic study and a risk simulation analysis in a palm heart of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. cultivation project. Economic analysis was made by using the project evaluation methods: NPV, VAE, TIR and B/C; and the risk analysis was carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation technique by @RISK software. It was concluded that the project of palm heart of pejibaye cultivation is viable, with NPV of R$ 3.549,08; TIR of 19%; B/C greater than 1; the VAE of R$ 1.049,12. The risk analysis showed that the project presents a probability of 5% of getting a negative value for VPL. The variables which affected Net Present Value (NPV according to the ranking of importance were: selling price, productivity and discount rate.

  13. Dureza Brinell y parámetros termofísicos de la Guadua angustifólia - Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo-Delgado,F.; Cortés-Hernández,D. M.; Mejía-Morales,C.; Bedoya-Pérez,A.F.; Ariza-Calderón,H.

    2012-01-01

    La Guadua angustifolia-Kunth es un recurso forestal que debido a sus características físicas y mecánicas ha sido utilizado principalmente en la construcción de viviendas, en la fabricación de laminados y de artículos decorativos. Además es una planta que desempeña un importante papel como protectora de cuencas hidrográficas, en la captura de CO2 y en la conservación de suelos. La caracterización térmica y mecánica de este tipo de materiales de origen biológico es de mucha importancia ya que p...

  14. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  15. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  16. The development of hyaline-cell cartilage in the head of the black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Evidence for secondary cartilage in a teleost.

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, M

    1989-01-01

    The development of hyaline-cell cartilage attached to membrane (dentary, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal and cleithrum) and cartilage (basioccipital) bones has been studied in the viviparous black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Intramembranous ossification commences before the first appearance of hyaline cells. As hyaline-cell cartilage is densely cellular and as that attached to the dentary, maxilla and cleithrum develops from the periosteum of these membrane bones, it must be regarded as secondary cart...

  17. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

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    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  18. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  19. Motivations for Using MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) among African Americans: Implications for Prevention and Harm-Reduction Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences. This is the first study to directly examine MDMA motivations specifically among African American drug users, and findings shed light on why some African Americans use MDMA. A better understanding of why African Americans use this drug should help to inform prevention and harm-reduction efforts. Study findings show the need for health messages that include the potential consequences of mixing MDMA with other drugs, and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors after taking MDMA. These data contrast with motivations (e.g., introspection, self-enlightenment, getting into the music) commonly reported among groups of largely White MDMA users, suggesting that interventions tailored specifically for African American users are needed.

  20. Distribution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in the Amazon molly, Poecilla formosa (Girard), after a single intraperitoneal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Cao, E.H.; Melgar, T.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution and accumulation of labelled N-methyl-N nitrosourea (MNU) has been described in the Amazon molly following intraperitoneal injection. Two hours after injection the label was present throughout the body, with enhanced deposition in the macrophages of the atrium of the heart, the kidney and the spleen; about half of the liver cells were labelled. The compound was taken up by the cells of the renal excretory tubules, and certain cells in the optic tectum and corpus cerebelli of the brain. By 6 h, the distribution picture had changed radically. There was little label remaining, except in a few macrophages in the heart and kidneys, and in the nuclei of the renal tubule cells. There was a slight decrease in the numbers of cells in the brain that were labelled, but the amount of material that the individual cells had accumulated had increased. By 48 h there was further loss and only brain cells were labelled. Our findings indicate preferential accumulation of MNU in undifferentiated, pluripotential cells of the optic tectum and corpus cerebelli. 28 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. AISLAMIENTO E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS, HABITANTES DE LA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DA FOSFATO, HABITANTES DA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA INHABITING THE RIZHOSPHERE OF PEACH PALM (B. gassipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS PATIÑO TORRES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El chontaduro o pejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth esuna especie nativa de las selvas húmedas del pacífico colombiano, adaptada a condiciones de alta acidez y deficiencia de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P, características dominantes en los suelos de esta zona tropical. Los microorganismos rizosféricos solubilizadores de P, entre ellos las bacterias (BSP, contribuyen a mejorar la disponibilidad de este nutriente, por ello, la necesidad de aislarlos, reconocerlos e identificarlos en la rizosfera, como uno de los mecanismos de adaptación de esta especie. Una vez aisladas y purificadas en medio libre de fuentes de fósforo orgánico e inorgánico solubles, las poblaciones bacterianas se identificaron mediante la utilizacióndel análisis de las secuencias DNAr 16S y la técnica BOX-PCR, estableciendo que en el sitio de estudio, las poblaciones dominantes fueron Burkholderia ambifaria y Burkholderia sp. 383, seguidas por Pseudomonas putida, especies reconocidas globalmente por su actividad solubilizadora, y como rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (PGPR.Do chontaduro oupejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é uma espécie nativa da florestas úmidas do pacífico colombiano, adaptados às condições de alta acidez e deficiência de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P, características dominantes no solo de esta zona tropical. Microrganismos do solo comcapacidade de solubilizar fosfatos naturais, incluindo as bactérias, contribuir para melhorar a disponibilidade de nutrientes presente, por conseguinte, não existe necessidade de isolar as, reconhecer e identificar-los na rizosfera, como um dos mecanismos de adaptação do presente espécies. Uma vez que tenham sido isoladas e purificadas emmeiolivre de fontes de P orgânicos e inorgânicos solúveis, populações bacterianas foram identificadas pela utilização da análise das sequências do extrachromosome DNAr 16S e a técnica BOX-PCR, que estabelece que a área de estudo, a

  2. Frozen F1's amidst a masterpiece of nature: new insights into the rare hybrid origin of gynogenesis in the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S M; Vamosi, S M

    2010-12-01

    All-female 'species' of fish have been shown to be great models in ecological and evolutionary studies because of the insights they can provide into the origin and evolution of asexuality, the ecology of hybrids, associations between genotype and environment, and the maintenance of sex. Gynogenetic organisms that evolved from sexual ancestors, and combine the disadvantageous traits from sexuality and asexuality, have long baffled evolutionary biologists trying to understand their origin and persistence with their sympatric sexual counterparts. In this issue, a new study using an integrated molecular phylogenetic and classical genetic approach has uncovered compelling evidence regarding the obscure asexual origin of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa. By performing an extensive phylogeographic analysis, Stöck et al. (2010) provide evidence that the Amazon molly arose only once within its history, with monophyly being strongly supported by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses. This result, combined with an elaborate failed attempt to resynthesize the lineage, suggests that vertebrate gynogens such as the Amazon molly are not rare because they are at a disadvantage to their sexual counterparts, but because the genomic conditions under which they arise are rare. Organisms that apparently combine the disadvantages of both sexuality and asexuality remain difficult to understand from both an ecological and an evolutionary perspective, and Stöck et al. (2010) highlight several outstanding important questions. Nonetheless, given that we now have a better knowledge of the origin and history of this unique 'species', this should allow researchers to better understand how these frozen F1's can persist amidst the masterpiece of nature. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  4. Aquatic insects associated to Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz Kunth in wetlands of Atrato River, Chocó - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleyma Mosquera Murillo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the aquatic insect community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz Kunth in four swamp of the middle and lower basin of the Atrato river (Chocó-Colombia during high and low water periods; the influence of environmental and physicochemical variables on this community was also evaluated. For two months, aquatic insects associated with the roots of E. azurea were collected, using a quadrant of one m2, provided with a mesh of 0.5 mm, with three replicates per swamp and simultaneously measured some physical and chemical variables of the water. The community consisted of 6 orders, 21 families and 28 genera. The highest number of organisms (55.39% and of taxa (23 were recorded in the low water period. The most abundant orders were Ephemeroptera (37.55% and Coleoptera (26.77%, standing out the families Baetidae and Noteridae respectively; while the greatest taxonomic richness was for Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. There were no significant differences in diversity and dominance between hydrological periods (p> 0.05, but in the specific richness (p <0.05. The most abundant functional groups were predators (54.81% and collectors (43.70%. The physicochemical variables did not show significant differences between hydrological periods and there were associations between the aquatic entomofauna and the abiotic variables analyzed, mainly with dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids.

  5. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  6. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  8. In vitro propagation of Rubus macrocarpus Benth. and Rubus bogotensis Kunth, as an ex situ conservation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Adriana Pérez-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate techniques for in vitro multiplication and rooting and ex vitro adaptation of wild blackberry plants (Rubus bogotensis Benth. and Rubus macrocarpus Kunth. In in vitro phases, the influence of culture media was evaluated based on Murashige & Skoog (MS composition, with or without a 50% reduction in salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented or not with benzylaminopurine (BAP, indole acetic acid (IAA, L-cysteine, agar, peat, perlite, and vermiculite. The ex vitro phase was based on a soil, rice husks, peat, and perlite substrate management. After two months of evaluation of the in vitro phases, it was determined that the MS medium at 50% salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented with sucrose (15000 mg.l-1 and agar (5000 mg.l-1 was the most suitable for obtaining the highest values of apical length (cm, shoot number, rooting percentage, and root number. In ex vitro adaptation, the acclimation subphase, evaluated during three months, allowed to determine survival rates of 83.33% and 75% for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, respectively. The average increase in stem length (cm was 2.35 cm and 1.30 cm, respectively. In the greenhouse subphase, evaluated for four months, 100% plant survivorship was obtained, and 2.75 cm and 5.31 cm increases in average stem length (cm for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, were determined.

  9. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  10. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  11. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, G A; Cruz, R A; Chávez, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves

  12. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  13. Fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal from Carex meyeriana Kunth and its application in the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Hui; Han, Fuyi; Jiang, Shuai; Liu, Lifang; Xia, Zhaopeng

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was extracted from Carex meyeriana Kunth (CMK) by a combination of TEMPO oxidation and mechanical homogenization method, and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. After alkali-oxygen treatment, the aqueous biphasic system (polyethylene glycol/inorganic salt) was applied to further remove lignin from CMK. The characteriazation of CNC, and the effects of H 2 O 2 dosage, CNC dosage, adsorption time, and initial MB concentration on the MB removal capacity of CNC were investigated. The results showed that the removal percentage of MB by CNC was raised with the increase of H 2 O 2 and CNC dosage. The adsorption kinetics of prepared CNC followed the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum adsoption capacity of 217.4mg/g, which was higher than those of CNC extracted by acid hydrolysis method, indicating CNC extracted from CMK had promising potentials in the field of MB adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  15. Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

    2013-09-01

    The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu.

  16. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  17. Estudio químico de los compuestos lipídicos de las hojas, tallos y flores de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Santana, Patricia; Miranda Martínez, Migdalia; Montes de Oca Porto, Rodney; Orellana León, Tulio; Abreu Payrol, Juan; Peralta García, Esther L

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. es una especie que crece silvestre en el Ecuador, para la cual existen escasos antecedentes de estudios químicos y biológicos, y en ninguno de estos se aborda el estudio de fracciones lipídicas. Objetivos: estudiar las fracciones de compuestos lipídicos presentes en las hojas, tallos y flores de la especie. Métodos: la planta se recolectó en estado adulto, en época de floración, los órganos vegetales fueron secados en estufa por separado, se ...

  18. The virtual lover: variable and easily guided 3D fish animations as an innovative tool in mate-choice experiments with sailfin mollies-I. Design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Klaus; Smielik, Ievgen; Hütwohl, Jan-Marco; Gierszewski, Stefanie; Witte, Klaudia; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-02-01

    Animal behavior researchers often face problems regarding standardization and reproducibility of their experiments. This has led to the partial substitution of live animals with artificial virtual stimuli. In addition to standardization and reproducibility, virtual stimuli open new options for researchers since they are easily changeable in morphology and appearance, and their behavior can be defined. In this article, a novel toolchain to conduct behavior experiments with fish is presented by a case study in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna . As the toolchain holds many different and novel features, it offers new possibilities for studies in behavioral animal research and promotes the standardization of experiments. The presented method includes options to design, animate, and present virtual stimuli to live fish. The designing tool offers an easy and user-friendly way to define size, coloration, and morphology of stimuli and moreover it is able to configure virtual stimuli randomly without any user influence. Furthermore, the toolchain brings a novel method to animate stimuli in a semiautomatic way with the help of a game controller. These created swimming paths can be applied to different stimuli in real time. A presentation tool combines models and swimming paths regarding formerly defined playlists, and presents the stimuli onto 2 screens. Experiments with live sailfin mollies validated the usage of the created virtual 3D fish models in mate-choice experiments.

  19. The virtual lover: variable and easily guided 3D fish animations as an innovative tool in mate-choice experiments with sailfin mollies-II. Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierszewski, Stefanie; Müller, Klaus; Smielik, Ievgen; Hütwohl, Jan-Marco; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter; Witte, Klaudia

    2017-02-01

    The use of computer animation in behavioral research is a state-of-the-art method for designing and presenting animated animals to live test animals. The major advantages of computer animations are: (1) the creation of animated animal stimuli with high variability of morphology and even behavior; (2) animated stimuli provide highly standardized, controlled and repeatable testing procedures; and (3) they allow a reduction in the number of live test animals regarding the 3Rs principle. But the use of animated animals should be attended by a thorough validation for each test species to verify that behavior measured with live animals toward virtual animals can also be expected with natural stimuli. Here we present results on the validation of a custom-made simulation for animated 3D sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna and show that responses of live test females were as strong to an animated fish as to a video or a live male fish. Movement of an animated stimulus was important but female response was stronger toward a swimming 3D fish stimulus than to a "swimming" box. Moreover, male test fish were able to discriminate between animated male and female stimuli; hence, rendering the animated 3D fish a useful tool in mate-choice experiments with sailfin mollies.

  20. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  1. Mycorrhizal Dependency of Alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth at Three Concentrations of Soil Solution Phosphorus / Dependencia Micorrizal de la Alcaparra (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth bajo Tres Concentraciones de Fósforo en la Solución del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Sierra Escoba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A greenhouse bioassay was carried out to determine themycorrhizal dependency of alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth. Arandomized complete experimental design was employed, with sixtreatments in a factorial arrangement 3x2; the treatments consistedof three levels in soil solution phosphorus (P (0.002, 0.02, and0.2 mg L-1 combined with two levels of mycorrhizal inoculationeither uninoculated or inoculated with Glomus agreggatum. Thevariables studied were leaf P content as a function of time, shootdry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, andthe mycorrhizal dependency (MD. The results indicate that the leafP content increased significantly with the mycorrhizal inoculationin alcaparro to 0.02 mg L-1 after the second sampling days, butnot in the other soil P levels. Likewise, shoot dry weight increasedsignificantly at 0.02 mg L-1. On the other hand, the total plant Pcontent increase at all levels of soil available P. The mycorrhizalcolonization in alcaparro roots was 11, 23, and 0% at 0.02, 0.002and 0.2 mg of P L-1, respectively. The MD for alcaparro was 32%,which allow classify this specie as moderately dependent on themycorrhizal association. /  Resumen. Se realizó un bioensayo en invernadero para determinar la dependencia micorrizal de alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente randomizado. Los tratamientos se arreglaron en un factorial 3x2, estos consistieron en la combinación de tres niveles de P en la solución del suelo (0.002, 0.02 y 0.2 mg L-1 y 2 niveles de inoculación micorrizal (inoculado y no inoculado con el hongo Glomus agreggatum. Se emplearon como variables respuesta el contenido de P foliar en función del tiempo; al momento de la cosecha, se determinaron la masa seca aérea, el P total en la parte aérea y la colonización micorrizal. Los resultados indican que el contenido de P foliar a 0.02 mg L-1 en el segundo muestreo aumentó significativamente

  2. α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Ecuadorian Species Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts (Lamiaceae was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1, squalane (2, uvaol (3, erythrodiol (4, ursolic acid (5, and salvigenin (6. Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS, and corroborated by literature. The essential oil of the leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation in two different periods and analyzed by GC-MS and GC coupled to Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. A total of 54 compounds were detected, of which 42 were identified (including trace constituents. The major constituents were carvacrol methyl ether (18.9–23.2%, carvacrol (13.8–16.3% and, carvacryl acetate (11.4–4.8%. The antibacterial activities were determined as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The hexane and methanol extracts exhibited activity only against Klebsiella pneumoniae (250 and 500 μg/mL respectively, while the ethyl acetate extract was inactive. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 = 24.88 µg/mL, however methanolic and hexanic extracts showed weak activity. As a pure compound, only ursolic acid showed a strong inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 72.71 μM.

  3. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Jan Šmíd

    Full Text Available Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh] is currently an important and promising fruit species grown in the Peruvian Amazon, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Bolivia. The species is valued for its high content of fruit-based vitamin C. Large plantations have been established only in the last two decades, and a substantial part of the production is still obtained by collecting fruits from the wild. Domestication of the species is at an early stage; most farmers cultivate the plants without any breeding, or only through a simple mass selection process. The main objective of the study was to characterize morphological and genetic variation within and among cultivated and natural populations of camu-camu in the Peruvian Amazon. In total, we sampled 13 populations: ten wild in the Iquitos region, and three cultivated in the Pucallpa region in the Peruvian Amazon. To assess the genetic diversity using seven microsatellite loci, we analyzed samples from ten individual trees per each population (n = 126. Morphological data was collected from five trees from each population (n = 65. The analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences for most of the morphological descriptors. For wild and cultivated populations, the observed heterozygosity was 0.347 and 0.404 (expected 0.516 and 0.506, and the fixation index was 0.328 and 0.200, respectively. Wild populations could be divided into two groups according to the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis. In cultivated populations, their approximate origin was determined. Our findings indicate a high genetic diversity among the populations, but also a high degree of inbreeding within the populations. This can be explained by either the isolation of these populations from each other or the low number of individuals in some populations. This high level of genetic diversity can be explored for the selection of superior individuals for further breeding.

  4. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmíd, Jan; Kalousová, Marie; Mandák, Bohumil; Houška, Jakub; Chládová, Anna; Pinedo, Mario; Lojka, Bohdan

    2017-01-01

    Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] is currently an important and promising fruit species grown in the Peruvian Amazon, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Bolivia. The species is valued for its high content of fruit-based vitamin C. Large plantations have been established only in the last two decades, and a substantial part of the production is still obtained by collecting fruits from the wild. Domestication of the species is at an early stage; most farmers cultivate the plants without any breeding, or only through a simple mass selection process. The main objective of the study was to characterize morphological and genetic variation within and among cultivated and natural populations of camu-camu in the Peruvian Amazon. In total, we sampled 13 populations: ten wild in the Iquitos region, and three cultivated in the Pucallpa region in the Peruvian Amazon. To assess the genetic diversity using seven microsatellite loci, we analyzed samples from ten individual trees per each population (n = 126). Morphological data was collected from five trees from each population (n = 65). The analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences for most of the morphological descriptors. For wild and cultivated populations, the observed heterozygosity was 0.347 and 0.404 (expected 0.516 and 0.506), and the fixation index was 0.328 and 0.200, respectively. Wild populations could be divided into two groups according to the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis. In cultivated populations, their approximate origin was determined. Our findings indicate a high genetic diversity among the populations, but also a high degree of inbreeding within the populations. This can be explained by either the isolation of these populations from each other or the low number of individuals in some populations. This high level of genetic diversity can be explored for the selection of superior individuals for further breeding.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  6. Molly R. Hames | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    -7758 Areas of Expertise Budget and Project Commercial Management Contracting and Risk Management Stakeholder Relations Resource Leadership and Capability Development Transformational Leadership and People Management Benchmarking and Industry Best Practices Education M.B.A., Regis University (Operations Management

  7. MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closeness and empathy. Dopamine —helps to control movement, motivation, emotions, and sensations like pleasure. The extra dopamine ... long lasting, including confusion, depression, and problems with memory and attention. Learn more about how the brain ...

  8. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICÓTICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAS HOJAS DE Minthostachys mollis (MUÑA) COMPARADO CON EL FLUCONAZOL EN CULTIVO DE Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos; A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra; L Arturo Alejandro-Paredes; Eduardo Huayané-Linares

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña) en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%), grupo muña 50% (GM50%), grupo muña 100% (GM100%), un g...

  9. Self-Reported Ecstasy/MDMA/"Molly" Use in a Sample of Nightclub and Dance Festival Attendees in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M

    2017-01-02

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of "Molly," which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use-nightlife attendees. We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18-25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was utilized. We examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime ecstasy use. Self-reported lifetime ecstasy use was common (42.8%, 95% CI: 32.8, 52.7). Use was most common among older participants, frequent party attendees, and those reporting higher levels of exposure to users. Those surveyed outside of festivals were less likely to report use compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs (AOR = 0.37, p = .015). Over a third of ecstasy users (36.8%)reported use in pill, powder, and crystal form. Ecstasy users were also more likely to report use of other drugs, including novel psychoactive substances (e.g., 2C series drugs, synthetic cathinones ["bath salts"]). Half (50.4%) reported suspecting (21.9%) or finding out (28.5%) that their ecstasy had ever contained a drug other than MDMA. A large percentage of nightlife attendees in NYC report lifetime ecstasy use. Findings should inform prevention and harm reduction programming. Further research is needed as ecstasy continues to change (e.g., in form, purity, and name).

  10. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  11. Esterases no exame da estrutura populacional de Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae Esterases for examining the population structure of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois sistemas enzimáticos (esterase e esterase-D, analisados pela técnica de eletroforese em gel de amido, em folhas jovens de plantas cultivadas em terra firme, de sementes provenientes de três amostras de populações naturais de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae, procedentes de Iquitos, Boa Vista e Uatumã, revelaram a presença de 6 locos: Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-D1 e Est-D2. Dois dos seis locos gênicos examinados no presente estudo (Est-3 e Est-D2 mostraram-se polimórficos, sendo desse modo considerados valiosos no estudo de caracterização da estrutura populacional da espécie. Os padrões de polimorfismo revelados nos locos Est-3 e Est-D2 de camu-camu, são típicos de enzimas monoméricas e diméricas, respectivamente. O loco Est-3 apresentou um grande desbalanço genético dentro e entre as amostras populacionais examinadas, devido ao excessivo número observado de plantas heterozigóticas em relação ao número esperado. O loco Est-D2 apresentou um polimorfismo exclusivo para os alelos Est-D2¹,Est-D2² e Est-D2³, e um bom balanço genético na amostra populacional de Uatumã. Em função disso, dentre os demais locos gênicos aqui investigados, o loco Est-D2 parece ser o mais adequado para identificação e delimitação de prováveis estoques de camu-camu. Portanto, recomenda-se que esse loco esteja presente na lista dos marcadores isoenzimáticos a serem usados em futuras prospecções sobre genética populacional dessa espécie na região amazônica. Dados sobre a distribuição das freqüências alélicas, estimativas das distâncias genéticas, e estimativas de variação genética nos 6 locos de esterases examinados, foram eficazes na demonstração de diferenças genéticas entre as amostras populacionais examinadas da espécie. Os maiores valores de heterozigozidade média (0,1353; proporção de locos polimórficos (0,33 e número médio de alelos por loco (1,33 revelados na amostra

  12. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  13. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLÓGICA MEDIANTE CARACTERES DE SEMILLA DE POBLACIONES DE Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch, ORIGINARIAS DE GUANAJUATO, MÉXICO

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    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El membrillo cimarrón (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch. es un arbusto frutal de la familia Rosaceae subtribu Pyrinae originario de México, del cual no existen estudios para conocer su diversidad ni su sistema reproductivo. Por estas razones y para tener un primer antecedente sobre su variabilidad morfológica, se caracterizaron seis poblaciones de A. denticulata originarias de Guanajuato, México, mediante caracteres de semilla. Todas las poblaciones presentaron alta variabilidad intra e interpoblacional. Las variables de semilla analizadas fueron discriminantes para distinguir las diferentes poblaciones, siendo las más importantes las relacionadas con las de tamaño de las semillas, seguidas de las de forma. El grado de apomixis no es claro en esta especie debido a la alta variación intrapoblacional; por lo tanto, se necesitan estudios más detallados para concluir la existencia o no de apomixis en A. denticulata.

  14. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN DE POISSON DE LA Guadua angustifolia Kunth A PARTIR DE PROCESAMIENTOS DE imágenes Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DETERMINATION OF POISSON´S RATIO OF THE Guadua angustifolia Kunth USING IMAGE PROCESSING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alexander Osorio Saraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se propuso determinar los valores de la relación de Poisson para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth, en la cepa y la basa del culmo, además de analizar la incidencia que ejerce la estructura interna en dicha propiedad. Los resultados indicaron que la relación de Poisson depende significativamente de la estructura del material variando entre 0,22 y 0,35 haciéndolo un producto biológico altamente heterogéneo y anisotrópico. Además, los análisis de estructura interna de tejido conductivo, parénquima y tejidos de fibras, indicaron que estos componentes varían a través de la sección transversal del culmo de la guadua.The technique of image processing was applied to determine the values of the Poisson's ratio for the Guadua angustifolia Kunth, in the “cepa” and the “basa” of the element, besides to analyze the incidence of its internal structure in this property. The results indicated that the Poisson's ratio depends upon the material structure reaching values between 0,22 and 0,35 making of this biological product a material highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. In addition the microstructure analysis of conductive tissue, parenchyma and fibers, indicated that these components vary through the cross-sectional section of the guadua element.

  15. Morfologia e avaliação do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Bactris gasipaes Kunth. (arecaceae em diferentes substratos Morphology and evaluation of inicial growth of Bactris gasipaes Kunth. seedlings in different substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lorencini da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos descrever a morfologia dos diásporos, as fases da germinação e determinar o substrato mais adequado para o crescimento inicial de plântulas de pupunha. Periodicamente, unidades representativas de cada fase de germinação foram retiradas para a descrição da seqüência dos eventos morfológicos. Os substratos usados para o crescimento inicial foram Plantmax HT, areia, terra (latossolo roxo e outro com proporções iguais de terra, areia e esterco (TAE. Avaliou-se o crescimento inicial das plântulas aos 101 dias após o transplante, com base na sua altura, número de folhas, comprimento e largura das folhas. Observou-se que as sementes são albuminosas, com endosperma oleaginoso e de consistência relativamente dura. O embrião é lateral, periférico e relativamente indiferenciado, de forma cônica. A germinação inicia-se com o desenvolvimento de uma massa de células indiferenciadas na depressão micropilar. Posteriormente, esta massa de células torna-se cilíndrica, com a diferenciação dos primórdios caulinar e radicular. O primórdio caulinar é constituído por três bainhas envolvendo a primeira folha. Estas se abrem sucessivamente, permitindo a emergência da folha primária. Entre os substratos testados, de acordo com os parâmetros avaliados, os mais adequados para crescimento inicial de mudas de Bactris gasipaes Kunth foram o TAE e o Plantmax.This work aimed to describe the morphology of the diaspore, the phases of germination and to determine the most adequate substratum for germination and development of peach palm. Periodically, representative units of each phase of germination had been removed for the description of the sequence of the morphological events. The used substrata for germination and initial growth were Plantmax HT, sand, rich soil and another one with equal ratios of soil, sand and manure (SSM. It was evaluated the percentage and the speed of germination and the initial

  16. Evaluación de la actividad antioxidante bioautográfica de cinco variedades de aceites esenciales andinos (Aristeguietia glutinosa; Myrcianthes rhopaloides; Ambrosia arborescens; Lantana camara; Minthostachys mollis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Toapanta, Priscila Pamela; Pozo Morales, Karla Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This experimental work had the goal of assessing the antioxidant capabilities of five essential oils: Minthostachys mollis, Aristeguietia glutinosa, Ambrosia arborescens, Myrcianthes rhopaloides and Lantana camara; all of which were obtained from the Ecuadorian Andes. This work used the DPPH and ABTS methods to assess free radical-capturing capacity, and it used the β-carotene Test to determine the antioxidant activity of each essential oil. The natural referent used herein...

