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Sample records for elements trace des

  1. Geochimie des elements traces des eclogites Panafricaines des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace element analyses suggest that these rocks display geochemical imprints that revealed a distensive tectonic episode which preceeding panafrican convergence. The early magmatism corresponds to the emplacement of E-type MORB into passive continental margin environment where detritical sediments ...

  2. DOSAGE DES ELEMENTS EN TRACE DES CALCAIRES AU SERVICE DE L'ARCHEOLOGIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-05-01

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows them to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  3. Chronic exposure of ecosystems and public to elements in trace contributions; L'exposition chronique des ecosystemes et du public aux elements en traces contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The needs in radiation protection come towards the question of chronic contaminations by trace elements or radioactive compounds. The chronicity induces to take into account a whole of redistribution mechanisms more important than the only ways of the most direct transfer. In the case of environment, that is going to become one of the way of public contamination is a target to protect, the important work is to link the contamination situation to eventual consequences on the ecosystems situation. (N.C.)0.

  4. Trace Elements and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  5. Trace element emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  6. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment; Utilisation des elements en trace comme traceurs des circulations souterraines en milieu karstique (site du Lamalou, Herault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane-Escribe, M.B.

    1995-06-29

    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author). 154 refs.

  7. Epidemiology and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C

    1985-08-01

    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  8. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  9. Trace Elements and Residual Elements in Superalloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, Impurities, Nickel alloys, Refining, Refractory materials, Gases, Residuals, Porosity, Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Segregation(Metallurgy), Auger electron spectroscopy, Fracture(Mechanics), Symposia

  10. Trace Elements in River Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  11. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems; Transferts et mobilite des elements traces metalliques dans la colonne sedimentaire des hydrosystemes continentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-15

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  12. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  13. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  14. Baseline Study of Trace Elements and Organic Compounds at National Wildlife Refuges Along the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers, North Dakota (1987-1989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analytical data for all 3 years is presented in Appendix A (selected trace elements), Appendix B (ICP scan), Appendix C (organochlorines and PCB's), Appendix D...

  15. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  16. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the

  17. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  18. Stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue

    CERN Document Server

    Moeglin, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail en deux volumes donne la preuve de la stabilisation de la formule des trace tordue. Stabiliser la formule des traces tordue est la méthode la plus puissante connue actuellement pour comprendre l'action naturelle du groupe des points adéliques d'un groupe réductif, tordue par un automorphisme, sur les formes automorphes de carré intégrable de ce groupe. Cette compréhension se fait en réduisant le problème, suivant les idées de Langlands, à des groupes plus petits munis d'un certain nombre de données auxiliaires; c'est ce que l'on appelle les données endoscopiques. L'analogue non tordu a été résolu par J. Arthur et dans ce livre on suit la stratégie de celui-ci. Publier ce travail sous forme de livre permet de le rendre le plus complet possible. Les auteurs ont repris la théorie de l'endoscopie tordue développée par R. Kottwitz et D. Shelstad et par J.-P. Labesse. Ils donnent tous les arguments des démonstrations même si nombre d'entre eux se trouvent déjà dans les travaux d'Ar...

  19. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  20. Zinc: a multipurpose trace element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanidou, M.; Maravelias, C.; Dona, A.; Spiliopoulou, C. [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Athens (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the most important trace elements in the body and it is essential as a catalytic, structural and regulatory ion. It is involved in homeostasis, in immune responses, in oxidative stress, in apoptosis and in ageing. Zinc-binding proteins (metallothioneins, MTs), are protective in situations of stress and in situations of exposure to toxic metals, infections and low Zn nutrition. Metallothioneins play a key role in Zn-related cell homeostasis due to their high affinity for Zn, which is in turn relevant against oxidative stress and immune responses, including natural killer (NK) cell activity and ageing, since NK activity and Zn ion bioavailability decrease in ageing. Physiological supplementation of Zn in ageing and in age-related degenerative diseases corrects immune defects, reduces infection relapse and prevents ageing. Zinc is not stored in the body and excess intakes result in reduced absorption and increased excretion. Nevertheless, there are cases of acute and chronic Zn poisoning. (orig.)

  1. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author).

  2. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...... neurotoxicants that provide a reference for other substances that may have similar adverse effects. Less evidence is available on manganese, fluoride, and cadmium, but experience from the former trace elements suggest that, with time, adverse effects are likely to be documented at exposures previously thought...

  3. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan); Yoshida, Koji

    1994-12-31

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author).

  4. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słojewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization for instance as a nucleus or nidus for the formation of the stone, or simply contaminate the stone structure. This review presents a comprehensive account of the basic principles of the basic data and the role of major and trace elements in lithogenesis.

  6. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  7. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  8. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author).

  9. Trace elements in glucometabolic disorders: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many trace elements, among which metals, are indispensable for proper functioning of a myriad of biochemical reactions, more particularly as enzyme cofactors. This is particularly true for the vast set of processes involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis, being it in glucose metabolism itself or in hormonal control, especially insulin. The role and importance of trace elements such as chromium, zinc, selenium, lithium and vanadium are much less evident and subjected to chronic debate. This review updates our actual knowledge concerning these five trace elements. A careful survey of the literature shows that while theoretical postulates from some key roles of these elements had led to real hopes for therapy of insulin resistance and diabetes, the limited experience based on available data indicates that beneficial effects and use of most of them are subjected to caution, given the narrow window between safe and unsafe doses. Clear therapeutic benefit in these pathologies is presently doubtful but some data indicate that these metals may have a clinical interest in patients presenting deficiencies in individual metal levels. The same holds true for an association of some trace elements such as chromium or zinc with oral antidiabetics. However, this area is essentially unexplored in adequate clinical trials, which are worth being performed.

  10. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  11. Environmental Risk Limits for Nine Trace Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingen PLA van; Posthumus R; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; SEC

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we present an update of environmental risk limits (ERLs), based on the literature, for nine trace elements, namely, beryllium (Be), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba) and thallium (Tl). The updated ERLs, established for

  12. Trace Elements: The Little Things that Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines recent findings regarding the importance of trace elements to good health. Copper, chromium, and zinc are discussed. Described also are multi-disciplinary experiments in progress at the Human Nutrition Laboratory, a federal facility in Grand Forks, North Dakota. (CS)

  13. Phytomanagement of trace elements in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological trace elements (TEs) occur at minor concentrations (< 1000 mg/kg) in organisms, yet they may have a major effect on life, both as essential nutrients and environmental contaminants. Excess consumption of and exposure to TEs has a detrimental effect on humans. Human activities such as mini...

  14. Changes in Trace Elements In Kwashiorkor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... Twenty Black children with classic signs of kwashiorkor were investigated. Serum and hair samples were taken on admission and analysed for several trace elements using emission spectrography and neutron activation analysis. After three weeks on a specific acidified milk diet, serum and hair samples ...

  15. Changes in Trace Elements In Kwashiorkor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The sera samples were also analysed for total protein, several protein fractions, transferrin and ceruloplasmin levels in an attempt to determine the effect of protein changes. Sera and hair samples of a control group were analysed. It W3S found that several trace elements are in imbalance in kwashiorkor.

  16. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  17. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CONTAMINATION EN METAUX TRACES DES SEDIMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zine el abidine

    automatique du meilleur schéma d'exploitation possible compte tenu des différents impératifs de la distribution ou desserte. Toujours en 1980, Szczesny Kujsczyk [4] trouve un système informatique qui est utilisé pour l'exploitation des réseaux de distribution à moyenne tension. Il permet aussi de déterminer les points de ...

  19. CONTAMINATION EN METAUX TRACES DES SEDIMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zine el abidine

    Toujours en 1980, Szczesny Kujsczyk [4] trouve un système informatique qui est utilisé pour l'exploitation des réseaux de distribution à moyenne tension. Il permet aussi de déterminer les points de bouclages optimaux du point de vue de la réduction des pertes. En 1982, Sozanki Niezowodnosc [5] explique d'une façon ...

  20. Trace elements and chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loguercio, C.; De Girolamo, V.; Federico A., A.; Del Vecchio Blanco, C. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy). Cattedra di Gastroenterologia; Feng, S.L.; Gialanella, G. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche; Cataldi, V. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Prima Medicina Ospedale Ascalesi

    1997-12-31

    The relationships between chronic liver diseases and trace element (TE) contents are debated. Particularly, no defined data are available about the TE levels in viral liver disease patients with or without malnutrition. In this study we evaluated blood and plasma levels of various trace elements in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, at different stages of liver damage (8 patients with chronic hepatitis and 32 with liver cirrhosis) with or without malnutrition. We also studied 10 healthy volunteers as control group. We found that cirrhotic subjects had a significant decrease of blood levels of Zn and Se, independently on the nutritional status, whereas plasma levels of Fe were significantly reduced only in malnourished cirrhotic patients. Our data indicate that liver impairment is the main cause of the blood decrease of Se and Zn levels in patients with non alcoholic liver disease, whereas the malnutrition affects Fe levels only. (orig.)

  1. Global perspectives on trace element requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Sanjeevi, Namrata; Lee, Jane J

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements are inorganic constituents of the human body present in concentrations less than 50mg/kg body weight. An exception is iron that is found in slightly higher amounts, 60 mg/kg body weight, but it is classified within this category due to its physiological roles. Requirements of trace elements can vary according to age, gender, growth, body composition, genetics, pregnancy, lactation, wound healing and burns, alcohol abuse, infections, and diseases (anemia, coronary artery, Keshan, Kashin-Beck). Additionally, interactions may occur with dietary factors, such as other minerals (iron versus copper), phytates (zinc), oxalates (iron), fiber (manganese), and polyphenolic compounds (molybdenum). On a global basis, requirements can vary according to soil and geographical location, food preparation and processing, food accessibility, cultural practices (geophagia) and pollution. Furthermore, global differences exist in body composition, ethnicity, and age of menarche. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  3. The Role of Trace Elements in Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Mehmet; Şahin, Mehmet İlhan; Karakükçü, Çiğdem; Güneri, Erhan; Doğan, Murat; Sağıt, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of three trace elements, namely, zinc, copper, and lead, in tinnitus by analyzing the serum level of copper and lead and both the serum and tissue level of zinc. Eighty patients, who applied to outpatient otolaryngology clinic with the complaints of having tinnitus, and 28 healthy volunteers were included. High-frequency audiometry was performed, and participants who had hearing loss according to the pure tone average were excluded; tinnitus frequency and loudness were determined and tinnitus reaction questionnaire scores were obtained from the patients. Of all the participants, serum zinc, copper, and lead values were measured; moreover, zinc levels were examined in hair samples. The levels of trace elements were compared between tinnitus and control groups. The level of copper was found to be significantly lower in the tinnitus group (p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the levels of zinc, neither in serum nor in hair, and lead in serum (p > 0.05). The lack of trace elements, especially that of "zinc," have been doubted for the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus in the literature; however, we only found copper levels to be low in patients having tinnitus.

  4. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  5. Trace Elements in Nails as Biomarkers in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of trace elements in relation to human health has been increasingly recognized. Accurate and adequate quantification of trace elements are crucial in clinical research. Design This review was to discuss the rationale of using nail trace elements as biomarkers in clinical studies. Results For most trace elements, dietary instruments can not appropriately capture the intakes because of the minimal amounts and wide variations in the same foods grown in different area as well as the non-dietary exposures. Therefore, biomarkers may be essential in studying trace elements. Although there are notable differences among trace elements in the availability of biomarkers, increasing evidence supports that nail particularly toenail concentrations of most trace elements are useful biomarkers of exposure in which a single sample is assumed to represent long-term exposure. Conclusions As compared to other potential biomarkers of trace elements, nail measurement has certain advantages in clinical research. PMID:20813017

  6. Trace Elements in Superalloys and the Implications for Recycling,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, *Recycled materials, Control, Specifications, Impurities, Microstructure, Casting, Castings, Conservation, Melting, Porosity, Resource management, Conservation, Strategic materials

  7. Trace element changes in cardiovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, T.; Fernandes, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Hebbrecht, G.; Wätjen, U.; Halpern, M. J.

    1993-04-01

    Artery samples and five different brain structures originating from both atherosclerosis affected and healthy Portuguese individuals were examined for their elemental content. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to determine K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb in all the tissues studied. The most prominent differences between the pathological and reference data were those for Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in the nucleus caudatus, putamen and substantia nigra brain regions. In the arteries a significant increase in Ca and Mn content was observed, whereas the K and Fe content declined. The decreased K and Rb content in the five brain structures from the pathological group and the changes for Mn in the nucleus caudatus, putamen and substantia nigra regions can be associated with aging. However, age cannot explain the other trace element alterations, e.g., for Fe, Cu and Zn. Most likely, the changes for these elements are due to atherosclerosis progression.

  8. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with Trace elements deficiencies which have been known to cause Neuro Psychiatric Disorders. The focus of this study being on locally brewed alcohol is to establish the pattern if any of trace elements derangements. The trace element profile among alcohol abusers in a Nigerian ...

  9. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshinori E-mail: yomiura@iwate-med.ac.jp; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-04-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation (r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease (r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients.

  10. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a posibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  11. Trace element patterns in marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malea, Paraskevi; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2014-10-01

    Novel information on interspecific variation in trace element accumulation in seaweeds is provided. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) of a wide set of elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in 26 dominant macroalgae from the Gulf of Thessaloniki, Aegean Sea were determined and compared. Uni-and multivariate data analyses were applied. Phaeophyceae showed higher concentrations and CFs of As and Sr than Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta, indicating that the accumulation of these elements is closely related to species biochemical composition. Filamentous macroalgae displayed higher concentrations and CFs of several elements, particularly Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and V than sheet-like, coarsely-branched and/or thick-leathery macroalgae, irrespective of phylogenetic relationships, indicating that the accumulation of several elements is largely related to thallus morphology and growth strategy. On a species basis, Cystoseira spp. showed both the highest concentrations and CFs of As, Padina pavonica of Sr and U, Ceramium spp. of Mn, Ceramium and Cladophora species of Co and Cu, Cladophora prolifera of Cr and Polysiphonia deusta and Ulva clathrata of Cd. Se concentration in Ulva rigida correlated positively with seawater Se concentration, and As concentration in this species with sediment As concentration. Thereby, these seaweeds could be regarded as potential biomonitors for the respective elements. A literature review was performed and global element concentrations and CFs were presented for seaweeds from genera collected during this survey. The data presented can contribute to the interpretation of biomonitoring data and the design of biomonitoring programs for the protection and management of coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of trace elements in pterygium tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuslu, Mehmet; Balci, Mehmet; Coşkun, Mesut; Yağci, Ramazan; Cimen, Behzat; Çetin, Aysun; Ayyildiz, Abdullah; Erdamar, Hüsamettin; Yiğitoğlu, Ramazan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we compare the concentrations of the essential trace elements chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in both pterygium and normal conjunctiva and investigate the role they play in the development of pterygium. Included in the study were 38 patients with pterygium and 38 control patients in matching age groups who had been operated on for strabismus or cataracts and in whom conjunctiva samples were collected from the nasal limbus area. All conjunctiva samples were kept at -80 °C until the performance of the biochemical investigations. The B, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se levels in the samples were then measured. The levels of all tissue trace elements were determined by using Agilent 7500a Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Cr, Mn, Zn and Se levels are significantly lower in the study group as compared to those of the control group (p < 0.001 for all four values). Regarding the level of B, there was no significant difference between the groups. The Cu levels of almost all subjects in the control group and all subjects in the pterygium group were under the detection limit. These findings indicate that remarkable differences in Mn, Zn, Se and Cr levels exist in pterygium tissues. Further investigation of electrolyte composition of the conjunctiva is needed to understand the genesis and developmental mechanism of pterygium.

  13. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  14. Recovery of trans-plutonium elements; Recuperation des elements transplutoniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espie, J.Y.; Poncet, B.; Simon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the recovery of americium and curium from the fission-product solution obtained from the processing of irradiated fuel elements made of natural metallic uranium alloyed with aluminium, iron and silicon; these elements have been subjected to an average irradiation of 4000 MW days/ton in a gas-graphite type reactor having a thermal power of 3.7 MW/ton of uranium. The process used consists of 3 extraction cycles and one americium-curium separation: - 1) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: extraction of actinides and lanthanides; elimination of fission products; - 2) extraction cycle in 8 per cent D2EHPA: decontamination from the fission products, decontamination of actinides from lanthanides; - 3) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: separation of the complexing agent and concentration of the actinides; - 4) americium-curium separation by precipitation. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet, la recuperation de l'americium et du curium de la solution de produits de fission provenant du traitement de combustibles irradies a base d'uranium naturel metallique allie a l'aluminium, le fer, et le silicium, et ayant subi une irradiation moyenne de 4000 MWj/t dans une pile du type graphite-gaz, dont la puissance thermique est de 3.7 MW/t d'uranium. Le procede utilise comprend 3 cycles d'extraction et une separation americium-curium: - 1. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: extraction des actinides et des lanthanides, elimination des produits de fission; - 2. cycle d'extraction dans le D2EHPA a 8 pour cent: decontamination en produits de fission, decontamination des actinides en lanthanides; - 3. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: separation du complexant et concentration des actinides; - 4. separation americium-curium par precipitation. (auteurs)

  15. Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of therapeutic agents are known to alter serum trace element levels with dangerous consequences. An earlier study had demonstrated significant alteration in the levels of some trace elements in male rats dosed with paracetamol/methionine. This study is designed to compare serum element presentation at the ...

  16. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  17. Meteoritic trace element toxification and the terminal Mesozoic mass extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, S.M.; Erickson, D.J. III

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of trace element fluxes to the earth associated with 5 and 10 kilometer diameter Cl chondrites and iron meteorites are presented. The data indicate that the masses of certain trace elements contained in the bolide, such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cu, are as large as or larger than the world ocean burden. The authors believe that this pulse of trace elements was of sufficient magnitude to perturb the biogeochemical cycles operative 65 million years ago, a probably time of meteorite impact. Geochemical anomalies in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments suggest that elevated concentrations of trace elements may have persisted for thousands of years in the ocean. Through direct exposure and bioaccumulation, many trophic levels of the global food chain, including that of the dinosaurs, would have been adversely affected by these meteoritic trace elements. The trace element toxification hypothesis may account for the selective extinction of both marine and terrestrial species in the enigmatic terminal Mesozoic event.

  18. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  19. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  20. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Improved tailings management strategies, among other factors, might have influenced the reduced level of trace elements .... Levels of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils around active and decommissioned gold mine tailings dams at Obuasi, Ghana (mg/kg). Trace element ..... USEPA, Office of Solid Waste, Special. Waste Branch ...

  1. Chemical characteristics and trace element concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical characteristics and trace element concentration of non coking coals from Talcher Coal Fields, Orissa, India. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... It gives a better knowledge of coal quality characteristics which may help to reduce some of the health problems caused by the trace elements.

  2. Trace Elements Removal from Waster water by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace element contamination in aquatic ecosystems is one of the most important concerning of environmental health. Submerged aquatic plants can be used for the removal of Trace elements. The aim of this study was to investigate how Ceratophyllum demersum could affect on wastewater quality for recycling the ...

  3. Effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... During the past decade, significant advances were made in understanding the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplement on milk production of dairy cows. This work discussed the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk production of dairy cows. Studies have indicated.

  4. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  5. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  6. Effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past decade, significant advances were made in understanding the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplement on milk production of dairy cows. This work discussed the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk production of dairy cows. Studies have indicated that vitamin A (VA) and ...

  7. Trace elements can influence the physical properties of tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimi, Elnaz; Eimar, Hazem; Marelli, Benedetto; Nazhat, Showan N; Asgharian, Masoud; Vali, Hojatollah; Tamimi, Faleh

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that the size of apatite nanocrystals in tooth enamel can influence its physical properties. This important discovery raised a new question; which factors are regulating the size of these nanocrystals? Trace elements can affect crystallographic properties of synthetic apatite, therefore this study was designed to investigate how trace elements influence enamel's crystallographic properties and ultimately its physical properties. The concentration of trace elements in tooth enamel was determined for 38 extracted human teeth using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The following trace elements were detected: Al, K, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Si, B, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Ti. Simple and stepwise multiple regression was used to identify the correlations between trace elements concentration in enamel and its crystallographic structure, hardness, resistance to crack propagation, shade lightness and carbonate content. The presence of some trace elements in enamel was correlated with the size (Pb, Ti, Mn) and lattice parameters (Se, Cr, Ni) of apatite nanocrystals. Some trace elements such as Ti was significantly correlated with tooth crystallographic structure and consequently with hardness and shade lightness. We conclude that the presence of trace elements in enamel could influence its physical properties.

  8. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  9. [Presence and role of trace elements in urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannache, B; Boutefnouchet, A; Bazin, D; Daudon, M; Foy, E; Rouzière, S; Dahdouh, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the possible nature and role of trace elements in the pathogenesis of urinary stones. A series of 76 calculi from the East-Algerian region has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence for detecting trace elements. Among the detected trace elements, Zn, Sr, Pb, Cu, Rb and Se, only the first three had significant values. Overall, the calcium components, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, were the most loaded by these elements contrary to organic components such as uric acid and cystine, which had low contents. The correlation of contents of Zn and Sr with the stone components (carbapatite, weddellite and whewellite) suggests an adsorption of these trace elements in the case of calcium stones rather than a catalytic process. 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean E Fletcher

    Full Text Available Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata and suborder (Anisoptera, but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N. Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding

  11. The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.

    2000-01-01

    The EC-funded thematic network 'Speciation 21' links scientists in analytical chemistry working in method development for the chemical speciation of trace elements, and potential users from industry and representatives of legislative agencies, in the field of environment, food and occupational...... as the influence of packing materials. Once the analytical methodology for the measurement of the trace element species has been optimised, the importance of trace element speciation will grow enormously. Food sciences, material sciences, medicine and occupational health, environmental sciences and related fields...

  12. Trace elements induce predominance among methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babett Wintsche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control and supplementation of trace elements lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while trace element deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by trace element deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller’s grains and supplemented with trace elements (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting trace element supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, trace element concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the trace element-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on trace element supplementation explainable by different trace element requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under trace element

  13. Trace elements in Mediterranean seagrasses and macroalgae. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina

    2018-03-15

    This review investigates the current state of knowledge on the levels of the main essential and non-essential trace elements in Mediterranean vascular plants and macroalgae. The research focuses also on the so far known effects of high element concentrations on these marine organisms. The possible use of plants and algae as bioindicators of marine pollution is discussed as well. The presence of trace elements is overall well known in all five Mediterranean vascular plants, whereas current studies investigated element concentrations in only c. 5.0% of all native Mediterranean macroalgae. Although seagrasses and macroalgae can generally accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of trace elements, phytotoxic levels are still not clearly identified for both groups of organisms. Moreover, although the high accumulation of trace elements in seagrasses and macroalgae is considered as a significant risk for the associated food webs, the real magnitude of this risk has not been adequately investigated yet. The current research provides enough scientific evidence that seagrasses and macroalgae may act as effective bioindicators, especially the former for trace elements in sediments, and the latter in seawater. The combined use of seagrasses and macroalgae as bioindicators still lacks validated protocols, whose application should be strongly encouraged to biomonitor exhaustively the presence of trace elements in the abiotic and biotic components of coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  15. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  16. Trace elements determination in municpal water supply in Damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for residents of Damaturu Metropolis. This is because surface water is very scarce as a result of the very low and erratic rainfall in the region. This study examines the presence of trace elements in the municipal water supplies of Damaturu Metropolis, Yobe state. The trace ...

  17. Distribution of trace elements in muscle and organs of Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results revealed organ specific distribution of trace metals in Tilapia, which has been discussed in terms of physiological role in fish and/or the likely influence of anthropogenic origin on lakes. Application of the statistical t-test on trace elements data further showed significant difference between the two lakes, which could ...

  18. Trace Elements in Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for the Prescribing Clinician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jennifer; Mulesa, Leanne; Carrilero Rouillet, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the last few decades, there has been increased experience with PN, and with this knowledge more information about the management of trace elements has become available. There is increasing awareness of the effects of deficiencies and toxicities of certain trace elements. Despite this heightened awareness, much is still unknown in terms of trace element monitoring, the accuracy of different assays, and current TE contamination of solutions. The supplementation of TEs is a complex and important part of the PN prescription. Understanding the role of different disease states and the need for reduced or increased doses is essential. Given the heterogeneity of the PN patients, supplementation should be individualized. PMID:28452962

  19. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  20. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Sahraoui and M. Hachicha

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... produced by the water influence moisture content and corrected ... Previous studies indicated that PXRF analysis was capable of detecting soil trace elements ..... determination of some heavy metals in soil using an x-ray ...

  1. Trace elements in quartz from Li-enriched pegmatite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Svojtka, Martin; Ďurišová, Jana; Ackerman, Lukáš; Novák, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-36 ISSN 1609-0144. [Pegmatite : Österreichische Arbeitstagung /1./. Leoben, 11.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : trace elements * pegmatite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The values for the fattened fish were determined to be Pb, 0.116; Cu, 1.279; Mn, 0.208; Ni,. 0.231; Zn, 8.507; and Fe, 10.364 (μg g-1 wt wt). The comparison of trace elements between wild and fattened fish was significant (p < 0.05). In terms of gender, the mean trace elements in the kidney tissue of wild and ...

  3. Les traces archéologiques des pillages de tombes

    OpenAIRE

    Lhoyer, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Les techniques de fouilles modernes permettent de mettre en lumière non seulement les artefacts retrouvés mais également les traces de profanation. Malgré la mise en place de systèmes de sécurité, les voleurs ont souvent fait preuve d’audace et de compétence pour parvenir au trésor funéraire. Certaines « scènes de crime » sont ainsi restées figées pendant des millénaires. Elles sont les témoins muets de cette activité illégale qui a sévi tout au long de l’histoire antique. Si les objets reche...

  4. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration data for twenty-one elements ( Sb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, Fe, La, Lu, Nd, K, Rb, Sc, Na, Ta, Th, U, Yb, Zn) were also determined for the three soils. The study revealed that although the mineralogy of the soils appeared similar based on their mean elemental compositions, the Fadama soils showed high ...

  5. [Analysis of trace elements in chrysanthemum from different habitats with ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jiu-Sheng; Zhai, Hong-Yan; Wu, De-Ling; Zhang, Ya-Zhong; Fang, Cheng-Wu; Yu, Nian-Jun

    2013-03-01

    To establish a method for determination of trace elements in chrysanthemum and analyze trace elements in chrysanthemum from different habitats. The preprocessing for determination of trace elements in chrysanthemum was carried out by microwave digestion,the content of trace elements in chrysanthemum was determined by ICP-MS. The content of trace elements of chryscmthemum varied with the habitats. The contents of trace elements as well as heavy metals of Chrysanthemum relate to its species and habitats to a certain degree.

  6. Trace elements in floodplain soils - effects of redox conditions on the mobility of trace elements and volatilization of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Hindersmann, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Floodplains are characterized by periodic flooding and their soils can contain high concentrations of trace elements. The flooding events lead to varying oxygen contents in the soil. This is accompanied with varying redox conditions that are expressed by strongly fluc-tuating redox potentials. This study investigated the influence of flooding events on the mo-bilization of the trace elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc, as ...

  7. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  8. Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Ife Journal of Science ... Abstract. Thirty six river sediment samples were collected from Ala River, Akure, and were analysed by ICP-MS for 14 chemical elements including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, As, U, Th, Sr, Cd, V, La, and Cr. The ...

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MUSCLE AND ORGANS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (Received March 17 ... the likely occurrence of chemical pollution by trace elements and consequent threat to the fish fauna of ..... Kaim, W.; Schwedeski, B. Bio-inorganic Chemistry; Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of. Life; An ...

  10. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  11. Evaluation of trace element status of organic dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjales, I; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, R; López-Alonso, M

    2017-11-06

    The present study aimed to evaluate trace mineral status of organic dairy herds in northern Spain and the sources of minerals in different types of feed. Blood samples from organic and conventional dairy cattle and feed samples from the respective farms were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of the essential trace elements (cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) and toxic trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb)). Overall, no differences between organic and conventional farms were detected in serum concentrations of essential and toxic trace elements (except for higher concentrations of Cd on the organic farms), although a high level of inter-farm variation was detected in the organic systems, indicating that organic production greatly depends on the specific local conditions. The dietary concentrations of the essential trace elements I, Cu, Se and Zn were significantly higher in the conventional than in the organic systems, which can be attributed to the high concentration of these minerals in the concentrate feed. No differences in the concentrations of trace minerals were found in the other types of feed. Multivariate chemometric analysis was conducted to determine the contribution of different feed sources to the trace element status of the cattle. Concentrate samples were mainly associated with Co, Cu, I, Se and Zn (i.e. with the elements supplemented in this type of feed). However, pasture and grass silage were associated with soil-derived elements (As, Cr, Fe and Pb) which cattle may thus ingest during grazing.