  17. Low coverage sequencing of three echinoderm genomes: the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kyle A; Nossa, Carlos W; Sewell, Mary A; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    There are five major extant groups of Echinodermata: Crinoidea (feather stars and sea lillies), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), Asteroidea (sea stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). These animals are known for their pentaradial symmetry as adults, unique water vascular system, mutable collagenous tissues, and endoskeletons of high magnesium calcite. To our knowledge, the only echinoderm species with a genome sequence available to date is Strongylocentrotus pupuratus (Echinoidea). The availability of additional echinoderm genome sequences is crucial for understanding the biology of these animals. Here we present assembled draft genomes of the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis from Illumina sequence data with coverages of 12.5x, 22.5x, and 21.4x, respectively. These data provide a resource for mining gene superfamilies, identifying non-coding RNAs, confirming gene losses, and designing experimental constructs. They will be important comparative resources for future genomic studies in echinoderms.

  18. Mollie Lentaigne, the nurse who drew McIndoe's Guinea pigs: Exploring the role of a medical artist at the Queen Victoria Hospital, 1940-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Alexander J

    2018-04-16

    Mollie Lentaigne was a medical artist who worked at the Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead during the Second World War alongside Archibald McIndoe and his dedicated team. She drew hundreds of medical illustrations for McIndoe and his fellow surgeons during the years between 1940 and 1945. Her illustrations depict the plastic surgery that was carried out in that hospital on the badly burnt RAF servicemen injured during the war that took place in the skies over Europe, which included many aircrew injured during the Battle of Britain. This project looks at the career of Lentaigne and her role within the surgical team in East Grinstead during that era and explores a number of Lentaigne's illustrations whilst providing context as to the procedures and patients depicted. An examination of Lentaigne's story, using an interview conducted by the author with the artist offers an alternative perspective with which to observe the events that unfolded in East Grinstead during that conflict. An analysis of these images shows the ability of this artist to portray relatively complex operations with a series of simple pencil or ink diagrams whilst also skilfully engaging the observer's sense of touch. The ability of a medical artist to be selective with her illustrations allowed them to provide clearer, less cluttered images that were preferred by McIndoe when recording the specific surgical procedures for use in the patient's medical records. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The development of hyaline-cell cartilage in the head of the black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Evidence for secondary cartilage in a teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M

    1989-01-01

    The development of hyaline-cell cartilage attached to membrane (dentary, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal and cleithrum) and cartilage (basioccipital) bones has been studied in the viviparous black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Intramembranous ossification commences before the first appearance of hyaline cells. As hyaline-cell cartilage is densely cellular and as that attached to the dentary, maxilla and cleithrum develops from the periosteum of these membrane bones, it must be regarded as secondary cartilage according to current concepts. It is also argued that the hyaline-cell cartilage attached to the perichondral bone of the basioccipital (a cartilage bone), could also be viewed as secondary. The status of the cartilage on the nasal and lacrimal bones is less clear, for it develops, at least in part, from mucochondroid (mucous connective) tissue. This is the first definitive report of secondary cartilage in any lower vertebrate. The tissue is therefore not restricted to birds and mammals as hitherto believed, and a multipotential periosteum must have arisen early in vertebrate evolution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:2481666

  20. Calagem e adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa e óleo essencial em Lippia citriodora (Kunth Liming and organic fertilization on Lippia citriodora (Kunth phytomass and essential oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a calagem e adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa e óleo essencial em Lippia citriodora Kunth. O delineamento experimental utilizado constou de fatorial 7 x 2, sendo sete tratamentos (testemunha; adição de sulfato de Ca e Mg; calcário dolomítico; silicato de Ca e Mg; sulfato de Ca e Mg + esterco de curral; calcário dolomítico + esterco de curral; silicato de Ca e Mg + esterco de curral e duas épocas de colheita, com quatro repetições, inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Verificou-se que a correção do solo mostrou-se prática necessária para o desenvolvimento da Lippia citriodora. Independentemente da época de colheita, a produção de massa fresca e seca foi maior com a aplicação do esterco de curral (32 t ha-1, no entanto, isso não refletiu em maior rendimento de óleo essencial.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of liming and bovine fertilization on Lippia citriodora Kunth phytomass and essential oil production. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments (control; Ca and Mg sulfate; limestone; Ca and Mg silicate; Ca and Mg sulfate + manure; limestone + manure; Ca and Mg silicate + manure and two harvest seasons, with four replicates. Soil adjustment showed to be a necessary procedure for Lippia citriodora development. Independently of the harvest season, fresh and dry matter yields were higher under treatments with bovine manure (32 t ha-1; however, no effect of treatments was observed on essential oil concentration.

  1. Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of an Allotetraploid Weed Species, Annual Bluegrass, with its Two Diploid Progenitor Species, Poa supina Schrad and Poa infirma Kunth

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    Shu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual bluegrass ( L. is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind ’s wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species. Total RNA was extracted from and its two proposed diploid parents, Schrad and Kunth, and sequenced in Illumina Hiseq2000. Optimized, nonredundant transcriptome references were generated for each species using four de novo assemblers (Trinity, Velvet, SOAPdenovo, and CLC Genomics Workbench and a redundancy-reducing pipeline (CD-HIT-EST and EvidentialGene tr2aacds. Using the constructed transcriptomes together with sequencing reads, we found high similarity in nucleotide sequences and homeologous polymorphisms between and the two proposed parents. Comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrion genes further confirmed as the maternal parent. Less nucleotide percentage differences were observed between and homeologs than between and homeologs, indicating a higher nucleotide substitution rates in homeologs than in homeologs. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis suggested the more compatible cytoplasmic environment and cellular apparatus for homeologs as the major cause for this phenomenon.

  2. DISTRIBUCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN ECO-CLIMÁTICA DEL MEMBRILLO CIMARRÓN (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch EN MÉXICO.

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    Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El membrillo cimarrón (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch es un arbusto frutal nativo de México, del cual no existen suficientes estudios sobre su uso, distribución y diversidad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo hacer un modelo de distribución, una caracterización eco-climática así como modelos actual y futuro de zonas adecuadas de cultivo de A. denticulata con el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG. El membrillo cimarrón se distribuyó principalmente en el centro de México. Se obtuvieron tres grupos climáticos, el grupo 1 presentó un clima C, el grupo 2, un clima A(C, y el grupo 3, un clima Bs. Las regiones más adecuadas de cultivo fueron Guanajuato, Querétaro e Hidalgo. Los tres diferentes grupos climáticos pueden tener germoplasma diverso, por lo que es importante colectar en cada uno de ellos. Las mejores regiones para establecer un banco de germoplasma in vivo son el noreste de Guanajuato, centro y sur de Querétaro y el sur de Hidalgo.

  3. Biosynthesis of Multicomponent Nanoparticles with Extract of Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth Berry: Application on Heavy Metals Removal from Water and Immobilization in Soils

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    Mayra Abril

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through preparation of multicomponent nanoparticles (MCNPs using ferric chloride (FeCl3, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, and the extract of mortiño fruit (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth, we dramatically improved the removal/immobilization of heavy metals from water and in soils. As-prepared nanoparticles were spherical measuring approximately 12 nm in diameter and contained iron oxides and iron sulfides in the crystal structure. Removal of copper and zinc from water using MCNPs showed high efficiencies (>99% at pH above 6 and a ratio of 0.5 mL of the extract:10 mL 0.5 M FeCl3·6H2O : 10 mL 0.035 M Na2SO4. The physisorption process followed by chemisorption was regarded as the removal mechanism of Cu and Zn from water. While, when MCNPs were used to treat soils contaminated with heavy metals, more than 95% of immobilization was accomplished for all metals. Nevertheless, the distribution of the metallic elements changed in the soil fractions after treatment. Results indicate that immobilization of metals after the injection of nanoparticles into soils was effective. Metals did not leach out when soils were drained with rain, drinking, and deionized water but fairly leached out under acidic water drainage.

  4. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon-implications for genetic resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M

    2004-05-01

    Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( Prodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, PPeru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities.

  5. Composition of the volatile fraction of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) calyces by GC-MS and NMR fingerprinting and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Moreno Rueda, Gabriela; Medici, Alessandro; Besco, Elena; Bruni, Renato

    2006-10-04

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the floral calyces of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) was studied by means of GC, GC-MS, and 1H, 13C, and bidimensional NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). Twenty-five constituents were identified, and estragole (48.7%), alpha-phellandrene (19.6%) and sabinene (10.4%) were found to be the major components. Antimicrobial activity against six aerobic bacteria and five yeasts and antioxidant activity performed by photochemiluminescence (PCL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and beta-carotene bleaching assays are reported. The oil showed fair inhibiting properties against bacteria and a good inhibition against most yeasts. Its radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant properties were comparable to or better than those provided by synthetic controls. Particular emphasis has been given to the use of NMR as a fast and reliable tool to discriminate O. bofo essential oil from other commercial anethole- and estragole-rich oils, namely, Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia dracunculus.

  6. Actividad antimicótica in vitro y metabolitos del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys Mollis (muña

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    Carlos Cano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Demostrar la actividad antimicótica in vitro y la elucidación de algunos de los metabolitos del aceite esencial de hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña proveniente del distrito de Huacrapuquio (2700 msnm, Junín. Materiales y métodos. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de destilación por arrastre de vapor de agua. Este fue sometido a análisis físico-químico y determinación de la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases. Mediante el método de agar en difusión se evaluó la inhibición del crecimiento fúngico de Candida albicans y también por el método de dilución en tubo para Trichophytun tonsurans, Trichophytun mentagrophytes, Microsporun canis. Resultados. Se encontraron los siguientes monoterpenos: pulegona, mentona, limoneno y mirceno. El aceite esencial de muña inhibió completamente el desarrollo de T. tonsurasn, T. mentagrophytes y M. canis con ambos métodos de evaluación y dosis, para C. albicans se logró un halo de inhibición de 30 mm para el aceite esencial al 100% y de 35 mm al 50%. Conclusiones. Se demostró la actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de muña, probablemente por la acción de los monoterpenos encontrados.

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis of soft tissues. Diagnostic imaging findings and literature review; Le fascite necrotizzante dei tessuti molli. Ruolo della diagnostica per immagini e revisione della letteratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenti, G.C.; Marri, C. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Servizio di Radiodiagnostica; Calandra, G. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Unita' operativa di Pronto Soccorso; Morisi, C. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Servizio di Anatomia Patologica; Zabberoni, W. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Div. di Malattie Infettive, Gruppo di rilevamento dati sulle INPS-ASL

    2000-05-01

    maggio 1991 a febbraio 1998 sono giunti alla nostra osservazione 130 casi di infezioni necrotizzanti progressive dei tessuti molli; in 32 casi l'eta' era compresa fra 22 e 84 anni; la diagnosi istologica retrospettiva e' risultata quella della fascite necrotizzante. Le sedi interessate dal processo sono state: arti (26/32), regioni cervicale (5/32) e perineale (1/32). Diciannove pazienti (19/32) sono stati sottoposti d'urgenza a esame radiografico eseguito anche per lo studio dei tessuti molli. L'esame ecografico e' stato eseguito d'urgenza in tutti i 32 pazienti. La valutazione dei pazienti con sospetto di infezioni necrosanti progressive e' affidata di solito a un gruppo di operatori esperti in diagnostica ecografica dei tessuti molli perischeletrici. L'esame TC e' stato eseguito in 9 casi (9/32); a ognuno di questi pazienti e' stato somministrato mdc iodato per via endovenosa. Con gli esami ecografico ed eco color Doppler, nel sospetto di fascite necrotizzante, e' possibile offrire indicazioni utili e affidabili per il corretto e rapido orientamento diagnostico; in particolare tale metodica e' in grado di rilevare precocemente alterazioni al tessuto adiposo sottocutaneo (28/32), alla fascia (18/32) e al tessuto molecolare (15/32). E' stata riscontrata buona correlazione tra alterazione tissutale rilevata con l'esame ecografico e reperto istologico; l'ecografia non ha evidenziato alterazioni al tessuto adiposo sottocutaneo (3/32) e al tessuto molecolare (8/32) in 11 casi pur evidenti all'esame istologico. La TC con mdc puo' essere utile per la migliore definizione dell'estensione della malattia e per la dimostrazione di eventuali complicanze, soprattutto in sedi difficili da raggiungere con l'ecografia. Le probabilita' di guarigione per i pazienti affetti da fascite necrotizzante sono direttamente proporzionali alla precocita' della diagnosi e all

  8. Gastroprotective potential of Buddleja scordioides Kunth Scrophulariaceae infusions; effects into the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and inflammation markers in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rivas, J O; Herrera-Carrera, E; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Rocha-Guzmán, N E; González-Laredo, R F; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; Ramos-Gómez, M; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Corona, M A

    2015-07-01

    A common plant used to treat several gastric disorders is Buddleja scordioides Kunth, commonly known as salvilla. To detect inflammatory markers, in order to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of salvilla infusions, as this could have beneficial impact on the population exposed to gastric ulcers and colitis. The present work attempted infusions were prepared with B. scordioides (1% w/w) lyophilized and stored. Total phenolic content and GC-MS analysis were performed. Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=8), a negative vehicle control, an indomethacin group, and three experimental groups, named preventive, curative, and suppressive. All rats were sacrificed under deep ether anesthesia (6h) after the last oral administration of indomethacin/infusion. The rat stomachs were promptly excised, weighed, and chilled in ice-cold and 0.9% NaCl. Histological analysis, nitrites quantification and immunodetection assays were done. B. scordioides infusions markedly reduced the visible hemorrhagic lesions induced by indomethacin in rat stomachs, also showed down-regulation of COX2, IL-8 and TNFα and up-regulation of COX-1 with a moderate down-regulation of NFkB and lower amount of nitrites. However, this behavior was dependent on the treatment, showing most down-regulation of COX-2, TNFα and IL-8 in the curative treatment; more down-regulation of NF-kB in the preventive treatment; and more up-regulation of COX-1 for the suppressor and preventive treatments. The anti-inflammatory potential of B. scordioides infusions could be related with the presence of polyphenols as quercetin in the infusion and how this one is consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

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    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  11. Eficiencia fotoquímica del fotosistema II y crecimiento en plantas de curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth bajo estrés salino

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth es un cultivo importante en Colombia, especialmente en el departamento de Boyacá. A pesar de que el estrés osmótico es un limitante en la producción de este cultivo, existe poca información sobre su respuesta a la salinidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de curuba bajo estrés salino. Las plantas se expusieron a concentraciones (mmol/kg de suelo de 20, 40, 60, y 80 de NaCl. Como consecuencia, el área foliar de la planta se redujo 20.89, 42.91, 58.37 y 76.40%, respectivamente, en relación con plantas control (condiciones no salinas. La longitud total de tallos se redujo 9.97, 27.28, 42.79 y 55.77% y el peso seco total por planta en 23.89, 31.49, 39.60 y 61.26%. La eficiencia cuántica máxima del fotosistema II (Fv/Fm se redujo 11.29, 14.23, 38.89 y 92.25% bajo los tratamientos de salinidad; por tanto, la salinidad afectó drásticamente los parámetros de crecimiento y fluorescencia. La reducción en el área foliar se correlacionó con la reducción en la fotosíntesis. La reducción en peso seco también siguió la tendencia de la relación Fv/Fm, lo que sugiere que la mayoría de los impactos de la salinidad en las plantas de curuba se deben a los efectos negativos sobre la fotosíntesis.

  12. Teores de nutrientes e fertirrigação em cultivo de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh com diferentes doses de nitrogênio

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    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh é uma fruteira nativa que está em processo de domesticação, portanto, o conhecimento das necessidades nutricionais é essencial para melhorar a eficiência da adubação durante seu desenvolvimento. O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os teores de nutrientes em plantas de camu-camu em função da adubação nitrogenada via fertirrigação no primeiro ano de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido mediante delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos: 0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N, oito repetições e sete plantas por unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram a massa seca total e os teores de nutrientes nas folhas. Os resultados mostram que a massa seca total das plantas de camu-camu apresentou comportamento quadrático significativo em resposta às doses crescentes de N, sendo que doses maiores a 128 kg ha-1 propiciaram efeitos depressivos. Além disso, os teores foliares de N, K, Ca tiveram uma resposta quadrática significativa, sendo que as maiores concentrações foram registradas entre as doses de 113 e 115 kg de N ha-1. Por outro lado, os micronutrientes tiveram um comportamento polinomial depressivo de acordo com os incrementos das doses de N. Pode-se concluir que os teores foliares dos nutrientes estão dentro dos adequados para o desenvolvimento das plantas de camu-camu, e os nutrientes mais exigidos foram o N, Ca, K, Fe, Mn e B, e finalmente os teores de macro e micronutrientes determinados nas folhas responderam a seguinte ordem decrescente: N > Ca > K > Mg > S > P > Mn >Fe > B > Zn > Cu, respectivamente.

  13. Determinação de taninos e metilxantinas no guaraná em pó (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Determination of tannins and methylxanthines in powdered guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae são utilizadas como estimulante e os principais constituintes químicos são as metilxantinas e os taninos, tais como catequina e epicatequina. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para quantificar, simultaneamente, cafeína, teofilina, teobromina, catequina e epicatequina em pó de guaraná. Os valores obtidos foram comparados com os resultados encontrados no método espectrofotométrico da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Pelo método cromatográfico, os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais foram de 4,04% e 1,48%, respectivamente. Os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais, obtidos pelo método espectrofotométrico, foram de 4,88% e 4,05%, respectivamente. Acredita-se que, nas condições experimentais empregadas, o método espectrofotométrico não foi específico, quantificando outras substâncias fenólicas presentes no guaraná. Portanto, sugere-se o emprego desse método cromatográfico no controle de qualidade do guaraná em pó, por ser preciso, sensível, específico e rápido.The seeds of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae, are used as a stimulant and the main chemical constituents are the methylxanthines and tannins, as catechin and epicatechin. This study aimed to investigate a method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify both caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, catechin and epicatechin in powdered of P. cupana. The values obtained were compared with the results of the spectrophotometric method of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed. For the chromatographic method, the levels of methylxanthines and total tannins were 4.04% and 1.48%, respectively. The levels of methylxanthines and total tannins obtained by the spectrophotometric method, were 4.88% and 4.05%, respectively. It is believed that, under our experimental conditions, the spectrophotometric method was not specific and

  14. Capacidad de enraizamiento de plantas matrices promisorias de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh en cámaras de subirrigación¹

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    Carlos Abanto Rodríguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camu camu es una fruta nativa de la Amazonía, que llama la atención por el alto contenido de vitamina C (6,116 mg/ 100 g de pulpa, está en proceso de domesticación, por lo cual se está investigando un método de propagación vegetativa que permita avanzar en el proceso de mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad rizogénica de plantas matrices promisorias de camu camu "Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh" según el aumento del número de hojas, mediante la técnica de estacas herbáceas en cámaras de subirrigación. El ensayo fue conducido mediante un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar (DBCA con arreglo factorial 9Ax3B, con 3 repeticiones y 15 estacas por unidad experimental. El factor A, estuvo constituido por nueve plantas matrices y el factor B: pares de hojas con 3 niveles: 1; 2 y 3 pares. El enraizamiento fue evaluado después de 90 días. Se observó que existió interacción estadística significativa para las variables: porcentaje de enraizamiento, longitud y número de raíces. Para las variables porcentaje de callo y porcentaje de mortalidad se encontró efecto de la planta matriz y pares de hojas. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de enraizamiento estuvo influenciado por efectos intrínsecos adherentes a la variabilidad genotípica de las plantas matrices, presentando un alto grado de dispersión, que osciló entre 91,11 % y 0,00 %, mostrando una alta variabilidad y marcada influencia de la planta matriz sobre el proceso de rizogénesis, influyendo de manera altamente significativa en el enraizamiento. Con respecto al área foliar, estacas con 2 y 3 pares de hojas, independiente de la planta matriz, presentaron mayor capacidad de enraizamiento. Con base en estos resultados se concluye que el efecto de la variabilidad genotípica y el área foliar influyen de manera altamente significativa en el proceso de rizogénesis de estacas herbáceas de camu camu.

  15. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryda, Lydia; Daza, Claudia; Pels, Jan; Janssen, Arno; Zwart, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10 −3 , 2.9·10 −3 , 3.1·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10 −3 and 0.89·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index A i based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power

  16. Lipid-dissolved γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in globular chromoplasts of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Amrehn, Evelyn; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2014-11-01

    High levels of β-carotene, lycopene, and the rare γ-carotene occur predominantly lipid-dissolved in the chromoplasts of peach palm fruits. First proof of their absorption from these fruits is reported. The structural diversity, the physical deposition state in planta, and the human bioavailability of carotenoids from the edible fruits of diverse orange and yellow-colored peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) varieties were investigated. HPLC-PDA-MS(n) revealed a broad range of carotenes, reaching total carotenoid levels from 0.7 to 13.9 mg/100 g FW. Besides the predominant (all-E)-β-carotene (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g FW), two (Z)-isomers of γ-carotene (0.1-3.9 mg/100 g FW), and one (Z)-lycopene isomer (0.04-0.83 mg/100 g FW) prevailed. Approximately 89-94 % of total carotenoid content pertained to provitamin A carotenoids with retinol activity equivalents ranging from 37 to 609 µg/100 g FW. The physical deposition state of these carotenoids in planta was investigated using light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. The plastids found in both orange and yellow-colored fruit mesocarps were amylo-chromoplasts of the globular type, containing carotenoids predominantly in a lipid-dissolved form. The hypothesis of lipid-dissolved carotenoids was supported by simple solubility estimations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the fruit mesocarp. In our study, we report first results on the human bioavailability of γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene from peach palm fruit, particularly proving the post-prandial absorption of the rarely occurring γ-carotene. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition has been shown to be decisive for carotenoid bioavailability, lipid-dissolved carotenoids in peach palm fruits are expected to be highly bioavailable, however, further studies are required.

  17. Aislamiento y caracterización de la fracción hexánica de las hojas de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. con actividad antifúngica Isolation and characterization of hexane fraction from Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob leaves with antifungal action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Manzano Santana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la medicina folclórica ecuatoriana, utiliza las cocciones de las hojas de Vernonanthura pathens (Kunth H. Rob, para combatir entre otras, paludismo, dolores pre y posparto, estomacales, erupciones de piel, diarreas y parásitos. Objetivos: examinar la presencia de actividad antifúngica en fracciones obtenidas de un extracto metanólico de las hojas de V. patens. Métodos: el extracto metanólico de hojas se fraccionó por columna cromatográfica empleando los siguientes sistemas de disolventes: hexano, hexano/acetato de etilo, acetato de etilo y acetato de etilo/metanol. La actividad antifúngica se midió mediante la técnica de difusión en agar con medio (potato dextrosa agar PDA, en pocillos de 5 mm de diámetro, adicionando 20 µL de las fracciones en concentraciones de 100 y 200 µg/mL disueltas en dimetilsulfóxido. La fracción activa fue analizada para su identificación estructural por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. Resultados: de las fracciones obtenidas solo presentó actividad antifúngica la fracción de hexano al 100 %, con porcentajes de inhibición del 57,6 y 80,2 % frente a Penicillium notatum, y 64,8 y 81,5 % frente a Fusaryum oxysporum, a los quince días de incubación. Se propusieron las estructuras de 29 compuestos como constituyentes de la fracción hexánica, los que en su mayoría, son hidrocarburos. Conclusiones: se comprobó la presencia de actividad antifúngica en la fracción de hexano al 100 %, lo que puede incrementar el arsenal de usos medicinales de la planta estudiada y enriquecer la medicina folclórica ecuatoriana.Introduction: the Ecuadorian folk medicine uses the coction from Vernonanthura pathens (Rob H. Kunth leaves to treat, malaria, pain before and after childbirth, stomachache, skin rashes, diarrheas and parasitism. Objectives: to examine the presence of antifungal activity in fractions obtained from a methanol extract from V. patens leaves. Methods: the methanol

  18. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Piper auritum Kunth and Piper holtonii C. DC. against phytopathogenic fungi Composición química y actividad antifúngica de Piper auritum Kunth y Piper holtonii C. DC. contra hongos fitopatogénicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pineda M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi during pre - and postharvest of fruits may cause spoilage and result in a reduction in quality and quantity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficacy of four extracts (n-hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the essential oil of Piper auritum Kunth and P. holtonii C. DC. on the growth inhibition of three important postharvest pathogens of fruits (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The in vitro antifungal activity was assayed following the poisoned food technique. The results showed that both n-hexane extract (HE as essential oil (EO displayed a relative good control against the three pathogens, being the originating materials of P. holtonii the most actives. Mycelial growth of C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and B. theobromae was significantly inhibited at 400 μg mL-1. Additionally, the chemical composition of the bioactive materials was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Safrole (64.54/56.88% and apiol (64.24/57.20% were the major constituents of the EO/HE from P. auritum and P. holtonii respectively. Structural identification was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Both compounds exhibited significant antifungal properties. It can be concluded that EOs/HEs from P. auritum and P. holtonii, and their major constituents, have interesting applications to control plant pathogenic fungi.El crecimiento de hongos durante pre- y poscosecha de frutas puede causar el deterioro y resultar en una reduccion en la calidad y cantidad. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la eficiencia de cuatro extractos (n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo, y metanol y el aceite esencial de Piperauritum Kunth y P. holtonii C. DC. en la inhibición del crecimiento de tres importantes patogenos de pre- y poscosecha de frutas (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y Botryodiplodia theobromae. La actividad antifúngica in

  19. Germinação, vigor e sanidade de sementes de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. obtidas de frutos coletados no solo e na planta Germination, vigor and sanity of "fava d'anta" (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds obtained from fruits collected both in the soil and in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes obtidas a partir de frutos maduros coletados no solo e nas plantas de fava d'anta, espécie medicinal nativa do Cerrado, ameaçada de extinção, cujos frutos são ricos em rutina. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída de uma caixa gerbox contendo 15 sementes cada. A qualidade fisiológica foi determinada por meio de testes de germinação e vigor, avaliando-se a porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a massa seca das raízes primárias. A qualidade sanitária foi determinada pela identificação dos microorganismos patogênicos associados às sementes, bem como pela porcentagem de ocorrência destes em cada parcela. Os fungos identificados nas sementes pertencem aos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletrotrichum, Helminthosporium, Nigrospora, Penicillum, Phoma e Phomopsis. Sementes oriundas de frutos coletados no solo foram mais contaminadas por agentes patogênicos e apresentaram germinação (56,67%, vigor e sanidade inferiores às sementes obtidas de frutos coletados na planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds obtained from mature fruits collected in the soil and in "fava d'anta" plants. Dimorphandra mollis constitutes an endangered medicinal species native to cerrado and presents fruits rich in rutin. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 10 replicates. Each replicate consisted of a gerbox containing 15 seeds each. Physiological quality was assessed through germination and vigor tests by evaluating germination percentage, germination velocity index (GVI, and primary root dry matter. Sanitary quality was evaluated by identifying pathogenic microorganisms associated with the seeds, as well as their occurrence percentage in each plot. The

  20. Aves endêmicas e ameaçadas de extinção da Estação Ecológica de Xitué e a contribuição do taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth para a riqueza local. Endemic and threatened birds of the Xitué Ecological Station and the contribution of the bamboo Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth to local richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo ecológico da Serra deParanapiacaba, no sul do Estado de São Paulo,é uma área de extrema importância para aconservação das aves. Dentro do contínuo, a EstaçãoEcológica de Xitué é a Unidade de Conservaçãocuja avifauna é menos conhecida. Em levantamentoefetuado em 2006 foram registradas em Xitué48 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e 8ameaçadas de extinção. Apesar de ser a espécievegetal dominante em vastos trechos da estação,o taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth parececontribuir pouco para a riqueza de espécies de avesencontradas. No entanto, entre estas espécies seencontra o criticamente ameaçado papa-capim-dataquaraSporophila falcirostris, granívoroespecializado em sementes de taquaras.The Paranapiacaba Range ecologicalcontinuum, in State of São Paulo southernBrazil, is an extremely important area to birdconservation. In Paranapiacaba Range the birds ofXitué Ecological Station remains poorly known.We surveyed the Xitué birds in 2006 and we found48 Atlantic Forest endemics species and 8 threatened.Although the bamboo Guadua tagoara (NeesKunth dominate many areas of Xitué, it contributedtoo little for bird richness. However, between thesebird species was the critically endangered Temminck’sSeedeater Sporophila falcirostris, specializedbamboo granivorous.

  1. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Preskia bleo (Kunth) DC, a plant species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii Khamis; Norihan Mohd Saleh; Norizah Jaafar Sidek; Noor Azlinawatima Sulong; Nor Azizah Marsiddi

    2006-01-01

    ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines were found to be 1.3 and 3.5 μg/ml, respectively. The aqueous extract was found to be non-cytotoxic. All the extracts tested were also found to be non-toxic against the brine shrimps up to 2,000 μg/ml of the extracts. This study demonstrated that the non-aqueous extracts of the leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) D.C exhibited a non-selective mode of action against breast cancer cells proliferation in-vitro. Their non-cytotoxic activities toward the non-tumour 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicates that the extracts exhibited selective mode of inhibition between tumour and non-tumour cells. The results obtained support the reputation of the above species as anticancer plant. Further work to isolate the cytotoxic compounds and to investigate the in vivo antitumour activity in rat is in progress. (Author)

  2. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

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    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  3. Características físico-químicas e produtividade de acessos de Passiflora nitida Kunth procedentes do Centro-Norte do Brasil Physical and chemical characteristics and yield of Passiflora nitida Kunth accessions from North and Central regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-suspiro (Passiflora nitida Kunth é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída no território nacional. Tem alto potencial para o melhoramento visando à resistência a diversas doenças que provocam perdas expressivas em cultivos comerciais de maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Seus frutos são comestíveis e têm elevado valor comercial como fruta fresca. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características físicas e químicas dos frutos e determinar, em condições de campo, o rendimento de dez acessos de P. nitida procedentes de estados e/ou de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos das regiões Centro - Norte do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, Distrito Federal. Os acessos avaliados foram coletados em Manaus-AM, de capoeira; no Núcleo Rural São José - DF, de chapada e de vereda; no Vale do Amanhecer - DF, de vereda; Jardim Botânico-DF, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Silvânia-GO, de mata ciliar e de chapada; em Itiquira - MT, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Alto Paraíso-GO, de chapada, e em Natividade-TO, de chapada. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por repetição. As plantas foram propagadas por estacas enraizadas de cada acesso e conduzidas em espaldeiras verticais de 1,80 metro de altura, com irrigação por gotejamento. As avaliações foram feitas durante as colheitas de 2006 e 2007. O acesso do Vale do Amanhecer apresentou o melhor rendimento de frutos. Este acesso pode ser usado no programa de melhoramento visando à inserção de P. nitida no mercado. Também foi possível observar que as fontes provenientes do Cerrado têm características físicas mais desejáveis, produzindo frutos maiores e com melhor rendimento em polpa. Por outro lado, o acesso do Amazonas teve a menor espessura da casca, característica desejável para o mercado de frutas naturais.The passion fruit

  4. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Malvaviscus arboreus Cav, Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth Y Psidium guajava L.

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    Daniel Vázquez Cahuich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth y Psidium guajava L., obtenidos por hidrodeltilación, fueron evaluados como antimicrobianos potenciales contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 4028 y Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se emplearon los métodos de difusión en disco, bioautografía y microdilución, subsecuentemente cada extracto fue analizado por cromatografía de gases/masas (CG-MS para la obtención del perfil químico. Los aceites esenciales de las cuatro especies presentaron actividad antimicrobiana por el método de difusión en agar contra las tres cepas de microorganismos. En cuanto a la bioautografía, se detectó que la fracción 4 en el aceite esencial de P. dioica, con una referencia frontal (Rf de 0.42 cm, inhibió el crecimiento de B. cereus, S. typhimurium y S. aureus. En la microdilución se determinó que B. cereus fue el microorganismo más susceptible a la presencia de los aceites esenciales de M. arboreus, P. dioica, B. crassifolia y P. guajava. El eugenol fue el principal componente de P. dioica y P. guajava con porcentajes de abundancia de 94.86% y 33.84% respectivamente, determinado por CG-MS.

  5. Seed characters and their usefulness in the separation of Asteraceae species

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    Michelli Fernandes Batista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on seed structure of Asteraceae have received little attention of botanists. Seed structure in Asteraceae is analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of characters in the separation of species through the analysis of nine weedy species. Seeds originate from anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate ovules. The partial collapse of the developing seed coat is a common characteristic in the Asteraceae species studied. The testa consists of crushed and thin-walled cells in almost all of the species studied herein, except for Elephantopus mollis and Parthenium hysterophorus, which showed exotesta cells with U-shaped thickening. The analysis revealed high uniformity in seed characters.

  6. Distribución y diversidad de las "muñas" género Minthostachys (Lamiaceae) en Huanuco, Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Villavicencio, Milka Nelly

    2011-01-01

    El 90% de lamiaceas denominadas “muñas” en Huánuco, Perú son especies del género Minthostachys y 10% restante de géneros relacionados. Las especies de Minthostachys encontradas fueron tres: Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., con sus tres variedades, var. mollis, var. hybrida Schmidt-Leb. y var. mandoniana (Briq.) Schmidt-Leb., Minthostachys spicata (Benth.) Epling y Minthostachys latifolia Schmidt-Leb., así como una población sin identificar taxonómicamente, que probablemente es un híbrid...

  7. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G.; Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O.; Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Delprete, Piero G.

    2012-01-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-β-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC 50 values of 16.0 and 40.7 μg per mL, respectively. (author)

  8. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3 - methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  9. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data.

  10. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric method...

  11. Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

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    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la alta variabilidad en la producción de vitamina C enMyrciariadubia"camucamu", es necesarioestablecer procedimientos biotecnológicos para la propagación clonal masiva de genotipos promisorios de estaespecie.El objetivo fue establecer un método eficiente para inducir la formación de callosin vitroa partir deexplantesdeM. dubia. Los explantes de hojas y nudos se obtuvieron de ramas cultivadas en el laboratorio y lapulpa a partir defrutos colectados en el campo. Estosfueron desinfectados y sembrados en medio Murashige-Skoog (1962 suplementado con ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, bencilaminopurina (BAP y kinetina(Kin. Los cultivos fueron mantenidos a 25±2°C, en oscuridad por 2 semanas y posteriormente con unfotoperiodo de 16 horas luz y 8 horas de oscuridad por 6 semanas. El tratamiento con 2 mg/L de 2,4-D y 0,1mg/L de BAP estimuló mayor callogénesis en los tres tipos de explantes. Los callos se generaron a partir de laprimera semana (nudos, cuarta semana (hojas y sexta semana (pulpa y estos fueron friables (hojas y nudosy no friables (pulpa. En conclusión, el método descrito es eficiente para inducir callosin vitroen hojas, nudosy pulpa deM. dubia, siendo los explantes de hojas y nudos los más idóneos para la obtención de callos.

  12. Variação do peso fresco em Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associado a Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma baía no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso Variation of the fresh weight in Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae in a bay in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima R. Jaloretto da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Variação do peso fresco em Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associado a Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma baía no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso. Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera, Acrididae desenvolve seu ciclo de vida sobre macrófitas aquáticas da família Pontederiaceae. Como os gafanhotos são capazes de responder às mudanças sazonais, a alternância de períodos que ocorre no Pantanal pode refletir em sua biologia. Este estudo foi desenvolvido no Pantanal de Poconé - MT, com o objetivo de avaliar possíveis variações no peso fresco dos adultos e ninfas de C. aquaticum. Durante o período de março/2006 a fevereiro/2007 coletaram-se mensalmente, 50 indivíduos de C. aquaticum. Um total de 600 indivíduos foi avaliado, sendo 43,5 % adultos e 56,5 % ninfas. Os maiores valores de peso fresco total ocorreram nos meses de setembro (9,106g; 0,182g/indivíduo e outubro/2006 (8,865g; 0,177g/indivíduo e os menores em março/2006 (3,413g; 0,068g/indivíduo. Nos indivíduos adultos os maiores pesos frescos foram registrados em setembro/2006 (8,680g; 0,223g/indivíduo e outubro/2006 (8,654g; 0,234g/indivíduo, no final do período de seca, e o menor em março/2006 (1,792g; 0,138g/indivíduo, durante o período de cheia. As ninfas tiveram o maior peso fresco em abril/2006 (2,913g; 0,076g/indivíduo início da vazante, enquanto o menor peso fresco ocorreu em outubro/2006 (0,211g; 0,016g/indivíduo início da enchente. Apenas a variação no peso fresco médio das fêmeas foi significativa (f = 6,43; p = 0,001, com os maiores registros durante o período de enchente, o que pode evidenciar uma estratégia reprodutiva.Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera, Acrididae develops its life cycle on aquatic macrophyte of the Pontederiaceae family. As grasshoppers are able to respond to the seasonal changes, the alternation of periods that occurs in the Pantanal may reflect in their biology. This study

  13. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  14. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva; Samyra Ramos Chaves; Jéfferson Mesquita Brito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flowe...

  15. Caracterização tecnológica de extrusados de terceira geração à base de farinhas de mandioca e pupunha Technological chracterization of third generation extruded from cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz and pupunha (Bactris gasipaes kunth. flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho,com o objetivo de estudar as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas de extrusados de terceira geração obtidos de misturas de farinhas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, por meio das análises de densidade aparente, índice de absorção de água, índice de solubilidade em água e viscosidade de pasta (RVA. Os extrusados foram formulados, adicionando-se 15, 20 e 25% de farinha de pupunha à farinha de mandioca, sendo processados em extrusora monorosca, escala piloto. Os parâmetros de extrusão foram fixos, utilizando-se cinco zonas de extrusão com temperaturas de 30ºC, 40ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 70ºC; velocidade do parafuso 177rpm; taxa de alimentação 292g/min e matriz laminar de 1mm. Os extrusados de terceira geração obtidos apresentaram valores relativamente baixos ou intermediários de IAA e ISA, variando de 5,01 a 6,48g/g e 5,37 a 7,34% para IAA e ISA, respectivamente. Após o processo de fritura dos extrusados, observou-se expansão e, consequentemente, redução na densidade aparente dos mesmos. O desenvolvimento ou aplicação de tecnologias como a extrusão, que permitam o aproveitamento de matérias-primas regionais, entre elas a mandioca e a pupunha, é uma forma de agregação de valor às riquezas existentes e, ao mesmo tempo, possibilita a diversificação de novos produtos alimentícios prontos para o consumo.The objective of this work was to study the technological functional properties of third generation extruded products obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. flour mixtures, in terms of apparent density, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and paste viscosity. The extruded products were formulated by adding 15%, 20% or 25% pupunha flour to cassava flour, and processing the mixtures in a pilot scale single screw extruder. The extrusion parameters were fixed by using five extrusion zones (at 30º

  16. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  17. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of high value for studies on the clonal variability and ori- gin of triploid .... Microsatellites in Poecilia species. Table 1. (contd). Amplification in. Diagnostic for. Locus. P. formosa. P. mexicana. P. latipinna. Species. Ploidy levels. MSD25 m m m n n .... be used to easily determine the species origin of individu- als and ploidy ...

  18. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.

  19. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  20. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. ...

  1. The Species of Cocoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) from brasilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. para...

  2. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-01-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez González, Cuauhtemoc; Serrano Vega, Roberto; González-Chávez, Marco; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  4. Micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universidad del Quindio

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... develop an application for RITA® for use in the commercial production of G. angustifolia. Key words: Giant .... Data were analyzed using a random block design with 20 replicates ..... Gray D (eds) Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory ... A (eds) Current Issues in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology,.

  5. Allozyme variation in spineless Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  6. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Q. Falcão

    Full Text Available A espécie Calceolaria chelidonioides (Scrophulariaceae, até então inédita nas citações científicas, foi estudada sob o ponto de vista farmacológico buscando-se identificar possíveis atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante em metodologia in vitro. As partes aéreas dessa espécie demonstraram atividade antioxidante em modelo usando o radical livre DPPH. As flores de C. chelidonioides mostraram grande potencial antibacteriano frente à bactéria Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina MRSA, um dos principais responsáveis em casos de infecção hospitalar.

  7. Phenology of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Paola Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenological stages of oil palm can be coded using the BBCH scale, which has three digits due to the inclusion of intermediate stages between the principal and secondary stages in order to provide greater detail on each developmental stage. For the phenological description of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera, the principal stages used were emergence of inflorescence, flowering, fruit growth and development, and fruit ripening. The observations were made in Colombia over a 12 month-period on E. oleifera palms planted in 1991; the observations were made on the daily course or depending on the development stage. The duration of each phenological stage was measured in days. Thus, the appearance of new leaves took 20.1±2.8 days, reaching preanthesis I (601 took 145.09±19.61 days, from this stage to preanthesis II (602 took 7.50±1.50 days, then to preanthesis III (603 took 7.39±1.56 days and finally to anthesis (607 took 5.74±1.32 days. At the population level, it was found that the phenology cycle of inflorescence is annual and that the production of flowers and the opening of inflorescences with pistils is asynchronous.

  8. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  9. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS TANAMAN BAWAH, DAN JENIS-JENIS YANG BERMANFAAT SEBAGAI TANAMAN OBAT DI KAWAASAN HUTAN LINDUNG KALIURANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTOMO SUTOMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low layer plants as one of component in forest ecosystem today still lack of attention due to the limited information about them. Low layer plants plays an important role in forest ecosystem, and also they are potential to be use as a medicinal plants, genetic resources and other uses that are not yet revealed. For that reason reseach about Low Layer Plants ; Community Structure and Their Use as Medicinal Plants need to be conducted. The objective of this research was to get the information about : (1 Community structure of low layer plants in compartment seven Kaliurang protection forest and (2 Species that are use as a medicinal pants. To fulfill this goal, small plots of 1 x 1 m along forest pathways were made in sampling area. Result showed that as many as 47 species of low layer plants were found in sampling area. There were five main species which has high importance value index : Eupatorium riparium Regel. with importance value index 21,29%, followed by Eleusine indica Gaertn.17,82 % , Oplismenus burmanii Beauv. 14,61 %, Diplazium proliferum 14,04% and Panicum reptans Kunth. 11,27 %. From those 47 species, as many as 10 species are known as a medicinal plants, they are : Melastoma malabathricum L., Physalis angulata Heyne, ex. Wall., Ageratum conyzoides Linn., Elephantopus scaber Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Justicia gendarussa Linn., Alocasia macrorhiza Schott., Eleusine indica Gaertn., Villebrunea rubescens Bl. and Phyllanthus niruri L.

  10. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  11. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These results indicate that this fruit presented very high levels of total carotenoids when compared to other fruits regularly consumed, and may be considered as a good source of pro-vitamin A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g. However, the main carotenoids found in Canistel have no pro-vitamin A activity.

  12. The fate of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. detritus within a tropical reservoir O destino dos detritos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. em um reservatório tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is aimed at comparing the kinetics of decomposition of Eichhornia azurea and discussing the fate of its detritus; METHODS: The samples of aquatic macrophytes and water were collected in the Piraju Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. The plant material was oven-dried and triturated and for each experimental condition (aerobic and anaerobic, 72 mineralization chambers were prepared with plant fragments and reservoir water. On sampling days the particulate and dissolved organic matter were quantified (on carbon basis POC and DOC, respectively; RESULTS: The decomposition of E. azurea is more efficient under aerobic conditions, being 2.2 times faster than for the anaerobic process, according to the amount of mineralized carbon. For the decay of leaves, stems and roots of E. azurea the aerobic processes were 1.22-fold faster. It is assumed that the fractions responsible for the high oxygen consumption have reduced periods of half-time, and therefore do not accumulate in the ecosystems. Owing to the biomass of E. azurea in the Piraju Reservoir, the aerobic decay of E. azurea can promote moderate depletion in the dissolved oxygen budget. With the rate of the mineralization of refractory materials (Ξ half-time varying from 385 to 462 days, the fibrous debris of this plant, i.e. refractory fractions, associated with the appropriate conditions of pH and oxi-reduction potential, can contribute to the gas production and storage of particulate organic matter in sediments.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram comparadas as cinéticas de decomposição de Eichhornia azurea e discutidos os destinos de seus detritos; MÉTODOS: As amostras de plantas e de água foram coletadas no reservatório de Piraju (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As plantas foram secas e trituradas; para cada condição experimental (meio aeróbio e anaeróbio foram preparadas 72 câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de planta e água do reservatório. Nos dias de coleta as frações particuladas e dissolvidas de matéria orgânica foram quantificadas (em base de carbono: carbono orgânico particulado (COP e dissolvido (COD, respectivamente; RESULTADOS: Com base no carbono mineralizado, os resultados indicaram que a decomposição de E. azurea foi mais eficiente em meio aeróbio (2,2 vezes mais rápido que em anaerobiose. Para a decomposição das folhas, talos e raízes os processos aeróbios foram 1,22 vezes mais rápidos. Verificou-se que as frações responsáveis pelos consumos elevados de oxigênio possuem tempos de meia vida reduzidos e, desse modo, não se acumulam no reservatório. Devido à biomassa de E. azurea no reservatório de Piraju os processos aeróbios de decomposição dessa espécie podem promover depleções moderadas no balanço de oxigênio dissolvido. Devido à magnitude dos coeficientes de degradação (meia-vida: de 385 a 462 dias, associados com as condições predominantes de pH e potencial de oxi-redução, as frações refratárias dos detritos (fibras de E. azurea podem contribuir para a produção de gases e no estoque de matéria orgânica particulada dos sedimentos do reservatório.

  13. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation;Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  14. A família Bombacaceae Kunth no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The family Bombacaceae Kunth in the state of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Du Bocage

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste de um estudo taxonômico sobre a família Bombacaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Constatou-se a ocorrência de sete espécies distribuídas em seis gêneros: Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns, Ceiba glaziovii (Kuntze K. Schum., Eriotheca crenulaticalyx A. Robyns, Pachira aquatica Aubl., Pseudobombax marginatum (A. St.-Hil. A. Robyns, Pseudobombax simplicifolium A. Robyns e Quararibea turbinata (Sw. Poir. Chave para identificação das espécies, descrições, material examinado, ilustrações e comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitat são apresentados. Bombacopsis retusa e Pseudobombax marginatum são referidas pela primeira vez para Pernambuco.The present work is a taxonomic study on the family Bombacaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Seven species were found , distributed in six genera: Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns, Ceiba glaziovii (Kuntze K. Schum., Pachira aquatica Aubl., Pseudobombax marginatum (A. St.-Hil. A. Robyns, Pseudobombax simplicifolium A. Robyns and Quararibea turbinata (Sw. Poir. Species, Key descriptions, examined material, illustrations and comments on the geographic distribution and habitat are presented. Bombacopsis retusa and Pseudobombax marginatum are recorded for the first time in the State of Pernambuco.

  15. Seed germination of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, under water stress Germinação de sementes de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, sob estresse hídrico

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    Lígia M. de M. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae is a native tree species in Brazil characteristic of the savannah vegetation. Seeds of this species were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG-6000 in order to verify their resistance to drought conditions. Seeds were previously scarified with sulphuric acid and incubated at 25 ºC with an eight hours photoperiod, at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -0.9 and -1.1 MPa. It was found that water stress resistance limit ranged from -0.7 to -0.9 MPa. Significant reduction in germination velocity from -0.3 MPa, and final percentage of germination from -0.5 MPa in relation to control, were observed. Germination under drastic conditions of water stress was inhibited, but was restored with an increase of water availability.Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, característica da vegetação de cerrado, denominada principalmente de sucupira-preta. Sementes dessa espécie foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico e submetidas a diferentes potenciais osmóticos, induzidos por polietilenoglicol (PEG-6000, com o objetivo de avaliar a sua resistência a condições de seca. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar a 25 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0,0, -0,1, -0,3, -0,5, -0,7, -0,9, e -1,1 MPa. Pelos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o limite de resistência da espécie ao estresse hídrico situa-se entre -0,7 e -0,9 MPa. A velocidade de germinação foi significativamente reduzida a partir de -0,3 MPa e a porcentagem final a partir de -0,5 MPa, em relação às sementes não submetidas ao estresse hídrico. Sob drásticas condições de estresse hídrico não houve germinação das sementes, que foi restabelecida com o aumento da disponibilidade de água.

  16. Assessment of anti-protozoal activity of plants traditionally used in Ecuador in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, María Salomé; Lecaro, Javier Salazar; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Navarrete, Hugo; Muñoz, Ricardo A; Bauer, Rudolf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-03-02

    For the assessment of the in vitro anti-protozoal potential of plants traditionally used in Ecuador in the treatment of leishmaniasis, a combined approach based on interviews with healers as well as a literature search was carried out. From three regions of Ecuador, 256 local healers called "Agents of Traditional Medicine" (ATMs) were interviewed about their knowledge of the use of plants to treat and heal the illness recognized by the ATMs as leishmaniasis. From literature sources, 14 plants were identified as being used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Subsequently, plant material was collected from a representative selection of 39 species. A total of 140 extracts were screened in vitro against Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, these extracts were evaluated for their anti-microbial activities using five gram-positive and -negative bacteria as well as Candida albicans. The survey resulted in 431 use-records for 145 plant-taxa used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. The 10 most frequently reported taxa accounted for 37.7% of all records. In the case of leishmaniasis, activity was observed for Elephantopus mollis, Minquartia guianensis, Bocconia integrifolia, Gouania lupuloides, Scoparia dulcis, an as-yet-unidentified species of Piper and Brugmansia. For the leaves of M. guianensis and the twigs and bark of G. lupuloides a good selectivity index (SI) was found. IC(50) values and the SI of active plant extracts are presented. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Confessions of a serial entrepreneur: a conversation with Alfred E. Mann. Interview by Molly Joel Coye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    In this wide-ranging interview, Alfred Mann describes the activities of several medical technology enterprises with which he is engaged. Several of them are companies that he formed; one is a nonprofit foundation, the Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering, founded to establish research-oriented institutes on a dozen university campuses and support their work in developing marketable innovations. Mann discusses the need to consider the cost implications of technology, in the context of U.S. health system reform, and describes several important innovations that have emerged from his companies over the years.

  18. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.

  19. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae

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    Virgínia F. Braga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM. Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 169.3 µg mL-1. HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg-1, which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.Este trabalho descreve um protocolo eficiente de micropropagação para Verbena litoralis e estuda as atividades antinociceptiva e antioxidante de extratos desta espécie. Para o estabelecimento in vitro, os procedimentos de desinfecção e o PVPP mostraram alta eficiência no controle da contaminação por fungos e bactérias e da oxidação fenólica. O cultivo de segmentos nodais em meio MS suplementado com 6-benziladenina (7,5 µM e ácido α-naftalenoacético (ANA; 0,005 µM induziu múltiplos brotos. Brotos alongados foram enraizados com AIA (0,2 µM. As taxas de aclimatização foram elevadas e as plantas apresentaram características típicas da espécie. A fração hexânica (FH de folhas trituradas apresentou atividade sequestradora de radicais livres com IC50 = 169,3 µg mL-1. A FH mostrou atividade analgésica não dose-dependente no teste das contorções abdominais; sua atividade antinociceptiva no teste de placa quente foi restrita a 500 mg kg-1, a dose mais elevada. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram o potencial da cultura de tecidos na conservação e multiplicação em larga escala de V. litoralis e confirmaram o uso tradicional dessa planta na medicina popular.

  20. Vida de vaso de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth tratadas com inibidores de etileno

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    MARCELO AMARAL DE MOURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de inibidores da síntese e ação do etileno, incluindo ácido aminooxiacético (AOA, ácido aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG, ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS e tiossulfato de prata (STS, aplicados na forma de pulverização ou solução de condicionamento sobre a qualidade de flores cortadas de Epidendrum ibaguense. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: (1 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AOA; (2 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AVG; (3 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AAS; (4 pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS, por 30 minutos; (5 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AOA + pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS, por 30 minutos; (6 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AVG + pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS; (7 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AAS + pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS; (8 pulverização + pulsing com água desionizada (controle. Após os tratamentos, as hastes foram mantidas em vasos com água desionizada, renovada a cada dois dias, para evitar o desenvolvimento de microrganismos. Ao final da longevidade, o qual variou de acordo com o tratamento, as inflorescências submetidas ao AVG e AVG + STS mostraram a maior porcentagem de abertura floral, visto que promoveram aumento de 49 e 88% em relação ao controle. A taxa de abscisão também foi influenciada pelos tratamentos, pois ao oitavo dia, as inflorescências controle apresentaram cerca de 51% de queda das flores, cujo início ocorreu, principalmente, a partir do quinto dia. As inflorescências tratadas ao AAS, AOA, STS, AVG, STS + AAS, STS + AOA e STS + AVG mostraram redução de 11, 39, 47, 71, 38, 61 e 86%, respectivamente. Além disso, houve atraso de 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 3 e 8 dias para o início da abscisão, respectivamente. A longevidade de E. ibaguense foi afetada pelos inibidores do etileno, mas com exceção de AAS e AOA, os demais tratamentos foram significativamente maiores que o controle. O STS, AVG, AAS + STS, AOA + STS e AVG + STS tiveram longevidade aumentada em 45, 76, 33, 38 e 104%. O uso de AVG, isolado ou em combinação com STS, manteve a qualidade e prolongou a longevidade de flores cortadas de Epidendrum ibaguense.