  12. Influence of trace elements on dental enamel properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Zeeshan; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Chew, Hooi Pin; Fatima, Tayyaba

    2017-01-01

    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.

  13. Postpartum Depression and Role of Serum Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarrindast

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nPostpartum depression (PPD is a major depressive disorder that most often emerges within 6 to 12 weeks of delivery, but can happen any time up to 1 year after birth. In developed countries, the incidence of postnatal depression about 10-15% in adult women depending upon the diagnostic criteria, timing of screening and screening instruments used. Mothers with depressive symptoms have been found to have more complex behavioral contacts with their children; this situation can damage family relationships, and even leads to infanticide. Various pathophysiologies are proposed for postpartum depression: Nutritional deficiencies, iron deficiency anemia, rapid decrease in the levels of reproductive hormones following delivery, alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adernocortical mechanism and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Among pathophysiologies of postpartum depression, the role of trace elements is highlighted. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of trace elements including zinc, magnesium, iron and copper PPD. Zinc as a trace element has the second highest concentration of all transition metals in the brain, and its deficiency is associated with behavioral disturbances. Lower zinc blood concentration was found in women with postpartum depression. Another trace element, magnesium, also influences the nervous system via its actions on the release and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Various studies have focused on antidepressant-like effects of magnesium and its deficiency has been reported in depression. Depletion of magnesium stores during pregnancy is hypothesized to be the cause of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world. There is an association between anemia and depressive disorders. Copper has been recognized as an essential element for many years. Iron also plays a vital role in neurological disorders and its levels are relevant to postpartum depression

  14. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  15. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  16. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd [Blok 18, Makmal Kimia Analisis (ACA/BAS), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul [Bangunan Sains Nuklear, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  17. Trace element determination in vitamin E using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce de Leon, Claudia A.; Montes Bayon, Maria; Caruso, Joseph A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Vitamin E supplements are either isolated from plants sources or prepared synthetically. Isolation from plants includes eight different tocopherol structures. Vitamin E synthesis includes seven different stereoisomers, which involves the use of several catalysts that may lead to trace element contamination in the vitamin. The use of ICP-MS is an ideal technique for detecting these trace elements. However, the oily nature of the samples requires the development of a sample preparation methodology. This study was done upon the request of synthetic vitamin E manufacturers to test the trace metal purity of their samples. In this work, the comparison of an acid microwave digestion and emulsion preparation is discussed. Cromium, nickel, tin and lead were found in the synthetic vitamin E analyzed and 200, 60, 9 and 45 ppb were the concentrations found respectively for these elements. Digesting the samples gives slightly lower detection limits compared to the emulsion preparation. (orig.)

  18. The role and fate of trace elements in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbante, C.; Cairns, W.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elements are ubiquitous throughout the environment, some are essential for life (e.g. Fe), others are micronutrients (e.g. Se) and others are considered as toxic elements (e.g. As). Levels of these elements in the environment are determined by the local geochemistry and anthropogenic emissions, with implications for human and environmental health. As well as having an effect on land, trace element concentrations can have an effect on oceanic productivity, and are implicated as a factor in climate change. The study of levels of these elements in remote regions and in ice cores has allowed us to begin to understand their biogeochemistry and their effect on a global and climatic scale. However, without advances in clean working techniques and the quantum leaps in instrument sensitivity that have occurred over the last 2-3 decades, none of these studies would have been possible.

  19. Vitamins and trace elements in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes worldwide, wishing to enhance their athletic performance, very often use different dietary supplements. However, due to the lack of valid information, they are often at risk of both failing to achieve the wanted effects, and of being exposed to serious health consequences of unproven and potentially harmful products. Thus, the physicians need to be aware of the most used supplements, which undoubtedly include the vitamins, such as A, B group, C, D and E, as well as the t race elements, including iron, chromium, zinc and selenium. If exists, their deficit should be replaced; otherwise, in order to accomplish the best results in sport while retaining the good health, appropriate and well-balanced diet is the best way of providing all the necessary nutrients.

  20. Serum trace elements in obese women with or without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, F. Hümeyra; Toker, Aysun; Arıbaş, Alpay

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Relationship of trace elements with obesity and diabetes is complex, alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of the trace elements in diabetes and obesity, serum trace elements levels (Cr, Se, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) were measured in obese women with or without diabetes as well as healthy women. Further, correlation between serum trace elements levels and glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences, waist -to -hip ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hsCRP) were also determined in these women. Methods: This study was performed with morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2) women with diabetes (n=41), without diabetes (n=45) and 50 healthly non obese women. Anthropometric measurements were taken and levels of serum Zn, Cr, Fe Cu and Mn were determined. Biochemical parameters included serum glucose, insulin, lipids, haemoglobin, hsCRP and HbA1C. Results: The levels of Zn (Ptrace elements compared with obese women without diabetes. PMID:23563378

  1. Détecter sur la trace des particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Le LHC produira des pluies de nouvelles particules lors des collisions des faisceaux de protons. Pour les identifier, les physiciens traquent leurs propriétés à l’aide de quatre immenses détecteurs : ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb.

  2. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  3. Trace Elements Removal from Waster water by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    could affect on wastewater quality for recycling the wastewater to reuse for other purposes in agriculture and industrial fields. In this survey, two ... Key words: Trace elements, Aquatic ecosystems, Ceratophyllum demersum, wastewater. Pollution of the ... such as electroplating, metal finishing, textile, storage batteries, lead ...

  4. Trace element and isotopic studies of Permo-Carboniferous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 2. Trace element and isotopic studies of Permo-Carboniferous carbonate nodules from Talchir sediments of peninsular India: Environmental and provenance implications. Prosenjit Ghosh S K Bhattacharya A M Dayal J R Trivedi M Ebihara M M Sarin A ...

  5. Trace Elements (Zn & Cu) And Plasma Proteins Status In Mauritian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During pregnancy there is usually a fluctuation in the levels of trace elements in the body. The level of copper for example may rise whilst that of zinc may fall. Plasma zinc and copper levels were measured in pregnant and non-pregnant women (mean age 25±6 and 23±5 years respectively). A commercially available kit ...

  6. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  7. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  8. Certified reference materials of trace elements in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurement of trace elements is playing a vital role in industries and various sectors of science and technology including semiconductors, food, health and environmental ... In the present scenario of globalization of economy, use of certified reference materials (CRMs) in measurements is essential for global acceptance of ...

  9. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Generally, trace elements assimilated from food or the environment, such ..... specific welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing of ... Part III. U.S.. Environmental Protection Agency Report 600/3-80-092. p. 290.

  10. Measurement of trace elements in liver biopsy samples from cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Moen, A.; Counotte, G.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper, zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however, these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper,

  11. Role of Trace Elements In Diabetes And Hypertension | Odusan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Endocrine Practice ... Low concentrations and imbalances of certain trace elements occur from poor dietary intake, chronic illnesses,disasters or old age and may result in malfunction of the cardiovascular system, hypertension, arrhythmias andsudden death, or be significantly associated with diabetes. Major role of ...

  12. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  13. Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fido, Abdullahi; Al-Saad, Samira

    2005-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of natural trace elements has been implicated in the etiology of autism. This study explores whether concentration levels of toxic metals in the hair of children with autism significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In-hair concentration levels of antimony, uranium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury,…

  14. Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements distribution in an unsaturated zone profile, Densu river basin, Ghana. ... to human activities. Cluster analysis of the samples shows only one sample is needed from depths characterised by similar physical properties of texture and colour. Key words: Unsaturated ...

  15. trace element determination in municipal water supply of Damaturu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for residents of Damaturu Metropolis. This is because surface water is ... examination of water and wastewater from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The result of the ... Key words: Contamination, Trace elements, Toxic, underground water. INTRODUCTION.

  16. The trace elements in congenital cyanotic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Hegazi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Congenital cyanotic heart disease were associated with a highly significant decrease in the mean serum selenium and zinc levels, when compared with control group and non significant increase the mean serum copper levels. Changes in these trace elements suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial damage in congenital cyanotic heart disease.

  17. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  18. Trace element accumulation and distribution in four aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazej, Z.; Germ, M. [ERICo Velenje Environmental Research and Industrial Cooperation Doo, Velenje (Slovenia)

    2009-02-15

    The concentration of trace elements was studied in different parts of the submersed species Najas marina and Potamogeton lucens and in floating-leaved species Nuphar lutea and Potamogeton nodosus, and also in the corresponding samples of water and sediment in the artificial lake Velenjsko jezero, where the large amount of ash from lignite coal (about 15 million tons) is deposited at the bottom. The concentration of trace elements in water was mainly below the detection limit. In sediment only the concentration of As was found to be above the average European background concentration. It also showed the highest degree of translocation from sediment into plant roots, but its mobility to above-ground plant parts was negligible. The submersed species N. marina and P. lucens exhibited similar concentrations of trace elements in their organs. Of the floating-leaved species, the lowest concentrations of trace elements were found in N. lutea and the largest in P. nodosus. Significantly higher concentrations of As, Ni, Pb and Cr were shown in roots of N. marina, P. lucens and P. nodosus than in their stems and leaves, whereas Cu and Zn were equally distributed throughout all their organs. Cr and Ni also showed relatively high mobility from roots to upper parts of N. lutea.

  19. The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.; Pitts, L.; Sperling, M.; Morabito, R.; Donard, O.F.X.; Crews, H.; Larsen, E.H.; Neidhart, B.; Ariese, F.; Rosenberg, E.; Berrouiguet, O.; Morrison, G.M.; Cordier, G.; Adams, F.; Dero, B.; Marshall, J.; Stojanik, B.; Ekvall, A.; Quevauviller, P.

    2000-01-01

    The EC-funded thematic network 'Speciation 21' links scientists in analytical chemistry working in method development for the chemical speciation of trace elements, and potential users from industry and representatives of legislative agencies, in the field of environment, food and occupational

  20. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  1. The status of trace elements in lymphoma and esophageal cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer is a life threatening disease. Many people die of cancer every year. Epidemiological studies suggest that alteration of trace elements in the body can contribute to the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and ...

  2. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  3. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna ( Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace elements, namely lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), found in kidney tissues were analyzed and compared between wild/fattened and female/male bluefin tuna (BFT) in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred (that is, 50 female and 50 male) individual ...

  4. Trace Element Abundances in Extraterrestrial Apatite and Merrillite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Bischoff, A.; Roszjar, J.; Berndt, J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    The trace element abundances (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, as well as the REE) of 133 apatite and 163 merrillite grains from 24 meteorites, covering 9 different classes were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS.

  5. Trace elements in higher fungi (mushrooms) determined by activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 1 (2004), s. 99-107 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : trace elements * activation analysis * mushrooms Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  6. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    3Laboratory of Waste Management and Treatment, Faculty of Science, University of Lomé, Togo. 4Laboratory of Biochemistry ... Key words: Togo, periurban agriculture, agrochemicals, pesticide residues, trace element. INTRODUCTION ..... impacts of waste stabilization pond and unrestricted wastewater irrigation: Interface ...

  7. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and the observed data from carbonatites, we have tried to simulate trace element distribution pattern for the parental silicate melt. The results of the modeling not only support the hypothesis of silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility for the evolution of Amba Dongar but also establish a procedure to test the above hypothesis ...

  8. Statistical equilibrium equations for trace elements in stellar atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kubat, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    The conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and statistical equilibrium are discussed in detail. The equations of statistical equilibrium and the supplementary equations are shown together with the expressions for radiative and collisional rates with the emphasize on the solution for trace elements.

  9. Trace element accumulation and human health risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... The comparison of trace element concentrations between the water, sediment and fish tissues revealed that the ... quotient (THQ) values greater than one, and that the levels of As and Se were above the safety threshold values for human .... of various stressors within the Vaal River System, below the.

  10. Horizontal variation in trace elements and soil characteristics at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... determining the variation in geothermal water, attributed to the rock–water interaction in the deep aquifer (geology); two factors were obtained for variation in soil indicators and trace element concentrations, attributed to spring geology and the soil pedogenesis. There was a strong correlation between the ...

  11. Minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma mushroom species were determined. The results show that fiber content was found highest with 45 g/100 g of dry weight, followed by calcium with 23 g/100 g, carbohydrate with 23 g/100 g, protein with 18.2 g/100 g, iron with 6.41 g/100 g, copper with ...

  12. Biogeochemistry of trace elements and isotopes in the Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MassSpec

    2016-07-02

    Jul 2, 2016 ... >The biogeochemical cycling of trace elements, therefore has direct implications to marine carbon cycle, which in turn influences ocean ecosystem dynamics and climate change. >The distribution of TEs in the oceans and their depositional fluxes hold clues to productivity variations / climate change.

  13. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters.

  14. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  15. Correlation of trace elements in hair with colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K.W.; Shore, R.E.; Redrick, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppM were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...... a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements...... describe an incremental approach to requirements validation and systems modelling. Formal modelling facilitates a high degree of automation: it serves for validation and traceability. The foundation for our approach are requirements that are structured according to the WRSPM reference model. We provide...

  17. Trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru; Wolf, Rainer; Warren, Paul H.; Anders, Edward

    1992-01-01

    New chemical analyses for up to 26 trace elements, including seldom-determined highly siderophile elements Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pd, and Ge, for 59 lunar samples are reported. Most of these samples are polymict breccias from Apollo 16. Remarkably few have Group 7 (extremely low Au/Ir) meteoritic components. Several samples have uncommonly high Au/(Ir + Re) ratios, even higher than group 1L. Volatile-element enrichments are found in several fragments from rusty rock 66095. A matrix sample from fragmental breccia 60639 shows Cd and In enrichments, also observed previously in samples of anorthosite and mare basalt from the same breccia. Evidently, for these highly labile elements, chemical exchange has affected clasts that for most other elements are pristine.

  18. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  19. Serum trace elements in tube-fed neurological dysphagia patients correlate with nutritional indices but do not correlate with trace element intakes: case of patients receiving enough trace elements intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Hitoshi; Tomite, Yasuka; Doi, Mamoru

    2008-08-01

    Patients who have neurological dysphagia induced by cerebrovascular disease are at high risk of malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Since trace elements in serum bind to serum protein, serum trace elements concentration is influenced by serum protein concentration. In addition, serum protein concentration is influenced by malnutrition and inflammation. Therefore, evaluation of serum trace elements concentration has to consider influence of malnutrition and inflammation. In recent years, enteral formula including rich trace elements were developed to prevent trace elements deficiency. However, serum trace elements concentration showed a low level even if patients were receiving enough trace elements intake. We thought that it was effective in nutritional management of patients with malnutrition and inflammation to clarify about correlation among nutritional indices, serum trace elements, and the amount of trace element intake in tube-fed patients. In this study, we aimed to determine nutritional indices that are predictors of serum trace elements in patients with neurological dysphagia on long-term tube feeding. Subjects were 40 elderly bedridden patients with neurological dysphagia induced by cerebrovascular disease. All subjects were fed total enteral nutrition via nasogastric tube. We investigated serum trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) and nutritional indices (body mass index, albumin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, trace elements intake), and analyzed by multiple regression analysis. In addition, we divided subjects into two groups based on inflammatory response. The first group was 20 patients with inflammation (inflammation group), and another group was 20 patients without pneumonia (control group). Subjects were malnourished and showed inflammatory response: low body weight (55%), hypoalbuminemia (58%), moderate or severe inflammation (53%), anemia (38%). Ratio of low serum iron concentration was 43%. Ratio of

  20. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzikowski, Wojciech; Szynkowska, Małgorzata I; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-06-19

    An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential.

  1. Development of Efficient Trace Element Quantification Methods in Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, K. W.; Lonero, A.; Liddell, D.

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of using a faster handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method with little to no sample preparation to facilitate the analysis of several important trace elements in carbonate rocks when dealing with large sample quantities. The use of handheld energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) has become popular because it offers nondestructive quantifiable elemental analyses of samples. ED-XRF has been used by geologists in rock core analyses, and has been shown to be capable of producing robust quantifiable results when compared with wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) for many elements in pelitic rocks. However, there has been little to no published studies on the use of XRF on carbonate rocks, which may be partly due to the scarcity of internationally accepted trace element reference standards. Trace element abundances of several marine carbonate and carbonatite rocks are presented which have been determined in this study by multiple XRF and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. Four carbonate standards in development, provided by the USGS, have been characterized with the use of ICP-MS and WD-XRF. Analyses of all samples were performed using different methods by two independent labs at Utah State University and Washington State University. These standards offer the wide elemental ranges necessary to properly quantify geochemical data within the unique matrix of carbonate rocks. A comparison of pressed powder pellets was made between ED-XRF and WD-XRF on carbonate rock samples from the Ordovician Garden City Formation and Pogonip Group of northern and west-central Utah respectively, to determine differences in results between the two methods. Additionally, slabbed hand samples as well as loose powdered samples prepared from the same rock samples were also analyzed and compared with the pressed powder pellets with ED-XRF, to determine if sample preparation had significant effects on sample

  2. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  3. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  4. Trace elements as an activator of antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wołonciej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a state of impaired balance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of the body. It causes many defects of the body, e.g. lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage. In order to prevent the effects of oxidative stress, the organism has developed defence mechanisms. These mechanisms capture and inhibit the formation of free radicals and also chelate ion metals that catalyse free radical reactions. Trace elements are components of antioxidant enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms. Selenium, as a selenocysteine, is a component of the active site of glutathione peroxidase (GPx. The main function of GPx is neutralization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and organic peroxide (LOOH. Furthermore, selenium is a structural part of a large group of selenoproteins that are necessary for proper functioning of the body. Manganese, copper and zinc are a part of the group of superoxide dismutase enzymes (MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, which catalyse the superoxide anion dismutation into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Formed hydrogen peroxide is decomposed into water and oxygen by catalase or glutathione peroxidase. An integral component of catalase (CAT is iron ions. The concentration of these trace elements has a significant influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thus on defence against oxidative stress. Even a small change in the level of trace elements in the tissue causes a disturbance in their metabolism, leading to the occurrence of many diseases.

  5. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A tephrochronologic method based on apatite trace-element chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Bryan Keith; Samson, Scott Douglas

    Geochemical correlation of ash-fall beds with conventional tephrochronologic methods is not feasible when original glass composition is altered. Thus, alternative correlation methods may be required. Initial studies of heavily altered Paleozoic tephra (K-bentonites) have suggested the potential for employing trace-element concentrations in apatite as ash-fall bed discriminators. To further test the utility of apatite trace-element tephrochronology, we analyzed apatite phenocrysts from unaltered volcanic rocks with an electron microprobe: nine samples from rocks erupted during the Quaternary and one sample from a rock erupted during the Paleogene. The resulting apatite trace-element data provide unique bed discriminators despite within-crystal variability. Each of the volcanic rocks studied possesses unique trends in Mg, Cl, Mn, Fe, Ce and Y concentrations in apatite. The results from this study establish an important tephrochronologic method that can be applied to nearly all portions of the Phanerozoic stratigraphic record and greatly assist development of an advanced timescale. In addition to establishing a fingerprint for a particular eruption, apatite chemistry provides useful information about the source magma.

  7. Interaction of trace elements and ligninolytic enzymes in Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena

    2011-11-01

    Considering the fact that some trace elements have influence on the growth and physiological processes in the fungi, the aim of this study was to resolve the question of whether Fe, Zn, and Se, added to the medium in the different forms, affect activity of selected Pleurotus eryngii ligninolytic enzymes participating in mandarine peels submerged fermentation. Compared with the control, Fe and Zn showed stimulatory effect on laccase activity. Reduction in the activity was emphasized with cultivation time, but it was slower in the presence of Zn than in the presence of Fe. Among studied Se forms, SeO2 was the most unfavorable Se source for laccase activity. All tested trace elements, independent on form, showed stimulatory effect on the activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases on the seventh day of cultivation. Based on the results, it could be concluded that the presence of the tested trace elements can advance various biotechnological processes among which is biodegradation of agricultural wastes, potential environmental pollutants.

  8. Accumulation of Major and Trace Elements in Spider Webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Justyna

    The spider webs of Malthonica ferruginea (Panzer, 1804) from the Agelenidae family were used for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination, and major and trace elements presence in the air of Wrocław, Poland. The concentrations of 16 elements were determined (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, W, Pt, and Pb). Samples of webs were collected from six different locations with low, moderate, and high pollution level (urban of low and high traffic, residential, and postindustrial sites) after 60 days of exposure. Samples collected from high traffic sites and postindustrial site were found to have high contents of elements than residential sites and one of low traffic urban site. The principle component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis provide important information about the potential sources of the elements in spider webs. Two contamination sources were identified: road traffic emissions and industrial. This was a first-time ever attempt to use webs for biomonitoring of small-scale distribution of airborne major and trace elements in the city of Wrocław.

  9. Impact of trace elements on biocompatibility of titanium scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabetrasekh, R; Tiainen, H; Reseland, J E; Lyngstadaas, S P; Haugen, H J [Department for Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, 0317 Oslo (Norway); Will, J [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Henkestr. 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Ellingsen, J E, E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.n [Faculty of Dentistry, Oral Research Laboratory, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, 0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-02-15

    A titanium oxide scaffold has recently been reported with high compressive strength (>2 MPa) which may allow its use in bone. However, would it be possible to enhance the scaffolds' performance by selecting a titanium oxide raw material without elemental contamination? Elements in implant surfaces have been reported to provoke implant failure. Thus, this study aims to compare different commercial titanium dioxide powders in order to choose the appropriate powder for scaffold making. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis identified the trace elements, mainly Al, Si, C, Ca and P. Cellular response was measured by cytotoxic effect, cell growth and cytokine secretion from murine preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) in vitro. The XPS data showed that traces of carbon-based molecules, silicon, nitrogen and aluminium in the powder were greatly reduced after cleaning in 1 M NaOH. As a result, reduction in cytotoxicity and inflammatory response was observed. Carbon contamination seemed to have a minor effect on the cellular response. Strong correlations were found between Al and Si contamination levels and the inflammatory response and cytotoxic effect. Thus, it is suggested that the concentration of these elements should be reduced in order to enhance the scaffolds' biocompatibility.

  10. Impact of trace elements on biocompatibility of titanium scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetrasekh, R; Tiainen, H; Reseland, J E; Will, J; Ellingsen, J E; Lyngstadaas, S P; Haugen, H J

    2010-02-01

    A titanium oxide scaffold has recently been reported with high compressive strength (>2 MPa) which may allow its use in bone. However, would it be possible to enhance the scaffolds' performance by selecting a titanium oxide raw material without elemental contamination? Elements in implant surfaces have been reported to provoke implant failure. Thus, this study aims to compare different commercial titanium dioxide powders in order to choose the appropriate powder for scaffold making. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis identified the trace elements, mainly Al, Si, C, Ca and P. Cellular response was measured by cytotoxic effect, cell growth and cytokine secretion from murine preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) in vitro. The XPS data showed that traces of carbon-based molecules, silicon, nitrogen and aluminium in the powder were greatly reduced after cleaning in 1 M NaOH. As a result, reduction in cytotoxicity and inflammatory response was observed. Carbon contamination seemed to have a minor effect on the cellular response. Strong correlations were found between Al and Si contamination levels and the inflammatory response and cytotoxic effect. Thus, it is suggested that the concentration of these elements should be reduced in order to enhance the scaffolds' biocompatibility.

  11. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia.

  12. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to determine nesting success of aquatic birds, trace element concentrations in the aquatic food chain, and whether trace elements...

  13. Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, P. L.; Weisend, R.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Trace element cycling in marine particles is influenced by atmospheric deposition, vertical export, biological uptake and remineralization, scavenging, and lateral transport processes. To investigate the cycling of lithogenic particles in the central North Pacific Ocean, surface and vertical profile samples of marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected July-August 2012 during the HOE-DYLAN cruises at Station ALOHA. In the late summer, atmospheric dust inputs from the Gobi desert (which peak during the spring, April-May) were sparse, as indicated by low surface particulate Ti (pTi) concentrations. In contrast, surface pAl concentrations did not follow pTi trends as expected, but appear to be dominated by scavenging/uptake of dissolved Al during diatom blooms. Surface pMn concentrations were low, but vertical profiles of pMn and pMn/pTi reveal a strong sedimentary source at 200 m, originating from the Hawaiian continental shelf through a combination of redox mobilization and resuspension processes. The redox active elements Ce and Co can have chemistries similar to that of Mn, but in these samples the pCe and pCo distributions were distinct from Mn and each other in both surface trends and vertical profiles. Surface pREE (e.g., La, Ce, Pr) were highest during the earliest sampling events and quickly decreased to consistently low concentrations, while vertical distributions were characterized by scavenging onto biotic particles and mid-depth inputs. The surface particulate Co trend is similar to those of pAl and pP, while the pCo vertical profiles reflect surface enrichment but low concentrations and little variability at depth. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the biological influence over particulate trace element cycling (Weisend et al., "Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA").

  14. Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Christine; Schäfer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-12

    The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).

  15. Enrichment of trace elements in bottom ash from coal oxy-combustion: Effect of coal types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the enrichment of trace elements in two coals under air and oxy-combustion conditions was studied. Twenty-one trace elements were evaluated. The two coal samples had a different concentration for the 21 trace elements, which was due...

  16. Association of antiepileptic drug usage, trace elements and thyroid hormone status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Zevenbergen (Chantal); T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); Schuette, A. (Andrea); R.P. Peeters (Robin); M. Medici (Marco); T.J. Visser (Theo); L. Schomburg (Lutz); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and trace elements (copper (Cu) and selenium (Se)) are important for development and function of the brain. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) can influence serum TH and trace element levels. As the relationship between AEDs, THs, and trace elements

  17. Liver Enzymes and Trace Elements in the Acute Phase of Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Trace elements are required for the performance of numerous functions of immune cells. It is not clear whether levels of trace elements are elevated and whether there is a relationship between the levels of liver enzymes and trace elements in patients with sickle cell anaemia in crisis. OBJECTIVE: To ...

  18. Trace elements and carcinogenicity: a subject in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is known to be a multi-step process, which involves different stages including initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis. Chemical carcinogens including most trace elements can change any of these processes to induce their carcinogenic effects. Various studies confirm that cancer arises from the accumulation of irreversible DNA damage, which results from multiple mutations in critical genes in the body organ. Chemical carcinogens most often directly or after xenobiotic metabolism, act as genotoxic causes to induce DNA damage. Genotoxic carcinogen refers to a group of chemicals capable of producing cancer by directly altering the genetic material of target cells. Other carcinogens are however classified as non-genotoxic, which represents chemicals that are capable of producing cancer by some secondary mechanism not related to direct gene damage. They act as tumor promoters, endocrine-modifiers, receptor mediators, immunosuppressant, or inducers of tissue-specific toxicity and inflammatory responses. The diversity of modes of action, of non-genotoxic carcinogens, the tissue and species specificity and the absence of genotoxicity makes it extremely hard to predict their carcinogenic potential. The roles of trace metals (some of which are either genotoxic or non-genotoxic) in cancer development and inhibition have a complex character and have raised many questions because of their essential and toxic effects on people's health. Trace metals such as cadmium, nickel, arsenic, beryllium and chromium (VI) have been recognized as human or animal carcinogens by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The Carcinogenic capability of these metals depends mainly on factors such as oxidation states and chemical structures. The oxidative concept in metal carcinogenesis proposes that complexes formed by these metals, in vivo, in the vicinity of DNA, catalyze redox reactions, which in turn oxidize DNA. The most significant effect of reactive oxygen species

  19. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (ptrace elements. PMID:26742967

  20. Cycles of selected trace elements in the South Atlantic: Vertical transport and interactions between particulates and solution; Zum Kreislauf ausgewaehlter Spurenmetalle im Suedatlantik: Vertikaltransport und Wechselwirkung zwischen Partikeln und Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierssen, H.