  1. Aporphine alkaloids with antitubercular activity isolated from Ocotea discolor Kunth (Lauraceae

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    Monica Constanza Avila Murillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis disease causes thousands of deaths worldwide and, currently, the used drugs are either not enough or obsolete for its treatment. Therefore, new compounds that combat this disease are been seek. Thus, the antituberculosis activity of the alkaloids ocoxilonine (1, ocoteine (2, dicentrine (3 and 1,2-methylenedioxy-3,10,11-trimethoxyaporphine (4, isolated from Ocotea discolor wood was evaluated. Their structures were identified by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data (NMR 1D – 1H, 13C, 2D – COSY, HSQC and HMBC, mass spectra, and comparison with literature data. All the isolated compounds demonstrated antituberculosis activity, with ocoteine (2 being the most active compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 140 μM against the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All the isolated compounds showed antituberculosis activity, with a variation range in the minimum inhibitory concentration between 140 to 310 μM, being ocoteine (2 the most active compound against the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

  2. Carbohydrate composition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) by-products flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanho, Beatriz Cervejeira; Danesi, Eliane Dalva Godoy; Beléia, Adelaide Del Pino

    2015-06-25

    The flours obtained from peach palm by-products are rich in dietary fiber (62-71%) and they can be used as food ingredients. The aim of this work was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the flours processed from the residual parts (stem and median sheath) of a hearts-of-palm industry. The flours were fractionated, based on their solubility, whose monomeric compounds were determined. The fraction containing mostly cellulose (S5) was the most abundant (26-28%), followed by the sum of fractions (S2, 53, S4) extracted with alkaline solutions (21-22%). The S1 fraction contained the highest percentage of uronic acids, which characterizes the presence of pectin. Xylose and arabinose were found in high proportion in S2 and S3 fractions. The S4 and S5 fractions, rich in glucose, were the main portion of the cell wall material and correspond to the insoluble fraction of the dietary fiber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth: Seasonal Characterization of the Essential Oil Chemical Composition of Leaves and Reproductive Organs

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    Bianca Schindler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes a comparative analysis of the essential oil (EO chemical composition of leaves and reproductive organs (inflorescences and fruits of Piper gaudichaudianum during the seasons of a year in order to determine the best collection time and the most suitable plant organ to obtain this extractive. The chemical composition of EO obtained from fresh leaves was compared to the dried ones, to verify if the drying process interferes in the extractive quality. The leaves were collected from a native population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, twice in each season, in triplicate, while inflorescences and fruits were sampled when they were present. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of the different plant organs for 3 h. The 20 EO samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC coupled to mass spectrometry and GC with flame ionization detector, in triplicate. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to verify a possible formation of chemical groups (CG and the cohesion among them. The phenylpropanoid dillapiole was the major constituent of the EO in all seasons and in all plant organs, and myristicin was observed only in reproductive organs. The EO samples of this population were divided into two CG by HCA and PCA, showing the variability in chemical composition between different plant organs, however there was no chemical variability due to seasonality and phenophases. Since the drying of the leaves did not alter the EO chemical composition, this post-harvest procedure can be used without compromising the extrative quality.

  4. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil from Croton conduplicatus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

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    Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. In this study, we describe the antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from Croton conduplicatus (the EO 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p., a medicinal plant native to Brazil. Antinociceptive activity was investigated by measuring the nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate and carrageenan. A docking study was performed with the major constituents of the EO (E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and camphor. The EO reduced nociceptive behavior at all doses tested in the acetic acid-induced nociception test (p < 0.05. The same was observed in both phases (neurogenic and inflammatory of the formalin test. When the hot-plate test was conducted, the EO (50 mg/kg extended the latency time after 60 min of treatment. The EO also reduced leukocyte migration at all doses, suggesting that its antinociceptive effect involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Pretreatment with glibenclamide and atropine reversed the antinociceptive effect of the EO on the formalin test, suggesting the involvement of KATP channels and muscarinic receptors. The docking study revealed a satisfactory interaction profile between the major components of the EO and the different muscarinic receptor subtypes (M2, M3, and M4. These results corroborate the medicinal use of C. conduplicatus in folk medicine.

  5. Chemins de fer en mutation dans l'Europe médiane / Antoine Kunth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunth, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa raudteestruktuuride arengust sotsialismiperioodist tänapäevani. Reformid ja erastamine. Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide vahelistest raudteeliinidest. Tabelid. Joonis: Kümme Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa transpordikoridori.

  6. Models of sustainable use of alder (Alnus acuminate Kunth hillside area in forest mist

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    Pacheco-Agudo Edilberto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Timber extractions non planned affect negatively in the reduction of forest cover, proper management and planned with minor extractions preserve the natural production allow for longer and sustainable forms a stand to benefit local populations and the same ecosystem. In the basin of Acero Marca has two stands Alnus acuminata that they are extracted continuously. With the purpose of planning the extraction of timber resourses were constructed and evaluated matrix models sustainable harvest of this species on the basis of structures of age. For this, two old structures we worked following a dendrochronological analysis and demographic model of the forestall mass, from making local information by transectos Gentry. According to the demographic model, the potential regression evidences significant differences (p 1 and could be the most appropriate for a planned extraction becoming sustainable over time. The second structure of age proved extremely sensitive to any change. To use the matrix models is not a simple path of going over. In spite of the results, the matrix models joined to ample experience of the observer would be able to present proposals of sustainable handling of the forestal resources.

  7. Age-dependent changes from allylphenol to prenylated benzoic acid production in Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Anderson M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-10-01

    HPLC-DAD and principal component analysis (PCA) of the (1)H NMR spectrum of crude plant extracts showed high chemical variability among seedlings and adult organs of Piper gaudichaudianum. While gaudichaudianic acid was the major compound in the adult leaves, apiole and dillapiole were the major compounds in their seedling leaves. By the 15th month of seedling growth, the levels of apiole and dillapiole decreased and gaudichaudianic acid appeared along with two compounds, biosynthetically related to gaudichaudianic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kavalactones and benzoic acid derivatives from leaves of Piper fuligineum Kunth (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Bruna F.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; Furlan, Maysa, E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Cotinguiba, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2018-05-01

    The known kavalactones (E)-4-methoxy-6-styryl-2H-pyran-2-one, 4-methoxy6-(3-phenyloxiran-2-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran2-one, the three benzoic acid derivatives methyl-4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxochroman-6-carboxylate, and a new methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Piper fuligineum. The structures of these compounds were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the chemical study of P. fuligineum, and the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate is described as a new natural product. (author)

  9. FACTORES DE INFLUENCIA EN EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham

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    J. Daniel Castillo-Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D. F. afecta a Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región con difícil capacidad de enraizamiento que requiere propagación en la zona. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa con el fin de determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dicha especie. En este experimento se utilizó un sustrato compuesto por turba y agrolita para probar estacas de dos procedencias, con y sin síntomas de declinación, generadas en dos estaciones de crecimiento, y dos auxinas, manteniendo una humedad de 75-80 %. La combinación de estos factores produjo 16 tratamientos, los cuales se repitieron 50 veces. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza factorial. Los resultados indican que a principios de diciembre es la mejor época de recolecta de material vegetal para enraizamiento de estacas de A. religiosa, siendo las estacas más jóvenes y las que recibieron indol-3-butírico las que mejor enraizaron. La procedencia y la sintomatología no tuvieron efecto en el enraizamiento.

  10. Chemical sterilization in in vitro propagation of Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. and Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth

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    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for simpler and less costly laboratory techniques and for more accessible procedures for orchid breeders who do not have the necessary theoretical basis to use the traditional seed and clone production methods of orchids in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as a decontaminant in the process of inoculating adult orchid explants of Arundina bambusifolia and Epidendrum ibaguenses. Solutions of NaClO (1.200, 2.400, 3.600, 4.800 and 6.000 mg L-1 - equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mL L-1 of commercial bleach - CB were sprayed on the explants (1.0 mL and the culture medium (GB5, in the presence or absence of activated charcoal (2 g L-1. The explants used were nodal segments of field-grown adult plants. The procedures for inoculating the explants were conducted outside the laminar flow chamber (LFC, except for the control treatment (autoclaved medium and explant inoculation inside the LFC. The best results for fresh weight yield, height and number of shoots were obtained using NaClO in solution at 1.200 mg L-1 (equivalent to 50 mL L-1 commercial bleach with activated charcoal in the culture medium. Fresh weight figures were 1.10 g/jar for Arundina bambusifolia and 0.16 g/jar for Epidendrum ibaguenses. Spraying the NaClO solutions controls the contamination of the culture medium already inoculated with the explants.

  11. Production of oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth seedling from seeds in nursery for transplanting

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    Raúl Martínez-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de orégano en vivero es una opción para la obtención de plantas de buena calidad para trasplante. El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de cinco sustratos y cinco contenedores en el crecimiento y calidad de la planta de orégano. Los sustratos fueron: mezcla comercial BM2 (turba, perlita y vermiculita, 80:10:10, BM2 + arena de río (1:1, BM2 + arena de río (1.5:1, BM2 + perlita + vermiculita (1:1:1 y mezcla de composta + arena de río (1.5:1. Los contenedores incluyeron charolas de poliestireno expandido (PE de 200, 128 y 76 cavidades, vaso de PE de 250 cm 3 y bolsa de plástico negro de 712 cm 3 (calibre 150 μm . Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial, con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento. Los sustratos y el tipo de contenedor afectaron el crecimiento y calidad de la planta. Se observó mayor crecimiento de la planta y mayor área foliar en la combinación bolsa y sustrato BM2. Este mismo sustrato y el contenedor bolsa promovieron el índice de calidad de Dickson más alto. La relación peso seco del vástago y peso seco de la raíz fue mayor en los contenedores de mayor volumen.

  12. Phytotoxicity and biodirected fractionation of extracts of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O.Berg. (Myrtaceae

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    Eduardo Habermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius on elongation of etiolated coleoptiles of Triticum aestivum (wheat. The extracts hexane (Hx, ethyl acetate (AcOET, and aqueous (H2O were obtained by means of exhaustive extraction with CH2Cl2/CH3OH and subsequent fractionation by partition chromatography coefficient. The extracts AcOET and Hx were fractionated by column chromatography by using organic solvents in increasing order of polarity, yielding 7 hexanic fractions and 6 ethylic acetate fractions. Subsequently, the fractions Hx1 and Hx5 were subfractionated by column chromatography. The extracts AcOET and Hx inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Four ethylic acetate fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. Five hexanic fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles, the fractions Hx5 and Hx1 fractions showed phytotoxic effects equivalent or superior to those observed by the herbicide GOAL® at the same concentrations. All subfractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx1 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Six fractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx5 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. This study proves the phytotoxicity of extracts of barks of B. salicifolius, providing indications that they may act as promising natural herbicides.

  13. Formulation of Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth extract tablet by modified filler

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    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Peperomia pelusida telah banyak digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional. Pada saat ini, bentuk-bentuk yang ada masih konvensional seperti jus dan infusum, karena itu, perlu dirumuskan lebih praktis dan berat seragam seperti bentuk tablet. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan formula optimum pelusida tablet ekstrak P. pellucida. Metode: P. pelusida ekstrak tablet yang diproduksi dengan variasi selulosa mikrokristalin (MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (laktosa 100%, dan III (MCC PH 101: laktosa = 50%: 50%. Butiran dievaluasi karakteristik fisik termasuk laju aliran, penyerapan air, dan kompaktibilitas untuk mendapatkan formula optimum dengan menggunakan desain simplex lattice dan jumlah respon. Formula yang digunakan untuk membuat tablet dan diuji karakteristik fisik (keseragaman bobot, kekerasan, dan kerapuhan dan waktu hancur. Hasil: Laktosa secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh laju alirannya, sedangkan MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 10PH 101 dipengaruhi penyerapan kompaktibilitas dan air. Berdasarkan karakteristik fisik granul dan jumlah responsnya, kombinasi formula MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% dapat disimpulkan menjadi yang paling optimal untuk tablet filler. Formula tablet ini yang memiliki karakteristik fisik terbaik dengan berat 620,84 ± 1,04 mg, kekerasan 8,54 ± 0,68 kg, kerapuhan 0,26% ± 0,04 dan waktu hancur 4,58 ± 0,17 menit.Kesimpulan: Proporsi MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% merupakan formula optimum terbaik dan memenuhi persyaratan karakteristik fisik tablet. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6 Key words: formulasi, extract P. pellucida, optimalAbstractBackground: Peperomia pellucida has been widely used in traditional medicine. Recently, its existing forms are still conventional such as juice and infusum; therefore, it needs to be formulated more practically and in uniform weight such as tablet form. The objective of this research was to get the optimum formula of P. pellucidaextract tablet. Methods: P. pellucida extract tablets were produced with variation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 101 – lactose by wet granulation method in three formulas, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (lactose 100%, and III (MCC PH 101: lactose = 50%: 50%. Granules were evaluated their physical characteristics including their flow rate, water absorption and compactibility to obtain the optimum formula by using simplex lattice design and total response. The optimum formula was used to make tablet and tested its physical characteristics (uniformity weight, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Results:Lactose significantly  influenced by its flow rate, whereas MCC PH 101 influenced  the compactibility and water absorption. Based on the granules physical characteristics and their total responses, the formula combination of MCC PH 101 80% and lactose 20% was concluded to be the most optimum one for tablet filler. This optimum formula tablet had the best physical characteristics with weigth uniformity of 620.84 ± 1.04 mg, hardness of 8.54 ± 0.68 kg, friability of 0.26% ± 0.04 and disintegration time of 4.58 ± 0.17 minutes. Conclusion: The proportion MCC PH 101 80% and lactose of 20% obtained the best optimum formula and passed requirements of the tablet physical characteristics. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6Key words: formulation, P. pellucida extract, optimize

  14. A rapid simultaneous determination of methylxanthines and proanthocyanidins in Brazilian guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kamilla Nunes; Freitas, Aline Alves de; Cunha, Luzia Helena; Faraco, André Augusto Gomes; Pádua, Rodrigo Maia de; Braga, Fernão Castro; Vianna-Soares, Cristina Duarte; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira

    2018-01-15

    Paullinia cupana is a plant native to Brazil that is widely used in traditional medicine as a physical and mental stimulant. It is also used worldwide to produce soft drinks. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of seven markers in guaraná by HPLC-PDA was developed, and extraction methods for the determination of methylxanthines and tannins were investigated. Quantified substances were theobromine, theophylline, caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins A2 and B2. Results confirmed the satisfactory selectivity and linearity (r 2 ≥0.99) within the mass ranges. Repeatability (RSD≤2.80%), intermediate precision (RSD≤4.47%), accuracy (recoveries from 90.59%-104.67%), and robustness were demonstrated. Extract 1 presented the contents: 0.0177% (±1.02%) for theobromine, 0.0131% (±1.14%) for theophylline, 2.9429% (±1.27%) for caffeine, 0.4563% (±1.02%) for catechin, 0.5515% (±1.05%) for epicatechin, 0.0607% (±2.80%) for A2 and 0.1035% (±1.39%) for B2. The method for simultaneous quantitation of seven chemical markers in guaraná proved to be reliable using a simple and convenient HPLC setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

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    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  16. Body size and allometric shape variation in the molly Poecilia vivipara along a gradient of salinity and predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Márcio S; Perez, S Ivan; Magazoni, Maria Julia C; Petry, Ana C

    2014-12-04

    Phenotypic diversity among populations may result from divergent natural selection acting directly on traits or via correlated responses to changes in other traits. One of the most frequent patterns of correlated response is the proportional change in the dimensions of anatomical traits associated with changes in growth or absolute size, known as allometry. Livebearing fishes subject to predation gradients have been shown to repeatedly evolve larger caudal peduncles and smaller cranial regions under high predation regimes. Poecilia vivipara is a livebearing fish commonly found in coastal lagoons in the north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Similar to what is observed in other predation gradients, lagoons inhabited by P. vivipara vary in the presence of piscivorous fishes; contrary to other poeciliid systems, populations of P. vivipara vary greatly in body size, which opens the possibility of strong allometric effects on shape variation. Here we investigated body shape diversification among six populations of P. vivipara along a predation gradient and its relationship with allometric trajectories within and among populations. We found substantial body size variation and correlated shape changes among populations. Multivariate regression analysis showed that size variation among populations accounted for 66% of shape variation in females and 38% in males, suggesting that size is the most important dimension underlying shape variation among populations of P. vivipara in this system. Changes in the relative sizes of the caudal peduncle and cranial regions were only partly in line with predictions from divergent natural selection associated with predation regime. Our results suggest the possibility that adaptive shape variation among populations has been partly constrained by allometry in P. vivipara. Processes governing body size changes are therefore important in the diversification of this species. We conclude that in species characterized by substantial among-population differences in body size, ignoring allometric effects when investigating divergent natural selection's role in phenotypic diversification might not be warranted.

  17. Female Choice Undermines the Emergence of Strong Sexual Isolation between Locally Adapted Populations of Atlantic Mollies (Poecilia mexicana

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    Claudia Zimmer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Divergent selection between ecologically dissimilar habitats promotes local adaptation, which can lead to reproductive isolation (RI. Populations in the Poecilia mexicana species complex have independently adapted to toxic hydrogen sulfide and show varying degrees of RI. Here, we examined the variation in the mate choice component of prezygotic RI. Mate choice tests across drainages (with stimulus males from another drainage suggest that specific features of the males coupled with a general female preference for yellow color patterns explain the observed variation. Analyses of male body coloration identified the intensity of yellow fin coloration as a strong candidate to explain this pattern, and common-garden rearing suggested heritable population differences. Male sexual ornamentation apparently evolved differently across sulfide-adapted populations, for example because of differences in natural counterselection via predation. The ubiquitous preference for yellow color ornaments in poeciliid females likely undermines the emergence of strong RI, as female discrimination in favor of own males becomes weaker when yellow fin coloration in the respective sulfide ecotype increases. Our study illustrates the complexity of the (partly non-parallel pathways to divergence among replicated ecological gradients. We suggest that future work should identify the genomic loci involved in the pattern reported here, making use of the increasing genomic and transcriptomic datasets available for our study system.

  18. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

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    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis of Colobanthus quitensis and mesoclimatic conditions of air temperature and light intensity during the growing season were investigated at 2,650 m in the central Chilean Andes. On three typical days of the growing period (January, March and May, CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. In addition, a series of fluorescence response curves with increasing light intensity at different temperatures were performed to estimate the propensity of Andean C. quitensis populations to be photoinhibited. Net Photosynthesis (Pn was low (ca. 2.0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 during the morning and noon in days with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, above 1,800 mmol photons m-2s-1. Pn increased in the afternoon (3.5-4.8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 when PAR decreased to ca. 1,400 mmol photons m-2s-1 and leaf temperature were ca. 20 °C. Fv/Fm in the diurnal periods was between 0.7-0.75 without evidence of photoinhibition. Leaves at 15 and 22 °C exhibited a slow decrease of F PSII with the increase in actinic light intensity, although the fraction of reaction centers open (expressed by qP remained higher at 22 °C. NPQ was saturated at light intensities close to 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 in leaves at 22 °C and at higher intensities at 15 °C, suggesting that NPQ could be a mechanism of energy dissipation at high light intensity and high leaf temperature in the field. Our results indicated that C. quitensis is not photodamaged during the diurnal cycle and that the low Pn registered during some diurnal periods are likely to be related with photorespiration, which has been suggested as an efficient protective mechanism for photoinhibition in alpine plants. Our results are also compared with the photosynthetic performance of C. quitensis populations from the maritime AntarcticSe estudió la fotosíntesis de Colobanthus quitensis y las condiciones mesoclimáticas de temperatura del aire e intensidad lumínica a 2.650 m en los Andes de Chile central. Se midió la tasa de intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en tres días típicos durante la estación de crecimiento (enero, marzo y mayo. Adicionalmente, se realizaron una serie de curvas de respuesta a incrementos en la intensidad lumínica a diferentes temperaturas para estimar la propensión de C. quitensis a la fotoinhibición. La fotosíntesis neta (Pn fue baja (ca. de 2,0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 en la mañana y mediodía en días con alta radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, sobre los 1.500 mmol fotones m-2s-1. La tasa de fotosíntesis aumentó en la tarde (3,5-4,8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 cuando la radiación PAR disminuyó a alrededor de 1.000 mmol fotones m-2s-1. Fv/Fm osciló entre 0,7-0,75 en los registros de enero y marzo, decreciendo en mayo a 0,67. Hojas medidas a 15 y 22 °C mostraron un leve descenso en F PSII con el aumento en la intensidad de luz actínica, aunque la fracción de centros de reacción abiertos (expresados por qP fue mayor a 22 °C. NPQ fue saturado a intensidades lumínicas cercanas a 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 en hojas a 22 °C, y a intensidades mayores en hojas a 15 °C, sugiriendo que NPQ puede ser un mecanismo de disipación energética bajo condiciones de altas intensidades lumínicas y altas temperaturas en el campo. Nuestros resultados indican que C. quitensis no sufre fotodaño durante los ciclos diurnos, y probablemente, los bajos Pn registrados durante algunos periodos diurnos están relacionados con fotorrespiración, la cual ha sido sugerida como un mecanismo muy eficiente en la protección de plantas alpinas contra la fotoinhibición. Nuestros resultados también son comparados con el desempeño fotosintético de las poblaciones de C. quitensis en la Antártica marítima

  19. Desenvolvimento de panetone à base de farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth
    Development of panettone made of peach palm flour (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

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    A. M. M. MONTEIRO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente vem crescendo consideravelmente a preocupação dos indivíduos com a saúde e a qualidade de vida. No entanto, com a correria da vida moderna e a falta de tempo, as pessoas valorizam muito os alimentos prontos, rápidos e fáceis de preparar, predominando um consumo desregrado de produtos refi nados, ricos em gorduras saturadas e pobres em nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar um panetone com adição de farinha de pupunha (FP, sensorialmente aceitável, e analisar sua composição química e estabilidade. A farinha utilizada na pesquisa foi processada no Laboratório de Nutrição do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Inicialmente foi realizado um experimento para determinar o percentual de farinha de trigo a ser substituída pela farinha de pupunha, sendo escolhida a formulação com 25% FP. Após elaboração do panetone foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas. O panetone de pupunha apresentou em sua composição química bons teores de proteína (7,78%, lipídios (12,5% e carotenoides (4,16 atividade equivalente de retinol/100g. O produto elaborado apresentou boa aceitabilidade, sendo que todos os consumidores manifestaram intenção positiva em adquiri-lo se for lançado no mercado. A análise microbiológica revelou que o produto se manteve estável pelo período de 90 dias. Assim, pode-se afi rmar que é possível produzir panetones com a substituição de 25% de farinha de trigo pela farinha de pupunha, agregando valor nutricional ao produto sem sinalização de rejeição pelo consumidor.

  20. Palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. composição mineral e cinética de enzimas oxidativas Heart of palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.: mineral composition and kinetics of oxidative enzymes

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    Nathália Ottoboni Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise da presença de enzimas oxidativas como a peroxidase (POD e a polifenoloxidase (PPO e o controle da atividade destas enzimas são importantes na preservação e no processamento de alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase (PPO e da peroxidase (POD do palmito de pupunha, bem como avaliar o comportamento destas enzimas frente ao tratamento térmico e assim calcular a cinética de inativação térmica das mesmas para suas porções termorresistente e termolábil. Para a extração de peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO de palmito, utilizou-se solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100 mM com diferentes pHs (5,5; 6,0; 6,5 e 7,0. O melhor pH de extração da POD foi 5,5 e da PPO, 6,5. Estes extratos foram tratados em diferentes temperaturas (65, 70, 75 e 80 °C por períodos de 1 a 10 minutos. A POD e a PPO sofreram um decréscimo de 70 e 80%, respectivamente, em relação às suas atividades iniciais. As energias de ativação, nas temperaturas estudadas, para a porção termolábil e termorresistente da peroxidase foram 154,0 e 153,0 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente, enquanto que para a polifenoloxidase foram 26,3 e 27,0 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente. Resultados apresentaram valores que estão dentro da faixa de energia de ativação reportada para o processo de inativação térmica de enzimas.Analysis of oxidative enzymes such as peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO and the control of the activity of these enzymes are important in food preservation and also in food processing. The aim of this work was to determine polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD enzymatic activity in heart of palm, as well as to evaluate enzyme behavior during thermal treatment, determining the kinetics of thermal inactivation of the heat resistant and heat labile portions. For the extraction of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO from the heart of palm solution, 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer with different pH values (5.5; 6.0; 6.5 and 7.0 was used. Optimum pH for extraction was 5.5 and 6.5, for POD and PPO, respectively. These extracts were treated at different temperatures (65, 70, 75 and 80 °C for periods of 1 to 10 minutes. Decreases in POD and PPO activities of around 70 and 80%, respectively, in relation to their initial activities were observed. The activation energies, in the temperatures studied, for the heat labile and resistant portions of peroxidase were 154.0 and 153.0 kJ.mol-1, and of polyphenoloxidase, 26.3 and 27.0 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The results showed values that are in the range for activation energy reported for the thermal inactivation process of enzymes.

  1. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003 Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

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    Samyra Ramos Chaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.

  2. Cargas polínicas de abelhas polinizadoras de Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelidade e fontes alternativas de recursos florais Pollen loads of pollinator bees of Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelity and alternative sources of flower resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éville Karina Maciel Delgado Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Byrsonima chrysophylla, conhecida popularmente como murici pitanga, é uma espécie arbustiva que ocorre em restinga. Dentre seus visitantes, além de abelhas da tribo Centridini, também se encontram com freqüência abelhas Xylocopini. Para verificação das espécies vegetais utilizadas pelas abelhas visitantes mais freqüentes, cargas polínicas de suas pernas posteriores (n = 5, bem como de ninhos naturais de Centris caxiensis (n = 7 foram analisados através de acetólise. Durante toda a floração, Byrsonima chrysophylla foi a principal fonte de pólen utilizada por suas abelhas visitantes. Comolia lythrarioides e Myrcia obtusa foram fontes secundárias de pólen, Mouriri guianensis foi fonte secundária de óleo e pólen, enquanto Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor e Phthirusa pyrifolia mostraram-se importantes fontes de néctar durante esse período, sendo o pólen detectado nas amostras, provavelmente aderido ao corpo das abelhas durante a coleta de néctar. Os resultados demonstram que as abelhas visitantes não misturaram os recursos polínicos durante o vôo para a coleta de pólen, apresentando fidelidade às flores de Byrsonima chrysophylla.Byrsonima chrysophylla, known as "murici pitanga", is a shrubby species occurring in 'restinga'. Among its visitors, bees of the Centridini tribe as well as Xylocopini bees are frequently found. To detect which plant species have been used by the most frequent visitors, pollen loads from the back legs (n = 5 and also from natural nests of Centris caxiensis (n = 7 were treated by acetolysis. During flowering of Byrsonima chrysophylla, this plant species was the main pollen source used by bees. Comolia lythrarioides and Myrcia sylvatica were secondary pollen sources, Mouriri guianensis was a secondary oil and pollen source, while Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor and Phthirusa pyrifolia were important nectar sources at this time. The pollen detected in the samples probably adhered to the bee's body during nectar collection. The results show that the bee visitors do not mix pollen sources during the pollen-collecting flight, thus representing fidelity to Byrsonima chrysophylla flowers.