    1999-07-01

    Subjects: Concentrations, vertical and regional distributions of dissolved and suspended particulate trace elements; Trace element fluxes - vertical, regional, seasonal; The role of particulate organic carbon and atmospheric dust in vertical transport; Fractionation of trace elements in particulate material during transport. [German] Themen dieser Arbeit sind: Konzentrationen, vertikale und regionale Verteilungen von geloesten und suspendierten partikulaeren Spurenelementem (SE); SE-Fluesse vertikal, regional und saisonal; die Rolle des partikulaeren organischen Kohlenstoffs und des atmosphaerischen Staubeintrags beim Vertikaltransport; Fraktionierung von SE im partikulaeren Material beim Transport. (orig./SR)

  1. Tracking Iceland Plume Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle plume. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-plume interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the plume conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical plume tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland plume conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the plume conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting region. Above the plume conduit, plume-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting region faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the plume conduit than away from the plume conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the plume conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the plume conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the plume conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The plume track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland Plume has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of

  2. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  3. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  4. Volatiles and trace elements in melt inclusions from Siberian Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, S.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Svensen, H.

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) was synchronous with the largest known mass extinction, at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Understanding the volatile budget of the eruptions and hence their potential effects on climate is of critical importance. The volcanism spanned an enormous territory (5 million km2) over 0.8 Ma and the magmas feeding the eruptions were heterogeneous in their chemistry in space and time. In terms of volatiles in pre-eruptive magmas, there are multiple possible sources: the mantle (including metasomatized lithosphere) and crustal rocks and sediments. Discriminating between these sources requires not only microanalysis of volatiles in melt inclusions, but also analysis of trace elements. Crucially, the magmas sampled for this study did not intersect and assimilate evaporite deposits or brines prior to emplacement as sills or eruption as lavas, in contrast to previous studies, which might allow mantle-derived volatile heterogeneity to be preserved in the melts. We present a new dataset of clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusion geochemistry. Crystalline inclusions in clinopyroxene with Mg# from 69.2 to 82.6 were homogenized at temperatures of 1190°C and fO2 of FMQ-1 in a high temperature gas mixing furnace. We show that, for this particular suite of lavas, considerable variability exists in trace and volatile element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Nb/Y, Ba/La, F/Nd, Cl/K) that may be explained entirely by mantle heterogeneity. The most depleted melts (e.g. low La/Yb) have the highest range and values of S/Dy, Cl/K and F/Nd ratios; and the most "enriched" melts (highest La/Yb) exhibit low volatile/trace element ratios. These trends are consistent with mixing between end member sources: low degrees of melting of a volatile-poor source and high degrees of melting of a volatile-rich component with a depleted trace element signature (which might be consistent with minimally devolatilised recycled oceanic crust). There is no clear

  5. La formule des traces tordue d’après le Friday Morning Seminar

    CERN Document Server

    Labesse, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    La formule des traces pour un groupe réductif connexe arbitraire est due à James Arthur. Le cas tordu a fait l'objet du Friday Morning Seminar à l'Institute for Advanced Study de Princeton pendant l'année académique 1983-1984. Lors de ce séminaire, des exposés ont été présentés par Laurent Clozel, Jean-Pierre Labesse et Robert Langlands. Les notes de ces exposés, rédigées dans l'urgence, avaient besoin d'être revues et complétées. L'ambition des auteurs du présent ouvrage est de donner, en s'appuyant sur ces notes, une preuve complète pour la formule des traces tordue, dans sa version primitive i.e. sa forme non invariante. Ceci est la première étape du projet de l'équipe parisienne animée par Laurent Clozel et Jean-Loup Waldspurger, dont le but est de donner une preuve complète de la stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue, qui est l'outil fondamental utilisé par J. Arthur dans son livre à paraître sur l'endoscopie tordue pour le groupe linéaire avec application aux groupes ...

  6. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Trace element analysis on speleothems using micro-XRF scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Dudashvilli, Alexey; Cheng, Hai; Wolff, Christian; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2015-04-01

    Non-destructive micro-XRF scanning is a well-established, accurate and efficient method for high-resolution geochemical analyses on finely laminated sediments, e.g. for distinguishing detrital and authigenic layers in lake sediments. To test this method's applicability on speleothems, micro-XRF scanning analyses were performed on finely polished speleothems using the EAGLE-III-XL micro-XRF scanner at GFZ Potsdam. This scanner can perform multi-element analyses over a predefined sampling profile at sampling rates between 20 and 250 micro m trace of samples no larger than 30 x 30 cm. We measured profiles on two late to mid Holocene stalagmites from caves of the Keklik and Uluu Too mountains near Osh (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) with a spot size of 53 micro m. We ran each profile at least twice to obtain replicate measurements of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr. The caves are situated in Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous limestone formations at the SE rim of the Fergana Basin. Both speleothems are characterized by distinct alternating light and darker colored laminae that also reveal strong variations of trace elements and potentially provide information concerning variations in dust load, soil development, vegetation, precipitation and infiltration. One speleothem shows elevated Cl and S contents during relatively dry periods associated with salt dust input, probably derived from the Aral Sea region. Identification of the dry periods is further supported by stable oxygen and carbon isotope data. The multi-proxy chemical analyses suggest that Holocene humidity variations in this region are linked to variable strength of the North Atlantic westerlies regime. However, further validation of element variations in speleothems based on host rock and soil chemistry, monitored drip water composition and local climatic variations are needed to improve climatic and of environmental interpretations.

  8. Forensic discrimination of copper wire using trace element concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Joshua R; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Saunders, Christopher P; Snyder, Deanna L; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-08-19

    Copper may be recovered as evidence in high-profile cases such as thefts and improvised explosive device incidents; comparison of copper samples from the crime scene and those associated with the subject of an investigation can provide probative associative evidence and investigative support. A solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for measuring trace element concentrations in high-purity copper was developed using standard reference materials. The method was evaluated for its ability to use trace element profiles to statistically discriminate between copper samples considering the precision of the measurement and manufacturing processes. The discriminating power was estimated by comparing samples chosen on the basis of the copper refining and production process to represent the within-source (samples expected to be similar) and between-source (samples expected to be different) variability using multivariate parametric- and empirical-based data simulation models with bootstrap resampling. If the false exclusion rate is set to 5%, >90% of the copper samples can be correctly determined to originate from different sources using a parametric-based model and >87% with an empirical-based approach. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the developed method for the comparison of copper samples encountered as forensic evidence.

  9. Cellular Trace Element Changes in Type 1 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurlu, Vahap; Binay, Çiğdem; Şimşek, Enver; Bal, Cengiz

    2016-06-05

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may lead to deficiencies in trace elements that have substantial functions in the human organism. Changes in serum magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) levels are correlated with metabolic control and diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-erythrocyte levels of trace elements and urinary Mg excretion following intravenous (iv) Mg tolerance testing in children with T1DM. A total of 43 children aged 2-18 years with T1DM and age/gender-matched 25 healthy children were included in the study. The iv Mg tolerance test was performed following the measurement of intra-erythrocyte Mg (eMg1), Cu (eCu1), and Zn (eZn1) levels using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. The Mg retention ratio was estimated from measurements in 24 h urine samples. No statistically significant difference was found for eMg1, eCu1, and eZn1 levels between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). In the patient group, the eMg1, eCu1, and eZn1 levels measured after the iv Mg tolerance test significantly increased compared with the baseline levels (p50%. The increased retention value following the iv Mg tolerance testing indicates intracellular Mg deficiency in children with T1DM.

  10. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  11. Trace elements in reindeer from Rybatsjij Ostrov, north western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Bernhoft

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus grazing the Rybatsjij Ostrov peninsula, north western Russia, northeast of the industrial towns of Nikel and Zapoljarnij, were analysed for hepatic concentrations of trace elements [arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, selenium (Se, and zinc (Zn] by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median (range concentrations (jig/g wet weight deter¬mined in liver samples from 40 reindeer with even sex ratio and representation from different age classes were As 0.035 (0.017-0.048, Cd 0.34 (0.15-1.2, Cr 0.008 (<0.002-0.022, Co 0.09 (0.06-0.12, Cu 98 (29-220, Pb 0.56 (0.23-1.0, Hg 0.16 (0.08-0.31, Ni 0.027 (<0.020-0.13, Se 0.88 (0.56-1.3 and Zn 37 (24-105. The concentrations of Cd increased and Ni decreased with age. The measured liver concentrations were below levels of toxicological sig¬nificance to the animals. It can be inferred that there is no risk with the measured trace elements to human health associated with the consumption of meat from these reindeer.

  12. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  13. Accessory Mineral Geochronology and Trace Element Fingerprinting of Metamorphic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, A.

    2009-05-01

    Zircon and monazite are the most versatile tools for geochronological studies in magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. New trace element techniques are now used to link growth and modification to pressure and temperature evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks and to coexisting minerals. Studies on the distribution of rare earth elements (REE) have mainly focused on garnet and zircon relationships and which distribution patterns constitute equilibrium under different metamorphic conditions. But a more detailed understanding of the growth and modification processes of accessory phases is needed to provide better constraints for genetic models and multiple method datasets (U-Pb, REE, trace element thermometry, imaging) is essential. We use this approach on examples from high-temperature low-pressure granulites of Rogaland (SW Norway) and UHT medium pressure granulites from the Labwor Hills (Uganda) to illustrate the influence of major and accessory mineral reactions on the trace element signature of zircon and monazite. Relatively flat zircon HREE patterns, often associated with coexisting garnet, can also be found in orthopyroxene-bearing, garnet free assemblages. The zircon-opx distribution patterns are similar to zircon-garnet pairs from UHT leucosomes and granulites. Some garnet-bearing granulites are characterized by zircon overgrowths with xenotime inclusions and elevated Y- and HREE-contents, interpreted to reflect garnet breakdown at high T. Zircon and monazite in Labwor Hills metasedimentary granulites both have modified domains. Monazite has low Th rims that yield erroneous high chemical ages, interpreted to be due to loss of Th, while remnants of radiogenic Pb remain during the recrystallization process. Zircon in contrast has high Th rims and domains along sealed cracks that are characterized by anomalously high Th/U ratios (not previously associated with metamorphic growth or modification) and unusual REE patterns. These features are

  14. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Chemistry of trace elements in coalbed methane product water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Ian; Reddy, Katta J; Skinner, Quentin D

    2003-02-01

    Extraction of methane (natural gas) from coal deposits is facilitated by pumping of aquifer water. Coalbed methane (CBM) product water, produced from pumping ground water, is discharged into associated unlined holding ponds. The objective of this study was to examine the chemistry of trace elements in CBM product water at discharge points and in associated holding ponds across the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Product water samples from discharge points and associated holding ponds were collected from the Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), and Little Powder River (LPR) watersheds during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Samples were analyzed for pH, Al (aluminum), As (arsenic), B (boron), Ba (barium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), F (fluoride), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese), Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), and Zn (zinc). Chemistry of trace element concentrations were modeled with the MINTEQA2 geochemical equilibrium model. Results of this study show that pH of product water for three watersheds increased in holding ponds. For example the pH of CBM product water increased from 7.21 to 8.26 for LPR watershed. Among three watersheds, the CBM product water exhibited relatively less change in trace element concentrations in CHR watershed holding ponds. Concentration of dissolved Al, Fe, As, Se, and F in product water increased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For example, concentration of dissolved Fe increased from 113 to 135 microg/L. Boron, Cu, and Zn concentrations of product water did not change in BFR watershed holding ponds. However, concentration of dissolved Ba, Mn, and Cr in product water decreased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For instance, Ba and Cr concentrations decreased from 445 to 386 microg/L and from 43.6 to 25.1 microg/L, respectively. In the LPR watershed, Al, Fe, As, Se, and F concentrations of product water increased substantially in holding ponds. For example, Fe concentration increased from 192 to 312 microg/L. However, concentration of

  16. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  17. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  18. Global multiplicity of dietary standards for trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Lee, Jane J

    2012-06-01

    Consistent guidelines across the world for dietary standards of trace elements remain elusive. Harmonization of dietary standards has been suggested by international agencies to facilitate consistency in food and nutrition policies and international trade. Yet significant barriers exist to standardize recommendations on a global basis, such as vast differences in geography, food availability and transport; cultural, social and economic constraints, and biological diversity. Simple commonality is precluded further by the variety of terminologies among countries and regions related to diet. Certain unions have created numerous nutritional descriptive categories for standards, while other large countries are limited to only a few. This paper will explore the global multiplicity of dietary standards and efforts for harmonization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace elements and pesticides in Salton Sea area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Setmire, James G.; Wolfe, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of numerous potentially toxic trace elements and pesticides were determined in water, sediment, and biota from the Salton Sea area in southestern California. Comparison of results with data from other studies in this area and from other areas, and with various water-quality standards or criteria, indicate that selenium probably is the principal contaminant of concern in the Salton Sea basin and that it probably is related to agricultural practices. Selenium is mobilized in the subsurface drainwater produced by agricultural irrigation and transported in ditches and rivers, some of which pass through or near the Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge before entering the Salton Sea. Some selenium apparently is incorporated into the food chain. In response to the finding of elevated selenium residues in fish from the area by State agencies, the Imperial County Health Department has issued a health advisory restricting or prohibiting human consumption of fish from the Salton Sea and drains.

  20. Trace elements and cognitive impairment: an elderly cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgon, C; Mari, E; Atti, A R; Dalla Nora, E; Zamboni, P F; Calzoni, F; Passaro, A; Fellin, R

    2004-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most pressing public health problems with social and economic implication. The form called cognitive impairment non-dementia (CIND)represents a subclinical phase of dementia. Different studies have shown a possible effect of micro- and macro-nutrients on cognitive function. Trace elements, being involved in metabolic processes and redox reactions in the central nervous system (CNS), could influence the cognitive functions. This study evaluated the presence of an eventual correlation between serum trace element concentrations and cognitive function in a group of subjects with CIND and manifest dementia (Alzheimer dementia = AD, and vascular dementia = VaD), and compared them with a control group. Thirty -five patients were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent a clinical and biochemical examination. We also performed a neuropsychological and functional assessment (the Milan overall dementia assessment = MODA, activities of daily living = ADL, and instrumental activities of daily living = IADL), and a computerized tomographic (CT) cerebral scan. Patients were than divided in 4 groups according to the obtained diagnosis (Controls, CIND, AD, VaD). The presence of any acute or chronic conditions, affecting cognitive functions, was considered as exclusion criteria. A blood sample was collected to determine iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu),molybdenum (Mo) and aluminium (Al) serum concentrations (chromatographic,spectrophotometric methods). In our cohort we found a positive correlation between cognitive function, expressed as the MODA score, and Se, Cr, Co and Fe serum levels,while a negative correlation was observed between MODA score, Cu and Al serum levels.Moreover, some statistically significant differences in Se, Cr, Co, Cu and Al concentrations were found among the groups. According to these results, we may suppose that Se, Cr and Co protect cognitive function, Cu influences

  1. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  2. The influence of macro and trace elements on sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał; Horak, Stanisław; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between combined concentrations of macro and trace elements and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system function together with selected cytokine levels. Based on the combined medians of the seminal plasma levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium, the study subjects (88 fertile male volunteers) were divided into the following two subgroups: the Me-L group (low level of metals) and the Me-H group (high level of metals). There was a tendency toward reduced motility in the Me-H group compared to that in the Me-L group. The total protein, albumin, and total oxidation status (TOS) levels were significantly higher in the Me-H group than in the Me-L group. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, and CuZn-SOD, activity in spermatozoa were significantly lower in the Me-H group than in the Me-L group. In seminal plasma, the Mn-SOD activity was significantly higher in the Me-H group, whereas the CuZn-SOD activity was significantly lower. Additionally, the activity levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were lower in the Me-H group. The medians of IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-12 were significantly higher in the Me-H group than in the Me-L group, whereas the medians of IL-2, IL-5, and IL-13 were significantly lower. Higher levels of macro and trace elements in the seminal plasma of fertile males may be associated with decreased motility. Higher levels of the examined metals are associated with elevated oxidative stress accompanied by decreased activities of some of the antioxidant enzymes and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. [A trace element analysis of hair in stroke with comorbid depression and cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataeva, N G; Otmakhov, V I; Petrova, E V; Kuskova, I S; Sharaevskaya, E A; Kataev, S G; Berestneva, O G

    2015-01-01

    To identify changes in the concentration of trace elements in hair of post stroke patients with comorbid depression and cognitive impairment. Authors examined macro - and trace element hair composition of 63 stroke patients with comorbid depressive and cognitive disorders. The quantity determination was performed by atomic emission spectroscopy. An increase in hair concentrations of conditionally toxic elements Cd and Pb, essential trace elements Cu, Fe, Mn and decrease in concentrations of Zn were found in the patients with comorbid depression compared to reference values. Post stroke patients with comorbid depression and cognitive impairment had disturbances of the metabolism of trace elements involved in the intrinsic systems of homeostasis.

  4. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Controls on organic accumulation in late Jurassic shales of northwestern Europe as inferred from trace-metal geochemistry; Controles de l'accumulation de matiere organique dans la Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Jurassique superieur, Yorkshire, G.B.) et son equivalent lateral du Boulonnais: l'apport des elements traces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribovillard, N.; Trentesaux, A.; Riboulleau, A. [Lille-1 Univ., UMR PBDS 8110, CNRS, UFR des Sciences de la Terre, 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Ramdani, A. [Paris-11 Univ., Sciences de la Terre, 91 - Orsay (France); Baudin, F. [Paris-6 Univ., FR 32, CNRS, Dept. de Geologie Sedimentaire, 75 (France)

    2004-07-01

    In the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the Wessex-Weald Basin, five organic-matter-rich intervals (or ORIs), dated from Kimmeridgian-Tithonian times, can be correlated from distal depositional environments in Dorset and Yorkshire (UK) to the proximal environments in Boulonnais, northern France. The ORIs are superimposed on a meter-scale cyclic distribution of organic matter (OM), referred to as primary cyclicity, which is commonly interpreted to result from Milankovitch climate forcing. The present work addresses the distribution of redox-sensitive and/or sulfide-forming trace metals and selected major elements (Si, Al and Fe) in Kimmeridge Clay shales from the Cleveland Basin (Yorkshire) and the Boulonnais cliffs with two objectives: 1) to determine whether the ORIs formed in similar paleo-environments, and 2) to identify the mechanism(s) of OM accumulation. High-resolution geochemical data from primary cycles in the Yorkshire boreholes (Marton and Ebberstone boreholes), were studied and the results are then applied with lower resolution sampling at the ORI scale in the Flixton borehole and Boulonnais cliff. Good correlations are found between total organic carbon (TOC) vs Cu/Al and Ni/Al, but relationships between TOC and Mo/Al, V/Al and U/Al are more complex. Cu and Ni enrichment is interpreted to have resulted from passive accumulation with OM in an oxygen-deficient basinal setting, which prevented the subsequent loss of Cu and Ni from the sediment. Mo and V were significantly enriched only in sediments where considerable amounts of OM (TOC>7%) accumulated, the result of strongly reducing conditions and OM burial. At the scale of the Flixton ORB, the samples with the highest Mo and V concentrations also show relative Fe enrichment suggesting pyrite formation in the water column (combination of euxinic conditions and presumably low sedimentation rates). Samples from all Nils were slightly enriched in Si relative to Al, interpreted as reflecting decreased sediment

  6. Elemental analysis of trace elements in fly ash sample of Yatagan thermal power plants using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.; Kobya, M. [Selcuk University, Meram (Turkey). Faculty of Education

    2006-09-15

    Fly ash samples collected by means of an electrostatic precipitator from the lignite-fired Yatagan Power Plants of the located in Turkey was analysed using X-ray fluorescence technique. Five trace elements, namely Nd, Ba, Sr, Mo and As were quantified using XRF. These concentration values can be helpful in developing an environmental pollution abatement approach for various applications of fly ash such as cement manufacture, wastewater treatment, lightweight contraction aggregate, ceramic production, and secondary source in recovery of valuable elements. Present results compared with results of the Kemerkoy thermal power plants.

  7. THE DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN TUNGSTEN AND MOLYBDENUM BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of trace elements in tungsten and molybdenum by optical emission spectroscopy is complicated by the complex spectra and continuum...of value for this analysis. As many as 10 trace elements have been determined. Only one element can be determined at a time but the total time for the

  8. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. PMID:26197334

  9. Trace Elements Characteristic Based on ICP-AES and the Correlation of Flavonoids from Sparganii rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Wu, Yanfang; Wu, Chengying; Wu, Qinan; Niu, Qingshan

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the trace elements and the correlation with flavonoids from Sparganii rhizoma. The ICP-AES and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were employed to analyze trace elements and flavonoids. The concentrations of trace elements and flavonoids were calculated using standard curve. The content of flavonoids was expressed as rutin equivalents. The cluster analysis was applied to evaluate geographical features of S. rhizoma from different geographical regions. The correlation analysis was used to obtain the relationship between the trace elements and flavonoids. The results indicated that the 15 trace elements were measured and the K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, Cu, and Zn are rich in Sparganii rhizome. The different producing regions samples were classified into four groups. There was a weak relationship between trace elements and flavonoids.

  10. Trace-element contents of postorogenic granites of the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Vaughn, R.B.; VanTrump, George

    1986-01-01

    Trace-element contents for 46 postorogenic granitoids vary by as much as two orders of magnitude; most samples are strongly enriched in incompatible elements (such as the heavy rare earths, yttrium, niobium, and uranium) and depleted in the compatible elements (such as barium, strontium, scandium, europium, and cobalt). These trace-element characteristics are typical of A-type granites found in other areas of the world. In spite of the wide range in trace-element contents, no samples contained economically significant concentrations of a single element.

  11. Trace element trophic transfer in aquatic organisms: A critique of the kinetic model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.; Nichols, J.W.; Wang, W.-X.

    1998-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of trace elements in aquatic organisms can be described with a kinetic model that includes linear expressions for uptake and elimination from dissolved and dietary sources. Within this model, trace element trophic transfer is described by four parameters: the weight-specific ingestion rate (IR); the assimilation efficiency (AE); the physiological loss rate constant (ke); and the weight-specific growth rate (g). These four parameters define the trace element trophic transfer potential (TTP=IR·AE/[ke+g]) which is equal to the ratio of the steady-state trace element concentration in a consumer due to trophic accumulation to that in its prey. Recent work devoted to the quantification of AE and ke for a variety of trace elements in aquatic invertebrates has provided the data needed for comparative studies of trace element trophic transfer among different species and trophic levels and, in at least one group of aquatic consumers (marine bivalves), sensitivity analyses and field tests of kinetic bioaccumulation models. Analysis of the trophic transfer potentials of trace elements for which data are available in zooplankton, bivalves, and fish, suggests that slight variations in assimilation efficiency or elimination rate constant may determine whether or not some trace elements (Cd, Se, and Zn) are biomagnified. A linear, single-compartment model may not be appropriate for fish which, unlike many aquatic invertebrates, have a large mass of tissue in which the concentrations of most trace elements are subject to feedback regulation.

  12. Trace Elements and Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Organisms from a Tropical Coastal Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hattum, B.; de Boer, J.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Rezende, C. E.; Salomons, W.

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were analyzed in sediments, invertebrates, and fishes from a tropical coastal lagoon influenced by iron ore mining and processing activities to assess the differences in trace element accumulation patterns among species and to investigate relations with trophic levels of the organisms involved. Overall significant negative relations between trophic level (given by 15N) and trace element concentrations in gastropods and crustaceans showed differences in internal controls of trace element accumulation among the species of different trophic positions, leading to trace element dilution. Generally, no significant relation between δ15N and trace element concentrations was observed among fish species, probably due to omnivory in a number of species as well as fast growth. Trace element accumulation was observed in the fish tissues, with higher levels of most trace elements found in liver compared with muscle and gill. Levels of Fe, Mn, Al, and Hg in invertebrates, and Fe and Cu in fish livers, were comparable with levels in organisms and tissues from other contaminated areas. Trace element levels in fish muscle were below the international safety baseline standards for human consumption. PMID:20217062

  13. Sampling Mantle Heterogeneity through Oceanic Basalts: Isotopes and Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.

    2003-12-01

    Early History of Mantle GeochemistryUntil the arrival of the theories of plate tectonics and seafloor spreading in the 1960s, the Earth's mantle was generally believed to consist of peridotites of uniform composition. This view was shared by geophysicists, petrologists, and geochemists alike, and it served to characterize the compositions and physical properties of mantle and crust as "Sial" (silica-alumina) of low density and "Sima" (silica-magnesia) of greater density. Thus, Hurley and his collaborators were able to distinguish crustal magma sources from those located in the mantle on the basis of their initial strontium-isotopic compositions (Hurley et al., 1962; and Hurley's lectures and popular articles not recorded in the formal scientific literature). In a general way, as of early 2000s, this view is still considered valid, but literally thousands of papers have since been published on the isotopic and trace-elemental composition of oceanic basalts because they come from the mantle and they are rich sources of information about the composition of the mantle, its differentiation history and its internal structure. Through the study of oceanic basalts, it was found that the mantle is compositionally just as heterogeneous as the crust. Thus, geochemistry became a major tool to decipher the geology of the mantle, a term that seems more appropriate than the more popular "chemical geodynamics."The pioneers of this effort were Gast, Tilton, Hedge, Tatsumoto, and Hart (Hedge and Walthall, 1963; Gast et al., 1964; Tatsumoto, et al., 1965; Hart, 1971). They discovered from isotope analyses of strontium and lead in young (effectively zero age) ocean island basalts (OIBs) and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) that these basalts are isotopically not uniform. The isotope ratios 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb increase as a function of time and the respective radioactive-parent/nonradiogenic daughter ratios, 87Rb/86Sr, 238U/204Pb, 235U/204Pb, and 232Th

  14. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.

    1995-09-01

    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  15. Trace Elements and Oxygen Isotope Zoning of the Sidewinder Skarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C.; Gevedon, M. L.; Barnes, J.; Lackey, J. S.; Jiang, H.; Lee, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Skarns of the Verde Antique Quarry and White Horse Mountain areas of the Sidewinder Range give insight into the paleohydrothermal systems operating in the California's Jurassic arc in the Southwestern Mojave Desert. Garnet from these skarns is iron rich: Xand= 55-100. Laser fluorination measurements show oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of garnet crystals and crystals domains have large ranges: -3.1‰ to +4.4‰ and -8.9‰ to +3.4‰, respectively. In general, the garnet cores have more negative δ18O values than rims, although oscillations are present. Negative values have been interpreted as influx of meteoric fluid and positive values as increased magmatic input. Here we report major and trace element concentrations for 17 core to rim Sidewinder garnet transects. REEs concentrations are low in all crystals, with total REE concentrations ranging from 0.710 ppm to 33.7 ppm, values that are lower than Cretaceous skarn garnets in the Sierra Nevada in the White Chief and Empire Mt skarns. Such low concentrations are likely due to the higher fraction of meteoric fluids during formation of the Sidewinder skarns. REE concentrations decrease from core to rim (REE core average=12.2ppm, REE rim average=7.21ppm). This is slightly more pronounced in the LREEs than in the HREEs (LaN/YbN core average= 10.9; rim average= 9.73, normalized to Chondrite). X­and tends to decrease core to rim in the Verde Antique skarn, whereas, Xand of the White Horse skarn does not correlate with distance from core. A large positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 3­-30) in garnet from both skarns suggests oxidizing fluid conditions. Oxygen isotope data from garnet in these same skarns show periods of time with increased proportion of magmatic derived fluids in the total fluid budget. However, there is no corresponding widespread increase in total REE concentrations. Other studies of skarns from the western Sierra Nevadan arc (White Chief and Empire Mountain) observe complete decoupling of d18O values

  16. Characterisation and quantification of trace metal elements in atmospheric deposition and particularities in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees): implementation of road traffic air quality indicators; Caracterisation et quantification des elements traces metalliques dans les depots et les particules atmospheriques de la vallee d'Aspe (Pyrenees): Mise en place d'indicateurs de la qualite de l'air lies au trafic routier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veschambre, S

    2006-04-15

    This study of inputs of trace metal elements (TME) in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees Atlantiques) has two objectives: (1) to define a reference state of metallic contaminants for the monitoring of road traffic emissions since the opening of the Somport tunnel and, (2) to evaluate sources and climatic conditions which contribute to TME inputs in the Aspe valley. To establish air quality indicators, TME (Al, Na, Mg, K, V, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Rb, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pb and U) and lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) were determined in the atmospheric receptors (fresh snow, wet deposition, atmospheric particulates and lichen). Sampling and analyses with ultra clean procedures were employed for TME quantification. Variability of atmospheric receptors studied, allows integration on a daily and pluri-annual temporal scale and a spatial scale in the North-South axis of the valley and as a function of the altitude from the road. The Aspe valley presents a level of contamination characteristic of remote European areas and the metallic contaminants identified are Cd, Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb and Sn. In the low valley, air quality indicators indicate contaminant contributions (i) from local emissions of domestic heat sources, from agricultural burning practices and road traffic, and (ii) from regional anthropogenic sources of waste incinerators, metallurgic industries and urban centres. In altitude, the valley is significantly influenced by wind erosion and long range transport of TME in the Northern Hemisphere. Characterisation of TME and the isotopic ratios of Pb in the Somport tunnel indicate (i) a significant emission of Cu, Sb, Zn and Ba and (ii) an isotopic composition from a slightly radiogenic source even though Pb concentrations indicate low emissions from road traffic emissions. Nevertheless, the low traffic volume in the Aspe valley prevents conclusive evidence of significant contamination from road traffic. (author)

  17. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  18. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  19. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas

    2013-07-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  20. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  1. Toxic Metal and Essential Trace Element Levels of Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Akinci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Blood donors are screened for various pathogens including hepatitis and cytomegalovirus. Screening for toxic metal levels is not routine process. The aims of our study were to determine the whole blood levels of toxic metals, cadmium and lead, and levels of the trace elements iron, zinc, and copper, of non-exposed Turkish subjects and also to identify individuals living under the risk of chronic metal toxicity. Material and Method: Whole blood lead and cadmium levels were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Metal levels were determined in the whole blood and serum samples of 211 male blood donors (aged 19 to 55; 33.71±8.69 years. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSSv16. Results: Average levels of cadmium, lead, zinc, copper and iron were found to be 1.27±0.88 µg L-1, 25.1±12.44 µg L-1, 0.97±0.16 mg L-1, 1.10±0.21 mg L-1, and 476.53±42.41 mg L-1, respectively. Donor age had a statistically significant positive correlation only with copper levels (p0.05. A statistically significant association was found between smoking and cadmium levels (p

  2. Major and trace element geochemistry of S-type cosmic spherules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.

    ). These components have the potential to provide evidence toward the understanding of the early solar nebular evolution. The variations in the major element and trace element compositions of 155 different type (scoriaceous, relict bearing, porphyritic, barred...