  3. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Kunth em uma savana amazônica Floral Biology and the reproductive system of Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Kunth in an amazonian savanna

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    Rosa Mª Cordovil Benezar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Byrsonima coccolobifolia, foi avaliada em uma população de savana do Estado de Roraima. A espécie é constituída de arbustos e arvoretas com altura inferior a 3m, de flores hermafroditas zigomorfas, pentâmeras, reunidas em inflorescências do tipo racemo terminal, produzidos em brotações novas, o cálice é composto por cinco sépalas, que apresentam um par de glândulas produtoras de óleo. A corola é formada por cinco pétalas albo-róseas e unguiculadas, o androceu é composto por dez estames com anteras de coloração amarela. A antese pode ser noturna ou diurna, estende-se por um período médio de 12 horas e as flores costumam ficar abertas e vistosas por um período adicional de 15 horas, quando se inicia a senescência. Foram registrados dois episódios de floração e o fogo parece ser um fator ambiental estimulador desta fenofase. Os visitantes florais predominantes foram abelhas das famílias Anthophoridae (Centris sp. e Xylocopa sp. e Apidae (Apis mellifera e Bombus sp.. Os resultados das polinizações controladas e o cálculo do índice de auto-incompatibilidade (ISI indicam que a espécie apresenta comportamento protogínico e é autocompatível, produzindo frutos em todos os tratamentos de autopolinização em proporções semelhantes à polinização natural, não sendo confirmada a produção de frutos apomíticos. Entretanto, os percentuais de frutos formados nos tratamentos de xenogamia foram significativamente superiores aos tratamentos de autofertilização, indicando que B. coccolobifolia apresenta um sistema reprodutivo misto com níveis elevados de alogamia e autogamia.The reproductive biology of Byrsonima coccolobifolia was evaluated in a savanna area of State of Roraima, Brazil. This is a woody species of bushes and small trees 3m tall. The flowers are hermaphrodite, pentamerous, zygomorphic, arranged in a terminal inflorescence, produced in new sprouts. Five sepals form the calyx, each one with a pair of oil-producing glands, called elaiophores. The corolla is pale-pink and formed by five clawed and fringed petals, and the androecium is composed of ten stamens with yellow-colored anthers. The anthesis can be nocturnal or diurnal, which lasts for an average of 12 hours, and the flowers usually remain open and pretty for 15 more hours after the end of the process, when senescing begins. Two flowering periods were registered and the fire seems to be a factor environmental stimulator of this phonological phase. The predominant floral visitors were bees of the families Anthophoridae (Centris sp. and Xylocopasp. and Apidae (Apis mellífera and Bombus sp.. Results of controlled pollination and the self-incompatibility index (ISI suggest that the species presents protogynous behavior and is self-compatible, producing fruits in all self-pollination treatments in similar proportions as under natural pollination. The production of apomict fruits was not confirmed. However, the percentages of fruits formed under xenogamy treatments were significantly superior to the fruit-set in self-fertilization. This suggests that the species presents a mixed reproductive system with high allogamy and autogamy levels.

  4. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC

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    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed, Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  5. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  6. Efecto de la poda en el trasplante del almácigo de Pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arroyo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco tratamientos con diferentes combinaciones de poda de follaje y raíz en pejibaye se llevaron a cabo, al trasplantarlas al campo con raíz desnuda, y su comportamiento fue evaluado con base en siete variables. Además se evaluaron comparativamente las plántulas que mostraban la hoja emergente u hoja guía contra aquéllas en que ésta aún no era visible externamente. Las plántulas que no sufrieron poda alguna fueron significativamente superiores a todos los tratamientos con alguna forma de poda. Esto, no sólo en porcentaje de sobrevivencia (90,33%, sino también en las otras variables estudiadas y en especial en cuanto a su desarrollo posterior, medido por el peso total de la planta tomado seis meses más tarde. Las plántulas sin follaje y sin raíz, mostraron un porcentaje de sobrevivencia del (66,33%, y su recuperación, medida por peso de raíz y peso aéreo, seis meses más tarde, fue muy inferior a todos los tratamientos. En todos los casos, incluyendo el testigo, la presencia visible de la nueva hoja emergente u hoja guía significó un mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia. Las siete variables utilizadas resultaron altamente correlacionados, siendo el peso total de la planta quizás el mejor evaluador, pero en el campo, el diámetro del tallo resulta más fácil de manejar en la práctica.

  7. Survival and ultrastructural features of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth) somatic embryos submitted to cryopreservation through vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schmidt, Éder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-10-01

    Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae), also known as peach palm, was domesticated by Amazonian Indians and is cultivated for its fruit and heart-of-palm, a vegetable grown in the tree's inner core. Currently, the conservation of this species relies on in situ conditions and field gene banks. Complementary conservation strategies, such as those based on in vitro techniques, are indicated in such cases. To establish an appropriate cryopreservation protocol, this study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural features of B. gasipaes embryogenic cultures submitted to vitrification and subsequent cryogenic temperatures. Accordingly, somatic embryo clusters were submitted to Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3). In general, cells submitted to PVS3 had viable cell characteristics associated with apparently many mitochondria, prominent nucleus, and preserved cell walls. Cells not incubated in PVS3 did not survive after the cryogenic process in liquid nitrogen. The best incubation time for the vitrification technique was 240 min, resulting in a survival rate of 37 %. In these cases, several features were indicative of quite active cell metabolism, including intact nuclei and preserved cell walls, an apparently many of mitochondria and lipid bodies, and the presence of many starch granules and condensed chromatin. Moreover, ultrastructure analysis revealed that overall cellular structures had been preserved after cryogenic treatment, thus validating the use of vitrification in conjunction with cryopreservation of peach palm elite genotypes, as well as wild genotypes, which carry a rich pool of genes that must be conserved.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae fruit skin residue flour obtained by convective drying

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    Jader Martínez-Girón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of flour from residues of peach -palm fruit skin has been a forgotten topic from the view point of its physicochemical properties, because studies reported in the literature have focused on mesocarp flour characterization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the peach palm fruit epicarp flour obtained by convective drying at 60±2 °C through a specific production and storage process. As a result, the flour was found to be a source of bioactive compounds, showing total phenol concentration (23.40±1.30 mg gallic acid/100 g, antioxidant activity (33.10%±3.20, total carotenoids (59.31±1.61 mg β-carotene/100 g, color a* (4.95±0.58, color b* (3.25±0.57, and luminosity (33.95±3.16. On the other hand, there was a high level of total carotenoids (85% and phenolic compounds (94% retention after six months. Additionally, color change showed no significant difference during storage. In conclusion, the flour obtained is a byproduct with properties that can be used as an alternative to agroalimentary substitutes, mainly due to its color and antioxidant activity attributes. It is noteworthy to mention that this is one of the first studies to physicochemically characterize peach palm fruit skin flour from Valle del Cauca (Colombia.

  9. Isolation, identification, and the growth promoting effects of two antagonistic actinomycete strains from the rhizosphere of Mikania micrantha Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Wang, Lanying; Luo, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Actinomycetes are an important group of gram-positive bacteria that play an essential role in the rhizosphere ecosystem. The confrontation culture and Oxford cup method were used to evaluate the antagonistic activities of strains, which were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Mikania micrantha. The two isolates were identified using morphological and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, respectively. The type I polyketone synthase (PKS-I) was amplified. The constituents of fermentation metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The plant growth promoting effect was determined. Finally, the growth of wheat seedlings was assessed using the Petri dish method. Overall, of the isolated twelve strains, WZS1-1 and WZS2-1 could significantly inhibit target fungi. Isolate WZS1-1 was identified as Streptomyces rochei, and WZS2-1 was identified as Streptomyces sundarbansensis. In particular, Fusarium graminearum (FG) from wheat was inhibited by more than 80%, and the inhibitory bandwidths against FG were 31 ± 0.3 mm and 19 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The genes PKS-I were successfully amplified, confirming that these strains are capable of producing biosynthetic secondary metabolites. Major component analysis revealed aliphatic ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters, with n-hexadecanoic acid being the most abundant compound. Plant growth promoting test indicated that both strains produced IAA, presented with orange loops on CAS plates, dissolved phosphorus and potassium, fixed nitrogen, but did not generate organic acids; both strains colonized in soil, while only WZS1-1 colonized in wheat roots. Additionally, the fermentation broth significantly promoted the growth of wheat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimación de la biomasa foliar seca de Lippia graveolens Kunth del sureste de Coahuila

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    Eulalia Edith Villavicencio Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es un recurso forestal no maderable de importancia comercial, considerado como una especie aromática y culinaria que se aprovecha en las zonas semiáridas de Coahuila, con una producción mayor a 700 t anuales, y representa para el sector rural una opción productiva. Con el propósito de cuantificar el recurso y contribuir a regular su aprovechamiento, se determinaron las relaciones alométricas de individuos de orégano recolectados en 20 poblaciones naturales distribuidas en los municipios General Cepeda, Parras de la Fuente y Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, para seleccionar un modelo que estime la biomasa foliar seca (Bfs de la planta. A partir de un muestreo destructivo, se analizaron 706 plantas, de las cuales se obtuvo su altura total (At, diámetro mayor arbustivo (DM y diámetro menor arbustivo (Dm, diámetro promedio (Dp de la copa y biomasa foliar seca (Bfs. Con la prueba de correlación de Pearson se eligieron las variables más relacionadas con la Bfs , las cuales se emplearon para ajustar 10 modelos de regresión mediante el procedimiento PROC MODEL. El modelo seleccionado fue el de Schumacher-Hall Bfs 0.00599(Dp1.935454(At0.256803por registrar valores superiores de R2aju (0.80 y el menor valor en la raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RCME, 0.304, considerando la significancia de sus parámetros (p≤ 0.0001, a partir de este se elaboró una tabla de doble entrada que estima la Bfs de las plantas.

  11. Nutraceutic effect of free condensed tannins of Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) benth on parasite infection and performance of Pelibuey sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg -1 of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg -1 of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

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    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  13. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, J.; Kalousková, M.; Mandák, Bohumil; Houška, Jakub; Chládková, A.; Pinedo, M.; Lojka, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku e0179886. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Myricaria dubia * genetic diversity * Amazonia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Andre Luiz Gomes da; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Chaves, Samyra Ramos; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Brito, Jéfferson Mesquita; Universidade Federal do Maranhão

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flowe...

  15. Functional Response (FR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) Do Not Show the Known Invasiveness of Lemna minuta (Kunth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing travel and trade threatens biodiversity as it increases the rate of biological invasions globally, either by accidental or intentional introduction. Therefore, avoiding these impacts by forecasting invasions and impeding further spread is of utmost importance. In this study, three forecasting approaches were tested and combined to predict the invasive behaviour of the alien macrophyte Lemna minuta in comparison with the native Lemna minor: the functional response (FR) and relative growth rate (RGR), supplemented with a combined biomass-based nutrient removal (BBNR). Based on the idea that widespread invasive species are more successful competitors than local, native species, a higher FR and RGR were expected for the invasive compared to the native species. Five different nutrient concentrations were tested, ranging from low (4 mgN.L-1 and 1 mgP.L-1) to high (70 mgN.L-1 and 21 mgP.L-1). After four days, a significant amount of nutrients was removed by both Lemna spp., though significant differences among L. minor and L. minuta were only observed at lower nutrient concentrations (lower than 17 mgN.L-1 and 6 mgP.L-1) with higher nutrient removal exerted by L. minor. The derived FR did not show a clear dominance of the invasive L. minuta, contradicting field observations. Similarly, the RGR ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 d-1, but did not show a biomass-based dominance of L. minuta (0.5 ± 0.1 d-1 versus 0.63 ± 0.09 d-1 for L. minor). BBNR showed similar results as the FR. Contrary to our expectations, all three approaches resulted in higher values for L. minor. Consequently, based on our results FR is sensitive to differences, though contradicted the expectations, while RGR and BBNR do not provide sufficient power to differentiate between a native and an invasive alien macrophyte and should be supplemented with additional ecosystem-based experiments to determine the invasion impact. PMID:27861603

  16. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

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    P Rodríguez Pardina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth. Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de preservar este recurso nativo y fuente regional de ingresos, la especie está siendo domesticada. Durante este proceso, se observó la aparición de síntomas de un conspicuo mosaico amarillo, típico de infección viral. Análisis biológicos, serológicos y moleculares (RT-PCR, RFLP, clonado y secuenciación pusieron de manifiesto la presencia del subgrupo IA de Cucumber mosaic virus en las plantas domesticadas de peperina. El aislamiento viral estudiado está íntimamente relacionado con la raza Y previamente informada en Japón. Éste es el primer informe de un virus que infecta a la peperina.

  17. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Megha; Shri Ram; Joshi, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65 Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T 2 found to be higher. However, treatment T 6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65 Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  18. Inner Ear Morphology in the Atlantic Molly Poecilia mexicana—First Detailed Microanatomical Study of the Inner Ear of a Cyprinodontiform Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Heß, Martin; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. Results The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Conclusions Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis—especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques—for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here. PMID:22110746

  19. Inner ear morphology in the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana--first detailed microanatomical study of the inner ear of a cyprinodontiform species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Hess, Martin; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis--especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques--for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here.

  20. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham., EN EL EJIDO EL CONEJO DEL PARQUE NACIONAL COFRE DE PEROTE, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura de los rodales de oyamel (Abies religiosa presentes en el ejido El Conejo, localizado en el Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote, Veracruz. Se evaluó la densidad, diámetro, altura y cobertura del arbolado adulto en 17 parcelas de 625 m2. La regeneración se midió en las 17 parcelas utilizando subcuadrantes de 312.50 m2. El arbolado mostró una estructura de crecimiento de “J” invertida; sin embargo, los individuos se encuentran suprimidos y, aun cuando la regeneración es adecuada, el arbolado requiere de la apertura de claros para su desarrollo. Se encontró una superficie arbolada altamente fragmentada y amenazada de manera permanente por el crecimiento de la frontera agrícola y la extracción de leña para uso doméstico. Los resultados muestran evidencia de que la categoría de parque nacional no contribuye a la conservación del bosque.

  1. Nutrient critical levels and availability in soils cultivated with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. in Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas, Ecuador

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    Carlos Julio Quezada Crespo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the most important exporter of canned peach palm, however, to date ideal soil fertility characteristics for peach palm growers remain unknown. The aim of this research was to determine optimal levels of soil nutrients for the cultivation of peach palm, specifically with regards to soil cation exchange capacity in order to obtain higher yields. We worked with 20 farmsteads and their soils from the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas during the second half of 2014. Fields were evaluated based on a relative yield and extractable (modified Olsen nutrient contents in each soil were determined using regression modeling to determine critical levels of each nutrient and specifically to determine the ideal soil cation exchange capacity under peach palm cultivation. Our analysis established critical levels of soil pH (6.3; OM 6.5%; P 12.3 mg.dm-3; K 0.67 cmol.dm-3 K; Ca 5.1 cmol.dm-3 ; Mg 0.97 cmol.dm-3; and S 7.5 mg.dm-3. The ideal Ca: Mg: K soil cation exchange capacity was determined to be 76:14:10.

  2. Crescimento de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth utilizando resíduo de mineração de areia como componente de substratos

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    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986613O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de pupunheira quando utilizado o resíduo fino de mineração de areia na composição de substratos. O experimento constou de cinco tratamentos, sendo quatro composições de diferentes proporções de resíduo de mineração de areia e casca de arroz carbonizada: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3 e um substrato padrão composto por latossolo amarelo podzólico álico e esterco de búfalo curtido, na proporção 3:1. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições e 10 mudas por parcela. Repicou-se uma plântula de pupunheira por recipiente (sacos plásticos de polietileno preto de 8 x 20 cm, volume 1,1 L, os quais foram preenchidos com os diferentes substratos. Foram determinadas mensalmente as variáveis diâmetro do coleto, altura da haste, número de folhas e taxa de crescimento relativo e, após 180 dias da repicagem, os valores SPAD (Soil and Plant Analysis Development, dinâmica da assimilação de CO2, da transpiração e da condutividade estomática. O resíduo de mineração de areia puro como substrato não proporcionou mudas de qualidade, visto que esse material apresenta alta densidade e baixa granulometria. Seu uso pode ser indicado como um dos componentes de substratos, pois as plantas que cresceram nas misturas de resíduo e casca de arroz carbonizada apresentaram resultados semelhantes ao do considerado padrão.

  3. Lípidos sanguíneos en cerdos alimentados con pijiguao (Bactris gasipaes Kunth y lisina sintética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la harina de pijiguao y lisina sintética sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos en crecimiento y engorde. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó en dos etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizaron 72 cerdos castrados en crecimientode 30 ± 0.5 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x3: dos niveles de lisina sintética (0 y 2.70 g/kgy tres niveles de harina de pijiguao (0, 160 y 320 g/kg. En la segunda etapa se utilizaron 16 cerdos en engorde de 67.25 ± 1.17 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x2: dos niveles de lisinasintética (0 y 2.70 g/kg y dos niveles de pijiguao (0 y 175 g/kg. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de triacilgliceroles, colesterol total y ácidos grasos. Resultados. Los cerdos en crecimiento que consumieron pijiguao presentaron menores (p<0.001concentraciones de colesterol que el grupo control (2.27 y 2.23 mmol/l vs 2.56 mmol/l y triacilgliceroles (0.34 y 0.28 mmol/l vs 0.42 mmol/l. El ácido oleico incrementó (p<0.01con el mayor nivel de pijiguao (20.78% a 28.84%, y la lisina aumentó (p<0.05 el ácidolinoleico (27.83% a 31.29%. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina mostraron menor (p<0.001 ácido palmítico que el grupo con pijiguao sin lisina (0.23 y 0.19% vs 0.45 y 0.62%, respectivamente. En la etapa de engorde los triacilgliceroles disminuyeron (p<0.05 en los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina (0.46 a 0.36 mmol/l. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao mostraron menor ácido linoleico y mayor ácido oleico (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Las dietas con pijiguao y lisina sintética no causaron efectos negativos sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos.

  4. Estatística multivariada na discriminação de raças amazônicas de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth em Manaus (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Jorge Hugo Iriarte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As raças e populações de pupunheiras ao longo dos rios Amazonas e Solimões apresentam grande variabilidade genética ainda não totalmente caracterizada. Neste estudo, foram aplicadas técnicas estatísticas multivariadas a 15 descritores morfológicos numa tentativa de caracterizar, morfometricamente, três raças existentes ao longo da Bacia desses rios. As três análises em conjunto permitiram uma discriminação das raças, mostrando também que os descritores mais importantes nessa seleção foram: número de espigas, comprimento da ráquis, peso do fruto, espessura das cascas, facilidade para descascar os frutos, peso das cascas, sabor dos frutos, espessura da polpa, distância morfológica dos frutos e peso da semente.

  5. A new set of microsatellite markers for the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): characterization and across-taxa utility within the tribe Cocoeae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billotte, N.; Couvreur, T.L.P.; Marseillac, P.; Brottier, P.; Perthuis, B.; Vallejo, M.; Noyer, J.L.; Jacquemoud, J.P.; Risterucci, A.M.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    A (GA)n microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and a new set of 18 nuclear simple sequence repeat loci was isolated in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes. The loci were found to be highly variable in the target species and readily transferable to related Bactris species as well as to the

  6. Produção de Palmito de Pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth sob Diferentes Densidades de Plantio Pupunha Palm Heart Production from Different Plant Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinelson José Maciel Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    No Estado do Paraná, a região litorânea apresenta-se como potencial ao plantio da pupunheira para palmito, devido as suas condições climáticas serem favoráveis ao desenvolvimento da espécie. Nessa região, no final de 2004, o número de mudas plantadas de pupunha para a produção de palmito, em pequenas propriedades rurais, girava em torno de um milhão, o eqüivalente a uma área plantada de 200 ha. Esse fato credencia a espécie como alternativa de produção sustentável e economicamente viável, à medida que as populações naturais de juçara (Euterpe edulis vão se esgotando. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, aos 24 e 39 meses de idade, a produção de creme de palmito e de vidros com palmito em toletes, em rodelas e em picados, em plantios submetidos a diferentes densidades de plantas e classes de solo. Para tanto, em março de 2001, foram instaladas duas áreas experimentais localizadas nos km 7 e km 10 da estrada Alexandra-Matinhos, Município de Paranaguá, PR. O delineamento estatístico usado foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas de 100 plantas, quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos seguintes espaçamentos/densidade de plantas: 3 m x 1 m (3.333 plantas/ha; 2 m x 1 m (5.000 plantas/ha; 1 m x 1 m x 1,5 m (6.666 plantas/ha e 1 m x 1 m x 2 m (8.000 plantas/ha. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: (i a produtividade de creme de palmito de pupunheira, de vidros com palmito em toletes, em rodelas e em picados aumenta em função do número de plantas por hectare; (ii a realização de novos cortes nas áreas trabalhadas permitirão definir a densidade ideal de plantas por hectare para a produção de creme de palmito. 
    The coast region of Paraná State, Brazil, has a great potential for growing of pupunha trees aiming palm heart production due to climate conditions. There were around one million pupunha trees planted at small farmers area, totalizing about 200 ha, in this region by the end of 2004. This fact confirms the specie as a sustainable and economicaly viable alternative for small farmers as long as the natural stands of juçara (Euterpe edulis are raryng. This paper aimed to evaluate the palm heart production, at ages 24 and 39 months after planting, from plants growing instands varyng on plant density and soil class and considering processing as heart, ring and chopped. The experiment was set up in two areas located along the Alexandra-Matinhos Road (km 7 and km 10, Paranagua City, in March 2001. Randomized blocks was used as the statistical design on 100 plants per sample, four treatments and six replicates. The treatments considering spacing and plant density were: 3 m x 1 m (3.333 plants/ha; 2 m x 1 m (5.000 plants/ha; 1 m x 1 m x 1,5 m (6.666 plants/ha e 1 m x 1 m x 2 m (8.000 plants/ha. The results showsed that: the productivity of palm heart from pupunha trees increase according to plant numberper hectare for processing as heart, ring and chopped; further harvests in theexperimental area will allow to establish the ideal plant density per hectare aiming palm heart production.   

  7. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R Piccolotto; Lemos, J R Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R Souza; Martins, M Gassen; Nascimento, C H; Bayona, M; Marcon, J L; Monteiro, J Barros

    2013-09-01

    The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI. Red pupunha was confirmed to increase HDL-cholesterol in lactating rats. These results suggest that red pupunha is a healthy fruit to be consumed during lactating and post-lactating periods as it is related to better lipid profile and less body weight gain.

  8. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  9. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

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    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  10. A??o do camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] liofilizado sobre a glicemia e o perfil lip?dico de adultos jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Bianca Languer

    2012-01-01

    As doen?as cr?nicas, como diabetes, doen?as cardiovasculares (DCV) e c?ncer, representam atualmente 60% de todas as mortes no mundo. O estresse oxidativo, desencadeado pela a??o de radicais livres, est? envolvido na patog?nese de in?meras doen?as cr?nicas, a exemplo as DCV. Alguns nutrientes presentes em frutas e verduras possuem a??o antioxidante, como ? o caso dos flavon?ides e da vitamina C, e seu consumo regular est? associado ? diminui??o do risco de desenvolvimento de doen?as cr?nicas. ...

  11. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  12. Percepción sobre el pejibaye y la aceptación de un snack funcional a base de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth por consumidoras costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Isabel Ivankovich-Guillén

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la percepción sobre el pejibaye así como determinar la aceptación de un "snack" tipo tortilla frita, elaborado con 50% de harina de pejibaye y 50% de harina de maíz, se realizó una encuesta y degustación del producto a 163 mujeres del área metropolitana costarricense, con edades comprendidas entre los 21 y 76 años. En lo referente a la percepción del pejibaye, el 84,6% de las encuestadas lo asocia como beneficioso para la salud, esto unido a que el snack tiene una alta aceptación, 8,99 de agrado en una escala de 10 puntos, lo constituye en un producto con alto potencial de mercado. Por edad se encontró diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en la apariencia, color, olor y sabor del "snack" en el grupo menor de cuarenta años y el de mayor edad. Las jóvenes califican más bajo el producto en los atributos mencionados. Para la comercialización del "snack" en importante declarar el contenido de calorías pues un 9,8% tiene la creencia de que el pejibaye engorda.

  13. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become...... analyses. METHODOLOGY: Based upon previous structure elucidation studies, four alkaloids targeted in this study were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry by direct infusion of plant extracts, and their distributions were imaged by DESI-MSI via tissue imprints on a porous Teflon surface....... Relative quantitation of the four alkaloids was obtained by HPLC-MS/MS analysis performed using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Alkaloids showed distinct distributions on the leaf surfaces. Prunifoleine was mainly present in the midrib, while 10...

  14. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC. A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI with a correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  15. MODELLING THE POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SPECIES ON A NATIONAL SCALE IN COLOMBIA: APPLICATION TO PALICOUREA ANGUSTIFOLIA KUNTH AND PALICOUREA GUIANENSIS AUBL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenteras Dolors

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results in this study illustrate the methods of using the existing species' presentrecords and environmental data to produce a niche-based model based on Mahalanobis distances, and also to predict the distribution of a number of tree species in order to apply it on a national scale to a tropical country such as Colombia. The technique applied is based on the Mahalanobis distance, a generalised squared distance statistic. We used environmental data integrated into a GIS, and a georeferenced collection of localities of Palicourea angustifolia and Palicourea guianensis to produce and test the predictive models. We used record data for Warszewiczia coccinea to validate the model. The two Palicourea species show largely complementary potential ranges. P. angustifolia shows a clear Andean distribution with a presence in lower and upper mountain areas but not in the highlands or in the inter-Andean valleys. P. guianensis was predicted throughout most of the lowland areas of Colombia including lowland Amazonian forests, and most of the tropical savannas of Orinoquia. The model predicted an overlapping distribution of the two species of 93.9 km2. The Mahalanobian approach contributes to the development of biogeographically oriented modelling that makes the best use of the available data in data-scarce regions (such as most of the tropics. The technique provides key information about the environmental niche of the species being modelled, and allows comparisons between the species. The prediction achieved for the two species was considered satisfactory.

  16. Induction of quadrangular shapes to stems of Guadua angustifolia Kunth for the business development in the rural communities of Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local development at indigenous communities from Ecuadorian Amazonía, may develop their potentialities and improve families’ incomes. In sector San José, cantón Mera, province Pastaza (Ecuador, the induction of square shape in G. angustifolia stems was studied using an adjustable metallic mold during three time intervals (15, 30 and 45 days. Square shape in stems of G. angustifolia was observed once metallic mold was used in shoots proliferation stage with 50 cm of height. It was obtained a 60.93 % of perimeter of stem with plane surface and six induced nodes. Metallic molds affected in approximately 55% the elongation of induced nodes, limiting stems normal length. By means of the induction of square shape in stems of G. angustifolia, members from farmer’s communities may develop agricultural production and commercialization to generate micro-enterprising and improve their life quality

  17. Comparative anatomy of floral elaiophores in Vitekorchis Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum Kunth and a florally dimorphic species of Oncidium Sw. (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Rawski, Michał

    2014-06-01

    Recently, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the phylogeny of subtribe Oncidiinae, resulting in the re-alignment of several of its genera. Here, a description is given of the structure of the floral elaiophores (oil glands) of four species formerly assigned to Oncidium Sw. Those of Vitekorchis excavata (Lindl.) Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum meirax (Rchb.f.) Dalström and a species of Oncidium displaying floral dimorphism, namely O. heteranthum Poepp. & Endl. var. album, are compared with that of Gomesa longipes (Lindl.) M.W. Chase & N.H. Williams, whose epithelial elaiophores are typical of many Oncidiinae, in order to extend our understanding of elaiophore diversity within this subtribe. Floral elaiophore structure was examined and compared at anthesis for all four species using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. In all species investigated, with the exception of C. meirax, the floral elaiophore occurs on the labellar callus and is of the intermediate type, possessing both glabrous and trichomatous regions. By contrast, although all four species produce lipid secretions, C. meirax lacks an obvious elaiophore. In each case, the secretory tissue is represented by a single-layered epidermis of cuboidal cells (trichomatous and/or atrichomatous). Palisade cells are absent. The secretion may be wax- or oil-like and is usually produced by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). However, in C. meirax, where rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) predominates, oil accumulates as plastoglobuli within elaioplasts. These plastoglobuli are then discharged into the cytoplasm, forming oil bodies. In some species, oil usually accumulates within vesicles at the plasmalemma or in the periplasmic space before traversing the cell wall and accumulating beneath the cuticle, sometimes with distension of the latter. Gomesa longipes is unusual in its production of a heterogeneous secretion, whereas Vitekorchis excavata is equally remarkable for the protuberances found on the walls of its secretory cells. Anatomically, the secretory tissues of all four species, despite currently being assigned to four different genera, are remarkably similar and indicative of homoplasy. This supports previous investigations of the floral elaiophore in Oncidiinae, which showed that the same elaiophore characters may be shared by different clades, but not always by species of the same genus. Consequently, elaiophores are considered to be of limited value in investigating the phylogeny of this subtribe. Furthermore, floral dimorphism does not greatly modify elaiophore structure in the fertile flowers of Oncidium heteranthum var. album. Based on the presence or absence of well-defined elaiophores, the nature of the secretion and the cell ultrastructure, it is likely that floral oil may be produced in Oncidiinae in one of two ways: by the ER (mainly SER) or by plastids, most notably elaioplasts. Once the oil is discharged into the cytoplasm as oil bodies or oil droplets, there is little difference between the subsequent stages of oil secretion; the oil traversing the cytoplasm (often vesicle-mediated) and cell wall before accumulating beneath the cuticle. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chemical Constituents of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia (Kunth) Meisn (Polygonaceae) and Its In Vitro α-Amilase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Naranjo, María; Suárez, Alirica; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Cartuche, Luis; Flores, Paola; Morocho, Vladimir

    2016-11-02

    The phytochemical investigation of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia , collected in Loja-Ecuador, led to the isolation of nine known compounds identified as: lupeol acetate ( 1 ); cis - p -coumaric acid ( 2 ); lupeol ( 3 ); β-sitosterol ( 4 ) trans - p -coumaric acid ( 5 ); linoleic acid ( 6 ) (+)-catechin ( 7 ); afzelin ( 8 ) and quercitrin ( 9 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on analysis of NMR and MS data, as well as comparison with the literature. The hypoglycemic activity of crude extracts and isolated compounds was assessed by the ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The hexane extract showed weak inhibitory activity on α-amylase, with an IC 50 value of 625 µg·mL -1 , while the other extracts and isolated compounds were inactive at the maximum dose tested. The results on α-glucosidase showed more favorable effects; the hexanic and methanolic extracts exhibited a strong inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 48.22 µg·mL -1 and 19.22 µg·mL -1 , respectively. Four of the nine isolated compounds exhibited strong inhibitory activity with IC 50 values below 8 µM, much higher than acarbose (377 uM). Linoleic acid was the most potent compound (IC 50 = 0.42 µM) followed by afzelin, (+)-catechin and quercitrin.