  3. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...... the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial...

  4. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace Element and Stable Isotope Analyses of Deep Sea Fish from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Pollution of marine ecosystems by trace elements is of global environmental concern. Elements in trace concentrations are normal constituents of marine organisms. At high levels they are ...... Hakuho Maru of the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, for collecting the samples. This study was supported by grants ...

  6. Measurement of Trace Elements During the Development and Immune Response of Heliothis virescens Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many studies have examined the effect of microbial infections on the status of trace elements in mammalian tissues, similar studies have not been performed in insects. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify changes in trace elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and ...

  7. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  8. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2017-09-13

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  9. THE ROLE OF GLUTATHIONE IN BILE SECRETION OF ENDOGENOUS TRACE-ELEMENTS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKSTRA, M; KUIPERS, F; SMIT, EP; HAVINGA, R; VONK, RJ

    To evaluate the role of glutathione in biliary secretion of endogenous trace elements, we quantitated trace element output rates by proton-induced x-ray emission under various conditions with altered biliary glutathione secretion and hepatic glutathione content in the rat. Treatment with

  10. Interspecific differences in egg production affect egg trace element concentrations after a coal fly ash spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Beck, Michelle L; Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A

    2013-12-03

    In oviparous vertebrates, trace elements transfer from mother to offspring during egg production. For animals that produce eggs slowly, like turtles, the trace element concentration of each egg reflects an integration of dietary and stored accumulation over the duration of vitellogenesis. Because turtles also produce eggs synchronously, all eggs within a clutch should exhibit uniform trace element concentrations. In contrast, for animals that produce eggs in sequence and primarily from current dietary resources, like many birds, the trace element concentrations of eggs should be less uniform within a clutch, and likely reflect short-term changes in dietary exposure. We tested the hypothesis that stinkpot turtle (Sternotherus odoratus) clutches exhibit lower variability and higher repeatability in barium, selenium, strontium, and thallium concentrations than those of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from a site impacted by a recent coal ash spill. All four trace elements exhibited significantly lower variability and significantly higher repeatability in stinkpot clutches than in swallow clutches. Mean trace element concentrations of stinkpot eggs were also significantly higher than those of swallow eggs although both species feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. Variability in swallow egg trace element concentrations was partially due to significant laying order effects. Our results support the hypothesis that interspecific variation in the source of resources and in the synchronicity and rate of egg production can lead to interspecific differences in the variability of egg trace element concentrations.

  11. Trace element profiles as unique identifiers of western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.R.; Lank, D.B.; Pither, J.; Chipley, D.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Kyser, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the ecology and evolution of migratory animals requires information on how populations are geographically linked between periods of the annual cycle. To examine whether trace elements could be used to track migratory birds, we analyzed concentrations of 42 trace elements in feathers of

  12. Trace Elements in Sediments of Selected Gutters and Bar – Beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These elevated trace element concentrations obtained in sediment in this study were compared with other similar studies. The sediment contaminations ... Keywords: Lagos bar beach, gutter sediments, trace elements, industries and anthropogenic substances. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Sept., 2012, Vol. 16 (3) 253 - 255 ...

  13. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements. PMID:25162051

  14. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  15. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  16. Trace elements in Mediterranean seagrasses: Accumulation, tolerance and biomonitoring. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the state of the art on trace elements in Mediterranean seagrasses, and their close environment (seawater and sediment). The analyzed species were Posidonia oceanica, Cymodocea nodosa, Halophila stipulacea, Zostera marina and Zostera noltei. All these species showed high tolerance to pollution and high capacity of accumulation of trace elements. Seagrasses also showed similar patterns of accumulation: the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Pb were found in the roots, whereas those of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were found in the leaves. Phytotoxic levels in seagrasses are unknown for most trace elements. The accumulation of trace elements in seagrasses is widely recognized as a risk to the whole food web, but the real magnitude of this risk is still uncertain. Seagrasses are known to act as trace element bioindicators, but this potential is still poorly valued for the creation of biomonitoring networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Method for Assessing the Retention of Trace Elements in Human Body Using Neural Network Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunakova, Yulia; Novikova, Svetlana; Ragimov, Aligejdar; Faizullin, Rashat; Valiev, Vsevolod

    2017-01-01

    Models that describe the trace element status formation in the human organism are essential for a correction of micromineral (trace elements) deficiency. A direct trace element retention assessment in the body is difficult due to the many internal mechanisms. The trace element retention is determined by the amount and the ratio of incoming and excreted substance. So, the concentration of trace elements in drinking water characterizes the intake, whereas the element concentration in urine characterizes the excretion. This system can be interpreted as three interrelated elements that are in equilibrium. Since many relationships in the system are not known, the use of standard mathematical models is difficult. The artificial neural network use is suitable for constructing a model in the best way because it can take into account all dependencies in the system implicitly and process inaccurate and incomplete data. We created several neural network models to describe the retentions of trace elements in the human body. On the model basis, we can calculate the microelement levels in the body, knowing the trace element levels in drinking water and urine. These results can be used in health care to provide the population with safe drinking water.

  18. Problems in Trace Element EPMA: Modeling Secondary Fluorescence with PENEPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournelle, J.

    2007-12-01

    In EPMA the incident electron beam scatters, producing the "electron interaction volume". However, X-rays produced within that volume may spread tens to hundreds of microns and produce secondary fluorescence in other materials. This can be ignored in many/most cases where major element compositions are being measured. However, when minor or especially trace elements are being measured by EPMA, secondary fluorescence needs to be considered. In some cases it can be eliminated by separating the materials and mounting them by themselves, or by reducing the kV to minimize fluorescence. However, in many cases these efforts are not possible. In those cases, modeling the EPMA experience by Monte Carlo simulation is useful. PENEPMA is a Fortran program based upon the PENELOPE radiation transport model of Salvat et al (2006). It differs from other MC electron interaction programs in that it follows each electron and photon and records all interactions at each point in the "particle's path". It also permits complicated geometries with many materials. Both continuum and characteristic secondary fluorescence can be tracked, and at the end of a run, compared to x-rays produced only from primary electrons. This has important applications in geology and petrology. Llovet and Galan (2003) used it to correct calculations for olivine-cpx thermobarometry. Recent attention has been given to Ti in zircon as a geothermometer. PENEPMA has now been used to model 2 different situations: (1) rutiles present on or near zircon, (2) ilmenite present near zircon. In the first case, several geometries are modeled: a 30 micron diameter zircon (Ti-free) is surrounded by Ti-bearing silicate glass (yielding an apparent 452 ppm Ti in zircon core); with five 30 um surrounding rutiles at 15 micron distance (yielding an apparent 948 ppm Ti in zircon core); if the silicate glass were replaced by epoxy, the apparent Ti would increase to 1179 ppm. In a second case, the effect of zircon with nearby ilmenite

  19. Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; Field, Catherine; Manns, Braden; Thadhani, Ravi; Gill, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. Methods All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at least one of the following elements in whole blood, serum, or plasma: antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. We calculated differences between hemodialysis patients and controls using the differences in mean trace element level, divided by the pooled standard deviation. Results We identified 128 eligible studies. Available data suggested that levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium were higher and that levels of selenium, zinc and manganese were lower in hemodialysis patients, compared with controls. Pooled standard mean differences exceeded 0.8 standard deviation units (a large difference) higher than controls for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, and lower than controls for selenium, zinc, and manganese. No studies reported data on antimony, iodine, tellurium, and thallium concentrations. Conclusion Average blood levels of biologically important trace elements were substantially different in hemodialysis patients, compared with healthy controls. Since both deficiency and excess of trace elements are potentially harmful yet amenable to therapy, the hypothesis that trace element status influences the risk of adverse clinical outcomes is worthy of investigation. PMID:19454005

  20. [Proposal of new trace elements classification to be used in nutrition, oligotherapy and other therapeutics strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Javier; Bonete Pérez, María José; Martínez Espinosa, Rosa María

    2014-12-17

    1) to propose a new classification of the trace elements based on a study of the recently reported research; 2) to offer detailed and actualized information about trace elements. the analysis of the research results recently reported reveals that the advances of the molecular analysis techniques point out the importance of certain trace elements in human health. A detailed analysis of the catalytic function related to several elements not considered essential o probably essentials up to now is also offered. To perform the integral analysis of the enzymes containing trace elements informatics tools have been used. Actualized information about physiological role, kinetics, metabolism, dietetic sources and factors promoting trace elements scarcity or toxicity is also presented. Oligotherapy uses catalytic active trace elements with therapeutic proposals. The new trace element classification here presented will be of high interest for different professional sectors: doctors and other professions related to medicine; nutritionist, pharmaceutics, etc. Using this new classification and approaches, new therapeutic strategies could be designed to mitigate symptomatology related to several pathologies, particularly carential and metabolic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  2. Chitosan membranes as sorbents for trace elements determination in surface waters: chitosan membranes as sorbents for trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Elisaveta K; Dakova, Ivanka Grigorova; Karadjova, Irina B

    2011-11-01

    Chitosan membranes (non-crosslinked, crosslinked, and modified with L-cysteine) were evaluated as sorbents prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) determination of total dissolved metal content in surface water samples. Different types of chitosan membranes were prepared in the presence or absence of L-cysteine. Chemical parameters for quantitative sorption/desorption of trace analytes have been optimized. The optimal pH for Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) sorption using L-cysteine-modified membrane is between 7 and 8.5 and coincides with typical surface water pH, allowing in situ preconcentration of analytes without any additional water sample pretreatments. Non-crosslinked chitosan membrane could be used for simultaneous sampling, transportation, and laboratory determination of Hg(II). Determination limits (calculated as 10σ) achieved for total dissolved metal contents are: Cd 0.001 μg/L, Cu 0.02 μg/L, Ni and Pb 0.05 μg/L, and relative standard deviations were 10-15% for all elements at concentration level of 0.05-2 μg/L. The determination limit achieved for Hg(II) was 0.012 μg/L and relative standard deviations at concentration levels 0.015-2 μg/L were within 9% and 15%. Non-crosslinked chitosan membrane was proposed as an efficient sorbent for Hg(II) preconcentration and determination in river and lake waters; L: -cysteine modified chitosan membrane was recommended for solid phase extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) from surface (lake, river, and sea) waters. The application of chitosan membranes as adsorbents for in situ field preconcentration of the analytes and their subsequent determination by CVAAS and ETAAS in water samples has been demonstrated.

  3. Origin and distribution of trace elements in high-elevation precipitation in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yan; Yue, Taixing; Li, Yuhua; Wai, Ka-Ming; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-09-01

    During a 2009 investigation of the transport and deposition of trace elements in southern China, 37 event-based precipitation samples were collected at an observatory on Mount Heng, China (1,269 m asl). Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and the wet deposition fluxes were established. A combination of techniques including enrichment factor analysis, principal component analysis, and back trajectory models were used to identify pollutant sources. Trace element concentrations at Mount Heng were among the highest with respect to measured values reported elsewhere. All elements were of non-marine origin. The elements Pb, As, Cu, Se, and Cd were anthropogenic, while Fe, Cr, V, Ba, Mn, and Ni were of mixed crustal/anthropogenic origin. The crustal and anthropogenic contributions of trace elements were 12.8 % (0.9 ~ 17.4 %) and 87.2 % (82.6 ~ 99.1 %), with the maximum crustal fraction being 17.4 % for Fe. Coal combustion, soil and road dust, metallurgical processes, and industrial activities contributed to the element composition. Summit precipitation events were primarily distant in origin. Medium- to long-range transport of trace elements from the Yangtze River Delta and northern China played an important role in wet deposition at Mount Heng, while air masses from south or southeast of the station were generally low in trace element concentrations.

  4. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  5. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  6. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  7. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, N. L.; Møller, A.

    2002-01-01

    slightly. The distribution in dietary intake of the five trace elements was estimated by combining the mean trace element concentrations with food consumption data from 1837 Danes aged 15-80 years. The lead intake for 1993-97 showed a decrease in comparison with similar estimates from the previous...... monitoring cycles: 1983-87 and 1988-92. The intake of cadmium and mercury decreased to a lesser extent, whereas the intake of selenium and nickel remained unchanged in the same period. The dietary intake of trace elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The 95th percentile...

  8. Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruit and vegetables from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Larsen, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of seven trace elements and five PAHs in crop plants in order to establish advice regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables grown in soils contaminated by trace elements and PAHs. In a field experiment, vegetables were grown in two...... contaminated soils and in a reference soil, whereas fruits were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated private gardens. The results showed elevated levels of several trace elements and PAHs in the vegetables from contaminated soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCF values), based on dry weight, were below...

  9. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  10. Responses of Trace Elements to Aerobic Maximal Exercise in Elite Sportsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTAĞ, Aynur; HAZAR, Muhsin; OTAĞ, İlhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, İlyas

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (Ptrace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  11. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  12. Trace element pollution records in some UK lake sediments, their history, influence factors and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Rose, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores were taken from six sites across the UK. Apart from Banbury Reservoir in London, all the other sites are relatively remote lakes. Trace elements Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sn, As and V, major elements such as Fe, Mn, Ti and Al were analysed, and organic content measured as loss-on-ignition was determined in all of these cores. The result shows that these relatively remote sites have experienced enhanced atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically derived trace elements for over 100 years, and the contamination might start before industrialisation. Trace metal contamination remains the highest level at Banbury Reservoir showing "pollution source" influence. Despite the considerable reduction in atmospheric deposition in recent years, although some of the element concentrations in the surface sediments have declined, they are still much higher than their natural background values. In these sites, trace element pollution records have been influenced by many different factors. Redox condition could affect As distribution in the sediments. Sediment matrix could also affect trace element pollution signal. Apart from direct atmospheric deposition, the distributions of trace elements in the sediments have been affected by forestry activities and catchment erosion, and more contaminated soil in-wash could increase sediment pollution whilst less contaminated soil could dilute sediment pollution. In some sites, data suggest that catchment in-wash is an important source of elements for the lakes.

  13. Maternal transfer of trace elements in the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs. The greatest concentrations on average transferred to egg tissue were Zn (140 µg/g), Cu (47.8 µg/g), and Fe (38.6 µg/g) for essential elements and As (10.9 µg/g) and Ag (1.23 µg/g) for nonessential elements. For elements that were maternally transferred, correlation analyses were run to assess if the concentration in the eggs were similar to that of adult tissue that is completely internalized (leg) or a boundary to the external environment (gill). Positive correlations between egg and leg tissue were found for As, Hg, Se, Mn, Pb, and Ni. Mercury, Mn, Ni, and Se were the only elements correlated between egg and gill tissue. Although, many trace elements were in low concentration in the eggs, we speculate that the higher transfer of essential elements is related to their potential benefit during early development versus nonessential trace elements, which are known to be toxic. We conclude that maternal transfer as a source of trace elements to horseshoe crabs should not be overlooked and warrants further investigation.

  14. Mineral Formation and Trace Element Uptake in Rising Hydrothermal Plumes of the Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, J. A.; Osicki, O.; Jiang, H.; Anantharaman, K.; Dick, G.; Wendt, K.; Sorensen, J. V.; Toner, B.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrothermal plumes are enriched in a variety of trace elements (e.g., V, As, and the rare earths) and micronutrients (e.g., Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and P) that are (i) extracted from the lithosphere and (ii) scavenged from seawater. Mineral particles are the transport vector for these trace elements. The relative importance of these sources and their net effect on sedimentary and marine element cycles depends on the mechanisms of trace element sequestration within plume mineral particles, the stability of the mineral phases that sequester them, and potentially the modification of plume chemistry by microbial processes. Lau Basin vents span a range of endmember chemistries and temperatures and are thus a useful setting for investigating the relationship between plume trace element composition and mineralogy. Our investigation of the rising plume chemistry of Lau Basin vents addresses these questions by comparing particulate trace element covariations through the rising plume with measured and modeled mineral formation for samples collected from three distinct hydrothermal fields: Kilo Moana, ABE, and Mariner. These rising plume samples span the initial particle formation process through sulfide formation to initial oxide formation, in addition to spanning a range of endmember vent chemistries. The trends between trace elements and Fe are nonlinear, for several elements (e.g., P, V) this contrasts with previous findings of linear trends in the neutrally buoyant plume. These trends are explained in the context of the transition from rising plume mineral mixtures dominated by sulfides to those with an increasing oxide component, upon which geochemical differences related to inter-field variations in endmember vent chemistry are superimposed. These results indicate that the sources and mechanisms of trace element enrichment vary significantly over the plume mixing path and suggest the apparent mechanisms that control plume trace element composition in neutrally buoyant plumes

  15. Primitive elements in finite fields with arbitrary trace

    OpenAIRE

    Çoban, Mustafa; Coban, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Arithmetic of finite fields is not only important for other branches of mathematics but also widely used in applications such as coding and cryptography. A primitive element of a finite field is of particular interest since it enables one to represent all other elements of the field. Therefore an extensive research has been done on primitive elements, especially those satisfying extra conditions. We are interested in the existence of primitive elements in extensions of finite fields with pres...

  16. ACCUMULATION OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEDIMENTS AND MACROBENTHOS OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Makhlun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted studying of concentration of trace elements in sediments, mollusks, macrophytes of the Northern Caspian sea. Authentic distinctions in utilizing ability of the studied elements by benthos organisms depending on a site and the maintenance of elements in sediments were established.

  17. Investigation of trace element mobility in river sediments using ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the column method was used to determine the leachable trace metals present in selected river sediments. In addition the sediments were investigated using a shaker method and these two methods were compared for reliability. For both these methods extract solutions associated with a sequential extraction ...

  18. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, F. [Dip. Scienze Biologiche e Ambientali, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)], E-mail: flavia.denicola@unisannio.it; Maisto, G. [Dip. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Prati, M.V. [Istituto Motori del CNR, via Marconi 8, 80125 Naples (Italy); Alfani, A. [Dip. Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves. - Different Quercus ilex leaf accumulation of trace elements and PAHs.

  19. Gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2013-09-15

    The role of a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of gulls in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Trace Elements in the Malignant-Benign Differentation of Pleural Effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Demirpence Demirpence

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been speculated that trace elements may play a role in some type of cancers. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic utility of trace elements in pleural fluid with pleural effusions. Material and Method: This study consisted of 38 patients diagnosed with malignant and benign pleural effusions. Chrome, nickel, selenium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results: No significant difference was found between malignant and benign effusions with respect to Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn concentrations in samples. Discussion: Trace elements have function as the component of many enzymes and the catalyst of some chemical reactions. There have been studies demonstrating the association of the deficiency or surplus of trace elements (TEs with various type of cancers. In our study, the role of TEs measured in the pleural effusions in the differential diagnosis in the effusion etiology could not be demonstrated.

  1. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    .... We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers...

  2. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu eÜnal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  3. Trace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements stat...

  4. Change in field turbidity and trace element concentrations during well purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Szabo, Z.; Ivahnenko, T.; Wilde, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    Various physical and chemical properties were monitored sequentially in the field during well purging as indicators of stabilization of the composition of the water in the well. Turbidity was monitored on site during purging of oxic water from three wells with screened intervals open to an unconfined aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of southern New Jersey to determine if stabilization of turbidity is a reliable indicator of the optimum purge time required to collect unbiased trace element samples. Concurrent split (one filtered, one unfiltered) samples collected during purging of the wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements so that the relationships between trace element concentrations and turbidity could be compared. Turbidity correlated with the whole water recoverable (WWR) concentration of trace element species, such as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) in the oxic ground water. Turbidity appeared to be independent of other field-measured characteristics of water such as conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The WWR concentrations of lead and copper, considered to be hydrophobic, correlated significantly with the sum of the WWR concentration of Fe, Al, and Mn. High values of field-measured turbidity were a key indicator of an overestimate of ambient hydrophobic trace element WWR concentrations. Stabilization of turbidity was a better indicator of stable, unfiltered trace element concentrations than were the other commonly measured field characteristics. At one well, turbidity was a better indicator of stable, filtered trace element concentrations than the other commonly measured field characteristics. As analytical methods for trace elements improve resulting in smaller MRLs (method reporting levels) and better precision, turbidity of ground water at values of less than 10 NTU (nepheiometric turbidity units) will become important in interpreting the significance of both unfiltered and filtered sample results.

  5. Trace elements in end-stage renal disease – unfamiliar territory to be revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Although associated with unfavorable outcomes in the general population, abnormal blood levels of various trace elements have not been consistently studied in the end-stage renal disease population (with the notable exception of aluminum). This is surprising, as the uremic patient treated by chronic dialysis loses one major route of trace element excretion and is exposed systematically to a foreign environment (the dialysis fluid) possibly contaminated with significant amounts of potential deleterious trace elements. Moreover, some biological important trace elements may be lost through the dialysis membrane. Most studies to date demonstrated significantly altered blood levels of trace elements in ESRD patients compared to healthy controls. However, the biological impact of these abnormalities in renal disease is largely unknown and should be clarified by future studies. A further step would be the design of well-controlled randomized interventional studies, examining the potential therapeutic benefit of supplementing one or more trace elements in ESRD patients, a population characterized by an impressive mortality due to cardiovascular, infectious and neoplasic disease. PMID:19490615

  6. Determination of trace elements and their concentrations in clay balls: problem of geophagia practice in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Musah S

    2017-02-01

    Ten samples of 100 g weight were subsampled from 1400 g of the clay balls from which the contained trace element levels were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique. The results of trace elements in the clay balls were calibrated using certified reference materials "MAJMON" and "BH-1." The results showed elevated concentrations but with different concentration levels in the regions, particularly with arsenic, chromium, cobalt, Cs, Zr and La. These trace elements contained in the clay balls are known to be hazardous to human health. Thence the relatively high concentrations of these listed trace elements in clay balls in the three regions, namely Ashanti, Upper East and Volta, which are widely sold in markets in Ghana, could present negative health impact on consumers if consumed at 70 g per day or more and on regular basis. On the basis of these, the study concludes an investigation to establish breakeven range for trace element concentrations in the clay balls as it has been able to demonstrate the uneven and elevated values in them. The standardized safe ranges of trace elements will make the practice safer for the people that ingest clay balls in Ghana.

  7. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, Engracia; de Mora, Alfredo Pérez; Felipe, Efraín; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl(2)-soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain.

  8. Trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic food chain from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T; Järvinen, Olli; Mukherjee, Arun B; Verta, Matti; Broman, Dag

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and 13 other trace elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were measured in phytoplankton, zooplankton, mysis and herring in order to examine the trophodynamics in a well-studied pelagic food chain in the Baltic Sea. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes (delta(15)N) was used to evaluate food web structure and to estimate the extent of trophic biomagnification of the various trace elements. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for each trace element were determined from the slope of the regression between trace element concentrations and delta(15)N. Calculated TMFs showed fundamental differences in the trophodynamics of the trace elements in the pelagic food chain studied. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd showed statistically significant decreases (TMFfood chain. Cu, As, Cr, Mn, V, Ti and Co showed no significant relationships with trophic levels. Hg was unique among the trace elements studied in demonstrating a statistically significant increase (TMF>1) in concentration with trophic level i.e. Hg biomagnifies in this Baltic food chain. The estimated TMF for Hg in this food chain was comparable to TMFs observed elsewhere for diverse food chains and locations.

  9. Variability in north tropical atlantic over the last 20 000 years and holocene gulf stream activity; Variabilite au cours des derniers 20 000 ans de l'hydrologie de l'atlantique tropical nord et de l'activite du gulf stream a partir de la composition isotopique de l'oxygene et de la composition en elements trace des foraminferes planctoniques profonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleroux, C

    2007-10-15

    Modern oceanographical studies shown that most of the ocean heat content in the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current region is stored in the upper 400 meters. To study past heat content and Gulf Stream activity, we performed coupled analyses of oxygen isotopic and trace elemental composition on several foraminifera species to reconstruct upper water column temperature and salinity. Calcification depths of Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata have been constrain by correlating modern hydrographic data to oxygen isotopic measurement of North Atlantic core-top samples. We found that the three deep-dwelling foraminifera species have a preferred habitat at the base of the seasonal thermocline (Cleroux et al, 2007). The same set of North Atlantic core-tops has been used to define relationships between trace elemental compositions and temperature. We established calibrations between Mg/Ca ratio or Sr/Ca ratio and temperature for the three deep-dwelling foraminifera (Cleroux et al, submitted). We apply this strategy on the core MD99-2203 located off Cape Hatteras where the Gulf Stream separate from the United States coast. High-resolution surface reconstructions over the Holocene show low amplitude periodic temperature and salinity changes that could be related to NAO type mechanisms. Large hydrological changes in sub-surface reflect variations of Labrador current and Mode Water influences. Using recent studies on Mode Water formation and Gulf Stream heat advection, we interpret our results in term of ocean heat content and Gulf Stream activity. (author)

  10. Distribution of the trace elements in Czech coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klika, Z.; Mrozek, S.; Kolomaznik, I. [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    A new concept for the calculation of the quantitative element distribution between inorganic and organic parts of coal was used for the evaluation of element associations in two Czech coals. The calculation was based on the experimental data from sink-float separation of coal into fractions. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Certified reference materials of trace elements in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the CRMs of elemental solution in low concentration are required for calibration of analytical equipment and vali- dation of test methods. Most of the CRM producers are marketing the CRMs of elemental solution in higher range of concentration i.e. 1,000–10,000 mg/l. Analysts have to dilute them in many folds for calibration ...