  19. Phytoremediation applications in natural condition and in mesocosm: The uptake of cadmium by Lemna minuta Kunth, a non-native species in Italian watercourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiudioni, Filippo; Trabace, Teresa; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Palma, Achille; Manes, Fausto; Mancini, Laura

    2017-04-03

    Metal pollution in water and soil is an environmental and public health issue. Cadmium (Cd) is included in the list of priority hazardous substances in the European Water Framework Directive. Phytoremediation system is a cost-effective, plant-based approach that takes advantage of the ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues. We studied the presence and the importance of an invasive species, such as Lemna minuta, in the environment and the effects of Cd pollution on this species. Growth, removal, and tolerance were evaluated for different Cd concentrations and different times of plant exposure. Overall, the results show that L. minuta has a good capacity of growth, metal bioconcentration, and tolerance up to 3 days of exposure at 0.5 and 1.5 mg L -1 of Cd. In particular, L. minuta was able to accumulate Cd up to 3771 mg kg -1 on dry mass basis. We can conclude that L. minuta possesses a great capability of Cd absorption and accumulation, thus supporting a potential use of this species in designing a metal bioremediation system in phytoremediation field.

  20. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound.

  1. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE PUPUNHEIRA (Bactris gasipaes Kunth UTILIZANDO RESÍDUO DE MINERAÇÃO DE AREIA COMO COMPONENTE DE SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of peach palm seedlings using fine residue of sand mining as part of substrates. The experiment comprised five treatments, four containing different ratios of sand mining residue to carbonized rice husk: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3, and one composed of alic podzolic yellow latosol and buffalo manure in a 3:1 ratio, used as the standard substrate. Treatments were arranged in randomized blocks with five replications and 10 seedlings each. One peach palm seedling was transplantedper container, which consisted of black, 8x20 cm, 1.1 L PE bags filled with different substrates. Diameter ofstem, plantlet height, number of leaves and relative growth rate were recorded monthly and 180 days aftertheir transplanting, SPAD values, dynamics of CO2 assimilation, transpiration and stomatal conductance. The use of unmixed residue of sand mining as substrate did not produce quality seedlings, since that substance has high density and poor particle size. It can be used as part of substrates though, for plants grown in the mixtures of residue and carbonized rice husk showed similarresults to those grown in the standard substrate.

  2. Variación temporal en la colonización de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares de Bactris gasipaes Kunth en Buenaventura, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H Molineros Hurtado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El chontaduro Bactris gasipaes es un cultivo tropical importante del cual se cosechan los frutos o los palmitos. En el estudio se evaluaron los niveles de colonización de las raíces, se realizaron conteos de esporas en el suelo y la identificación de morfotipos de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA asociados a cultivos de B. gasipaes en el áreas rural de Citronela y Zabaletas, municipio de Buenaventura, Departmento de Valle del Cauca, Colombia, durante tres periodos de entre 2006 y 2007, para determinar la influencia de la pluviosidad en la colonización de HMA. Los porcentajes de colonización en Citronela variaron entre 58% y 90% mientras que en Zabaletas la colonización de raíces varió entre 63% y 79%. El número promedio de esporas en 50 g de suelo húmedo fue mayor in Citronela (244.6 ± 116.0 SD que en Zabaletas (50.3 (± 24.1 SD. Se identificaron 22 morfotipos de HMA del suelo asociado a las palmas de de B. gasipaes. Glomus fue el género de hongos micorrízico más abundante en ambas localidades, pero Scutelospora también fue detectado. Este estudio demuestra la existencia de variación geográfica y temporal en parámetros micorrízicos en un cultivo importante para la agricultura del trópico húmedo.

  3. Variabilidad genética del membrillo cimarrón (Malacomeles denticulata [Kunth] Jones) obtenida mediante marcadores Inter Secuencias Simples Repetidas o Intermicrosatélites (ISSR)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cerritos, Daniela; Núñez-Colín, Carlos Alberto; Villordo-Pineda, Emiliano; Medina-Ramos, Gabriela; González-Chavira, Mario Martín

    2015-01-01

    Malacomeles denticulata es un fruto nativo de México al que recientemente se le ha encontrado características funcionales para proponerlo como una opción frutal. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo elucidar la variabilidad de doce poblaciones de M. denticulata mediante marcadores Inter Secuencias Simples Repetidas o Intermicrosatélites (ISSR). Todos los ISSR presentaron altos valores en el Contenido de Información Polimórfica (PIC, por sus siglas en inglés) y el índice de diferenciación pob...

  4. Kuidas väike rõivatootja vallutas maailma / Eva Palu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palu, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Rootsi rõivatootja Odd Molly teest rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud kaubamärgiks. Kommenteerivad moekunstnik Reet Aus ja Bastioni turundusdirektor Triin Randloo. Vt. samas: Vastab Odd Molly tegevjuht Christina Tillman; Mis on alternatiivturg First North

  5. Morphology and anatomy of leaf miners in two species of Commelinaceae (Commelina diffusa Burm. f. and Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk Morfologia e anatomia de minas foliares em duas espécies de Commelinaceae Commelina diffusa Burm. f. e Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Elb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature, reports on anatomy of miners in host plants are few in number. These agents trigger excavations, or paths, by consumption of plant inner tissues by larvae of several insects. The aim of this work was to investigate leaf miner occurrence in Commelina diffusa (a cosmopolitan plant and Floscopa glabrata (an amphibious plant using anatomical techniques. The place where the plants were collected is subjected to seasonal floods, consequently both the species were exposed to the same weather conditions and seasonal floods. This study showed that members of Agromyzidae and Chironomidae families, which are Diptera endophytophagous larvae types, were responsible for the tunnels. Moreover, in Commelina diffusa Agromyzidae larvae were found, while in Floscopa glabrata three Chironomidae cephalic exuviae were found. The miners, as can be seen from anatomical studies, used only mesophyll parenchyma tissues for feeding, causing the formation of linear mines. In addition, in both the species, the epidermis and the medium-sized vascular units were kept intact, showing no structural modification, such as neoformation of tissues.Existem poucos relatos na literatura sobre anatomia de plantas parasitadas por agentes minadores, os quais promovem escavações ou caminhos através do consumo dos tecidos internos das plantas por larvas de diversos insetos. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar anatomicamente a ocorrência de minas foliares em Commelina diffusa (planta cosmopolita e Floscopa glabrata (planta anfíbia causadas por espécies de larvas endofitófagas de dípteros, pertencentes a duas famílias: Agromyzidae e Chironomidae. O local onde as plantas foram coletas está sujeito a inundações sazonais, e as duas espécies foram submetidas às mesmas condições climáticas. Em Commelina diffusa foram encontradas larvas da família Agromyzidae e, em Floscopa glabrata observaram-se três exuvias cefálicas de Chironomidae. Os dados anatômicos revelaram que os minadores se alimentaram apenas dos tecidos parenquimáticos do mesofilo, formando minas lineares. Além disso, notou-se que a epiderme e as unidades vasculares de porte médio foram mantidos intactos em ambas as espécies, não apresentando alterações estruturais, como a neoformação de tecidos.

  6. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and leaf dry matter, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na accumulation were measured in the plant tissues. All variables but Na were negatively affected by increasing NaCl levels in the nutrient solution, particularly in the root tissue. Results indicated the sensitivity of Gliricidia sepium to salinity.

  7. Germinação e maturidade fisiológica de sementes de Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth relacionadas a estádios de frutificação e conservação pós-colheita Germination and physiological maturity in seeds of Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth related to fruiting times and forms of post-harvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cesário Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos estádios de frutificação e formas de conservação na germinação e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de surucucu. Em 25 árvores na região de Vitória da Conquista, BA, foram realizadas coletas de frutos no período de 17/05 a 9/07 de 2007, em intervalos de sete dias a partir do início da frutificação, caracterizando oito estádios de desenvolvimento das vagens. Cada período de coleta foi definido por lotes diferenciados de sementes, sendo realizadas avaliações de massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água. As sementes de cada uma das oito coletas foram mantidas em condições ambientais de laboratório, sendo subdivididas em dois lotes: em um lote, as sementes permaneceram no interior das vagens e, no outro, as vagens foram eliminadas. Após o período de 49 dias a partir do início da frutificação, massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água foram determinados. Posteriormente, as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação em câmara tipo BOD, com temperatura de 25 ºC, em regime de fotoperíodo de 8 h de luz. Depois de cinco dias foi realizada a primeira contagem de germinação e aos 10 dias, avaliadas as seguintes características: porcentagem de germinação, plântulas anormais e classificação do vigor das plântulas (vigor alto, médio e baixo. A presença das vagens durante o período de conservação das sementes foi fator determinante para a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca determinados por ocasião do teste de germinação aumentaram com o período de frutificação, atingindo o máximo aos 37 dias.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different fruiting stages and conservation techniques on the germination and physiological quality of surucucu seeds. Fruits were collected on eight occasions from 25 trees in the region of Vitória da Conquista - BA, in the period from 05/17 to 07/09 2007, at sevenday intervals from the beginning of the fruiting stage. Each collection period was characterized by distinct seed lots. Evaluations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds in each of the eight collections were maintained under room conditions in the laboratory, and were subdivided into two lots: in the first, the seeds remained inside their pods, while in the other the pods were eliminated. After a 49-day period from the beginning of fruiting, determinations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds were then submitted to germination tests in a BOD incubator adjusted to 25ºC, with an 8:16 hr (light:dark photoperiod. The first germination count was made after five days. At ten days, evaluations were made for germination percentage and abnormal seedlings, and plantlets were classified as to their vigor (high, medium, and low. Germination increased as the fruiting period progressed, and was directly related to dry matter accumulation in the seeds, as determined during the germination test.

  8. Respostas na germinação e no crescimento inicial de rabanete sob ação de extrato aquoso de Piper mikanianum (Kunth Steudel Responses in germination and early growth of radish under the influence of an aqueous extract of Piper mikanianum (Kunth Steudel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de folhas de pariparoba sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.. Foram utilizados extratos de folhas maduras frescas nas concentrações 2, 4 e 8% (p/v, cujo pH e potencial osmótico foram aferidos. No bioensaio de germinação foram empregadas cinco repetições de 25 sementes distribuídas em placas de petri forradas com papel Germitest, umedecido com 7 mL de extrato ou água e mantidos a 25ºC em B.O.D. por cinco dias. A porcentagem de germinação (PG, velocidade de germinação (VG, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e índice de efeito alelopático (RI foram determinados. No bioensaio de crescimento inicial, sementes germinadas até atingirem 2 mm de protusão radicular foram transferidas para caixas Gerbox contendo papel Germitest e 15 mL de extrato ou água, permanecendo sete dias a 25ºC em B.O.D. para a avaliação do comprimento da radícula e do hipocótilo, da massa fresca e seca, do conteúdo de água e do teor de clorofila (a, b e total. Todos os parâmetros de germinação (PG, VG, IVG e RI foram afetados negativamente pelos extratos de P. mikanianum. O crescimento inicial foi influenciado pelos extratos, resultando em redução do comprimento da radícula e aumento do hipocótilo. Além disso, os extratos causaram redução da biomassa fresca e do conteúdo de água a 8% e incrementos dos teores de clorofila b e total a 2 e 4%. Assim, a espécie Piper mikanianum exerce efeito alelopático sobre o rabanete.This study evaluated the allelopathic effects of an extract from P. mikanianum leaves on the germination and early growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Leaf extracts were prepared at concentrations of 2, 4 and 8%. The pH and osmotic potential of the extracts were determined. Germination bioassay consisted of five replicates of 25 radish seeds distributed in Petri dishes with germitest paper and 7 mL of extract or water, and were kept at 25ºC in B.O.D. for five days. Germination percentage (PG, germination speed (VG, germination speed index (IVG and index of allelopathic effect (RI were determined. For bioassay initial growth, seeds were germinated until the protrusion of the radicle was 2 mm and transferred to Gerbox boxes containing germitest paper and 15 mL of extract or water, which were kept for seven days at 25ºC in B.O.D. to evaluate the length of the radicle and hypocotyl, fresh and dry mass, water content and chlorophyll content (a, b ​​and total. Leaf extracts from P. mikanianum negatively affected all parameters examined for germination (PG, VG, IVG and RI. The extracts affected the initial growth, causing reduction of the radicle length and stimulating the growth of the hypocotyl. In addition, the extracts at 8% concentration reduced fresh weight and water content. Extracts at concentrations of 2 and 4% increased the content of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. Thus, Piper mikanianum exerted an allelopathic effect on radish.

  9. DNA from the past informs ex situ conservation for the future: an "extinct" species of Galápagos tortoise identified in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Russello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although not unusual to find captive relicts of species lost in the wild, rarely are presumed extinct species rediscovered outside of their native range. A recent study detected living descendents of an extinct Galápagos tortoise species (Chelonoidis elephantopus once endemic to Floreana Island on the neighboring island of Isabela. This finding adds to the growing cryptic diversity detected among these species in the wild. There also exists a large number of Galápagos tortoises in captivity of ambiguous origin. The recently accumulated population-level haplotypic and genotypic data now available for C. elephantopus add a critical reference population to the existing database of 11 extant species for investigating the origin of captive individuals of unknown ancestry.We reanalyzed mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes of 156 captive individuals using an expanded reference database that included all extant Galápagos tortoise species as well as the extinct species from Floreana. Nine individuals (six females and three males exhibited strong signatures of Floreana ancestry and a high probability of assignment to C. elephantopus as detected by Bayesian assignment and clustering analyses of empirical and simulated data. One male with high assignment probability to C. elephantopus based on microsatellite genotypic data also possessed a "Floreana-like" mitochondrial DNA haplotype.Historical DNA analysis of museum specimens has provided critical spatial and temporal components to ecological, evolutionary, taxonomic and conservation-related research, but rarely has it informed ex situ species recovery efforts. Here, the availability of population-level genotypic data from the extinct C. elephantopus enabled the identification of nine Galápagos tortoise individuals of substantial conservation value that were previously misassigned to extant species of varying conservation status. As all captive individuals of C

  10. 75 FR 68945 - Update of Noxious Weed Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...: Cause impacts on ecosystem processes (alteration of hydrology, sedimentation rates, a fire regime... for ``Caulerpa taxifolia (Mediterranean clone)'', ``Eichornia azurea (Swarth) Kunth'', and ``Melaleuca...

  11. Expression of KxhKN4 and KxhKN5 genes in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana "Molly" results in novel compact plant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Laura, Marina; Borghi, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Many potted plants like Kalanchoe¨ have an elongated natural growth habit, which has to be controlled through the application of growth regulators. These chemicals will be banned in the near future in all the EU countries. Besides their structural functions, the importance of homeotic genes...

  12. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadena-Gonzalez, Ana Lucia; Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

    2013-01-01

    cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers relied most on the uses of native species, amateur healers were inclined to rely on introduced species. Medicinal...

  13. O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. (Cyperaceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsi Iob Boldrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo taxonômico do gênero Eleocharis R. Br. para o Rio Grande do Sul foi desenvolvido através dos métodos tradicionais em taxonomia. Os dados foram obtidos através da bibliografia, revisão de herbários regionais e coleta de exemplares a campo. O gênero está representado no Rio Grande do Sul por 27 espécies: Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., E. bonariensis Nees, E. contracta Maury, E. dunensis Kük., E. elegans (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. filiculmis Kunth, E. flavescens (Poir. Urb., E. geniculata (L. Roem. & Schult., E. interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. laeviglumis R. Trevis. & Boldrini, E. loefgreniana Boeck., E. maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. minima Kunth var. minima, E. montana (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. montevidensis Kunth, E. nudipes (Kunth Palla, E. obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees Steud., E. parodii Barros, E. quinquangularis Boeck., E. rabenii Boeck., E. radicans (Poir. Kunth, E. sellowiana Kunth, E. squamigera Svenson, E. subarticulata (Nees Boeck., E. viridans Kük. ex Osten, Eleocharis sp.1 e Eleocharis sp.2. O trabalho apresenta descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica, habitat e períodos de floração e frutificação das espécies, além de uma chave dicotômica para diferenciá-las.

  14. Características do resíduo de mineração de areia como componente de substratos para a produção de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris Gasipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físicas, químicas e biológica do resíduo fino de mineração de areia como componente de substratos para a produção de mudas de pupunheira. Para isso, foram testados quatro substratos com as proporções de resíduo de mineração de areia:casca de arroz carbonizada (RA:CA: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3, e comparados ao substrato testemunha: 3:1 (Latossolo Amarelo Podzólico álico:esterco de búfalo curtido. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, com 10 mudas por parcela. As mudas de pupunheira foram produzidas em recipiente com capacidade para 1,1L, em ambiente protegido. Quando as mudas encontravam-se prontas para o transplantio, 210 dias após a repicagem, foram determinados diâmetro do coleto, altura da haste, número de folhas, massa seca da parte aérea e radicular. Concluiu-se que o resíduo de mineração de areia pode ter uso no sistema produtivo da pupunheira como componente de substrato para produção de mudas. Sua proporção máxima deve ser de 75% do volume do substrato, sempre agregado a outros materiais para que a composição final apresente densidade seca entre 500 e 800 kg.m-3.

  15. Actividad antimicrobiana y análisis de la composición química de una fracción de las flores de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mejía, C.; Osorio, J.; Barrera, M.; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 409-418 ISSN 1028-4796 Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Acmella ciliata * alkamides * spilanthol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry http:// sci elo.sld.cu/ sci elo.php?script= sci _arttext&pid=S1028-47962015000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso

  16. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  17. FISIOLOGÍA POSCOSECHA, COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA Y CAPACIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DE FRUTAS DE PEJIBAYE (Bactris gasipaes Kunth cv. Tuira DarIén COSECHADAS A TRES DIFERENTES EDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Serrano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron variables de calidad poscosecha, composición química y capacidad antioxidante de frutas de pejibaye cv. Tuira-Darién, cosechados con una edad de 97, 106 y 120 días desde floración. Con base en su patrón respiratorio, el pejibaye pareciera pertenecer al grupo de los frutos no climatéricos, con una tasa respiratoria alta (30-45 mg.kg-1.h-1 de CO2 al inicio del almacenamiento; en etapas más avanzadas del almacenamiento alcanzó 80 mg.kg-1.h-1 de CO2, lo que le confiere una vida útil poscosecha corta. En los frutos recién cosechados, los valores de firmeza de la pulpa, el color de la pulpa, el color externo, el contenido de sólidos solubles, el contenido de grasa y la capacidad antioxidante se vieron influenciados por la edad de cosecha. No se encontró efecto de la edad de cosecha en el contenido de almidones y carotenoides. Los valores de respiración, índice de color externo y contenido de sólidos solubles aumentaron durante el almacenamiento poscosecha, mientras que la firmeza de la pulpa mostró una disminución. Se encontraron bajos contenidos de acidez titulable, sin variaciones significativas durante el periodo de almacenamiento. Además, mediante el método ORAC en base húmeda, se determinó que el pejibaye tiene una alta capacidad antioxidante (16,18 uÊmol ET (equivalentes Trolox/g, superior a la informada para frutas como mango (10,02 uÊmol ET/g, pina (7,93 uÊmol ET/g, tomate (4,60 uÊmol ET/g. Los frutos cosechados con la menor edad (97 dias, presentaron los mayores valores de capacidad antioxidante tanto en la determinacion ORAC en base seca (58,08 uÊmol ET/g como en la base humeda (16,18 uÊmol ET/g.

  18. PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI PADA PENGENDALIAN HAMA PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L. MENUJU PERTANIAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    suhartini suhartini

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT The use of chemical pesticides has many negative impacts on the environment, it is necessary for the use of biological pesticide towards sustainable agriculture or environmentally friendly agriculture. In the village were encountered many types of leaves that can be used as a biological pesticide, and therefore this study aims to determine the effectiveness of pesticide plant extracts of the leaves of some plants covering the leaves of tobacco, elephantopus, yellow wood and green betel on mortality of Plutella xylostella pests in plants mustard greens (Brassica juncea L, heavy wet mustard and mustard leaf damage    This study uses a completely randomized design with the treatment of various crops as a pesticide vegetable. The treatments used 6 kinds (degree ie negative control (P0, the leaves of tobacco (P1, the leaves of elephantopus (P2, the leaves of yellow wood (P3, the leaves of greens betel (P4 and chemical pesticides as a positive control (P5 with each grade of 10 %. Parameters measured were mortality pests, heavy wet mustard greens and mustard greens leaf damage rate. The analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA.    The results showed that the extract from the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, the leaves of elephantopus, the leaves of yellow wood (Arcangelisia flava L. and the leaves of green betel (Piper betle Linn. With a 10 percent concentration of the extract on a variety of  leaves are not yet significant effect on mortality pests Plutella xylostella, heavy wet of mustard greens (brassica juncea l. and severity of leaf mustard greens (brassica juncea l.. The leaf extract the most influence on mortality Plutella xylostella sequential is an extract of the leaves tobacco, the leaves of greens betel, the leaves of yellow wood and the leaves of elephantopus. While the effect on weight of wet mustard greens (Brassica juncea l. in order are as follows: the leaves of yellow wood, the leaves of green betel, the leaves of elephantopus, and the

  19. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    /DK), Pernille With Madsen, Emil Alenius, Andrés Galeano (E/DE), Kasper Vang & Mads Forsby, Nanna Lysholt Hansen og Molly & Me (Molly Haslund & Catherine Hoffmann (UK)) Kurateret af Judith Schwarzbart og Sanne Krogh Groth Produceret af studerende ved Performance-design Programmet var støttet af Statens Kunstråd...

  20. Selecting the Perfect Baby: The Ethics of Embryo Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarzu, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Presents the real life story of Molly, who was born with a rare genetic disorder, and her parents' hope to cure her by having another child with specific genetic markers and using his/her stem cells to cure Molly. Addresses the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatment. Includes teaching notes and classroom management…

  1. Determination of fatty alcohols in D-004 active ingredient by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Rodriguez Leyes, Eduardo Antonio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor Luis

    2012-01-01

    D004, a new lipid extract purified from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia [Kunth] F. Cook) fruits, has been shown to be effective in experimental models of prostate hyperplasia, and to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects

  2. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  3. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunth) Bak used in The Traditional Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Urinary Infections · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EH Mshelia, LT Zaria, AH ...

  4. Isodeoxyelephantopin induces protective autophagy in lung cancer cells via Nrf2-p62-keap1 feedback loop

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Zhi-Hao; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Wei-Bin; Yin, Xing-Feng; Li, Yao-Lan; Li, Bin; He, Qing-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Isodeoxyelephantopin (ESI), isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. has been reported to exert anticancer effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how cancer cells exert protective responses against ESI treatment. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that ESI significantly induced autophagy flux in the lung cancer cells expressing mCherry-EGFP-LC3 reporter. Treatment of the cells with ESI increased the expression levels of the autophagy markers including LC3-II, ATG3 and Be...

  5. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  6. Effects of competition on induction of crassulacean acid metabolism in a facultative CAM plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Li, Wei; He, Yongli

    2017-06-01

    Abiotic drivers of environmental stress have been found to induce CAM expression (nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM species such as Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The role played by biotic factors such as competition with non-CAM species in affecting CAM expression, however, remains largely understudied. This research investigated the effects of salt and water conditions on the competition between M. crystallinum and the C 3 grass Bromus mollis with which it is found to coexist in California's coastal grasslands. We also investigated the extent to which CAM expression in M. crystallinum was affected by the intensity of the competition with B. mollis. We found that M. crystallinum had a competitive advantage over B. mollis in drought and saline conditions, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum in access to light and soil nutrients in high water conditions. This strong competitive effect even outweighed the favorable effects of salt or water additions in increasing the biomass and productivity of M. crystallinum in mixture. Regardless of salt conditions, M. crystallinum did not switch to CAM photosynthesis in response to this strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Disturbance (i.e., grass cutting) reduced the competitive pressure by B. mollis and allowed for CAM expression in M. crystallinum when it was grown mixed with B. mollis. We suggest that moderate competition with other functional groups can enhance CAM expression in M. crystallinum, thereby affecting its plasticity and ability to cope with biological stress.

  7. Underreporting of ecstasy use among high school seniors in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Keyes, Katherine; Cleland, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    National surveys suggest ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) use has decreased substantially among adolescents in the US since 2001; however, the recent phenomenon of "Molly" (ecstasy marketed as "pure MDMA") may be leading to underreporting of use as not all users are aware that "Molly" is a form of ecstasy. We examined 2014 data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative survey of high school seniors in the US (N=6250, modal age: 18). Three randomly distributed survey forms asked about ecstasy use, and one included "Molly" in the definition. Self-reported lifetime, 12-month, and 30-day ecstasy use were compared to determine whether including "Molly" in the definition was associated with higher prevalence or frequency of use. The form including "Molly" in the definition had significantly higher prevalence than the two (combined) forms that did not. Lifetime use (8.0% vs. 5.5%) and 12-month use (5.1% vs. 3.6%) were significantly higher with "Molly" in the definition. Lifetime prevalence remained higher with "Molly" in the definition when controlling for correlates of ecstasy use; however, 12-month use did not. Differences in prevalence were associated with lifetime occasions of use, with lower concordance between forms at lower levels of lifetime occasions (e.g., 1-2 times). Survey form was not related to number of times used among more frequent users. Prevalence of ecstasy use appears to be underestimated when "Molly" is not included in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Surveys should include "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy to more adequately assess prevalence of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Identity of Female Cyborg in William Gibson’s Neuromancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Yap Chee Hui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the identity of female cyborg in William Gibson’s Neuromancer (1984 based on Donna Haraway’s A Cyborg Manifesto. In Neuromancer the main character, Molly Million does not fit in the stereotypical female characteristics. When a male is the protagonist, females will be seen as a feminine stereotype and being depicted as helpless and weak. She is in fact the reversal of feminine stereotype. Henry Dorsett Case, the male protagonist of the story, was given a job opportunity and being partnered up with Molly to fulfil their mission. When Molly and Case are together, Case is always on the safe side while Molly aggressively moves around getting her things done. Being a cyborg is to be fierce, fast and bold just like Molly and being a goddess will be a typical female. It is a metaphor used to conceptualize socialist feminism in the modern society. The boundary breakdown between organism and machine portrays the boundary breakdown between Molly and Wintermute, an Artificial Intelligence (AI, because Molly and Wintermute are representatives of organism and machine, respectively. When Molly and Wintermute could put up with each other, it indirectly shows the connection between human and technology that can then be brought to another level as dualism of mind and body that are considered as one in the cybernetic world just like how high technology and scientific culture are interrelated. Mind which symbolizes Artificial Intelligence is the ultimate power which controls the body. The technological enhancements in Molly are the symbolised power which gives her the difference in stereotypical female role. Keywords: Cyborg Feminism, Female Identity, Patriarchal Role, Cyberpunk

  9. Myocardial T1 mapping at 3.0 tesla using an inversion recovery spoiled gradient echo readout and bloch equation simulation with slice profile correction (BLESSPC) T1 estimation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiaxin; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Hu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    To develop an accurate and precise myocardial T1 mapping technique using an inversion recovery spoiled gradient echo readout at 3.0 Tesla (T). The modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence was modified to use fast low angle shot (FLASH) readout, incorporating a BLESSPC (Bloch Equation Simulation with Slice Profile Correction) T1 estimation algorithm, for accurate myocardial T1 mapping. The FLASH-MOLLI with BLESSPC fitting was compared with different approaches and sequences with regards to T1 estimation accuracy, precision and image artifact based on simulation, phantom studies, and in vivo studies of 10 healthy volunteers and three patients at 3.0 Tesla. The FLASH-MOLLI with BLESSPC fitting yields accurate T1 estimation (average error = -5.4 ± 15.1 ms, percentage error = -0.5% ± 1.2%) for T1 from 236-1852 ms and heart rate from 40-100 bpm in phantom studies. The FLASH-MOLLI sequence prevented off-resonance artifacts in all 10 healthy volunteers at 3.0T. In vivo, there was no significant difference between FLASH-MOLLI-derived myocardial T1 values and "ShMOLLI+IE" derived values (1458.9 ± 20.9 ms versus 1464.1 ± 6.8 ms, P = 0.50); However, the average precision by FLASH-MOLLI was significantly better than that generated by "ShMOLLI+IE" (1.84 ± 0.36% variance versus 3.57 ± 0.94%, P < 0.001). The FLASH-MOLLI with BLESSPC fitting yields accurate and precise T1 estimation, and eliminates banding artifacts associated with bSSFP at 3.0T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Insights into the Social Behavior of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Fish (Poecilia mexicana in Light and Darkness through the Use of a Biomimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots (BRs are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  12. Fishing in the Holy Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschultz, Geri

    1986-01-01

    Describes a teaching method that uses Molly Bloom's soliloquy from James Joyce's "Ulysses" to teach punctuation to freshman writing students. Argues that the assignment helps students discover their power as orderers. (EL)

  13. Resale Price Maintenance Under the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance—An Uneasy Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Jephcott; Adelaide Luke; Lisa Geary; Molly Herron

    2015-01-01

    However, the compromise position reached in the Guideline provides relatively little in terms of legal certainty as to the circumstances in which RPM may be acceptable. Mark Jephcott, Adelaide Luke, Lisa Geary, & Molly Herron (Herbert Smith Freehills)

  14. Community lab kunstihoones ja Arsenales / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Taani kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Projekt" Tallinna Kunstihoones, kus osalevad EKA üliõpilased ja külalised Lätist. Kuraatorite Molly Nesbiti, Hans Ulrich Obristi ja Rirkrit Tiravanija projekt "Utopia Station" Veneetsia biennaalil

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other ...

  17. Receptor May Underlie Gender Differences in Response to Smoking Cessation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Benzodiazepines and Opioid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  19. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  20. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  1. Which Classes of Prescription Drugs Are Commonly Misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  2. Opioid Summaries by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  3. DrugFacts: Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  4. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  5. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  6. Hallucinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  7. NIDA Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  8. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  9. Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  10. Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  11. Substance Use in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Buprenorphine During Pregnancy Reduces Neonate Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  14. Treat Jail Detainees' Drug Abuse to Lower HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Stress-Induced Enzyme Compounds Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  16. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  17. Regular Marijuana Users May Have Impaired Brain Reward Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  19. Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  20. Teens and E-cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  1. Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  2. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  3. Although Relatively Few, "Doctor Shoppers" Skew Opioid Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  4. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  5. An Ambitious Research Plan to Help Solve the Opioid Crisis: HEAL Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  6. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  7. NIH HEAL Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  8. Opioid Overdose Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  9. Nationwide Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  10. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  11. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  13. Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  14. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  16. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  17. National Institute on Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. What to Do If Your Adult Friend or Loved One Has a Problem with Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  19. Fentanyl and Other Synthetic Opioids Drug Overdose Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  20. Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  1. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  2. College-Age & Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  3. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  4. What to Do If You Have a Problem with Drugs: For Teens and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  5. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  6. Expanded HIV Screening Projected to Decrease Spread of the Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  7. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  8. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  9. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  10. Health Consequences of Drug Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  11. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  13. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  14. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  17. Autopsia : [arvustatakse eelmises Marduses ilmunud originaaljutte ja tõlkeid] / Karen Orlau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orlau, Karen, pseud., 1975-

    2000-01-01

    Arvustatavad jutud: Smith, Clark Ashton. Öised koletised; Kalevipoeg, pseud. Purpurvalgus; Brown, Molly. Valel ajal; Belials, Veiko. Kunagi. Kuskil. Eikuskil; Lindsay, David. Swaylone'i saar; Hargla, Indrek. Obernoni apokrüüf

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations ...

  1. RV Ronald H. Brown Cruise RB1201 (EM122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise RB1201 was led by Chief Scientist Molly Baringer (AOML, NOAA, Miami) as per previous cruises RB0602, RB0701 and RB0901. The three main objectives were:...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ... transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also be spread this way. Hepatitis C ...

  5. Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Jennifer Serres, PhD; Col Susan Dukes, PhD; Molly Wade, MS; Brittany Fouts, MS; Mandy Cowgill, MS; Daniel Pohlman, BS September 2016...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer Serres, Susan Dukes, Molly Wade, Brittany Fouts, Mandy... environment . 2.0 INTRODUCTION Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result from the cumulative trauma associated with repetitive and physically

  6. LAS ESPECIES DE MUHLENBERGIA (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE DE ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Paul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies nativas argentinas del géneroMuhlenbergia, basado en el análisis de los especímenes depositados en 48 herbarios.Se analizan diversos aspectos relativos a la clasifi cación, la nomenclatura y lavariación morfológica de los caracteres. Muhlenbergia está representado enArgentina por 18 especies nativas. Se proporcionan claves para reconocer lasespecies presentes en el país, así como también descripciones de éstas, sinónimos,ilustraciones, distribución geográfica y algunos comentarios morfológicos yecológicos. Muhlenbergia breviaristata (Hack. Parodi y Muhlenbergia holwayorumHitchc., se reducen como sinónimos del híbrido Muhlenbergia angustata (J. PreslKunth × M. rigida (Kunth Kunth. Muhlenbergia diversiglumis Trin. se cita porprimera vez para la Argentina. Por otra parte, las especies Muhlenbergia tenella(Kunth Trin. y Muhlenbergia tenuissima (J. Presl Kunth se excluyen de la fl orade Argentina.

  7. Aspectos bionômicos de Eois tegularia (Guenée e Eois glauculata (Walker (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae e seus parasitóides Bionomic aspects of Eois tegularia (Guenée and Eois glauculata (Walker (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae and their parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Pasenow Braga

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Eois tegularia (Guenée, [1858] and Eois glauculata (Walker, [1863] larvae were studied by one year in semidec iduous forest at Canchim Farm (EMBRAPA, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Specimens were hosted by species of Piper Linnaeus (Piperaceae: P. mollicomum Kunth, P. amalogo Linnaeus, P. glabratum Kunth and P. gaudichaudianum Kunth. Some parasitoids were reared from the larvae of Eois Hübner, 1818 species, as follow. Hymenoptera: Cotesia Cameron, 1891, Apanteles Foerster, 1862, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904, Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911, Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (Braconidae; Mesochorus Gravenhorst, 1829, Venturia Schrottky, 1902 (Ichneumonidae; Elachertus Spinola, 1811 (Eulophidae; Perilampus Latreille, 1809 (Perilampidae, Diptera: Myiopharus Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (Tachinidae.

  8. Actividad antiparasitaria de extractos de plantas colombianas de la familia Euphorbiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Fernanda Neira; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La familia Euphorbiaceae es un grupo heterogéneo de plantas distribuidas en el territorio colombiano utilizadas algunas de ellas, como plantas medicinales. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad tóxica de aceites esenciales (AE) y extractos de plantas obtenidos de la familia Euphorbiaceae contra tripanosomátidos. Materiales y métodos: Los AE de Croton pedicellatus Kunth (AE1) y C.leptostachyus Kunth (AE2) y el extracto de Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilac...

  9. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  10. Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani

    2017-06-01

    Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.

  11. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\OBULBIGA MFxps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    species in terms of fodder and stem in the climatic condition of north Soudan. ... in the area. Keywords : Andropogon gayanus kunth, agropastoral people, rhythm of exploitation, forage, stems, Burkina. Faso. .... L'analyse statistique révèle une.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of the cultivated neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (arecaceae) with its wild relatives inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Hahn, K.; Granville, de J.J.; Pham, J.L.; Ludena, B.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) is the only Neotropical palm domesticated since pre-Columbian times. It plays an important role not only at the local level due to its very nutritious fruits, but also in the international market for its gourmet palm heart. Phylogenetic relationships of the peach

  13. 1023-IJBCS-Article-Dr Yonli Djibril

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    x x x x x. Schizachyrium sanguineum Alton x. Schoenepheldia gracilis Kunth. x x. Setaria pallide-fusca Stapf et C.E.. Hubbard. x x x. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x x. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. x x x x. Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. x. Zea mays L. x x. Plantes hôtes de la famille des. Cyperacea. Bulbostylis barbata ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mshelia, EH. Vol 1, No 2 (2008) - Articles Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Screening of Asparagus Flagellaris (Kunth) Bak used in The Traditional Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Urinary Infections Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. 2068-IJBCS-Article-Saidou Ousseina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    que Schoenefeldia gracilis Kunth., Aristida mutabilis Trin. et Rupr., Dactyloctenium aegyptiaca (L.) Willd., Tribulus terrestris L. (Ousseina, 2012) parsemée de plantes ligneuses (Maerua crassifolia. Forsk.,. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan,.

  16. Alnus acuminata in dual symbiosis with Frankia and two different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola and Alpova diplophloeus) growing in soilless growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandra G. Becerra; Euginia Menoyo; Irene Lett; Ching Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the capacity of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth), inoculated with Frankia and two ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola Dominguez and Alpova diplophloeus [Zeller and Dodge] Trappe and Smith), for nodulation and growth in pots of a soilless medium...

  17. Exogenous Salicylic Acid Enhances the Resistance of Wheat Seedlings to Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Infestation Under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Joshua; Moch, John; Chen, Ming-Shun; Zhu, Lieceng

    2014-10-01

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here, we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on the resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. We found that the wheat cultivar 'Molly', which contains the resistance gene H13, lost resistance to Hessian fly under heat stress (40°C for 3 and 6 h), and that exogenous application of SA on Molly seedlings right before heat stress can partially prevent the loss of resistance of Molly plants under heat conditions. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the dynamics of plant-insect interactions in the context of heat stress. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  18. 76 FR 7849 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Federal Reserve Bank indicated. The notices also will be available for inspection at the offices of the... South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60690-1414: 1. Charles M. Shea, Wilmette, Illinois; as an..., Chicago, Illinois, Charles M. Shea, Wilmette, Illinois, as Trustee, and Molly Boed, Wassenaar, Netherlands...

  19. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  20. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots, stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roots, stem-bark and leaves of Grewia mollis which is used as herbal remedies for the cure of diarrhea and dysentery by natives in northern part of Nigeria were studied. The ethanol and water extracts of roots, stem-bark and leaves of the plant were subjected to phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity against ...

  1. Mau Mau War: British Counterinsurgency In Colonial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    supporters. 92 Colin P. Clarke, Molly Dunigan, Beth Grill, and Christopher Paul, Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies (Washington, DC: RAND...labor pool for imperial dirty work, the decision to deputize untrained and ill-disciplined volunteers backfired. A third example of how British

  2. 75 FR 5132 - United States v. Cameron International Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... the number of companies that bid on refinery desalter projects and would give Cameron virtual monopoly..., Assistant Attorney General. Molly S. Boast, Deputy Assistant Attorney General. Patricia A. Brink, Deputy.... Fountain, Assistant Chief, Litigation II Section, DC Bar #439469. Christine A. Hill, DC Bar#461048. James K...

  3. 75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Foster and Portec will create a virtual monopoly in the U.S. market for bonded joints. (2) Poly Joints 29.... For Plaintiff United States of America: Christine A. Varney, Assistant Attorney General. Molly S. Boast, Deputy Assistant Attorney General. Katherine B. Forrest, Deputy Assistant Attorney General...

  4. On the Limits of Cosmopolitanism and a "Curriculum of Refuge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent essay entitled "Ex and the City": on cosmopolitanism, community and the "curriculum of refuge", Molly Quinn (2010) introduces her readers to a poetic exploration of cosmopolitanism and curriculum change. She begins and inconclusively ends her essay with poetic language and affirmation of cosmopolitan justice through…

  5. The Educational Situation in Utopia: Why "What Is," Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jayson; Quay, John

    2015-01-01

    In this response to Molly Ware's review of our 2013 book, "John Dewey and Education Outdoors," we extend her suggestion that complexity be regarded as an important, generative force in education reform. Drawing on Dewey's 1933 "Utopian Schools" speech, we discuss the "level deeper" that Dewey sought as he…

  6. Hey Matt! There's a "Reason" We Write Like Every Day!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussant, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Fifth grade teacher Molly Toussant realized with chagrin that she habitually mouthed her precepts about teaching writing in the same rote way she had recited the Apostles' Creed in Sunday school, and that her students had no idea why they had to write "like every day." So she wrote this explication in which she shows, with many examples, how her…

  7. SCREENING AND BIOASSAY-GUIDED ISOLATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Antimicrobial Sensitivity Test (ATS) was adopted in testing the bioactivity of the plant extracts against seven bacteria and ... (LM1-01) of the leaves of the Laggera mollis using column chromatography, led to the isolation of two pure ... exploration of medicinal plants for the treatment of microbial infections of ...

  8. Fytopatologické aspekty fytocenologické dynamiky a možnosti harmonizace produkčních a mimoprodukčních funkcí travních porostů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voženílková, B.; Květ, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2001), s. 99-102 ISSN 1212-0731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : mountain grassland * management * fungus infestation * Microdochium nivale * Fusarium solani * Festuca rubra * Deschampsia cespitosa * Holcus mollis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ... University Print Media: People en Español LATeen Viva La Fiesta! Trace Washington Times USA Today Companies: Washington ...

  10. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Mike Lyden John Lantelme Andy Mackel Jesus Malgapo Carol Marcinek Greg Martin Michelle McAtee Molly McClellan Jerry McEnerney Laurie McKee...Paul McNeill Walt Melton Rich Mendez Mike Metts Jon Miller Ron Mosley Jim Naber Craig Nostrant NAVSUP USSNORMANDY(CG60) DDRE NORFOLK NPGS

  11. Girls on the Fringe: The Writing Lives of Two Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytash, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Writing plays an important role in young adults' lives. It is tied to academic achievement and also provides young adults with a voice in social interactions, a way to express their feelings, and an opportunity to reflect on life events. This study explores the writing practices of 2 adolescent girls: Suzanne and Molly. On multiple occasions they…

  12. Pass on the Salt (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A pinch of salt can add flavor to any meal. However, excess sodium is a major cause of high blood pressure, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Molly Cogswell discusses the importance of limiting the amount of salt in our diets.

  13. In the Flow of Media, Religion, and Culture: A Case Study with TVbyGIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Claire; Bullen, Rebecca Richards; Nemer, Molly; Quednau, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces TVbyGIRLS, a nonprofit organization supporting girls in the development of critical thinking, digital literacy and storytelling, leadership, compassionate collaboration, and social justice engagement. Religious educator Claire Bischoff interviews Rebecca Richards Bullen, TVbyGIRLS mentor, and Molly Nemer and Rachel Quednau,…

  14. Cooper's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2007-01-01

    A funny thing happened while the District of Columbia Public Library (DCPL), already suffering from deteriorated facilities and systems, slogged through stasis (and three interim directors) after the 2003 departure of Director Molly Raphael. Mayor Anthony Williams presided over the city's economic turnaround--or, some charged, cozied up to…

  15. Vegetation and Grazing in the St. Katherine Protectorate, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants were surveyed in the St. Katherine Protectorate of South Sinai, Egypt. The most frequently recorded plant species include: Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia judaica, Fagonia arabica, Fagonia mollis, Schismus barbatus, Stachys aegyptiaca, Tanacetum sinaicum, Teucrium polium and Zilla spinosa. Dominant plant ...

  16. Photosynthetic response of mountain grassland species to drought stress is affected by UV-induced accumulation of epidermal flavonols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rapantová, Barbora; Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Urban, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, 1-2 (2016), s. 31-40 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Agrostis capillaris * CO2 assimilation * drought stress * flavonols * grassland * Holcus mollis * Hypericum maculatum * precipitation * Rumex obtusifolius * UV radiation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. CUSO Librarians: Stories to Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Library Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Reports from five librarians who recently worked for the Canadian University Service Overseas on 2-year contracts in the Third World are excerpted: Molly Walsh Miller (Nigeria); Peggy Sinclair (Papua New Guinea); Doug Arnott (The Gambia, West Africa); and Shirley Giggey (Sierra Leone, West Africa, and Papua New Guinea). (EJS)

  18. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction mapping at 3 tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare 11 heartbeat (HB and 17 HB modified lock locker inversion recovery (MOLLI pulse sequence at 3T and to establish preliminary reference values for myocardial T1 and the extracellular volume fraction (ECV. Methods Both phantoms and normal volunteers were scanned at 3T using 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI sequence with the following parameters: spatial resolution = 1.75 × 1.75 × 10 mm on a 256 × 180 matrix, TI initial = 110 ms, TI increment = 80 ms, flip angle = 35°, TR/TE = 1.9/1.0 ms. All volunteers were administered Gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist, 0.15 mmol/kg, and multiple post-contrast MOLLI scans were performed at the same pre-contrast position from 3.5-23.5 minutes after a bolus contrast injection. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE images were also acquired 12-30 minutes after the gadolinium bolus. Results T1 values of 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI displayed good agreement in both phantom and volunteers. The average pre-contrast myocardial and blood T1 was 1315 ± 39 ms and 2020 ± 129 ms, respectively. ECV was stable between 8.5 to 23.5 minutes post contrast with an average of 26.7 ± 1.0%. Conclusion The 11 HB MOLLI is a faster method for high-resolution myocardial T1 mapping at 3T. ECV fractions are stable over a wide time range after contrast administration.

  19. First chelonian eggs and carapace fragments from the Pliocene of Rhodes, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller-Töwe, Inken J.; Kjeldahl-Vallon, Tina A.; Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Well-preserved fossil eggs and eggshell fragments from the Pliocene Apolakkia Formation of Rhodes (Greece) are described. The eggs were found in-situ in a clutch. They are sub-spherical with lengths of 53-60 mm and widths of about 40 mm. All eggs are diagenetically compressed and their original...... diameters are estimated at 45-50 mm. The eggshells are 0.3-0.5 mm thick, partly recrystallized, but widely still aragonitic. They consist of needle-like crystals that form individual shell units. A few pores are preserved between these shell units. This shell-structure allows assignment to chelonian eggs...... in the oofamily Testudoolithidae and the oogenus Testudolithus. The external morphology, microstructure and mineralogical composition of the eggshells show close resemblance to eggs of the extant tortoise Geochelone elephantopus. Together with a small association of turtle carapace fragments from the same...

  20. Tapping an Amazônian plethora: four medicinal plants of Marajó Island, Pará (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M L; Johns, E A

    1993-09-01

    This study focused its attention on four medicinal plants (Carapa guianensis, Elephantopus scaber, Piper umbellatum, Stachytarpheta cayenensis) used by Caboclo communities on Marajó, the main island of the Amazon delta. In the field, interviews were conducted with Caboclos and the medicinal usages and preparation procedures of the four plants were recorded. In the laboratory, the plant extracts were subjected to bioassays and their crude chemical composition was established. All four plants showed significant bioactivity and the chemical tests confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds. In addition, the results of both the field and laboratory studies corresponded well with those of a literature search. The ethnopharmacological significance of the four plants is discussed.

  1. Implementing `bio-prospecting reproductive knowledge': An effort scenario to conserved Indonesian biodiversity and endemicity toward a post-modern globalized world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djati, Muhammad Sasmito

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia has a mega-diversity of plant and animal. The local people in Indonesia usually take the benefits of plant diversity in their environment. The use of herbal medicine is widespread, not only for local people but also for modern society. The aim of this study is to review plant medicine with a role in the reproduction system of Indonesian society, and also conservation biodiversity efforts of endemic plants in Indonesia. These include Sauropus androgynus, Elephantopus scaber, and Polycias obtusa. All of them have already been proven as stimuli of the reproductive system, with immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The role of rural community in Indonesia was to conserve the herbal plants in their environment and obtain some benefits to maintain their good health. Besides rural communities, government, companies, and researchers also have a role in the conservation of herbal medicine.

  2. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  3. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  4. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  5. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and light of Antarctic and Andean populations of Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) Respuestas fotosintéticas a la temperatura y a la luz de poblaciones antarticas y andinas de Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA SIERRA-ALMEIDA; M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY; LEÓN A BRAVO; LUIS J CORCUERA; LOHENGRIN A CAVIERES

    2007-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth, 1831) Bartling (Caryophyllaceae) is characterized by a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging between the tropical high Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula. Although both habitat types are characterized by cold and freezing temperatures, important microclimatic differences exist during the growing season. Hence, important differences in the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to abiotic factors could be expected between Antarctic and Andean populations of C. q...

  6. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  7. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  8. Reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens) and the pollinator-nectar robber spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Richardson; Judith L. Bronstein

    2012-01-01

    Floral visitor species are often assumed to act either mutualistically towards plants (as pollinators) or to exploit them (as nectar-robbers or as nectar or pollen thieves). We investigated the reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens K. Kunth), a regionally abundant North American shrub, in relation to the wide spectrum of behaviours displayed by its flower-visiting insects. We recorded A. pungens population-level flowering phenology and nectar standing crop, and c...

  9. Efecto del stress por plomo en Ludwigia peploides e Hydrocotyle ranunculoides

    OpenAIRE

    Auguet, Silvana; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Arambarri, Ana M.; De Iorio, Alicia F.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands usually provide a natural mechanism to diminish the transport of toxic compounds to other compartments of the ecosystem by immobilizing heavy metals and storing them below ground in roots and/or soil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Pb uptake and translocation into two aquatic plants - Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Ravenand and Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. - and to quantify potential histological changes by metal action. For this, an assay in greenhouse was carried out i...

  10. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P

  11. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  12. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  13. REVISIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO SPOROBOLUS (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE: SPOROBOLINAE DEL NOROESTE DE SUDAMÉRICA: PERÚ, ECUADOR, COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo-Cañas Diego

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  14. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order....... These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  15. Menstruation in Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates James Joyce's fascination with a wide variety of medical texts, sexual folklores, religious beliefs, and persistent superstitions about menstruation. That fascination finds its way into Ulysses, which draws upon a number of intertexts to inform a curiosity about the female body most strikingly articulated by Bloom, Molly, and Gerty MacDowell. These intertexts are not simply imported into the novel but are dismantled and interrogated, as Joyce exposes, rather than endorses, clichés of essential femininity.

  16. April 28, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In any disease outbreak, misinformation, a lack of understanding, and fear can lead to unfortunate side effects, like stigma. Stigma presents a challenge for communities during a time when they need to be strong to fight the disease. In this podcast, Molly Gaines-McCollom, CDC Health Communication Specialist, discusses the impact of stigma in the current Ebola outbreak and why it’s so important to fight it.

  17. A Cost Analysis of the Department of the Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    to Ms. Molly Ringstad at the OASN (FM&C), LCDR Frank Semilla and CDR Frederick Dini from the COMPACFLT, and MAJ Greg Johnson and Mr. Eric Taylor of...coordinates the reporting and collecting of costs through the USPACOM ( Semilla , 2011). Units reported costs daily during the early months of Operation...reimbursed to units operating under the COMPACFLT. According to Lieutenant Commander Semilla (2011), the “COMPACFLT received about $27.8M in OHDACA

  18. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Section 1. Region O - California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    status is questioned. An X prior to the species name in the scientific name column denotes a hybrid . For purposes of this manual, all species appearing...S. Wats. Rusty molly kochia FACW K. scc’pari.a (L.) Schrader Sunmmer cypress ...actuca pu~ZchelZa (Pursh) DC. Chicory lettuce -serriola L. Prickly... lettuce FAG :antana cwnara L. Lantana% :asthenia burkei (Greene) Greene Gold-fields chry8Sstoma (Fisch. & C. A. Lasthenia Meyer) Greene Lconjtgen8 Greene

  19. Festival Citylink Brand Audit and Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Riswandi, Ridwan; Iskandar, Budi Permadi

    2013-01-01

    Festival Citylink (FCL) is a shopping center that using concept mixed-use integration between shopping center, hotels and convention center located in South Bandung area. The problem that faces by Festival Citylink is low on brand equity performance, brand history and the intense of competition. Based on survey result in 2011, Festival Cityink has low in brand awareness, recall and response. The negative perception brand image from predecessor Mollis as shopping center before Festival Citylin...

  20. LA RIABILITAZIONE IMPLANTOPROTESICA DEI PAZIENTI SOTTOPOSTI A RESEZIONE ONCOLOGICA DEI MASCELLARI: NOSTRO PROTOCOLLO DI TRATTAMENTO.

    OpenAIRE

    Bucci, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    I pazienti sottoposti a resezione oncologica per patologia neoplastica del cavo orale, subiscono interventi chirurgici molto spesso mutilanti che, nonostante la ricostruzione del difetto osseo e dei tessuti molli, determinano una alterazione della normale anatomia della cavitá orale, una alterazione dei normali movimenti della lingua e della mandibola, un deficit della sensibilitá propriocettiva della mucosa orale. Tutte queste variabili determinano una impossibilitá da parte del pazie...