  12. Trace elements in high-S subbituminous coals from the Teruel mining district, northeast Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Turiel, J.L.F.; Soler, A.L.; Duran, M.E. (Institute of Earth Sciences, Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    The elemental composition of high temperature ash (750[degree]C) and forms of S were studied in 25 coal seams from the Escucha Formation (Middle Albian) in the Teruel Mining District, northeast Spain. The principal analytical method was ICP-MS, but ICP-ES was also used in the determination of some trace elements. The analytical data show wide ranges of trace element contents among the coal seams studied, even in the vertical profile of a single coal seam. These wide ranges of the trace element concentrations are attributed to both syngenetic and epigenetic processes. When a comparison was made between the average trace element contentsof the Teruel Mining District coals, and those of the average content in worldwide coals, the Teruel coals show slightly higher concentrations of Be and U, and lower concentrations of Ba, Cd Mn, Pb, Sr and Zr. Further, three main groups of trace elements were differentiated on the basis of the inorganic/organic affinity; Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Mn, Ni, Rb and Ze. Between these, Ba, Ce, Cr and Rb show a well defined correlation with the clay mineral content, and Co and Ni with pyritic-S content; (2)trace elements with an intermediate (mixed) affinity; As, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ge, Ho, Lu, Mo, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zr. In this group, As, Cd, Cu, Ge, Mo, Th, U and Zn show a weak trend associated with the mineral matter and Sr with the organic matter; and (3) Be shows an organic affinity. The high mineral matter content (21.3% HTA) of the Teruel coals may account for the great number of elements with inorganic affinity. This classification represents a general trend, but the results show that the affinities of some trace elements (e.g. As, Sb, and Zn) may vary from one coal seam to another in the Teruel Mining District.

  13. The significant inputs of trace elements and rare earth elements from melting glaciers in Antarctic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of modern glacier melting on the chemical enrichment of Antarctic coastal waters, we measured trace elements, including dissolved iron (Fe and rare earth elements (REEs, together with dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorous, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in ice, snow and coastal seawater of Marian Cove in the northernmost part of Antarctica (62°S. There was an increase in the concentrations of Fe and other trace elements (Al, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and REEs between the bay mouth and the glacier valleys. Good correlations between salinity and these chemical elements indicate that the trend was mainly due to the influence of glacier meltwater (GMW. When the effect of GMW was quantified based on plots of its presence (average 5.7% in the surface water of the cove, the concentrations of trace elements in seawater increased 18-fold for Fe, eight- to 10-fold for Al and Mn and up to four-fold for Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and REEs by GMW. However, the contribution of GMW to inorganic nutrients and DOC was negligible. The significance of GMW-borne REE contribution in this cove was further evidenced by middle REE enrichment in cove water. Our results suggest that the currently increasing glacier melting in Antarctica has a significant influence on the level of trace elements, particularly Fe, in cove water, which in turn may have a significant impact on the biogeochemistry of coastal seawater in Antarctica.

  14. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; -, Tanyeri P; -, Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  15. Paramètres influençant la distribution des éléments traces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is affected by significant agricultural activities. To evaluate the quality of the dissolved fraction, seventy-five. (75) samples of river waters were collected. Several trace elements were analyzed in this aqueous phase. The average metal trace element concentrations, in this region, are in the decreasing order: Zn (4.46 μg.l-1), ...

  16. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  17. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents' material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  18. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  19. Attenuation of trace elements in coal fly ash leachates by surfactant-modified zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Donahoe, Rona J

    2012-08-30

    Potential leaching of trace elements from older, unlined fly ash disposal facilities is a serious threat to groundwater and surface water contamination. Therefore, effective methods for containing the pollutant elements within the unlined coal combustion products (CCPs) disposal facilities are required to minimize any potential impact of leachate emanating from such facilities into the nearby environment. Because surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has the potential to sequester both cationic and anionic trace elements from aqueous solutions, bench-scale batch and column experiments were performed to test its ability to remediate trace elements in leachates generated from both alkaline and acidic fly ash samples. Fly ash leachate treatment results showed the potential application of SMZ as an effective permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material to control the dispersion of heavy metals and metalloids from ash disposal sites. Quantitative comparison of the elemental composition of SMZ-treated and untreated leachates indicated that SMZ was effective in decreasing the concentrations of trace elements in fly ash leachates. Similarly, SMZ treatment column experiments showed the delayed peak leaching events and overall reductions in leachate concentrations of trace elements. The effectiveness of SMZ column treatments, however, decreased with time potentially due to the saturation of sorption sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  1. Effects of nitrogen and water addition on trace element stoichiometry in five grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiangping; Weiner, Jacob; Wang, Ruzhen; Luo, Wentao; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Heyong; Xu, Zhuwen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yuge; Jiang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    A 9-year manipulative experiment with nitrogen (N) and water addition, simulating increasing N deposition and changing precipitation regime, was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of trace elements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by plants under the two environmental change factors in a semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia. We measured concentrations of trace elements in soil and in foliage of five common herbaceous species including 3 forbs and 2 grasses. In addition, bioaccumulation factors (BAF, the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism and the chemical concentration in the growth substrate) and foliar Fe:Mn ratio in each plant was calculated. Our results showed that soil available Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations increased under N addition and were negatively correlated with both soil pH and cation exchange capacity. Water addition partly counteracted the positive effects of N addition on available trace element concentrations in the soil. Foliar Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations increased but Fe concentration decreased with N addition, resulting in foliar elemental imbalances among Fe and other selected trace elements. Water addition alleviated the effect of N addition. Forbs are more likely to suffer from Mn toxicity and Fe deficiency than grass species, indicating more sensitivity to changing elemental bioavailability in soil. Our results suggested that soil acidification due to N deposition may accelerate trace element cycling and lead to elemental imbalance in soil-plant systems of semi-arid grasslands and these impacts of N deposition on semi-arid grasslands were affected by water addition. These findings indicate an important role for soil trace elements in maintaining ecosystem functions associated with atmospheric N deposition and changing precipitation regimes in the future.

  2. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.

  4. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.

  5. Alteration of trace element concentrations in plants by adhering particles - Methods of correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Solveig; Fahlbusch, Wiebke; Sauer, Benedikt; Pasold, Tino; Ruppert, Hans

    2017-09-01

    Trace element concentrations in plants may be influenced by airborne dust or adhering soil particles. Neglecting adhering particles in plant tissue leads to misinterpretation of trace element concentrations in research fields such as phytomining, phytoremediation, bio-monitoring, uptake of micronutrients and provenance studies. In case washing or brushing the samples prior to analysis is insufficient or impossible due to fragile or pre-processed samples mathematical correction should be applied. In this study three methods are presented allowing to subtract the influence of adhering particles in order to obtain the element concentrations in plants resulting only from uptake. All mathematical models are based on trace elements with negligible soil to plant transfer. A prerequisite for the correction methods is trace element analytics with good accuracy and high precision, e.g. through complete acid digestion. In a data set of 1040 plant samples grown in open field and pot trials most plants show a small but detectable amount of adhering particles. While concentrations of nutrients are nearly unaffected trace element concentrations such as Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, REEs, Ti and U may be significantly altered. Different sampling techniques like cutting height can also significantly alter the concentrations measured in the samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of Trace Elements in Nickel Base Alloys by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation is described to ascertain whether or not atomic absorption spectrophotometry could be used to determine the concentration of trace ... elements such as silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) in nickel alloys such as Udimet 500 without interference of other constituent elements. (Author)

  7. Size-dependent penetration of trace elements through a utility baghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendrikar, A. D.; Ensor, D. S.; Cowen, S. J.; Woffinden, G. J.; McElroy, M. W.

    Particle size-dependent concentrations of 35 major and minor trace elements were measured at the inlet and outlet of a fabric filter baghouse installed on a western pulverized coal-fired power plant. Size-segregated particulate samples were collected using University of Washington impactors with Kapton collection disks coated with Apiezon-L grease. The impactor samples were analyzed for trace elements using neutron activation analysis. The inlet particle size distribution for most elements was bimodal, with the larger mode having a geometric mean diameter of approximately 4-10 μm and the smaller mode having a geometric mean diameter of 0.08 μm or less. In general, individual trace elements exhibited size distributions similar to total mass. However, several elements, including As, Se, Sb, Hg, Cl, Zn and Ni, showed noticeably 'flatter' size distributions with proportionally higher concentrations in submicrometer particles compared to total mass. The elemental penetrations through the baghouse generally agreed well with the mass penetration. An exception is Se, which shows penetration an order of magnitude higher than that of total mass and other elements. Most trace elements were removed by the baghouse with greater than 95 % collection efficiency over the entire particle size range.

  8. Trace elements in stormflow, ash, and burned soil following the 2009 station fire in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  9. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water.

  10. The geographic distribution of trace elements in the environment: the REGARDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Nicole; He, Ka; Judd, Suzanne E; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-02-01

    Research on trace elements and the effects of their ingestion on human health is often seen in scientific literature. However, little research has been done on the distribution of trace elements in the environment and their impact on health. This paper examines what characteristics among participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study are associated with levels of environmental exposure to arsenic, magnesium, mercury, and selenium. Demographic information from REGARDS participants was combined with trace element concentration data from the US Geochemical Survey (USGS). Each trace element was characterized as either low (magnesium and selenium) or high (arsenic and mercury) exposure. Associations between demographic characteristics and trace element concentrations were analyzed with unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Individuals who reside in the Stroke Belt have lower odds of high exposure (4th quartile) to arsenic (OR 0.33, CI 0.31, 0.35) and increased exposure to mercury (OR 0.65, CI 0.62, 0.70) than those living outside of these areas, while the odds of low exposure to trace element concentrations were increased for magnesium (OR 5.48, CI 5.05, 5.95) and selenium (OR 2.37, CI 2.22, 2.54). We found an association between levels of trace elements in the environment and geographic region of residence, among other factors. Future studies are needed to further examine this association and determine whether or not these differences may be related to geographic variation in disease.

  11. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A Burton

    Full Text Available Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1 to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2 compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  12. Detection of selected trace elements in yogurt components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, Marcela; Harangozo, Lubos; Toth, Tomas; Schwarczova, Loretta; Bobkova, Alica; Stawarz, Robert; Guidi, Alessandra; Massanyi, Peter

    2017-12-02

    The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and Hg in the white and fruit parts of commercially available yogurts (n = 30) from Nitra markets (Slovak Republic). The results were correlated to determine their relationships. Three yogurt fruit flavors were chosen and tested, strawberry (n = 10), blueberry (n = 10), and cherry (n = 10). The elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of toxic elements, such as Cd and Pb, were found in the fruit parts of the yogurt, and in some cases, the tolerable limit was exceeded. The white part of the yogurt was not contaminated by toxic elements. White yogurt is a good source of nutrients for humans, but the fruit part in yogurt requires detailed monitoring and improvements in the processing techniques.

  13. New Evidence against Chromium as an Essential Trace Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John B

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically active and not an essential element. Regardless, articles still continue to appear in the literature claiming chromium is an essential element. Chromium has been marketed as an agent to reduce body mass and develop muscle; however, such marketing claims are no longer allowed in the United States because these claims, similar to claims of essential status, are not supported by experiments. Trivalent chromium has also been proposed as a therapeutic agent to increase insulin sensitivity and affect lipid metabolism. Although effective in certain rodent models, beneficial effects in humans have not been unequivocally established. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the beneficial effects but have not been definitively shown to occur in animals. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.

  15. Mass-spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media without preconcentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foss, Gordon Oluf [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Feasibility of using a low pressure glow discharge as an ion source for the mass spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media was investigated. A cryogenically cooled hollow cathode ion source was developed to analyze aqueous samples without external preconcentration. Aqueous solutions containing seventy elements were analyzed and the detection limits, sensitivity factors, and linear regression correlation coefficients were determined. A standard test solution of trace elements in water was analyzed and the concentrations of trace elements were calculated using the sensitivity factors determined previously. The results compared favorably within the error limits predicted by the semiquantitative survey methods used. Tap water and natural lake water samples were examined and minimal interference effects due to organic compounds and biological compounds were noted. A research ion optical system (RIOS) was developed as a flexible mass analyzer for the development of new ion sources. The RIOS is a double focussing mass analyzer designed utilizing the Mattauch-Herzog geometry with externally adjustable slit assemblies.

  16. Trace element compartmentation in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and biomonitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Vincenzo

    2017-03-15

    This study investigated the trace element bioaccumulation capacity of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and its suitability as a bioindicator of contamination in water and sediments. Results showed that P. oceanica leaves accumulate higher concentrations of Ni and Zn. Since P. oceanica regenerates its leaves periodically, the higher concentrations in aerial organs may suggest a "removal" strategy according to which P. oceanica accumulates greater concentrations of trace elements in its temporary organs. In turn, P. oceanica seems to adopt an exclusion strategy for toxic non-essential elements (As, Cr, Pb). Results showed also that P. oceanica organs are correlated with As, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in sediments. No significant relationship was found between P. oceanica and water. This study showed that P. oceanica may adopt different tolerance strategies compared to mainland-rooted macrophytes, and its possible use as a bioindicator of trace elements in sediments should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  18. Epilithic Lichen-Atmospheric Deposition Monitors of Trace Elements and Organohalogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschullat, Jörg; Scharnweber, Tim; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Walther, Annette; Wirth, Volkmar

    1999-10-01

    Epilithic lichen (Xanthoria elegans in Canada, Lecanora muralis in Germany) were gathered from 17 locations in Ontario, Canada (from Lake Ontario to James Bay) and 43 locations in Germany (from the Alps to the North Sea and from the Baltic Sea to the Erzgebirge). Sample aliquots were digested in nitric acid and trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrom-etry techniques. The organohalogens were determined as absorbable organic halogens (AOXs) by coulometry. Concentration ranges from Germany for trace element samples and AOXs were determined. The lichen showed high spatial resolution in their element enrichment patterns. This allowed for differentiation between natural and anthropogenic dominance in ambient air concentrations. This biomonitoring method has proven to be very sensitive, fast, and reliable. No clear relationship could be found between trace element and AOX concentrations. The AOX values may reflect individual metabolic rates of the fungal partner in lichen symbionts.

  19. Trace element content of seagrasses in the Leschenault Estuary, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilminster, Kieryn

    2013-08-15

    Estuarine environments are particularly vulnerable to human impacts. In this study, trace elements in Ruppia megacarpa, Halophila ovalis, sediment and porewater were analysed to assess the potential contamination of the Leschenault Estuary, Western Australia, from a primarily agricultural drain. Sediment concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni and were highest nearest the drain while Al, As, Cr, Fe and Zn and were highest further from the drain. H. ovalis showed greater accumulation of Fe, Al, and As than R. megacarpa. Concentrations of Fe, Al, As, and Ni were generally higher in below-ground plant parts than above, suggesting uptake of these trace elements via the sediment-route pathway. This study suggested that the drain was a source of Cu and Mn, with these elements entering the estuary through water inflows. As and Fe, were highest furthest from the drain suggesting input of trace elements from sources other than the drain under study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trace elements and rare earth elements in wet deposition of Lijiang, Mt. Yulong region, southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Niu, Hewen; Sun, Xuejun; He, Yuanqing; Wang, Shijing; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the compositions and wet deposition fluxes of trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in the precipitation of the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, 38 precipitation samples were collected from March to August in 2012 in an urban site of Lijiang city in the Mt. Yulong region. The concentrations of most trace elements and REEs were higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, indicating that the lower concentrations of trace elements and REEs observed during monsoon had been influenced by the dilution effect of increased precipitation. The concentrations of trace elements in the precipitation of Lijiang city were slightly higher than those observed in remote sites of the Tibetan Plateau but much lower than those observed in the metropolises of China, indicating that the atmospheric environment of Lijiang city was less influenced by anthropogenic emissions, and, as a consequence, the air quality was still relatively good. However, the results of enrichment factor and principal component analysis revealed that some anthropogenic activities (e.g., the increasing traffic emissions from the rapid development of tourism) were most likely important contributors to trace elements, while the regional/local crustal sources rather than anthropogenic activities were the predominant contributors to the REEs in the wet deposition of Lijiang city. Our study was relevant not only for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in the Mt. Yulong region, but also for specific management actions to be implemented for the control of atmospheric inputs and the health of the environment for the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    This study comprises soils formed on Paleoproterozoic Birimian Basement rocks (poorly graded silty sand, gravely sand and silty clays) from the unsaturated zone of the Densu River Basin, taken from a five meter depth. Elemental analysis of the soils samples were carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray. Fluorescence ...

  2. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    elemental abundances in solids with spatial reso- lution of a few microns is ideally suited for this purpose and has been used extensively in recent years for determining REE abundances in micro- scopic extraterrestrial samples (Fahey et al 1987;. Hinton et al 1988; Ireland et al 1988; Ireland 1990,. Sahijpal et al 2000).

  3. Accumulation and bioaccessibility of trace elements in wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity and salinity of water and pH, EC, total organic materials (TOM), grain size fraction and elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in sediments were measured. Also, macrobenthos communities were identified in sediments ...

  4. Secondary metabolism: regulation by phosphate and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, D

    1978-01-01

    Secondary metabolism and cellular differentiation occur within a range of concentrations of phosphate and, in specific taxonomic groups, of zinc, manganese, and/or iron that is much narrower than that permittee for primary metabolism. Possible molecular sites of action of the four elements are reviewed.

  5. Statistical Analysis Of Trace Element Concentrations In Shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal component and regression analysis of geochemical data in sampled shale – carbonate sediments in Guyuk, Northeastern Nigeria reveal enrichments of four predictor elements, Ni, Co, Cr and Cu to gypsum mineralisation. Ratios of their enrichments are Cu(10:1), Ni(8:1), Co(58:1) and Cr(30:1) The >70% ...

  6. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ehmann, W.D. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01

    ORNL`s High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations.

  7. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental and analytical procedures devised for measurement of rare earth element (REE) abundances using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (ion microprobe) are described. This approach is more versatile than the conventional techniques such as neutron activation analysis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry ...

  8. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements, which are regulated for aquatic life protection, are a primary concern in highway- and urban-runoff studies because stormwater runoff may transport these constituents from the land surface to receiving waters. Many of these trace elements are essential for biological activity and become detrimental only when geologic or anthropogenic sources exceed concentrations beyond ranges typical of the natural environment. The Federal Highway Administration and State Transportation Agencies are concerned about the potential effects of highway runoff on the watershed scale and for the management and protection of watersheds. Transportation agencies need information that is documented as valid, current, and scientifically defensible to support planning and management decisions. There are many technical issues of concern for monitoring trace elements; therefore, trace-element data commonly are considered suspect, and the responsibility to provide data-quality information to support the validity of reported results rests with the data-collection agency. Paved surfaces are fundamentally different physically, hydraulically, and chemically from the natural surfaces typical of most freshwater systems that have been the focus of many traceelement- monitoring studies. Existing scientific conceptions of the behavior of trace elements in the environment are based largely upon research on natural systems, rather than on systems typical of pavement runoff. Additionally, the logistics of stormwater sampling are difficult because of the great uncertainty in the occurrence and magnitude of storm events. Therefore, trace-element monitoring programs may be enhanced if monitoring and sampling programs are automated. Automation would standardize the process and provide a continuous record of the variations in flow and water-quality characteristics. Great care is required to collect and process samples in a manner that will minimize potential contamination or attenuation of trace

  9. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Trace elements in a North Sea drill core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Gwozdz, R.; Svendsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    space is filled mainly by hydrocarbons. A significant decrease of Mn with depth probably suggests diagenesis of chalk prior to, or with, hydrocarbon emplacement. Investigations of drilling fluids and cuttings reveal a strong contamination of the latter, mainly by Ba. Chalk data from comparable onshore......Chalk samples, systematically taken along a drill core from one of the hydrocarbon producing fields of the North Sea (Tyra field), were analysed by a neutron activation technique involving measurement of radioisotopes with relatively short half-lives. Elements determined include Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Mn......, V, Sr, Dy, Mg, Ti, Ba and Eu. The major elements Ca and Al could be related to petrophysical parameters, particularly Al which shows a correlation with the silicification/argillaceous content. Na (and Cl) has a low content in the hydrocarbon-bearing section of the drill core suggesting that the pore...

  11. Geochemical study of trace elements in micrograin minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Imai, Shiho; Baba, Naoho; Machii, Tami; Shimada, Mitsuo; Hasebe, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Abstract of five papers are contained in this paper. 1. Neutron activation analysis of iridium in Japan P/T boundary layer sample. Iridium of Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary layer samples in Japan are determined. A collision of materials outside of the earth was not proved. 2. Adsorbability of rare earth elements by biogenic phosphate salt particles. Phosphate minerals are very strong adsorbent of rare earth elements, so that they can use as the removal materials of them in radioactive waste. 3. Analysis of undecomposed minerals and irresoluble compounds in acid decomposed residue. In order to investigate the past global changes, a micro wave heat method was studied and good results were obtained. 4. Determination of iridium in tsunami deposits in Cuba. Very small amount of iridium was discovered in the samples. 5. Activation analysis of iridium in the sample of 300 m core of Baikal lake. (Plan). (S.Y.)

  12. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of land use and parent materials on trace elements accumulation in topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Cheng-Long; He, Teng-Bing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Lu, Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of parent material and land use on the concentration of trace elements in the agricultural topsoil of Guizhou Province, China, a total of 584 agricultural topsoil samples were collected in a typical region. The results indicate that the contents of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) in agricultural soils were greater than in the uncultivated soils, and the paddy fields exhibited higher contents of trace elements than dry lands. The enrichments of most trace elements in agricultural topsoil derived from carbonate rock were more serious. In paddy fields, Cd, Cr, and As showed positive relationships with soil organic matter ( 0.05). Lead and Hg formed the second component in principal component analysis (PCA) and were closely related to pH and clay content. In dry lands, the trace elements were well correlated with pH, C/N, and clay ( properties, especially in dry lands. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  15. Trace elements geochemistry of fractured basement aquifer in southern Malawi: A case of Blantyre rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoma, Harold Wilson Tumwitike; Xie, Xianjun; Nyirenda, Mathews Tananga; Zhang, Liping; Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Mbewe, Rex

    2017-07-01

    In this study, twenty one (21) trace elements in the basement complex groundwater of Blantyre district, Malawi were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed trace elements in the water were within the standards set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Standards Board (MSB). But, iron (Fe) (BH16 and 21), manganese (Mn) (BH01) and selenium (Se) (BH02, 13, 18, 19 and 20) were higher than the WHO and MSB standards. Factor analysis (FA) revealed up to five significant factors which accounted for 87.4% of the variance. Factor 1, 2 and 3 suggest evaporite dissolution and silicate weathering processes while the fourth factor may explain carbonate dissolution and pH influence on trace element geochemistry of the studied groundwater samples. According to PHREEQC computed saturation indices, dissolution, precipitation and rock-water-interaction control the levels of trace elements in this aquifer. Elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn and Se in certain boreholes are due to the geology of the aquifer and probable redox status of groundwater. From PHREEQC speciation results, variations in trace element species were observed. Based on this study, boreholes need constant monitoring and assessment for human consumption to avoid health related issues.

  16. Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of trace elements measured in Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Yücel; Kural, Can

    2005-12-01

    Trace element dry deposition fluxes were measured using a smooth, greased, knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) holding greased Mylar strips in Bursa, Turkey. Sampling program was conducted between October 2002 and June 2003 and 46 dry deposition samples were collected. The average fluxes of crustal metals (Mg, Ca, and Fe) were one to four orders of magnitude higher than the fluxes of anthropogenic metals. Trace element fluxes ranged from 3 (Cd) to 24,230 (Ca) microg m(-2) d(-1). The average trace element dry deposition fluxes measured in this study were similar to those measured in other urban areas. In addition, ambient air samples were also collected simultaneously with flux samples and concentrations of trace elements, collected with a TSP sampler, were between 0.7 and 4900 ng m(-3) for Cd and Ca, respectively. The overall trace element dry deposition velocities, calculated by dividing the fluxes to the particle phase concentrations ranged from 2.3+/-1.7 cm s(-1) (Pb) to 11.1+/-6.4 cm s(-1) (Ni). These values are in good agreement with the values calculated using similar techniques. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EFs) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. Low EFs for dry deposition samples were calculated. This is probably due to contamination of local dust and its important contribution to the collected samples.

  17. Trace Elements in Soils and Selected Agricultural Plants in the Tongling Mining Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ziwei; Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhang, Haojie

    2018-01-25

    The quality and safety of agricultural products from metal mining areas are of wide concern. In order to investigate the contents and health risks of trace elements in fruit vegetables planted in metal mining areas, 440 samples of fruit vegetables from 117 vegetable plots were collected from Tongling mining area. Trace element contents in fruit vegetables and soil were measured. The results indicated that the total concentration of trace elements in some of the soil samples exceeded the Grade II national standard in China. Transfer factor (TF) of Cd was the highest (8.360), followed by Zn, Cu, As, and Pb. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of the trace elements, except Cd, were generally below the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI). The target hazard quotient (THQ) of Zn for children was more than 1 in some vegetables, suggesting potential health hazards for child population. Total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) of Cu and Zn were also more than 1 through consumption of all vegetables, indicating significant health risks. For both adults and children, hazard index (HI) was more than 1 for the consumption of vegetables. The findings reveal the health risks associated with the consumption of trace elements through the intake of selected vegetables in the population of Tongling.

  18. Geochemical characterisation of major and trace elements in the coastal sediments of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; Zhang, J.

    -rich minerals and adsorption on oxides/hydroxides for Fe. Factors controlling the distribution of trace metals in the coastal sediments In order to determine the factor controlling the spatial distribution of both major and trace elements, as well... and mineralogy. Therefore, the variation of these metal concentrations shows the same trend from one sampling point to another one. Sodium and barium did not correlate with any metals and calcium is inversely correlated with all metals except Sodium, potassium...

  19. Tracking animal movement by comparing trace element signatures in claws to spatial variability of elements in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Danielle M; Kyle, Christopher J; Nocera, Joseph J

    2014-01-15

    Biogeochemical markers in ecology have provided a useful means for indicating geographic origin and movement patterns of species on various temporal and spatial scales. We used trace element analysis to resolve spatial and habitat-specific environmental gradients in elemental distributions that could be used to infer geographic origin and habitat association in a model terrestrial carnivore: American badger (Taxidea taxus jacksoni). To accomplish this, we generated element base-maps using spatial principal component analysis, and assessed habitat-specific signatures using multivariate statistics from soil element concentrations in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) we also test whether element variability in the claw keratin of a terrestrial carnivore could be explained by the chemical variability in the soils of the local environment. Results demonstrated that trace element signatures in soils vary locally with land use practices and soil texture type and broadly with the underlying geology. CCA results suggest that chemical profiles in claws can be linked to the surrounding chemical environment, providing evidence that geographic patterns in mammalian movement can be discerned on the basis of claw chemistry. From this, we conclude that geographic assignment of individuals based on element profiles in their tissues and referenced against soil elemental distributions would be coarse (at a spatial scale of 100-1000 km, depending on the chemical heterogeneity of the landscape), but could be used to assess origin of highly mobile animals or habitat association of individuals. Compared to stable isotope analysis, the assessment of trace elements can provide a much greater level of detail in backcasting animal movement pathways. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  2. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rachael; Canfield, Paul; Rogers, Tracey

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  3. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  4. Preparation steps in environmental trace element analysis - facts and traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M

    2001-07-06

    The laboratory of CERVA is for several decades involved in the Belgian environmental research. The activity was associated to national monitoring programs dealing with trace metal pollution of all compartments of the environment (sea and river waters, sediments and organisms but also soils, plants, animal and food samples). Such a monitoring dealing with the total analyte contents in samples needed a comprehensive development of the whole methodology associated to the analyses using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques. This includes measurement but also preparation steps. The latter is the subject of this work. Long-term experience has shown that precisely sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because it is responsible for the largest and often hidden sources of errors. Errors due to contaminations may be usually overcome if necessary precautions are taken concerning reagents, tools and the manner of working. The problem is different for analyte losses: in this case, the responsible factor is an inappropriate methodology. This is particularly true for preparation of solid samples that have to be brought in a solution in order to satisfy needs of introduction systems of most spectroscopic techniques utilized in routine laboratories. For some types of samples (e.g. animal tissues), the dissolution is not a problem: it may be readily achieved by several procedures. This is not the case for samples that contain silicates in their matrix (e.g. soils, sediments, plants) because their complete dissolution cannot be ensured by a simple procedure. This review describes the present knowledge regarding possibilities and errors that concern preparation steps. In addition, possible effects of the preparation procedure on the quality of measurement are also systematically discussed.

  5. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Maisto, G; Prati, M V; Alfani, A

    2008-05-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves.

  6. Translocation of Trace Elements from Sewage Sludge Amendments to Plants in a Reclaimed Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecki, Wiktor; Klatka, Sławomir

    2017-08-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate bioaccumulation of trace elements in plants grown in post-mining soils amended with the biosolids material. Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated on the laboratory scale, and a mixture of grasses, Melilotus albus, Beta vulgaris, Zea mays L. and Miscanthus × giganteus were evaluated on the field scale. The results of the research showed that P. vulgaris fertilized with the Carbocrash substrate was able to grow. In addition, growth was enhanced following stimulation with gibberellic acid. Transfer of trace elements should be evaluated on the plot scale. Therefore, we monitored the level of trace elements on an experimental plot in a reclaimed area. Crops plants were sown in multi-year periods. During the growing season the mixture of grasses and crop plants had a low bioaccumulation factor, which also showed a positive effect of fertilization with the Carbocrash substrate.

  7. Posterior Cord Syndrome and Trace Elements Deficiency as an Uncommon Presentation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Silva Macedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the most common symptoms in common variable immunodeficiency, but neurologic manifestations are rare. We presented a 50-year-old woman with recurrent diarrhea and severe weight loss that developed a posterior cord syndrome. Endoscopy found a duodenal villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and lack of plasma cells and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine was normal. Laboratory assays confirmed common variable immunodeficiency syndrome and showed low levels of trace elements (copper and zinc. Treatment was initiated with parenteral replacement of trace elements and intravenous human immunoglobulin and the patient improved clinically. In conclusion, physicians must be aware that gastrointestinal and neurologic disorders may be related to each other and remember to request trace elements laboratory assessment.

  8. Trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles - Zinc depletion as a possible indicator of atmospheric entry heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Major-element abundances in 11 C, C?, and TCA cosmic dust particles have been measured using SEM and TEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) systems. The Fe/Ni ratio, when coupled with major element abundances, appears to be a useful discriminator of cosmic particles. Three particles classified as C?, but having Fe/Ni peak height ratios similar to those measured on the powdered Allende meteorite sample in their HSC EDX spectra, exhibit chondritic minor-/trace-element abundance patterns, suggesting they are extraterrestrial. The one particle classified as C-type, but without detectable Ni in its JSC EDX spectrum, exhibits an apparently nonchondritic minor-/trace-element abundance pattern. A class of particles that are chondritic except for large depletions in the volatile elements Zn and S has been identified. It is likely that these particles condensed with a C1 abundance pattern and that Zn and S were removed by some subsequent process.

  9. Assessment of serum macro and trace element homeostasis and the complexity of inter-element relations in bipolar mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustak, Mohammed S; Rao, T S Sathyanarayana; Shanmugavelu, P; Sundar, N M Shama; Menon, Rani B; Rao, R V; Rao, K S J

    2008-08-01

    Bipolar disorders are complex neuropsychiatric in nature and are clinically classified as Type I, Type II, and Type V. The etiological factors include environmental-genetic inter-relations. Trace metals play a significant role in neurological disorders. There is very limited information on the role of macro and trace elements in bipolar disorders. Trace elements namely Na, K, S, Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and Al were analyzed in serum samples of 3 bipolar types: bipolar I, bipolar II and bipolar V with a control group using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The patients were assessed as per the standard diagnostic criteria and classified into the bipolar type I, II hypomanic, II depressives and V. In bipolar I (mania), Na, K, P, Cu, Al and Mn were increased significantly (p<0.001). In bipolar II hypomania, Na, S, Al and Mn were increased significantly (p<0.02), while in bipolar II depression, Na, K, Cu and Al were increased (p<0.001). In bipolar V, Na, Mg, P, Cu, and Al were increased significantly (p<0.002), though S (p<0.00001), Fe (p<0.002) and Zn (p<0.004) were decreased in all 3 bipolar groups. There is a disturbance in the charge distribution and element-element interdependency in bipolar serum when compared to controls. These results suggest that there is a definite imbalance in macro and trace element homeostasis as evidenced by element inter-relationships in serum samples of bipolar groups when compared to controls.

  10. Trace element mapping by LA-ICP-MS: assessing geochemical mobility in garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Tom; Payne, Justin; Wade, Benjamin; Lanari, Pierre; Clark, Chris; Hand, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A persistent problem in the study of garnet geochemistry is that the consideration of major elements alone excludes a wealth of information preserved by trace elements, particularly the rare-earth elements (REEs). This is despite the fact that trace elements are generally less vulnerable to diffusive resetting, and are sensitive to a broader spectrum of geochemical interactions involving the entire mineral assemblage, including the growth and/or dissolution of accessory minerals. We outline a technique for the routine acquisition of high-resolution 2D trace element maps by LA-ICP-MS, and introduce an extension of the software package XMapTools for rapid processing of LA-ICP-MS data to visualise and interpret compositional zoning patterns. These methods form the basis for investigating the mechanisms controlling geochemical mobility in garnet, which are argued to be largely dependent on the interplay between element fractionation, mineral reactions and partitioning, and the length scales of intergranular transport. Samples from the Peaked Hill shear zone, Reynolds Range, central Australia, exhibit contrasting trace element distributions that can be linked to a detailed sequence of growth and dissolution events. Trace element mapping is thus employed to place garnet evolution in a specific paragenetic context and derive absolute age information by integration with existing U-Pb monazite and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology. Ultimately, the remarkable preservation of original growth zoning and its subtle modification by subsequent re-equilibration is used to `see through' multiple superimposed events, thereby revealing a previously obscure petrological and temporal record of metamorphism, metasomatism, and deformation.

  11. Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisend, R.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton in oligotrophic marine deserts depend on remote sources to supply trace nutrients. To examine these sources, marine particulate matter samples from the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA) were collected during the July-August 2012 HOE-DYLAN cruises and analyzed for a suite of trace (e.g., Fe, Mn) and major (e.g. Al, P) elements. Daily surface SPM samples were examined for evidence of atmospheric deposition and biological uptake, while five vertical profiles were examined for evidence of surface vertical export and subsurface horizontal transport from nearby sources (e.g., margin sediments, hydrothermal plumes). Maxima in surface particulate P (a biological tracer) corresponded with a diatom bloom, and surprisingly also coincided with maxima in particulate Al (typically a tracer for lithogenic inputs). The surface particulate Al distributions likely result from the adsorption of dissolved Al onto diatom silica frustules, not from atmospheric dust deposition. In addition, a subsurface maximum in particulate Al and P was observed four days later at 75m, possibly resulting from vertical export of the surface diatom bloom. The distributions of other bioactive trace elements (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu) will be presented in the context of the diatom bloom and other biological, chemical and physical features. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the cycling of trace elements in lithogenic particles (Morton et al., "Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA").

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of trace element concentrations in an urban subtropical watershed, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen de Carlo, E. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; U.S. Geological Survey, Honolulu, HI (United States); Anthony, S.S. [U.S. Geological Survey, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Trace metal concentrations in soils and in stream and estuarine sediments from a subtropical urban watershed in Hawaii are presented. The results are placed in the context of historical studies of environmental quality (water, soils, and sediment) in Hawaii to elucidate sources of trace elements and the processes responsible for their distribution. This work builds on earlier studies on sediments of Ala Wai Canal of urban Honolulu by examining spatial and temporal variations in the trace elements throughout the watershed. Natural processes and anthropogenic activity in urban Honolulu contribute to spatial and temporal variations of trace element concentrations throughout the watershed. Enrichment of trace elements in watershed soils result, in some cases, from contributions attributed to the weathering of volcanic rocks, as well as to a more variable anthropogenic input that reflects changes in land use in Honolulu. Varying concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments reflect about 60 a of anthropogenic activity in Honolulu. Land use has a strong impact on the spatial distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in soils and stream sediments. As noted in continental US settings, the phasing out of Pb-alkyl fuel additives has decreased Pb inputs to recently deposited estuarine sediments. Yet, a substantial historical anthropogenic Pb inventory remains in soils of the watershed and erosion of surface soils continues to contribute to its enrichment in estuarine sediments. Concentrations of other elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Cd), however, have not decreased with time, suggesting continued active inputs. Concentrations of Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, V and U, although elevated in some cases, typically reflect greater proportions attributed to natural sources rather than anthropogenic input. (author)

  13. The fate of trace elements at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meij, R. (N.V. KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    After the reintroduction of coal as a fuel for power plants, KEMA started an extensive research programme on the fate of (trace) elements at coal-fired power plants. In this research programme the element concentrations of coal, bottom ash, pulverized-fuel ash (PFA, ash collected in the ESPs), fly ash (as present in the flue gases downstream of the ESP) were studied, Also, ample attention was given to minor and trace elements present in the vapour phase in the flue gases downstream of the ESP (As, B, Br, Cl, F, Hg, I, Se). An important aim in this research programme is to establish the relationship between the elements in the different streams. For this purpose mass balances were determined to obtain a good impression of the accuracy of the measurements. A total of sixteen campaigns was performed. Nowadays all large coal-fired power plants in the Netherlands are equipped with wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants. In one campaign the fate of (trace) elements in such an installation was studied in detail. It appeared that 90% of the total particulate matter in the FGD plant was removed, but that the fly dust emitted consisted of about 40% fly ash and that gypsum was the major source. 50% of the fly dust emitted originates in evaporated droplets. In a wet FGD plant the gaseous inorganic trace elements are (partly) removed as well. The removal of these elements was measured at all FGD plants in the Netherlands. The (heavy) metals are introduced in the FGD plant partly by the flue gases, but primarily by the limestone. The gaseous elements are mainly introduced by the flue gases. The (heavy) metals leave the FGD through the following channels, in order of decreasing importance: the gypsum, the sludge, the waste-water effluent (the majority of the gaseous elements) and the flue gases (only a few gaseous elements). 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  15. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells and its relevance for tracing geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Génio, Luciana; Calado, Ricardo

    2017-06-14

    Understanding spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints (TEF) in bivalve shells is paramount to determine the discrimination power of this analytical approach and secure traceability along supply chains. Spatio-temporal variability of TEF was assessed in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca) were measured from the shells of specimens originating from eight different ecosystems along the Portuguese coast, as well as from four different areas, within one of them, over two consecutive years (2013 and 2014). TEF varied significantly in the shells of bivalves originating from the eight ecosystems surveyed in the present study. Linear discriminant function analyses assigned sampled cockles to each of the eight ecosystems with an average accuracy of 90%. Elemental ratios also displayed significant differences between the two consecutive years in the four areas monitored in the same ecosystem. Overall, while TEF displayed by cockle shells can be successfully used to trace their geographic origin, a periodical verification of TEF (>6 months and <1 year) is required to control for temporal variability whenever comparing specimens originating from the same area collected more than six months apart.

  17. Dynamics of trace elements in shallow groundwater of an agricultural land in the northeast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    The citrus zone located in northeastern Mexico covers an area of 8000 km2 and produces 10% of the Mexican citrus production. The aquifer system of this zone constitutes the major source of water for drinking and irrigation purposes for local population and provides base flows to surface water supplied to the city of Monterrey ( 4.5 million inhabitants). Although the study area is near the recharge zones, several works have reported nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater of this agricultural area, mainly due to animal manure and human waste produced by infiltration of urban sewers and septic tanks. Thus, the goals of this work were to assess the dynamics of selected trace elements in this aquifer system and determine if the trace element content in groundwater poses a threat to the population living in the area. Thirty-nine shallow water wells were sampled in 2010. These water samples were filtered through 0,45 µm pore size membranes and preserved with nitric acid for storage. The concentrations of Cd, Cs, Cu, Mo, Pb, Rb, Si, Ti, U, Y, and Zn were measured by ICP-MS. Also, sulfate concentrations were measured by ion chromatography in unacidified samples. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed in the data set show five principal components (PC). PC1 includes elements derived from silicate weathering, such as Si and Ti. The relationship found between Mo and U with sulfates in PC2 indicates that both elements show a high mobility in groundwater. Indeed, the concentrations of sulfate, Mo and U are increased as groundwater moves eastward. PC3 includes the alkali trace elements (Rb and Cs), indicating that both elements could be derived from the same source of origin. PC4 represents the heavy trace elements (Cd and Pb) whereas PC5 includes divalent trace elements such as Zn and Cu. None of the water samples showed trace element concentrations higher than the guideline values for drinking water proposed by the World Health Organization, which indicates that the

  18. Determining annual suspended sediment and sediment-associated trace element and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Suspended sediment is a major factor in the biological and geochemical cycling of trace elements and nutrients in aquatic systems. The design of effective studies involving the collection, processing, and subsequent chemical analysis of suspended sediment requires a clear understanding of the problems associated with using this sample medium. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge relative to the various issues/problems associated with the collection of representative suspended sediment samples in fluvial systems. It also addresses issues associated with accurately determining the concentrations and fluxes of sediment-associated trace elements and nutrients.

  19. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...

  20. Trace-Element Fingerprinting as a Guide to the Geographic Sources of Native Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, George; Henrickson, Eiler; Miller, Michael; Aschenbrenner, Stanley

    1980-01-01

    Trace-element analyses of native copper from specific geological deposits can be used to determine locality "fingerprints" (population parameters) which, in turn, can be used with discriminant analysis to assign probable provenance to the raw material source for copper artifacts. A comprehensive analytical program has been underway for over a decade to provide trace-element fingerprint data for native copper deposits throughout the world. Results indicate that delineations can be made among geographic regions and between areas or mines within a region. This paper is based on 309 analyses of the concentrations in North American native copper and copper artifacts.

  1. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consec......Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed...

  2. Trace elements in speleothems. A short review of the state of the art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheyden Sophie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A state of the art of the research on trace elements of speleothems is given. First studies focussed on problems such as the colour of speleothems and the aragonite problem. Insitu studies and studies oriented towards a better understanding of vadose hydrology brought new insights in the controls on trace elemental composition of speleothems. Recent studies deal with microscale analyses and annual and intra-annual chemistry changes. Further in-situ studies should be performed to further differentiate influences, such as climate, soil/weathering and local hydrology in order to better constrain possible transfer functions between the surface and a speleothem.

  3. Trace elements in eggs of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Isabeau; Tomlik, Molly D; Betsch, Taylor A; Braune, Birgit M; Milton, G Randy; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-11-15

    We provide the first report on trace element concentrations in eggs of common eiders (Somateria mollissima), a coastal benthic foraging sea duck, from Nova Scotia, Canada, and compare those to known values from this species elsewhere. Most trace elements of toxicological concern (Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn) were lower in eider eggs from Nova Scotia than from eider eggs collected farther north in Canada, although As was elevated. Our data provide strong support for a pattern of increasing Hg at higher latitudes for this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace elements and radon in groundwater across the United States, 1992-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Apodaca, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations in groundwater were evaluated for samples collected between 1992 and 2003 from aquifers across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This study describes the first comprehensive analysis of those data by assessing occurrence (concentrations above analytical reporting levels) and by comparing concentrations to human-health benchmarks (HHBs). Data from 5,183 monitoring and drinking-water wells representing more than 40 principal and other aquifers in humid and dry regions and in various land-use settings were used in the analysis. Trace elements measured include aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Radon (Rn) gas also was measured and is included in the data analysis. Climate influenced the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in groundwater whereby more trace elements occurred and were found at greater concentrations in wells in drier regions of the United States than in humid regions. In particular, the concentrations of As, Ba, B, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, U, V, and Zn were greater in the drier regions, where processes such as chemical evolution, ion complexation, evaporative concentration, and redox (oxidation-reduction) controls act to varying degrees to mobilize these elements. Al, Co, Fe, Pb, and Mn concentrations in groundwater were greater in humid regions of the United States than in dry regions, partly in response to lower groundwater pH and (or) more frequent anoxic conditions. In groundwater from humid regions, concentrations of Cu, Pb, Rn, and Zn were significantly greater in drinking-water wells than in monitoring wells. Samples from drinking-water wells in dry regions had

  6. Trace element geochemistry and the early lunar differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Convection cells in the early lunar magma ocean suggest a laterally inhomogeneous crust. In general, mineralogy and petrology of samples may be relatively insensitive to which cell they evolved in since major and minor element concentrations would not be expected to vary greatly from cell to cell. It is established that, although most samples are local material, a few samples are fragments of projectiles that excavated secondary craters and that they are exotic--i.e. originated in different cell--to their present locations. Thus caution must be exercised in genetically relating samples found at a given site. Ru and Os have been fractionated from one another and also partitioned in the stratigraphic column resulting from the differentiation of the early lunar magma ocean. Lithic breccias contain two types of fractionated Ru-Os which appear to be related to near-surface crustal stratigraphy. Basalts contain fractionated Ru-Os which is correlated with their depths of origin. These are based on the ages of extrusion which are time related to the depths at which melting occurred.

  7. Trace elements in the wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms with and without coexisting iliac artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Damian; Chudek, Jerzy; Sznapka, Mariola; Kita, Andrzej; Biolik, Grzegorz; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Domalik, Jolanta; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Iliac artery aneurysms (IAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) frequently coexist. It remains unknown whether the content of trace elements in AAA walls depends on the coexistence of IAAs. The aim of this study was to compare the content of selected trace elements in AAA walls depending on the coexistence of IAAs. The content of trace elements was assessed in samples of AAA walls harvested intraoperatively in 19 consecutive patients. In the studied group, coexisting IAAs were diagnosed in 11 out of the 19 patients with AAA. The coexistence of IAAs was associated with a slightly lower content of nickel (0.28 (0.15-0.40) vs. 0.32 (0-0.85) mg/g; p = 0.09) and a significantly higher content of cadmium (0.71 (0.26-1.17) vs. 0.25 (0.20-0.31) mg/g; p = 0.04) in AAA walls. The levels of the remaining studied elements, copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium and calcium, were comparable. The elevated levels of cadmium in the walls of AAA coexisting with IAAs may suggest an impact of the accumulation of this trace element on the greater damage of the iliac artery wall.

  8. Natural Enrichment of Trace Elements in Surface Horizons of Calcareous Soils (La Mancha, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five soil profiles developed on carbonatic sediments of Tertiary Miocene origin has been carried out. The topography of the area was basically flat and the traditional uses of the soils are the cultivation of dry cereals and grapevine. The geochemical characterization of the aforementioned profiles involves a study of the contents of major and trace elements among other pedologic aspects (texture, pH, organic matter, etc.. The results of this study also indicate a superficial enrichment of trace elements due to the leaching of Ca and moderate biological and anthropic activity. We can consider strontium, Sr, as the trace element that characterizes these limy soils (435 mg/kg average content in total soil and 708 mg/kg in the original rock. These contents are similar to the average value in Castilla-La Mancha of 380 mg/kg and are higher than the average in world soils of about 200 mg/kg. High levels of dangerous or pollutant elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, or Ni were not detected. The majority of trace element anomalies are related to calcareous material and the leaching of calcium carbonate (Ca, while the influence of the anthropogenic factor is secondary. Soil quality does not indicate toxicity although surficial enrichment suggests a weak threat from consuming crops.

  9. Mobility of major and trace elements in the eclogite-fluid system and element fluxes upon slab dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Alexandra; Zajacz, Zoltan; Ulmer, Peter; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The equilibrium between aqueous fluids and allanite-bearing eclogite has been investigated to constrain the effect of temperature (T) and fluid composition on the stability of allanite and on the mobility of major and trace elements during the dehydration of eclogites. The experiments were performed at 590-800 °C and 2.4-2.6 GPa, and fluids were sampled as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz using an improved entrapment technique. The concentrations and bulk partition coefficients were determined for a range of major (Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Ti) and 16 trace elements as a function of T and fluid composition. The results reveal a significant effect of T on element partitioning between the fluids and the solid mineral assemblage. The partition coefficients increase by more than an order of magnitude for most of the major and trace elements, and several orders of magnitude for light rare-earth elements (LREE) from 590 to 800 °C. The addition of various ligand species into the fluid at 700 °C results in distinctive trends on element partitioning. The concentrations and corresponding partition coefficients of most of the elements are enhanced upon addition of NaF to the fluid. In contrast, NaCl displays a nearly opposite effect by suppressing the solubilities of major elements and consequently affecting the mobility of trace elements that form stable complexes with alkali-(alumino)-silicate clusters in the fluid, e.g. high field strength elements (HFSE). The results further suggest that fluids in equilibrium with orthopyroxene and/or diopsidic clinopyroxene are peralkaline (ASI ∼0.1-0.7), whereas fluids in equilibrium with omphacitic pyroxene are more peraluminous (ASI ∼1.15). Therefore, natural aqueous fluids in equilibrium with eclogite at about 90 km depth will be slightly peraluminous in composition. Another important finding of this study is the relatively high capacity of aqueous fluids to mobilize LREE, which may be even higher than that of hydrous melts.

  10. Trace-element geochemistry of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Knight, R.J.; VanTrump, G.; Budahn, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations determined for all of the trace elements included in this study of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield are best described by log-normal distributions. The trace elements are divided into two groups: (1) compatible lithophile and siderophile elements (strontium, cobalt, scandium, manganese, europium, and titanium) and (2) incompatible lithophile elements (uranium, thorium, tantalum, rubidium, and rare-earth elements, except europium). The compatible elements exhibit greatest concentrations in the metaluminous postorogenic granites, and concentrations decrease with increasing degree of magma evolution. Economic potential for these elements and other geochemically similar elements is considered to be low. The concentrations of the incompatible elements increase with increasing degree of magma evolution and are greatest in the peralkaline and peraluminous granites. There is some geologic evidence that pegmatite and vein-forming processes were operative toward the end stage of postorogenic magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Shield, and therefore there is some probability for economic potential for these elements. It is suggested that such potential is greatest where highly evolved postorogenic granites intruded volatile (generally water )-rich country rocks.

  11. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula)

    OpenAIRE

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderatel...

  12. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia, HCFM/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  13. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  14. The Bionanoprobe: Synchrotron-Based Hard X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy for 2D/3D Trace Element Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Si; Paunesku, Tatjana; Yuan, Ye; Jin, Qiaoling; Finney, Lydia; Hornberger, Benjamin; Flachenecker, Claus; Lai, Barry; Brister, Keith; Jacobsen, Chris; Woloschak, Gayle; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements, particularly metals, play an important role in a large variety of cellular processes in a biological system. In the context of biological organisms and tissues, the term trace element means that over the entire organisms an element is present at only trace levels, 100ppm or lower. Trace element distribution and content can be analyzed using several techniques, for example, visible light optical fluorescence imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on an election microscope, synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imagine,

  15. Trace element partitioning between aqueous fluids and silicate melts measured with a proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Earth Sciences; Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    A series of experiments were performed to examine the capacity of H{sub 2}O-fluids to concentrate and transport incompatible elements through peridotitic mantle and metamorphosed (eclogitic) ocean crust. Two naturally occurring rock compositions, trondhjemitic and basanitic, were used in experiments. The proton microprobe was used to determine the trace element concentrations in the solutes from H{sub 2}O-fluids equilibrated at 900-1100 degree C, 2.0 GPa with water saturated melts of trondhjemitic and basanitic compositions. Partitioning data for H{sub 2}O-fluids and silicate melts show that H{sub 2}O-fluids equilibrated with mantle peridotites will not be strongly enriched in trace elements relative to their wallrocks, and thus they melts do not strongly concentrate alkaline earths Th and U, relative to high-field strength elements. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Trace element structure of the most widespread plants of genus PulmonariaFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kruglov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was a comparative research of trace element structure of various organs of three Pulmonaria species. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the most widespread plants of genus Pulmonaria such as Pulmonaria officinalis L., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem., which were collected in ending of flowering and were used as the research objects. The amount of trace elements (B, K, P, V, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Si, Zn, Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Cr, I, Ni, Se, Sr, and Ti was determined by means of mass spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Results: The data clustering has shown that floral shoots and rosellate leaves possess essentially various trace element status. At the same time, the trace elements′ status of organs of researched plants poorly depends on a taxonomic position of the plant. Thereupon, it is obvious that pharmacological activity is defined by organs of plants from which medicines were made, but not by a species of the used plant. Conclusions: The significant distinction in pharmacological activity of preparations depends on the trace elements′ status of used medicinal vegetative raw materials.

  17. Comparative Trace Elemental Analysis in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissues Using PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Juma Mulware

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high or low levels of trace metals in human tissues has been studied widely. There have been detectable significant variations in the concentrations of trace metals in normal and cancerous tissues suggesting that these variations could be a causative factor to various cancers. Even though essential trace metals play an important role such as stabilizers, enzyme cofactors, elements of structure, and essential elements for normal hormonal functions, their imbalanced toxic effects contribute to the rate of the reactive oxygen species (ROS and formation of complexities in the body cells which may lead to DNA damage. The induction of oxidative-induced DNA damage by ROS may lead to isolated base lesions or single-strand breaks, complex lesions like double-strand breaks, and some oxidative generated clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs which are linked to cell apoptosis and mutagenesis. The difference in published works on the level of variations of trace metals in different cancer tissues can be attributed to the accuracy of the analytical techniques, sample preparation methods, and inability of taking uniform samples from the affected tissues. This paper reviews comparative trace elemental concentrations of cancerous and noncancerous tissues using PIXE that has been reported in the published literature.

  18. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  19. Detection of minor and trace elements in powdered milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive gamma ray spectrometry and neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA were used to investigate powdered cow's milk samples [termed optimal (1, optimal (2 and optimal (3] collected from local markets in the city of Cairo, Egypt. Standard material with a total average activity of 0.830 ± 0.2 μCi and a certified reference material [IAEA (A-14] were used to study the accuracy of a passive multi-gamma ray measurement method. Three powdered milk samples of the same geometry and volume were used in this analysis. The specific activity of 226Ra ranged from 24.5 ± 2.1 to 114 ± 1.2 Bq/kg, 232Th from 8 ± 1 to 14 ± 1.2 Bq/kg and 40K from 444 ± 28 to 1826.1 ± 3.1 Bq/kg, all of which were higher than the activities corresponding to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR (50, 50 and 500 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The average dose rate at 1 cm for 40K ranged from 8.21E−02 ± 0.12 to 3.3E−1 ± 0.22 mSv/h/cm. We also showed that 208Tl81, 212Pb82 and 212Bi83 should be considered products of thorium. k0-PGAA was carried out using an integrated and calibrated prompt gamma ray system with a neutron flux of 106 n/cm2 per second. The thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f and cadmium ratio were measured using a thin gold foil technique (ration = 160. Different Cl concentrations were prepared as standards for k0-PGAA. The elemental concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ga, Zn, As, Se, Cs, Cd, In, Th and I were measured in the three powdered milk samples. The mean ± standard deviation ranges of the elements were as follows: Na = 1069 ± 49–1583 ± 53 ppm, Mg = 347 ± 13.64–385 ± 16.71 ppm, Al = 45 ± 1.30–72 ± 2.40 ppm, Fe = 5500 ± 110–7123 ± 130 ppm, Zn = 107 ± 3–123 ± 6 ppm, Ca = 4200 ± 72–5483 ± 81 ppm, Mn = 1269 ± 69–1784 ± 72 ppm, Pr = 1.7 ± 0.02–2.6

  20. Trace elements in bed sediments and aquatic invertebrates from three streams in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S. [Geological Survey, Carson City, NV (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1995-12-31

    In September 1992, the US Geological Survey, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment Program, collected crayfish (Pacifastacus Ieniusculus and Procambarus clarkii), asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), caddis-fly larvae (Hydropsyche spp.) and bed-sediment samples from the Truckee and Carson Rivers, and Las Vegas Wash in Nevada and analyzed them for selected trace elements. This report describes and compares the concentrations of arsenic, copper, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc in those samples. In the Truckee and Carson Rivers, concentrations of the six trace elements in aquatic invertebrate samples are similar to concentrations measured in bed sediments. In the Truckee River, concentrations of these elements in crayfish and bed-sediment samples were highest in the Reno-Sparks urban area. In the Carson River, arsenic and copper are highest in bed-sediment samples upstream of Carson City due to geothermal springs and acid-mine drainage from an abandoned sulfur mine; concentrations of manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc were highest in bed-sediment samples collected downstream of the Carson City urban area due to historic gold and silver mining, and urban runoff. The highest mercury concentration in crayfish tissue, 48 {micro}g/g dry weight, was measured in a sample from the lower Carson River. In Las Vegas Wash, bed-sediment concentrations were lower than those in the Truckee and Carson Rivers; but, trace-element concentrations in crayfish tissue tended to be higher than those in bed sediment. Samples collected during this study show that trace elements are enriched in the bed sediments of all three rivers and are bioavailable. Trace-element concentrations among samples of crayfish, asiatic clam, and caddis-fly larvae showed little similarity.