  1. Genetically uniform strains of fish as laboratory models for experimental studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages are discussed of using a genetically uniform test animal such as the amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to reduce the biotic variability in experimental determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic ecosystems. Besides a cost reduction from using less organisms for these radiation-effect studies, another significant advantage of the higher precision responses due to homozygous genetic material is the assessment of radiation effects at the molecular and cellular levels. (author)

  2. Pass on the Salt (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    A pinch of salt can add flavor to any meal. However, excess sodium is a major cause of high blood pressure, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Molly Cogswell discusses the importance of limiting the amount of salt in our diets.  Created: 12/19/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/19/2013.

  3. The effect of nitrogen availability and water conditions on competition between a facultative CAM plant and an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, David E; Personius, Ashden; Collins, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are increasing their abundance in drylands worldwide. The drivers and mechanisms underlying the increased dominance of CAM plants and CAM expression (i.e., nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM plants, however, remain poorly understood. We investigated how nutrient and water availability affected competition between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a model facultative CAM species) and the invasive C 3 grass Bromus mollis that co-occur in California's coastal grasslands. Specifically we investigated the extent to which water stress, nutrients, and competition affect nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum . High nutrient and low water conditions favored M. crystallinum over B. mollis , in contrast to high water conditions. While low water conditions induced nocturnal carboxylation in 9-week-old individuals of M. crystallinum , in these low water treatments, a 66% reduction in nutrient applied over the entire experiment did not further enhance nocturnal carboxylation. In high water conditions M. crystallinum both alone and in association with B. mollis did not perform nocturnal carboxylation, regardless of the nutrient levels. Thus, nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum was restricted by strong competition with B. mollis in high water conditions. This study provides empirical evidence of the competitive advantage of facultative CAM plants over grasses in drought conditions and of the restricted ability of M. crystallinum to use their photosynthetic plasticity (i.e., ability to switch to CAM behavior) to compete with grasses in well-watered conditions. We suggest that a high drought tolerance could explain the increased dominance of facultative CAM plants in a future environment with increased drought and nitrogen deposition, while the potential of facultative CAM plants such as M. crystallinum to expand to wet environments is expected to be limited.

  4. Feeding, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asinina on different benthic diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding behavior, digestive efficiency, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asininafed with 5 species of locally isolated benthic diatom strains (Navicula mollis, N. ramosissima, Stauroneissp., Pleurosigma sp., and Cocconeis sp. were examined in the laboratory. Two 15-day feeding trialsusing 1 mm post-larvae were conducted. No significant differences were observed in sizes of post-larvalabalone after 15 days in all diatom treatments (P>0.05. However, in both trials, Cocconeis sp. resulted inhigh survival rates (88.9±5.6% and 80.0±20.0% for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Cocconeis sp. wasefficiently digested by post-larval abalone, with most of the cells being ruptured during ingestion and/orpassage through the gut. One diatom strain, Pleurosigma sp., resulted to a high survival but producedthe slowest growth rate (<10 ìm.d-1 SL. It was probably not ingested easily during the experiment due toits large size or mobility. For the other diatom strains, N. mollis and N. ramosissima, most cells passedthrough the gut with the cells left intact. Stauroneis sp. is highly digestible, but did not result to highsurvival, although the remaining live post-larval abalone fed on this diatom as well as on N. mollis grewfaster during the second week of both feeding trials. N. ramosissima resulted to poorest survival rate(<10% due to its poor digestibility. Only Cocconeis sp. showed a fairly high growth rate, digestionefficiency, and survival rate. N. mollis which gave a fairly high survival rate and Stauroneis may be addedtowards the later stages of post-larval rearing as well as other large diatoms. The digestion efficiency ofdiatom strains is considered an important factor determining its dietary value, but other factors may alsobe important such as volume contents, biochemical composition, and other physical characteristics.

  5. Transient heat stress compromises the resistance of wheat (Poales: Poaceae) seedlings to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Yaleaka; Moch, John; Underwood, Joshua; Kharabsheh, Hamzah; Quesenberry, Amy; Miyagi, Risa; Thomas, Carolyn; Boney, Melanie; Woods, Samantha; Chen, Ming-Shun; Zhu, Lieceng

    2014-02-01

    Heat stress exerts a profound impact on the resistance of plants to parasites. In this research, we investigated the impact of an acute transient heat stress on the resistance of the wheat line 'Molly,' which contains the R gene H13, to an avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) population. We found that a significant portion of Molly seedlings stressed at 40 degrees C for 6 h during or after the initial Hessian fly larval attack became susceptible to otherwise avirulent insects, whereas unstressed control plants remained 100% resistant. Specifically, 77.8, 73.3, 83.3, and 46.7% of plants heat stressed at 0, 6,12, and 24 h, respectively, after the initial larval attack became susceptible. Biochemical analysis revealed that heat stress caused a transient decrease in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but an increase in salicylic acid accumulation in Molly plants. The change in phytohormones after heat stress and Hessian fly infestation was not observed in 'Newton,' a near-isogenic but Hessian fly susceptible wheat line. Instead, heat stress caused a relatively prolonged reduction in palmitoleic acid. The role of phytohormones in heat-induced loss of wheat resistance was discussed.

  6. Trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes in a natural creek and several agricultural drains flowing into the Salton Sea, and their potential, effects on the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara A.; Saiki, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes and to determine if predation by these fishes contributes to the decline of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered cyprinodont on the verge of extinction. We sampled 403 hybrid Mozambique tilapias (Oreochromis mossambica by O. urolepis), 107 redbelly tilapias (Tilapia zillii), 32 longjaw mudsuckers (Gillkhthys mirabilis), 182 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 222 sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna), 63 shortfin mollies (Poecilia mexicana), and 235 porthole livebearers (Poecilurpsis gracilis) from a natural creek and four agricultural drains during September 1999- December 2001. Evidence of piscivory was in gastrointestinal contents of 14 hybrid Mozambique tilapias, 3 redbelly tilapias, 10 longjaw mudsuckers, 8 western mosquitofish, 2 sailfin mollies, and 8 porthole livebearers. Although digestion often was too advanced for identification of fishes consumed by nonnative fishes, remains of desert pupfish were in gastrointestinal contents of a longjaw mudsucker. Our findings, along with Field evidence from other studies that inverse relationships exist between abundances of desert pupfish and nonnative species, are consistent with the hypothesis that predation by nonnative species is contributing to decline of desert pupfish. We suspect that competitive interactions with nonnative fishes might also adversely affect abundance of desert pupfish.

  7. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  8. Inoculation methods and aggressiveness of five Fusarium species against peach palm

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    Tiago Miguel Jarek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease which affects peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.var gasipaes Henderson. This study aimed to evaluate inoculation methods and aggressiveness of isolates of five Fusarium species on peach palm. Fusarium proliferatum can infect the leaves, stem, and roots of peach palm. F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC, F. verticillioides, F. solani species complex (FSSC, and Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC are pathogenic to peach palm. The use of Fusarium-colonized ground corn for root inoculation was effective and reduced the level of damage to plants.

  9. Caracterização tecnológica de extrusados de terceira geração à base de farinhas de mandioca e pupunha.

    OpenAIRE

    CARVALHO, A. V.; VASCONCELOS, M. A. M. de; SILVA, P. A.; ASSIS, G. T.; ASCHERI, J. L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Conduziu-se este trabalho,com o objetivo de estudar as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas de extrusados de terceira geração obtidos de misturas de farinhas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz), por meio das análises de densidade aparente, índice de absorção de água, índice de solubilidade em água e viscosidade de pasta (RVA). Os extrusados foram formulados, adicionando-se 15, 20 e 25% de farinha de pupunha à farinha de mandioca, sendo processados em ext...

  10. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Tratamiento de aguas eutrofizadas de la bahía interior de Puno, Perú, con el uso de dos Macrófitas

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Monroy, Luis Llberto; Jahuira Huarcaya, Faustino Adolfo; Ibañez Quispe, Vladimiro

    2016-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como propósito determinar los niveles de Nitrógeno Total (NT) y Fósforo Total (PT) de las aguas contaminadas de la bahía interior de la ciudad de Puno, del sector denominado Isla Espinar, de la boca toma de muelle, sector Huaje, y evaluar la eficiencia de dos macrófitas, como el Elodea Canadensis Michax (llacho) y Myriophyllum Quitensis Kunth (hinojo) para la remoción del Nitrógeno y Fósforo. Para valorar las muestras, procedentes del sector Parinas de la Península de Ch...

  12. Clonación molecular de los genes GDP-L-galactosa fosforilasa, L-galactosa deshidrogenasa y L-galactono-1.4-lactona deshidrogenasa de la vía biosintética de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia (camu camu)

    OpenAIRE

    Egoávil, Alina; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Torres, Julián; Cobos, Marianela; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Imán, Sixto A.; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Marapara, Jorge L.; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Castro, Juan C.; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue realizar la clonación molecular de los genes que codifican las enzimas, GDP-L-galactosa fosforilasa (GGF), L-galactosa deshidrogenasa (GDH) y L-galactono-1,4-lactona deshidrogenasa (GLDH) de la ruta biosintética de vitamina C de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh. Los frutos fueron obtenidos de la Colección Nacional de Germoplasma de M. dubia del Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria. El ARN se purificó, se sintetizó el ADNc y amplificó con cebadores degenerados, s...

  13. La guadua: fundamentos para el diseño de estructuras agropecuarias

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Saraz, Jairo Alexander; González Castrillón, Eugenia; Cortés Marín, Elkin Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Resumen: la guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth), el bambú de América, ha influenciado el desarrollo de la cultura colombiana, principalmente en la Región Andina y de manera particular en el Eje cafetero, a través de su aprovechamiento en todo tipo de usos tales como vivienda, muebles, instrumentos musicales, conducción de agua, puentes, jaulas, y, en fin, en un sinnúmero de utensilios y espacios tan amplios como la necesidad y la imaginación lo han permitido. En los últimos años, la guadua ha ...

  14. O gênero Chloris (Poaceae) em Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Silva, Wegliane Campelo da; Costa-e-Silva, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Com o objetivo de colaborar com o conhecimento da riqueza de Poaceae em Pernambuco, foi estudado o gênero Chloris Sw. As coletas foram realizadas no estado, bem como dados foram coligidos de levantamento em herbários da região. Foram registradas sete espécies de Chloris em Pernambuco: C. barbata Sw., C. elata Desv., C. exilis Renv., C. gayana Kunth, C. orthonoton Döll, C. pycnothrix Trin. e C. virgata Sw. O gênero apresenta distribuição ampla em todas as zonas fitogeográficas do estado. Chlor...

  15. Desarrollo de un Protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Wild. ex Kuth. Y Lupinus pubescens Benth. Para la obtención de plantas completas, para la primera etapa de restauración de las quebradas de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Silva, Thaly Gabriela; Córdova Muñoz, Adriana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth known as geranio de los Chillos, is an ornamental plant, native of Los Andes it can be found in a wild way in the ravines of the Metropolitan District of Quito and it is part of the history of the native flora of Quito since has been described from the Alexander Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland expedition in 1802. Lupinus pubescens Benth, also known as Ashpa chocho or Allpa chocho, is an herbaceous, native and ornamental plant due to the beauty of his flowers, de...

  16. Analisis Vegetasi di Hutan Mbeji Daerah Wonosalam Jombang

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    Anita Munawwaroh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisis vegetasi terhadap hutan perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman hayati yang terdapat di hutan tersebut sehingga mempermudah didalam melakukan pemeliharaan dan pemberdayaan hutan.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman hayati dan struktur vegetasi (frekuensi, kerapatan, dominansi, dan Indeks Nilai Penting di hutan mbeji, Wonossalam, Jombang. Pada penelitian ini digunakan metode point centered quarter. Pennelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2015. Hasil penelitian menujukkan padaHutan Mbeji terdapat 11 jenis pohon yang teridentifikasi dan 15 spesies tumbuhan, dimana ada 10 spesies yang telah teridentifikasiNilai penting  tumbuh-tumbuhan di Hutan Mbeji di daerah Wonosalam Jombang  pada tingkat pohon paling tinggi adalah pohon randu (Ceiba petandra  sebesar 57,42 % sedangkan nilai INP paling rendah dari jenis pohon andong (Rhadamnia cinerea yaitu sebesar 6,06 %. Pada sapling nilai penting yang paling tinggi adalah talas (Colocasia esculenta yaitu sebesar 49,23 %. Sedangkan, nilai INP paling rendah dari jenis nanas (Ananas comosus, nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus, tapak liman (Elephantopus scaber, semak A, semak B, semak C, semak E, dan semak F yaitu sebesar 6,35 %. Tingginya nilai INP menunjukkan bahwa jenis-jenis tersebut dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan lingkungan sekitarnya yang lebih baik dibanding jenis lainnya.

  17. The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr) and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teah, Yi Fan; Abduraman, Muhammad Asyraf; Amanah, Azimah; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Tan, Mei Lan

    2017-09-01

    Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I Kr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation. This study investigated the effects of deoxyelephantopin on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were insignificantly affected by deoxyelephantopin in the transfected cell line. Current reduction was less than 40% as compared with baseline at the highest concentration of 50 μM. The results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation and hERG surface protein expression. Interestingly, it does not affect the hERG expression at both transcriptional and translational level at most concentrations, although higher concentration at 10 μM caused protein accumulation. In conclusion, deoxyelephantopin is unlikely a clinically significant hERG channel and I kr blocker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

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    Noguera Eliana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae, cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klaprothia, Nasa y Mentzelia y nueve especies (Gronovia scandens L., Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl Poston, K. mentzelioides Kunth, Nasa lindeniana (Urb. & Gilg Weigend, N. venezuelensis (Steyerm. Weigend, N. perijensis (Weigend Weigend, N. triphylla (Juss. Weigend subsp. papaverifolia (Kunth Weigend, Mentzelia aspera L., M scabra subsp. chilensis (Gay Weigend. Se proporcionan claves para las especies presentes en el país, descripciones, ejemplares examinados, sinónimos, ilustraciones, datos de distribución geográfica y ecología, y breves comentarios morfológicos. El indumento y la ornamentación de la cubierta seminal son los principales caracteres de valor taxonómico para distinguir las especies de Loasaceae venezolanas.

  19. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

  20. Caracterización bromatológica de especies y subproductos vegetales en el trópico húmedo de Colombia

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    Dissa Enith Mosquera Perea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el potencial nutritivo para especies pecuarias de recursos locales existentes en el municipio de Quibdó, departamento del Chocó (Colombia, teniendo en cuenta la composición bromatológica y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS en hojas de árbol del pan (Arthocarpus altilis Z., pacó (Gustavia superba Kunth. y achín (Colocasia esculenta Linn, cáscaras del fruto de chontaduro (Bractris gasipaess Kunth. y de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.. El análisis bromatológico incluyó materia seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, ceniza (Cen, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, lignina detergente ácida (LDA y energía bruta (EB. Las hojas de achín y de árbol del pan presentaron los contenidos más altos de PB (27.78 y 19.38% y de EB (3911 y 3981 cal/g, respectivamente. Los valores de DIVMS más altos se presentaron en cáscaras de chontaduro (78.9% y hojas de achín (68.6%. En general, los recursos en estudio presentan valor nutritivo similar al de forrajes cultivados, por tanto, son una alternativa posible para la sustitución parcial de materias primas costosas en dietas para animales de granja.

  1. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  2. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  3. In vitro schistosomicidal effects of aqueous and dichloromethane fractions from leaves and stems of Piper species and the isolation of an active amide from P. amalago L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, V S; Vieira, S C H; de Paula, R G; Rodrigues, V; Magalhães, L G; Cortez, D A G; Da Silva Filho, A A

    2014-09-01

    Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions from leaves and stems of Piper arboreum Aubl., P. aduncum L., P. amalago L., P. crassinervium H.B. & K., P. diospyrifolium Kunth, P. hispidum Sw. and P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud. were tested against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. The in vitro activity was evaluated in terms of mortality, number of separated worms and number of worms with reduced motor activity. Most dichloromethane fractions from all Piper species showed moderate schistosomicidal activity, but aqueous fractions were not active. The dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves (at 100 μg/ml) showed the highest activity, resulting in worm mortality, the separation of worm pairs and reduced motor activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves led to the isolation of its major compound, which was also tested against adults of S. mansoni. The isolated piperamide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine, at 100 μ m, resulted in the mortality of all adult worms after 24 h of incubation. The findings suggest that species of Piper are potential sources of schistosomicidal compounds.

  4. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

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    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  5. Patrones de distribución espacial de árboles en un bosque estacionalmente seco del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape en el noroeste peruano

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    Reynaldo Linares-Palomino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de los patrones de distribución espacial de cuatro especies de árboles características de los bosques secos del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape en el noroeste peruano, inventariando seis parcelas de una hectárea cada una. Para ello se utilizó la versión modificada de la estadística K de Ripley. Eriotheca ruizii (K. Schum. A. Robyns (Bombacaceae, Bursera graveolens (Kunth Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae, Caesalpinia glabrata Kunth (Leguminosae y Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd. Spreng. (Cochlospermaceae presentan patrones que no son significantemente diferentes de un patrón completamente al azar en 11 de los 17 casos analizados. Al nivel de la escala espacial analizada, esto está en desacuerdo con el postulado general para bosques tropicales de que las especies vegetales tienden a encontrarse agrupadas. Estos resultados se analizan y discuten a la luz de los diversos factores que influyen en producirlos.

  6. Actividad antimicótica, citotoxicidad y composición de aceites esenciales de plantas de la familia Labiatae Antifungal activity, cytotoxicity and composition of essential oils from Labiatae family plants

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    Bibiana Zapata

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp. son causa importante de infecciones a nivel mundial. Considerando la resistencia de estos patógenos a algunos de los antimicóticos disponibles, es necesaria la búsqueda de nuevos agentes antimicóticos. Diferentes aceites esenciales y extractos de plantas han mostrado actividad antimicótica in vitro. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antimicótica, citotóxica y la composición química de aceites esenciales de la familia Labiatae. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluó la actividad antimicótica de 22 aceites de plantas de la familia Labiatae contra C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, A. flavus ATCC 204304 y A. fumigatus ATCC 204305, siguiendo las técnicas estándar EUCAST y CLSI M38-A para levaduras y hongos filamentosos, respectivamente. Adicionalmente la actividad citotóxica se evaluó en la línea celular Vero mediante la técnica colorimétrica del MTT. La caracterización de los aceites esenciales se llevó a cabo por cromatografía de gases acoplada a masas. Resultados: El aceite esencial mas activo fue el de Minthostachys mollis frente a todas las cepas evaluadas con rangos concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias (CMIs entre 250 y 375 μg/mL. El aceite de la planta Hyptis mutabilis mostró actividad frente a A. fumigatus (CMI = 396,8 μg/mL. Estos aceites esenciales no fueron citotóxicos sobre las células Vero. Los componentes principales de los aceites de las plantas M. mollis y H. mutabillis fueron epóxido de cis-piperitona y 1,8-cineol, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los aceites esenciales de las plantas M. mollis y H. mutabillis mostraron actividad antimicótica y no fueron citotóxicos en células Vero. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 223-230Introduction: Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. are important cause of infections worldwide. Considering the resistance of these pathogens to some antifungal agents, there is greater need to search for new antifungal agents

  7. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rahe Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, submetidas ou não aos seguintes tratamentos de superação de dormência: D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, escarificação mecânica; C. langsdorffii e M. caesalpiniifolia, escarificação química com H2SO4; P. nitens, punção do tegumento; e P. dubium, imersão em água a 80ºC. O estabelecimento em campo foi monitorado por 21 meses. A superação de dormência promoveu, em casa de vegetação, maior emergência de quatro das seis espécies avaliadas, e, no campo, de cinco espécies. Além disso, reduziu o tempo de emergência das espécies e aumentou o recrutamento de M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, aos 127 dias, e de H. stigonocarpa aos 659 dias. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência podem aumentar a eficiência da semeadura direta, em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas no Cerrado, ao promover maior emergência das sementes e o estabelecimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture, with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and

  8. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  9. What Pauline Doesn't Know: Using Guided Fiction Writing to Educate Health Professionals about Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2017-01-07

    Research linking reading literary fiction to empathy supports health humanities programs in which reflective writing accompanies close readings of texts, both to explore principles of storytelling (narrative arc and concrete language) and to promote an examination of biases in care. Little attention has been paid to the possible contribution of guided fiction-writing in health humanities curricula toward enhancing cultural competence among health professionals, both clinical and community-based. Through an analysis of the short story "Pie Dance" by Molly Giles, juxtaposed with descriptions of specific writing exercises, this paper explains how the demands of writing fiction promote cultural competency.

  10. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) has increased in many drylands worldwide. This is hypothesized to occur because CAM plants store water, take up CO2 at night, exhibit photosynthetic plasticity, and have high water use efficiency. The increased dominance of CAM plants, however, also depends on their competitive relationship with other functional groups, an aspect of CAM plant sensitivity to global environmental change that has remained largely understudied. Here, we investigated the response of CAM plants and their competitive relationships with C3 and C4 plants under global environmental change. We focused on two pairs of CAM and non-CAM species, namely Cylindropuntia imbricata (a constitutive CAM species) and Bouteloua eriopoda (C4 grass), which co-occur in desert grasslands in northern Mexico, and invasive Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a facultative CAM species) and Bromus mollis (a C3 invasive grass), which coexist in California's coastal grasslands. A set of growth chamber experiments under altered CO2 and water conditions show that C. imbricata outcompeted B. eriopoda under drought conditions, while in well-watered conditions B. eriopoda was a stronger competitor for soil water than C. imbricata. Under drought conditions a more positive response to CO2 enrichment by C. imbricata indirectly disfavored B. eriopoda, which suggests that interspecific competition can outweigh the favorable direct effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth. A set of greenhouse experiments under water, N, and soil salinity manipulations showed that drought, N deposition, and/or increased soil salinity served as important drivers for success of M. crystallinum invasion, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum for light and soil nutrients in well-watered conditions. M. crystallinum switched from C3 photosynthesis to CAM photosynthesis as an adaptive strategy in response to moderate intensity of competition from B. mollis, in

  11. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... at the many layers of discourse, ‘thinking-in-process’ and collaboration. These processes led to particular presentational formats (display) and architectural frameworks for activities, and gave way to a variety of other material and situated performative modes of audience encounters. Here, we can trace avant...

  12. Project origami activities for exploring mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionActivity 1 Folding Equilateral Triangles in a Square Activity 2 Origami Trigonometry Activity 3 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths: Fujimoto Approximation Activity 4 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths Exactly Activity 5 Origami Helix Activity 6 Folding a Parabola Activity 7 Can Origami Trisect an Angle?Activity 8 Solving Cubic Equations Activity 9 Lill's Method Activity 10 Folding Strips into Knots Activity 11 Haga's ""Origamics"" Activity 12 Modular Star Ring Activity 13 Folding a Butterfly Bomb Activity 14 Molly's Hexahedron Activity 15 Business Card Modulars Activity 16 Five Inter

  13. ORTHOPTERA FAUNA OF SĂLAJ COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellért Puskás

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available : Orthoptera fauna of Sălaj County, NW Romania is reviewed based on new and literature data. 63 species were collected during field investigations in 2014-2015, thus the known Orthoptera species in the region are 74 (30 Acridoidea, 3 Tetrigoidea, 1 Tridactyloidea, 7 Grylloidea, 33 Tettigonioidea. 9 species are recorded in the county for the first time (Chorthippus mollis, Ch. montanus, Ch. vagans, Euchorthippus pulvinatus, Stenobothrus stigmaticus, Tetrix tuerki, Isophya kraussii, Metrioptera brachyptera, Pholidoptera frivaldszkyi. Isophya kraussii kraussii is a new subspecies for the fauna of Romania. Correct original spelling of the name of Ph. frivaldszkyi (Herman, 1871 is fixed.

  14. DNA repair and longevity in three species of cold-blooded vertebrates. [uv, turtle, fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Grist, E.

    1980-01-01

    The error catastrophe mechanism of ageing proposes that senescence results from the progressive accumulation of unrepaired damage to DNA throughout the life span. Studies of the changes in DNA repair capability in ageing cells both in vivo and in vitro have given ambiguous results, but a clear relation has been demonstrated in mammals between the DNA repair capacity and potential longevity. We have found no difference in excision repair capacity in cultured cells from three species of cold-blooded vertebrates, the long-lived turtle, with a potential life span of 118+ yr, the rainbow trout, 8 yr, and Amazon molly, with 3 yr.

  15. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    species. Once an item recovered from sites 41DL183, 41DL196, and 41TR45. was identified to genus or species, it was labeled and When viewed from the...Gray Red Haw Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry Cercis canadensis L. Redbud Juglans spp. Walnut 15.4...spp. Plum .3 Crataegus mollis Torr. & Gray Red Haw .9 .8 .3 Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon .3 Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry .8 1.9

  16. Infection in hedgerows, windbreaks and weeds by leprosies virus and its transmission to orange trees by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ozana Maria de Andrade [UNESP; Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite de [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a potencialidade de algumas plantas freqüentes em pomares cítricos de hospedar o vírus da leprose, transmitido por Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Foram utilizadas as seguintes plantas: Hibiscus sp. L., Malvaviscus mollis DC., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Bixa orellana L., Commelina benghalensis L., Bidens pilosa L., Sida cordifolia L. e Ageratum conyzoides L.. Duas criações-estoque do ácaro foram realizadas, sendo uma sobre frutos com si...

  17. Le Visage de la Victoire di Henry De Groux: la riscoperta di un’opera antimilitarista del tempo della Prima guerra mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Morganti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il presente intervento è dedicato a un’importante raccolta di incisioni, oggi riscoperta: Le Visage de la Victoire, eseguita dall’artista belga Henry De Groux. Costituita da oltre 40 incisioni (acqueforti e vernici molli, è stata realizzata nel corso della Prima Guerra Mondiale al fine di denunciare l’inutile massacro in corso. Si tratta di opere di ispirazione visionaria, che rivelano significati universali, mettendo il maestro belga in rapporto di affinità con artisti quali Goya e Otto Dix.

  18. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Angeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1,4 did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column.

  19. Host - HIF- 1alpha Pathway And Hypoxia: In Vitro Studies And Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    E., Del Sal, G., Gustincich, S . (2010). Parkinson disease-associated DJ-1 required for the expression of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic...other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER NA 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR( S ) Robinson, Peter J.1, Molly E. Chapleau1

  20. Year 3 Summary Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the third year of a 4-year-long field investigation to document selected baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water quality and fish species were measured at roughly quarterly intervals from April 2007 to January 2008. The water quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. In addition, during April and October 2007, water samples were collected from seven intensively monitored drains for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [chironomid] larvae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species that we were not permitted to take for selenium determinations. Water quality values were typical of surface waters in a hot desert climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near anoxic conditions especially during the summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees C. In general, total selenium concentrations in water varied directly with conductivity and inversely with pH. Although desert pupfish were found in several drains, sometimes in relatively high numbers, the fish faunas of most drains and ponds were dominated by nonnative species, especially red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), mosquitofish, and mollies. Dissolved selenium in water samples from the seven intensively monitored drains ranged from 0.700 to 24.1 ug/L, with selenate as the major constituent in all samples. Selenium