  1. Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: occurrence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H E; Antweiler, R C; Roth, D A; Alpers, C N; Dileanis, P

    2012-05-01

    The impact of trace elements from the Iron Mountain Superfund site on the Sacramento River and selected tributaries is examined. The concentration and distribution of many trace elements-including aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, iron, gadolinium, holmium, potassium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, antimony, selenium, samarium, strontium, terbium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium-were measured using a combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Samples were collected using ultraclean techniques at selected sites in tributaries and the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, California, at six separate time periods from mid-1996 to mid-1997. Trace-element concentrations in dissolved (ultrafiltered [0.005-μm pore size]) and colloidal material, isolated at each site from large volume samples, are reported. For example, dissolved Zn ranged from 900 μg/L at Spring Creek (Iron Mountain acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir) to 0.65 μg/L at the Freeport site on the Sacramento River. Zn associated with colloidal material ranged from 4.3 μg/L (colloid-equivalent concentration) in Spring Creek to 21.8 μg/L at the Colusa site on the Sacramento River. Virtually all of the trace elements exist in Spring Creek in the dissolved form. On entering Keswick Reservoir, the metals are at least partially converted by precipitation or adsorption to the particulate phase. Despite this observation, few of the elements are removed by settling; instead the majority is transported, associated with colloids, downriver, at least to the Bend Bridge site, which is 67 km from Keswick Dam. Most trace elements are strongly associated with the colloid phase going

  2. Mix or un-mix? Trace element segregation from a heterogeneous mantle, simulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R. F.; Keller, T.; Warren, J. M.; Manley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Incompatible trace-element concentrations vary in mid-ocean ridge lavas and melt inclusions by an order of magnitude or more, even in samples from the same location. This variability has been attributed to channelised melt flow [Spiegelman & Kelemen, 2003], which brings enriched, low-degree melts to the surface in relative isolation from depleted inter-channel melts. We re-examine this hypothesis using a new melting-column model that incorporates mantle volatiles [Keller & Katz 2016]. Volatiles cause a deeper onset of channelisation: their corrosivity is maximum at the base of the silicate melting regime. We consider how source heterogeneity and melt transport shape trace-element concentrations in basaltic lavas. We use both equilibrium and non-equilibrium formulations [Spiegelman 1996]. In particular, we evaluate the effect of melt transport on probability distributions of trace element concentration, comparing the inflow distribution in the mantle with the outflow distribution in the magma. Which features of melt transport preserve, erase or overprint input correlations between elements? To address this we consider various hypotheses about mantle heterogeneity, allowing for spatial structure in major components, volatiles and trace elements. Of interest are the roles of wavelength, amplitude, and correlation of heterogeneity fields. To investigate how different modes of melt transport affect input distributions, we compare melting models that produce either shallow or deep channelisation, or none at all.References:Keller & Katz (2016). The Role of Volatiles in Reactive Melt Transport in the Asthenosphere. Journal of Petrology, http://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egw030. Spiegelman (1996). Geochemical consequences of melt transport in 2-D: The sensitivity of trace elements to mantle dynamics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 139, 115-132. Spiegelman & Kelemen (2003). Extreme chemical variability as a consequence of channelized melt transport. Geochemistry

  3. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya; Satya Ranjan Misra; Mohsina Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced ...

  4. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  5. Trace and minor elements in coal and methods of their investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Páchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis is to provide an overview of the minor and trace elements in coal matter and to characterize their origin, distribution and effect on quality of coal in term of its industrial utilization, including potential environmental impacts. The thesis describes main methods currently used when investigating coal geochemistry and mineralogy. The thesis includes overview of the distribution of these elements in the major coal deposits of the Czech Republic.

  6. Determination of minor and trace elements in geological materials used as raw ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazulla Barreda, M.F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Orduña Cordero, M.; Ventura Vaquer, M.J.

    2016-07-01

    A study has been undertaken to develop a methodology to determine minor and trace elements in geological ceramic raw materials by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometry. The set up of the methodology has been done either by optimising not only the sample preparation process but also optimising the measurement with the aid of the software Pro-Trace, and also by making an exhaustive compilation of reference materials for calibration and validation. The developed method is precise and accurate and allows the analysis of Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ta, Th, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr present in the sample as minor or trace elements in geological materials used as raw ceramic material in a relatively short period of time. Besides, the method is more environmentally friendly than other methodologies as it does not require the use of solvents or reagents. (Author)

  7. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599. Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper, sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males, body mass index (cadmium and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium. The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium.

  8. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-05-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce.

  9. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrates and trace elements on perioperative nutritional status in elective surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Iwasaka, Hideo; Shiihara, Keisuke; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Kubo, Nobuhiro; Fujitomi, Yutaka; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2011-10-01

    In order to enhance postoperative recovery, preoperative consumption of carbohydrate (CHO) drinks has been used to suppress metabolic fluctuations. Trace elements such as zinc and copper are known to play an important role in postoperative recovery. Here, we examined the effects of preoperatively consuming a CHO drink containing zinc and copper. Subjects were 122 elective surgery patients divided into two groups (overnight fasting and CHO groups); each group was further divided into morning or afternoon surgery groups. Subjects in the CHO group consumed 300 mL of a CHO drink the night before surgery, followed by 200 ml before morning surgery or 700 ml before afternoon surgery (> or =2 hours before anesthesia induction). Blood levels of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), retinol-binding protein, zinc, and copper were determined. One subject in the CHO group was excluded after refusing the drink. There were no adverse effects from the CHO drink. NEFA levels increased in the fasting groups. Although zinc levels increased in the CHO group immediately after anesthesia induction, no group differences were observed the day after surgery. Preoperative consumption of a CHO drink containing trace elements suppressed preoperative metabolic fluctuations without complications and prevented trace element deficiency. Further beneficial effects during the perioperative period can be expected by adding trace elements to CHO supplements.

  10. Trace element composition of meal and oil of rubber and sandbox ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two species from the Euphorbiaceae family Hevea brasiliensis (rubber plant) and Hura crepitan (Sandbox plant) were analysed for total ash and mineral nutrients in both the defatted meals and oils. Specie differences were not significant in the quantity of trace elements present.

  11. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minguillón, M.C.; Cirach, M.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Tsai, M.; Hoogh, K. de; Jedynska, A.; Kooter, I.M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low

  12. Potential benefit of trace element supplementation of sheep on a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to test whether supplementation of trace elements would have any beneficial effect on year-old ewes receiving a submaintenance level of nutrition. The ewes were fed a poor quality hay. The control group received no supplementation (Treatment 1). A solution containing copper (Cu, 5 mg/d), ...

  13. Transport of trace elements in runoff from unamended and pond-ash amended feedlot surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements and the runoff wate...

  14. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  15. Determination of Trace Elements in Nickel Base Gas Turbine Parts by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation is described to ascertain whether or not atomic absorption spectrophotometry could be used to determine the concentration of trace ... elements such as silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in nickel base alloys such as IN100, B1900 and 713C, without interference from

  16. Trace elements in grasses and legumes in relation to cow requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    Trace elements are usually allocated as inorganic supplements in dairy cow feeding to avoid deficiency. To increase self-sufficiency ofmicronutrients on farms, knowledge and choice of plant species could help to improve and balance the mineral status of cow diets. Effects of grassland species...

  17. Influence of selenite and fourteen trace elements on cataractogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, T R; Anderson, R S; Britton, J L

    1983-04-01

    The purposes of these experiments were to measure the influence of 14 trace elements on cataractogenesis and to test if these trace elements could prevent cataracts induced by selenium. On days 5-9 postpartum, suckling white rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either selenium (0.15 mumoles Se, as Na2SeO3, per pup) or selenium plus one of 14 other trace elements (separate subcutaneous injection) at one to five times the molar concentration of selenium. The frequency and severity of cataracts at three locations in the lens were assessed by slit-lamp examination on day 26-28 postpartum. Seven ions were found to be effective in preventing selenium-induced cataracts (% protection): mercuric (100%), silver (80%), cyanide (75%), arsenite (75%), cadmium (60%), and cupric (44%). Tellurite ion offered only 20% protection, while ferrous, zinc, lead, chromic, molybdate, tungstate, and vanadate ions provided no protection against selenium-induced cataract. No significant differences were found between the concentration of selenium in the lenses of control and cataractous lenses when measured approximately three weeks after selenium injection. Except for selenium, none of the trace minerals alone caused cataracts under our experimental conditions. In addition to subcutaneous injection of selenium, oral administration of this element was also found to cause cataract. It was concluded that among the ions studied, selenite was a powerful and rapid promoter of nuclear cataract formation, and that the protection ions may serve as useful probes for elucidating the mechanism of selenium-induced cataracts.

  18. Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Visser; J G Slowik; M Furger; P Zotter; N Bukowiecki; F Canonaco; U Flechsig; K Appel; D C Green; A H Tremper; D E Young; P I Williams; J D Allan; H Coe; L R Williams; C Mohr; L Xu; N L Ng; E Nemitz; J F Barlow; C H Halios; Z L Fleming; U Baltensperger; A S H Prévôt

    2015-01-01

      Trace element measurements in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London...

  19. Informative importance of determination of trace elements in biologocal mediums in patients with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Андрусишина

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The changes of mineral metabolism in human organism caused by the deficiency or excess of trace elements in environment (air, food stuffs, water can lead to disorder of functional status of organism.An excess or deficiency of the certain metals disturb the balance of metabolic processes in organism that causes the different changes in endocrine system too. That is why the aim of research was to detect the peculiarities of distribution of macro and trace elements in patients with different endocrine pathology and to show the reasonability of the complex approach in assessment of microelementoses at hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.Methods. The balance of 15 macro and trace elements in different biological mediums (hairs, whole blood, blood serum, urine was studied using EAAS and AES-ICP methods.Result. There was demonstrated the high informative importance of determination of K, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn at pancreas pathology and Cr, Mn, Se, Zn- at thyroid pathology in human. There was detected that endocrine pathology is characterized with the surplus accumulation of Al, As and Pb in organism of examined patients.Conclusions. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the clinical diagnostics of endocrine human pathology there was demonstrated the high informative importance of the complex approach in choice of biological mediums at assessment of the trace elements imbalance. 

  20. MESOLITHIC HUMAN BONES FROM THE UPPER VOLGA BASIN : RADIOCARBON AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, A. L.; Alexandrovskaya, E. I.; Zhilin, M. I.; van der Plicht, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human bones from 3 Mesolithic sites in the Upper Volga basin were analyzed for trace elements, and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The radiocarbon dates of the bones correspond to the Mesolithic era. However, some dates differ from those obtained for the enclosing deposits and for the

  1. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    linearly with their content in fuel ash. This linear tendency was affected when the fuels were mixed with additives. The volatility of trace elements during combustion was assessed by applying a relative enrichment (RE) factor, and TEM–EDS analysis was conducted to provide qualitative interpretations...... was collected in a chamber, large fly ash particles were collected by a cyclone with a cut-off diameter of ~2.5 μm, and the remaining fly ash particles were gathered in a filter. It was found that when coal was co-fired with SRF, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn content in filter ash/cyclone ash increased almost...... that trace element emission would be significantly increased when coal is co-fired with SRF, which may greatly enhance the toxicity of the dusts from coal-fired power plant. In order to minimize trace element emission in co-combustion, in addition to lowering the trace element content in SRF, utilizing SRF...

  2. Trace element and stable isotope analyses of deep sea fish from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five deep sea fishes belonging to 22 species and one unidentified specimen obtained from the Sulu Sea, located in the southwestern area of the Philippines were analyzed in the late 2002, for 23 trace elements using ICP-MS, HGAAS and CV-AAS. Predominant accumulation of strontium (Sr) was observed in all the ...

  3. Methodological approaches for fractionation and speciation to estimate trace element bioavailability in engineered anaerobic digestion ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, van Eric D.; Guibaud, Gilles; Simon, Stéphane; Lenz, Markus; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Fermoso, Fernando G.; Jain, Rohan; Duester, Lars; Roussel, Jimmy; Guillon, Emmanuel; Skyllberg, Ulf; Almeida, C.M.R.; Pechaud, Yoan; Garuti, Mirco; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Ortner, Markus; Collins, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Optimal supply of trace elements (TE) is a prerequisite for microbial growth and activity in anaerobic digestion (AD) bioprocesses. However, the required concentrations and ratios of essential TE for AD biotechnologies strongly depend on prevailing operating conditions as well as feedstock

  4. Trace elements and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Silvera, Stephanie A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2007-02-01

    Worldwide, there are more than 10 million new cancer cases each year, and cancer is the cause of approximately 12% of all deaths. Given this, a large number of epidemiologic studies have been undertaken to identify potential risk factors for cancer, amongst which the association with trace elements has received considerable attention. Trace elements, such as selenium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel, are found naturally in the environment, and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water, and food. Trace elements are of particular interest given that the levels of exposure to them are potentially modifiable. In this review, we focus largely on the association between each of the trace elements noted above and risk of cancers of the lung, breast, colorectum, prostate, urinary bladder, and stomach. Overall, the evidence currently available appears to support an inverse association between selenium exposure and prostate cancer risk, and possibly also a reduction in risk with respect to lung cancer, although additional prospective studies are needed. There is also limited evidence for an inverse association between zinc and breast cancer, and again, prospective studies are needed to confirm this. Most studies have reported no association between selenium and risk of breast, colorectal, and stomach cancer, and between zinc and prostate cancer risk. There is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between arsenic and risk of both lung and bladder cancers, and between cadmium and lung cancer risk.

  5. Accelerator SIMS, a technique for the determination of stable trace elements in ultrapure materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A new sputtering chamber with special precautions against sample contamination from the surroundings of the sample has been added to the AMS beamline of the tandem accelerator. This allows the detection of trace element concentrations in ultrapure materials below the ppb range in many cases. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  6. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end...

  7. Application of LIBS in Detection of Antihyperglycemic Trace Elements in Momordica charantia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rai, N.K.; Rai, P.K.; Pandhija, S.; Watal, G.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study exploits the information based on concentration of trace elements and minerals in understanding the role/mechanism of action of freeze-dried fruit powder suspended in distilled water of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) in diabetes treatment. Laser-induced break down

  8. Determination of trace elements (Fe, Cu and Zn) in serum and tail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strong and poor relationships between the levels of trace elements in blood, tissue and hair have been determined in various studies. The horses in this study have been fed with dry straw and artificial feed in winter months, with fresh grass in autumn and spring. The purpose was to investigate possible changes in the ...

  9. Organic matter and trace element-rich sapropels and black shales: A geochemical comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Nijenhuis, I.A.; Bosch, Hendrik-Johannes (paleontoloog); Brumsack, H.-J.; Lange, G.J. de

    1999-01-01

    A distinct Pliocene eastern Mediterranean sapropel (i-282), recovered from three Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 160 Sites, has been investigated for its organic and inorganic composition. This sapropel is characterized by high organic carbon (Corg) and trace element contents, and the presence of

  10. Trace multi-element content of lubricant oil by instrumental neutron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace multi-element content of lubricant oil by instrumental neutron activation. DJ Adeyemo, IM Umar, MC Mayaki, EB Agbaji, SA Thomas. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science & Technology Vol 9 (1&2) 2004: 65-67. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  11. Effects of nitrogen and water addition on trace element stoichiometry in five grassland species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jiangping; Weiner, Jacob; Wang, Ruzhen

    2017-01-01

    A 9-year manipulative experiment with nitrogen (N) and water addition, simulating increasing N deposition and changing precipitation regime, was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of trace elements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by plant...

  12. Major oxides and trace element distributions in coal and coaly shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, epigenetic carbonates and syngenetic or epigenetic sulphides may also be present. The concentrations of most trace elements in these coals are unremarkably, falling well within the range for U.S. and World coals. These data do not indicate any potential for economic by-product, potential technological problems ...

  13. Trace elements in Phragmites australis growing in constructed wetlands for treatment of municipal wastewater

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymazal, Jan; Kröpfelová, L.; Švehla, J.; Chrastný, V.; Štíchová, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2009), s. 303-309 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Nutrient-enriched swamp * phragmites australis * trace elements Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.745, year: 2009

  14. Role of reduced glutathione, nitric oxide and some trace elements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of reduced glutathione, nitric oxide and some trace elements in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Adel M Assiri, Kholoud S Ramadan, Mohamed H Mahfouz. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 24(1) 2006: 55-71. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  15. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  16. Grounded or submerged bulk carrier: the potential for leaching of coal trace elements to seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Steven Andrew; Planner, John

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the potential for leaching of coal trace elements to seawater from a grounded bulk carrier. The coal type and ecological scenario was based on the grounding of the "Shen Neng" (April 2010) at Douglas Shoal located within the Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). The area is of high ecological value and the Queensland Water Quality Guidelines (2009) provided threshold limits to interpret potential impacts. Coal contains many trace elements that are of major and moderate concern to human health and the environment although many of these concerns are only realised when coal is combusted. However, "unburnt" coal contains trace elements that may be leached to natural waterways and few studies have investigated the potential ecological impact of such an occurrence. For example, coal maritime transport has increased by almost 35% over the last five reported years (Jaffrennou et al., 2007) and as a result there is an increased inherent risk of bulk carrier accidents. Upon grounding or becoming submerged, coal within a bulk carrier may become saturated with seawater and potentially leach trace elements to the environment and impact on water quality and ecological resilience. The worst case scenario is the breakup of a bulk carrier and dispersal of cargo to the seafloor. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Garnet Performed by Electron Microprobe and MicroPIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, A.; Cossio, R.; Mazzoli, C.; Olmi, F.; Vaggelli, G.

    2003-12-01

    The chemical composition of rock-forming minerals reflects their crystallisation history and provides information on the temperature and pressure conditions during their formation. Among metamorphic minerals, garnet is one of the most commonly studied in metamorphic petrology because a chemical zoning is often observed in porphyroblasts that potentially records the changes in the reaction history of the rock. In the past, only major element composition could be determined by non-destructive analytical procedure. However, at high temperature major element growth zoning may be significantly modified by intra-crystalline diffusion. Consequently, the study of trace elements distribution, which may be less susceptible to diffusional modification, becomes of fundamental importance. In this regard, an inverse correlation between yttrium concentration in garnet and metamorphic grade has been recently proposed for pelitic rocks (Pyle & Spear, 2000). This coupling is of great advantage as it may be used to calibrate new geothermometers based on exchange equilibria involving trace elements in garnet In the present paper, a micro-beam Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analytical technique and a WDS electron microprobe (EPMA), were been applied to a specific geological problem particularly affected by the limitations of other techniques. The collected samples come from meta-pelitic samples belonging to the tectonic unit of Monte Rosa Nappe (Western Alps). Selected garnet crystals were analysed for major (Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe) and trace elements. The former were analysed by EPMA and the latter by micro-PIXE. The considered garnet crystals show well-defined compositional zoning, characterised by a smooth and concentric variation of the selected elements from core to rim. As regards the trace elements distribution, the two-dimensional X-ray maps display a strong Y enrichment in the core, followed by a flat pattern at the inner and outer rim. Y concentration spreads over

  18. Spatial Distribution and Fuzzy Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Water from Honghu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Cai, Ying; Xiao, Minsi

    2017-09-04

    Previous studies revealed that Honghu Lake was polluted by trace elements due to anthropogenic activities. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trace elements in Honghu Lake, and identified the major pollutants and control areas based on the fuzzy health risk assessment at screening level. The mean total content of trace elements in surface water decreased in the order of Zn (18.04 μg/L) > Pb (3.42 μg/L) > Cu (3.09 μg/L) > Cr (1.63 μg/L) > As (0.99 μg/L) > Cd (0.14 μg/L), within limits of Drinking Water Guidelines. The results of fuzzy health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk to human health, while carcinogenic risk was observed in descending order of As > Cr > Cd > Pb. As was regarded to have the highest carcinogenic risk among selected trace elements because it generally accounted for 64% of integrated carcinogenic risk. Potential carcinogenic risk of trace elements in each sampling site was approximately at medium risk level (10-5 to 10-4). The areas in the south (S4, S13, and S16) and northeast (S8, S18, and S19) of Honghu Lake were regarded as the risk priority control areas. However, the corresponding maximum memberships of integrated carcinogenic risk in S1, S3, S10-S13, S15, and S18 were of relatively low credibility (50-60%), and may mislead the decision-makers in identifying the risk priority areas. Results of fuzzy assessment presented the subordinate grade and corresponding reliability of risk, and provided more full-scale results for decision-makers, which made up for the deficiency of certainty assessment to a certain extent.

  19. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

    2012-10-24

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. {mu}-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  20. Dietary intake of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Viola, Antonella; Leo, Alessandra; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to estimate dietary intakes of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins in hemodialysis patients (HDP) of three centers in one metropolitan and two urban areas of Italy. Daily dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day diet diary in 128 HDP. Mean daily intakes of trace elements were as follows: zinc, 7.6 ± 5.4 mg; copper, 14.3 ± 11.8 mg; selenium, 28.3 ± 18.1 μg; and iron, 7.2 ± 4.1 mg (7.8 ± 2.6 mg in women, 6.9 ± 2.4 mg in men). The distribution of patients by daily intakes of trace elements showed most were under the recommended values, with the exception of copper intake, which was much higher. Mean daily intakes of minerals were as follows: magnesium, 174.4 ± 94.3 mg; phosphorus, 842.6 ± 576.8 mg; calcium, 371.8 ± 363.7 mg; potassium, 1,616.2 ± 897.3 mg; and sodium, 1,350 ± 1,281 mg. Mean daily intakes of vitamins were as follows: vitamin A, 486.1 ± 544.6 μg; vitamin B1, 0.86 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B2, 1.1 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B3, 13.3 ± 8.1 mg; vitamin C, 47.8 ± 50.3 mg; and vitamin E, 9.5 ± 3.6 mg. The distribution of patients by daily intakes of vitamins showed most were under the recommended values. Daily intakes of trace elements and vitamins were similar among the three centers and did not differ between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Many HDP have daily dietary intakes of trace elements and vitamins below the recommended values, whereas the intake of copper is much higher.

  1. Trace Elements in Hair from Tanzanian Children: Effect of Dietary Factor (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements in certain amounts are essential for childrens' health, because they are present in tissues participating in metabolic reactions of organisms. Deficiency of the essential elements may result in malnutrition, impaired body immunity, and poor resistance to disease. These conditions might be enhanced against a background of additional adverse environmental factors such as toxic elements. The analysis of elements in childrens' hair will give information on the deficiency of essential elements and excess of toxic elements in relation to their diet. In this study, 141 hair samples from children (girls and boys) living in two regions of Tanzanian mainland (Dar es Salaam and Moshi) and the island of Zanzibar have been analysed for trace elements in relation to food consumption habits. The analysis was carried out using long and short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. Arithmetic and geometric means with their respective standard deviations are presented for 19 elements. Subgroups were formed according to age, gender, and geographic regions from which the samples were collected. Differences in concentrations for the groups and with other childhood populations were explored and discussed.

  2. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G. J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G. A. V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P. V. B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-06-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors.

  3. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are strongly correlated with clay abundance and considered to be in the structure of illitic clay. Illite undergoes minimal alteration during weathering and is concentrated during illuvial processes. Arsenic concentration increases across the weathering profile and is associated with the succession of secondary Fe(III) minerals that form with progressive weathering. Detrital fluxes of particle-bound trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Sb) to 8 g/ha/a (Mo). Although

  4. Potential sources of analytical bias and error in selected trace element data-quality analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Garbarino, John R.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Rosen, Michael R.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Struzeski, Tedmund M.

    2016-09-28

    Potential sources of analytical bias and error associated with laboratory analyses for selected trace elements where concentrations were greater in filtered samples than in paired unfiltered samples were evaluated by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Quality Specialists in collaboration with the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and the Branch of Quality Systems (BQS).Causes for trace-element concentrations in filtered samples to exceed those in associated unfiltered samples have been attributed to variability in analytical measurements, analytical bias, sample contamination either in the field or laboratory, and (or) sample-matrix chemistry. These issues have not only been attributed to data generated by the USGS NWQL but have been observed in data generated by other laboratories. This study continues the evaluation of potential analytical bias and error resulting from matrix chemistry and instrument variability by evaluating the performance of seven selected trace elements in paired filtered and unfiltered surface-water and groundwater samples collected from 23 sampling sites of varying chemistries from six States, matrix spike recoveries, and standard reference materials.Filtered and unfiltered samples have been routinely analyzed on separate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instruments. Unfiltered samples are treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) during an in-bottle digestion procedure; filtered samples are not routinely treated with HCl as part of the laboratory analytical procedure. To evaluate the influence of HCl on different sample matrices, an aliquot of the filtered samples was treated with HCl. The addition of HCl did little to differentiate the analytical results between filtered samples treated with HCl from those samples left untreated; however, there was a small, but noticeable, decrease in the number of instances where a particular trace-element concentration was greater in a filtered sample than in the associated

  5. The leaching behaviour and geochemical fractionation of trace elements in hydraulically disposed weathered coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyale, Sammy M; Eze, Chuks P; Akinyeye, Richard O; Gitari, Wilson M; Akinyemi, Segun A; Fatoba, Olanrewaju O; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-01

    A five-step sequential extraction (SE) procedure was used to investigate the leaching behaviour and geochemical partitioning of the trace elements As, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Cr and Cu in a 20-year-old fly ash (FA) dump. The weathered FA, which was hydraulically co-disposed with salt laden brine in slurry form (FA: brine ratio of 1:5), was analyzed and compared with fresh FA. The weathered FA samples were collected from three cores, drilled at a coal-fired power station in the Republic of South Africa while the fresh FA sample was collected from the hoppers in the ash collection system at the power station. The FA samples were sequentially leached using: ultrapure water; ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 7); ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 5); hydroxylamine hydrochloride in nitric acid (pH 2) and finally the residues were digested using a combination of HClO4: HF: HNO3 acids. Digestion of as received (unleached) FA samples was also done using a combination of HClO4: HF: HNO3 acids in order to determine the total metal content. The trace element analysis was done using ICP-OES (Varian 710-ES). The SE procedure revealed that the trace elements present in the fresh FA and the weathered FA samples obtained from the three cores could leach upon exposure to different environmental conditions. The trace elements showed continuous partitioning between five geochemical phases i.e., water soluble fraction, exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction, Fe and Mn fraction and residual fraction. Although the highest concentration of the trace elements (ranging 65.51%-86.34%) was contained in the residual fraction, a considerable amount of each trace element (ranging 4.42%-27.43%) was released from the labile phases (water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate fractions), indicating that the trace species readily leach from the dumped FA under environmental conditions thus pose a danger to the receiving environment and to groundwater.

  6. Trace elements levels in the serum, urine, and semen of patients with infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Altundağ, Hüseyin; Atik, Yavuz Tarık; Dündar, Mustafa Şahin; Adsan, Öztug

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that trace elements may have an adverse impact on male reproduction, even at low levels. We tried to investigate the relationships between these metals and semen quality in various body fluids among men with infertility. A total of 255 samples of blood, semen, and urine were collected from 85 men suffering from infertility. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used for the determination of 22 trace elements. We compared the results of the semen parameters with the results of the element determinations. Because of the high proportion of samples with values lower than the limit of detection for a number of the elements, only 8 of a total 22 trace elements were determined in the samples. When the concentrations of sperm were classified according to the World Health Organization's guidelines for normospermia, oligospermia, and azoospermia, statistically significant differences were found among Zn, Ca, Al, Cu, Mg, Se, and Sr concentrations in various serum, sperm, and urine samples (P semen parameters in various body fluids.

  7. Submarine Groundwater Discharge of Trace Elements and Isotopes from Karst Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, M. A.; Henderson, P. B.; Gonneea, M. E.; Breier, C.; Murray, J.; Jenson, J. W.; Morales, S.; Herrera-Silveira, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal hydrogeology is a major driver of the flux of trace elements and isotopes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Karst geomorphology, which makes up 25% of the world’s coastline, is often characterized by highly permeable soils result that result in fast infiltration of rainfall such that overland runoff is minimal. As a result, the major vector for land-ocean freshwater transport is submarine groundwater discharge. This talk will focus on process studies at two karst settings: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and Guam in the western Pacific Mariana Island chain. A feature common to both locations was minimal non-conservative behavior of trace metals and isotopes within subsurface mixing zones at the coast and substantial fluxes of trace metals associated with dissolution of carbonate minerals within the aquifer. The levels of trace metal enrichment appear correlated with subsurface path length, with groundwater endmember concentrations at the Yucatan site being ~2-5 times higher than at Guam. We surmise that SGD fluxes from karst systems were less significant during glacial periods when carbonate platforms are fully exposed and therefore subject to less intense weathering processes. These results have implications for interpretation of trace element and isotope distributions in the geologic record.

  8. Siderophile, lithophile and mobile trace elements in the lunar meteorite Allan Hills 81005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, R. M.; Dennison, J. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The content of trace elements (siderophile Co, Au, As, Sb, Ga; chalcophile/mobile Se, Te, Bi, In, Ag, Zn, Tl, Cd; lithophile Rb, Cs, U) is investigated to ascertain whether the meteorite is of lunar origin. Five elements reflect lunar crustal processes, whereas the remaining 11 siderophile and mobile elements suggest 1.4 + or - 0.5 percent micrometeorite admixture or enrichment by thermal redistribution on the moon. It is found that the impact launching of ALH A81005 to the earth was not attended by substantial shock loading. A Martian origin for severely shocked SNC meteorites is therefore considered plausible.

  9. Effect of Trace Elements (Boron and Lead) on the Properties of Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankamma, Kandula

    2014-04-01

    In the present work an effort has been made to correlate the "Effect of trace elements (B and Pb) on the tensile strength, hardness and microstructure of gray cast iron". These elements have a significant effect on the properties and microstructure of gray cast iron. These elements are deliberately added to study their effect on properties and microstructure. Boron up to 0.02 % in gray cast iron showed an improvement in tensile strength and hardness values. While beyond this amount it shows a decreasing trend, due to the formation of type B and type D graphitic structure. Lead in gray cast iron shows a decreasing trend in tensile strength and hardness values, even if present in trace amount, due to the formation of spiky or mesh type graphite.

  10. Correlation of trace elements in hair of patients with colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K. W.; Shore, R. E.; Redrick, A. L.

    1987-03-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppm were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations.

  11. Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R., E-mail: freeman.justinr@gmail.com; Diwakar, P.K., E-mail: pdiwakar@purdue.edu; Harilal, S.S., E-mail: hari@pnnl.gov; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the effectiveness of long-wavelength heating in double pulse (DP) LIBS, quantitatively comparing figures of merit with those from traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS. The first laser pulse serves as the source of sample ablation, creating an aerosol-like plume that is subsequently reheated by the second laser pulse. At power densities used, the long-wavelength CO{sub 2} laser pulse does not ablate any of the solid sample in the atmospheric conditions investigated, meaning plasma emission and enhanced signal can be entirely attributed to the reheated plume rather than increased sample ablation. The signal discrimination was improved significantly using long-wavelength DP-LIBS. For bulk elemental analysis, DP-LIBS provided maximum enhancements of about 14 and 15 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, compared to SP-LIBS using the same quantity of ablated sample. For trace elemental analysis, maximum enhancements of about 7 and 4 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, were observed. These improvements are attributed to effective coupling between the second heating pulse and expanding plume and more efficient excitation of plume species than from the single pulse alone. Most significant improvements were observed in the case of low prepulse energy and minimal sample ablation. While bulk elemental analysis observed improvements for all prepulse energies studied, trace element discrimination only significantly improved for the lowest prepulse energy studied. - Highlights: • Enhancement by improved coupling and excitation efficiency, not increased ablated mass • S/N enhancements of 14 and 7 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • S/B enhancements of 15 and 4 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • Max enhancement observed for smaller quantities of ablated sample • Significant conclusions for delicate, mass-limited samples.

  12. Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Ruditapes philippinarum from China: Public Health Risk Assessment Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhao, Liqiang; Yan, Xiwu; Wang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important commercial bivalve species consumed in China. Evaluated metal burden in bivalve molluscs can pose potential risks to public health as a result of their frequent consumption. In this study, concentrations of 10 trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and As) were determined in samples of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, collected from nine mariculture zones along the coast of China between November and December in 2010, in order to evaluate the status of elemental metal pollution in these areas. Also, a public health risk assessment was untaken to assess the potential risks associated with the consumption of clams. The ranges of concentrations found for Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and As in R. philippinarum were 12.1–38.0, 49.5–168.3, 42.0–68.0, 4.19–8.71, 4.76–14.32, 0.41–1.11, 0.94–4.74, 0.32–2.59, 0.03–0.23 and 0.46–11.95 mg·kg−1 dry weight, respectively. Clear spatial variations were found for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg and As, whereas Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd did not show significant spatial variation. Hotspots of trace element contamination in R. philippinarum can be found along the coast of China, from the north to the south, especially in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Based on a 58.1 kg individual consuming 29 g of bivalve molluscs per day, the values of the estimated daily intake (EDI) of trace elements analyzed were significantly lower than the values of the accepted daily intake (ADI) established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JFAO/WHO) and the guidelines of the reference does (RfD) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Additionally, the risk of trace elements to humans through R. philippinarum consumption was also assessed. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of all trace elements were less than 1. Consequently, there was no obvious public risk from

  13. Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Ruditapes philippinarum from China: Public Health Risk Assessment Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwu Yan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important commercial bivalve species consumed in China. Evaluated metal burden in bivalve molluscs can pose potential risks to public health as a result of their frequent consumption. In this study, concentrations of 10 trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and As were determined in samples of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, collected from nine mariculture zones along the coast of China between November and December in 2010, in order to evaluate the status of elemental metal pollution in these areas. Also, a public health risk assessment was untaken to assess the potential risks associated with the consumption of clams. The ranges of concentrations found for Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and As in R. philippinarum were 12.1–38.0, 49.5–168.3, 42.0–68.0, 4.19–8.71, 4.76–14.32, 0.41–1.11, 0.94–4.74, 0.32–2.59, 0.03–0.23 and 0.46–11.95 mg·kg−1 dry weight, respectively. Clear spatial variations were found for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg and As, whereas Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd did not show significant spatial variation. Hotspots of trace element contamination in R. philippinarum can be found along the coast of China, from the north to the south, especially in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Based on a 58.1 kg individual consuming 29 g of bivalve molluscs per day, the values of the estimated daily intake (EDI of trace elements analyzed were significantly lower than the values of the accepted daily intake (ADI established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JFAO/WHO and the guidelines of the reference does (RfD established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. Additionally, the risk of trace elements to humans through R. philippinarum consumption was also assessed. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ of all trace elements were less than 1. Consequently, there was no obvious

  14. Quelques pistes pour l'investigation des traces des premiers contacts linguistiques slavo-romans dans la toponymie slovène

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Šega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lʼarticle propose les méthodes et les pistes de recherche que devrait adopter lʼétude des plus anciens toponymes dʼorigine romane en slovène et dʼautres indices de symbiose slavo-romane avant la fin du XIe siècle sur le territoire des Alpes Orientales et de lʼAdriatique Septentrional. Nous attirons surtout lʼattention sur les difficultés avec lesquelles les chercheurs, surtout les linguistes, doivent compter dans ce type de travail. Le résultat souhaité est de dresser un inventaire complet des toponymes qui rendrait possibles lʼidentification et lʼanalyse des traces de la romanité moyenâgeuse, et, par conséquent, lʼévaluation de lʼintensité de la continuité linguistique et matérielle sur ce territoire.

  15. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( Phomeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  16. Trace element determinations in brain tissues from normal and clinically demented individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas; Leite, Renata E.P.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Suemoto, Claudia; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson, E-mail: renataleite@usp.br, E-mail: lea@grinberg.com.br, E-mail: reloah@usp.br, E-mail: farfel@usp.br, E-mail: csuemoto@gmail.com, E-mail: cpasqua@usp.br, E-mail: wijac@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Studies on trace element levels in human brains under normal and pathological conditions have indicated a possible correlation between some trace element concentrations and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, analysis of brain tissues was carried out to investigate if there are any differences in elemental concentrations between brain tissues from a normal population above 50 years of age presenting Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) equal to zero (CDR=0) and that cognitively affected population ( CDR=3). The tissues were dissected, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated in a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma ray activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The one-way ANOVA test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the results. All the elements determined in the hippocampus brain region presented differences between the groups presenting CDR=0 and CDR=3. In the case of frontal region only the elements Na, Rb and Zn showed differences between these two groups. These findings proved the correlation between elemental levels present in brain tissues neurodegenerative diseases. Biological standard reference materials SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and SRM 1577b Bovine Liver analyzed for quality control indicated good accuracy and precision of the results. (author)

  17. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  18. GEOTRACES – An international study of the global marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, G.M.; Anderson, R.F.; Adkins, J.; Andersson, P.; Boyle, E.A.; Cutter, Greg; Baar, H. de; Eisenhauer, Anton; Frank, Martin; Francois, R.; Orians, Kristin; Gamo, T.; German, C.; Jenkins, W.; Moffett, J.; Jeandel, C.; Jickells, T.; Krishnaswami, S.; Mackey, D.; Masque, P.; Measures, C.I.; Moore, J.K.; Oschlies, A.; Pollard, R.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Schlitzer, R.; Sharma, M.; Damm, K. von; Hall, Morse; Zhang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Trace elements serve important roles as regulators of ocean processes including marine ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycling. The role of iron, for instance, is well known as a limiting micronutrient in the surface ocean. Several other trace elements also play crucial roles in ecosystem function and

  19. Evaluating Crustal Contamination Effects On The Lithophile Trace Element Budget Of Shergottites, NWA 856 As A Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Ferdous, J.; Peslier, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The issue of whether crustal contamination has affected the lithophile trace element budget of shergottites has been a point of contention for decades. The evaluation has focused on the enriched shergottite compositions as an outcome of crustal contamination of mantle-derived parent magmas or, alternatively, the compositions of these stones reflect an incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched mantle source.

  20. Vaporization of trace element species from coal under gasification and combustion conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the chemical forms and relative abundance of trace inorganic vapor species in coal during combustion and gasification. A joint experimental and calculational program to observe the vaporization of Illinois No. 6 bituminous and Wyodak subbituminous was performed. Experimental studies were performed by Knudsen cell mass spectroscopy on samples of each coal that were ashed at low temperature by an oxygen plasma. To simulate actual coal more closely, some samples were only partially ashed to retain more of the original organic components. Vapor species were identified and their abundances measured over the temperature range 300-1700 K. In the first year of the program, vaporization from the coal ash alone was studied. Dynamic partial pressures were measured against temperature and time. Vapor species of 32 major or trace elements were identified. During the second year of the program, mass spectrometry experiments addressed the effects of added gases (O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O) on the identities and abundances of trace element vapor species. Coincident with experimental studies, trace element vaporization behavior was evaluated by Gibbs energy minimization calculations. A data base including both solution and pure condensed and gaseous components was compiled. The behavior of Wyodak coal at 1 atm total pressure was evaluated over the temperature range 300--1800 K and the oxygen partial pressure range from 10/sup /minus/1/ to 10/sup /minus/25/ atm. Results were used to evaluate the effects on trace element volatility of several proposed strategies for containment removal. 13 refs., 23 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Investigating the Microscopic Location of Trace Elements in High-Alpine Glacier Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avak, Sven Erik; Birrer, Mario; Laurent, Oscar; Guillong, Marcel; Wälle, Markus; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Schwikowski, Margit; Eichler, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Past changes in atmospheric pollution can be reconstructed from high-alpine ice core trace element records (Schwikowski et al., 2004). Percolation of meltwater alters the information originally stored in these environmental archives. Eichler et al. (2001) suggested that the preservation of major ions with respect to meltwater percolation depends on their location in the crystal ice lattice, i.e. grain boundaries versus grain interiors. Other studies have also focused on the effect of meltwater on organic pollutant concentrations as well as on stable isotope profiles in ice cores, whereas no information exists about trace elements. Here, we investigate for the first time the effect of the microscopic location of anthropogenic, dust and volcanic related trace elements on the behavior during meltwater percolation by using two different approaches. On the one hand we assess the microscopic location of trace elements indirectly by analyzing trace element concentrations in a high-alpine ice core, which has been shown to be affected by an inflow of meltwater, using discrete inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Impurities located at grain boundaries are prone to be removed by meltwater and tend to be depleted in the affected section of the record whereas those incorporated into the ice interior are preserved and not disturbed in the record. In the second approach we work towards a direct quantification of differences in concentrations of trace elements between ice grain boundaries and grain interiors in samples both from unaffected and affected sections of this ice core. Therefore we use cryocell laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS, which is the method of choice for the direct in situ chemical analysis of trace elements at a sub-millimeter resolution in glacier ice (Reinhardt et al., 2001, Della Lunga et al., 2014, Sneed et al., 2015). We will present first results of both approaches with regard to the evaluation of the potential of trace elements as environmental

  2. Trace element diffusion in minerals: the role of multiple diffusion mechanisms operating simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, R.; Marschall, H.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Polednia, J.; Chakraborty, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion of trace elements, often with ionic charge that differs from those of ions in the regular structural sites of a mineral, controls a number of important processes in rocks, such as: (i) Closure of radiogenic isotopic systems, (e.g. Pb diffusion in rutile; REE diffusion in garnet); (ii) Closure of trace element thermometers (e.g., Zr in rutile, Mg in plagioclase, Al in olivine); (iii) Closure of element exchange between melt inclusions and host minerals (e.g., H, REE in olivine). In addition, preserved trace element zoning profiles in minerals can be used for diffusion chronometry (e.g. Nb in rutile, Mg in plagioclase). However, experimentally determined diffusion coefficients of these trace elements are in many cases controversial (e.g., REE in olivine: [1] vs. [2]; Mg in plagioclase: [3] vs. [4]). We have carried out experiments to study the diffusion behavior in olivine, rutile, and plagioclase, and are able to show that two mechanisms of diffusion, differing in rates by up to four orders of magnitude, may operate simultaneously in a given crystal. The two mechanisms result in complex diffusion profile shapes. As a general rule, the incorporation of heterovalent substituting elements in relatively high concentrations is necessary to activate two diffusion mechanisms. This behavior is produced by the control of these elements on the point defect chemistry of a mineral - these impurities become a majority point defect when a threshold concentration limit is exceeded. In certain cases, e.g., for Li in olivine, the trace element can also be incorporated in different sites, resulting in interaction of the different species with other point defects (vacancies) during diffusion. Thus, depending on the diffusion couple used in the experiment, the associated concentration gradients within the mineral, and the analytical techniques used to measure the diffusion profile, only one diffusion mechanism may be activated or detected. These studies allow us to explain

  3. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie

    2017-04-01

    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  4. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.cat; Penuelas, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha{sup -1}) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest.

  6. Soil properties and trace elements contents following 40 years of phosphate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Dragan; Saljnikov, Elmira; Mrvic, Vesna; Jakovljevic, Miodrag; Marjanovic, Zaklina; Sikiric, Biljana; Maksimovic, Srboljub

    2010-01-01

    Long-term application of P fertilizers may eventually result in excess and/or toxic accumulations of trace elements and microelements in soil. The effect of monoammonium-phosphate (MAP) on basic soil properties (pH, CEC, texture), the total content of C, N, and F, hot acid-extractable Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Co, As, Hg, and F, and the content of extractable macro- and trace elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, F) were studied on a Stagnosol soil. Phosphate fertilizer had been applied (26, 39, and 52 kg P ha(-1)) over a 40-yr period. Phosphorus fertilization significantly decreased pH and increased clay content of the soil. Increases were detected in available P, exchangeable Al, Ca, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and clay content. The content of hot acid-extractable Pb increased, whereas the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable Pb decreased in accordance with applied rates of MAP. The status of some hot acid-extractable trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni, and Co) did not change after 40 yr of MAP application, whereas Hg and Cd increased. However, despite the statistically significant increases in the amounts of some potentially toxic elements, they did not accumulate to concentrations considered toxic as overall concentrations are far below the maximum allowed concentrations for natural unpolluted soils.

  7. Deep-sea fluxes of barium and lithogenic trace elements in the subtropical northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judith; Dellwig, Olaf; Waniek, Joanna J.

    2017-04-01

    Total particle flux, Barium and lithogenic trace element fluxes were measured at the mooring Kiel 276 (33°N, 22°W) in the deep-sea of the subtropical Northeast Atlantic. The particulate material was collected between 2002 and 2008 with a sediment trap in 2000 m depth and analyzed with ICP-OES/-MS to determine its geochemical composition. The particle flux is controlled by primary production, lithogenic particle inputs via atmospheric transport and the migration of the Azores Front. We used refractory trace elements (eg. Ti, Zr, and the rare earth elements) to demonstrate the changes in flux and composition of the material due to lithogenic inputs. Shortly after periods of high dust load and enhanced primary production an increase in lithogenic trace element fluxes occurred. Especially the formation of aggregates with biogenic matter seems to have a major impact on the downwards transport of lithogenic particles. The observation of particulate Ba is of great interest since it is known as a proxy for past and present primary production. Ba fluxes ranging between 0.02 mg m-2 d-1 and 1.21 mg m-2 d-1 with biogenic proportions up to 97%. The fluxes of particulate Barium in the water column are mainly attributed to the strength of primary production.

  8. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  9. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulates by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Jung, Yung Joo; Jung, Eui Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yun [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    Trace elements in airborne particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) under the optimum analytical condition. Neutron irradiation for sample was done at the irradiation hole(neutron flux, 1 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} s) of TRIGA MARK-III research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. For the verification of the analytical method, NIST SRM-1648 and NIES CRM No.8 were chosen and analyzed. The accuracy and precision of the analysis of 40 and 24 trace elements in the samples were compared with the certified and reported values, respectively. The analytical method was found to be reliable enough when the analytical data of NIES sample were compared with those of different countries. In the analytical result of two or both of standard reference materials, relative standard deviation was within the 15% except a few elements and the relative error was within the 10%. We used this method to analyze 30 trace elements in airborne particulates collected with the high volume air sampler(PM-10) at two different locations and also confirmed the possibility to use this method as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources. 3 figs., 8 tabs., 19 refs. (Author).

  10. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  11. Trace-element interactions in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells along an urbanisation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2014-11-01

    Concentrations of seven trace elements [arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd)] in the eggshells of Rooks Corvus frugilegus, a focal bird species of Eurasian agricultural environments, are increased above background levels and exceed levels of toxicological concern. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn are greater in eggshells from urban rookeries (large cities) compared with rural areas (small towns and villages) suggesting an urbanisation gradient effect among eggs laid by females. In the present study, the investigators assessed whether the pattern of relationships among the seven trace elements in eggshells change along an urbanisation/pollution gradient. Surprisingly, we found that eggshells with the greatest contaminant burden, i.e., from urban rookeries, showed far fewer significant relationships (n = 4) than eggshells from villages (n = 10), small towns (n = 6), or rural areas (n = 8). In most cases, the relationships were positive. As was an exception: Its concentration was negatively correlated with Ni and Cd levels in eggshells from small town rookeries (where As levels were the highest), whereas eggshells from villages (with a lower As level) showed positive relationships between As and Cd. Our findings suggest that at low to intermediate levels, interactions between the trace elements in Rook eggshells are of a synergistic character and appear to operate as parallel coaccumulation. A habitat-specific excess of some elements (primarily Cr, Ni, Cu, As) suggests their more competitively selective sequestration.

  12. Accelerator-based trace element analysis of foods and agriculture products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, Manuel C. [Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8569 (United States)], E-mail: mlagunassolar@ucdavis.edu; Pina U, Cecilia [Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8569 (United States); Solis, Corina; Mireles, Alibech [Physics Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    An accelerator-based analytical method for measuring trace elements in foods and agricultural products was developed, optimized, validated and compared using reference standards. The method's initial phase is a new, rapid and effective digestion process of a small mass analyte in an aqueous media containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Digestion is initiated by radicals formed in water with pulsed UV (PUV) induced (laser) photolysis, which rapidly react with organic matter. After digestion, trace metals are pre-concentrated as carbamates and deposited as thin targets onto Teflon filters. Conventional particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods are then used to analyze elements in the sample. When foods and other agricultural commodities (i.e., soils, feeds) are analyzed, the combined method named pulsed UV (PUV)/PIXE results in enhanced detection of trace elements such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb at {approx}1 mg/kg (1 ppm) levels, without lengthy, acid-based digestions. It provides improvements in digestion kinetics and processing time enhancing analytical sensitivity and element recovery. Precision and recovery yields were confirmed with food reference standards. The analysis of edible foods from contaminated agricultural areas is also reported.

  13. Emissions inventory of PM2.5 trace elements across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Reff; Prakash V. Bhave; Heather Simon; Thompson G. Pace; George A. Pouliot; J. David Mobley; Marc Houyoux [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM2.5 emissions in the NEI were organized and aggregated into a set of 84 source categories for which chemical speciation profiles are available (e.g., Unpaved Road Dust, Agricultural Soil, Wildfires). Emission estimates for ten metals classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) were refined using data from a recent HAP NEI. All emissions were spatially gridded, and U.S. emissions maps for dozens of trace elements (e.g., Fe, Ti) are presented for the first time. Nationally, the trace elements emitted in the highest quantities are silicon (3.8 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), aluminium (1.4 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), and calcium (1.3 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr). Our chemical characterization of the PM2.5 inventory shows that most of the previously unspeciated emissions are comprised of crustal elements, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and metal-bound oxygen. Coal combustion is the largest source of S, Se, Sr, Hg and primary sulfates. This work also reveals that the largest PM2.5 sources lacking specific speciation data are off-road diesel-powered mobile equipment, road construction dust, marine vessels, gasoline-powered boats, and railroad locomotives. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  15. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  16. Impact of traffic routes on the content of trace elements in soils in Warsaw agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komorowski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the content of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in soils near the main traffic routes of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of soil contamination with trace metals at different distances from the road (by the side the road and 50 meters away from the road. In the soil 50 m away from the road in Łomianki ‘low contamination’ was found for zinc and ‘elevated content’ for copper according to the IUNG guidelines, but the amounts of the trace elements were not found to exceed the permissible levels as specified in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment of 1 September 2016.

  17. Trace element-rich cassiterite ('wood tin') from Central Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Tobias; Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The mineral cassiterite occasionally occurs as radial-fibrous aggregates that are referred to as 'wood tin' due to their resemblance of the inner structure of wood. Typical material is known from Cornwall (granite-related) and Mexico (associated with rhyolites) but is only of minor economic importance. In the course of heavy mineral-investigations of stream sediments in Central Saxony, the extensive distribution of cassiterite as accessory heavy mineral in the form of 'wood tin' was established. The material was exclusively found as rounded grains (up to 5 mm across) in fluvial sediments. The obtained wood tin was studied by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence-microscopy (CL), REM-EDX and bulk geochemistry. Microscopical studies revealed significant structural similarities to wood tin from Taylor Creek (New Mexico, USA), which is referred to the rhyolite-hosted Mexican type of tin deposits. The trace element contents are similar as well. In addition, it was possible to link the currently studied cassiterite with a rhyolite of Upper Carboniferous age (Westphalian C) by geochemical analyses and geological considerations. Bulk-geochemical analyses of material from the two most important occurrences revealed significant contents in trace elements. The concentrations of Fe and Si reach up to several wt%. Other remarkable trace elements are As (2000-4000 ppm), In (700 ppm), Sb (500-1500 ppm), Y (up to 150 ppm), Zn (700-1500 ppm) and REE (Ce: up to 200 ppm, La: up to 175 ppm). The elements Fe and Si are generally typical for wood tin and can be - at least in parts - assigned to inclusions of hematite and SiO2-phases (chalcedony?), respectively. The additional presence of diadochically incorporated Fe in the cassiterite lattice is indicated by very weak luminescence phenomena in CL. The high contents of the other elements (e. g., As, In, Zn and REE) suggest the presence of further inclusions. In microscopical studies of several wood tin samples in reflected and

  18. The Influence of Database Configuration on the Derivation of Trace Element Partitioning Expressions for Clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. L.; Nielsen, R. L.; Koppers, A. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2009-05-01

    Clinopyroxene has a large role in controlling the trace element budget in the crust and upper mantle due to its moderate level of compatibility with respect to many trace elements (e.g. REE, HFSE) and its role in melting and crystallization processes. Decades of experimental work has illustrated the high degree to which the partitioning of most elements is dependent on phase composition, temperature and pressure. In order to quantitatively describe clinopyroxene partitioning it is required to derive expressions using theoretical constraints that are calibrated with experimental data [1-6]. The experimental database available for such an analysis has grown considerably in the past decade, both in number of experiments and the range of composition and experimental conditions. Our research is focused on the compilation and evaluation of this newly available experimental clinopyroxene data. This compilation was conducted as part of the ongoing update of the GERM partition coefficient (Kd) database (http://earthref.org/databases/KDD). Previous versions of the partitioning database provided a summary of partitioning information from the literature, however without data on phase compositions. In this current update, data on phase compositional and experimental conditions are being added on an investigation by investigation basis. One of the areas of initial concentration has been information on clinopyroxene, due to the relatively large size of the available data and the significance of the dataset as a whole. As an example of the utility of the database, we have compiled the available clinopyroxene trace element experimental data on natural, doped natural and synthetic materials, focusing on the data for the rare earth and high field strength elements. Our initial analysis documents the significant difference in the numbers of experiments between different elements and groups of elements. In addition, the distribution of pyroxene composition, melt composition, and

  19. Comparative Study on Serum Levels of 10 Trace Elements in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lailai; Guo, Jing; Feng, Fangbo; Qiu, Jinyun; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain obscure. This study explored the associations between schizophrenia risk and serum levels of 10 trace elements. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted and matched by age and sex. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of nickel, molybdenum, arsenic, aluminum, chromium, manganese, selenium, copper, iron and zinc by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations between trace elements and schizophrenia risk. Totally 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls were recruited in the study. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that copper≤0.97 μg/mL, selenium≤72 ng/mL and manganese>3.95 ng/mL were associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. The study showed that lower levels of selenium, copper and higher levels of manganese were found in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls. PMID:26186003

  20. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    Full Text Available In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. The biodiversity that exists within a species can be utilized to investigate how regulatory mechanisms of individual elements interact and to identify genes important for these processes. We analyzed the elemental composition (ionome of a set of 96 wild accessions of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in hydroponic culture and soil using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The concentrations of 17-19 elements were analyzed in roots and leaves from plants grown hydroponically, and leaves and seeds from plants grown in artificial soil. Significant genetic effects were detected for almost every element analyzed. We observed very few correlations between the elemental composition of the leaves and either the roots or seeds. There were many pairs of elements that were significantly correlated with each other within a tissue, but almost none of these pairs were consistently correlated across tissues and growth conditions, a phenomenon observed in several previous studies. These results suggest that the ionome of a plant tissue is variable, yet tightly controlled by genes and gene × environment interactions. The dataset provides a valuable resource for mapping studies to identify genes regulating elemental accumulation. All of the ionomic data is available at www.ionomicshub.org.

  1. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  2. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gueriau

    Full Text Available The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  3. Investigation on the Trace Elemental Profile of Sewage Workers in Kolkata, an Indian Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rajlaxmi; Ram, Sidharth Sankar; Biswas, Arunnangshu; Ray, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Mathummal, Sudarshan; Chakrabarti, Sila

    2015-07-16

    Environmental pollution has become a global health risk. Exposure to pollutants at the work place, i.e. occupational exposure, is one of the areas that need immediate attention. The civic drainage workers are exposed to pollutants present in the wastewater they handle and most of them are toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such pollutants may be a health hazard, since it can lead to the imbalance in nutrient elements status. In the present study, profiling of trace elements in the blood of drainage worker population from an Indian megacity, Kolkata, was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and compared with the control group population of the same area. The elements detected by EDXRF spectrometry include P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb. By using ANOVA with 5% significance level, we observed significant alterations in the trace elements status, iron over loading, selenium deficiency, and in Cu-Zn ratio. Gender specific variations within the same population were also observed. The results indicate that the drainage workers have altered elemental profile in comparison to that of control population. Significance for public healthEnvironmental pollution is a global health risk and awareness among sewage workers is growing very slowly in many developing countries. Due to this fact, workers are often exposed to different pollutants which are responsible for several health complications. Imbalances in the presence of trace elements in blood are a symptom of different health status and could also indicate new health perspectives for the future. In the present scenario, this paper is essential since this kind of analysis has not been done yet, especially regarding the health status of sewage workers. We hope this initial study will be a starting point for future investigations.

  4. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  5. Application of LIBS in Detection of Antihyperglycemic Trace Elements in Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, N. K.; Rai, P. K.; Pandhija, S.; Watal, G.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study exploits the information based on concentration of trace elements and minerals in understanding the role/mechanism of action of freeze-dried fruit powder suspended in distilled water of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) in diabetes treatment. Laser-induced break down spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra of plant product was recorded under optimized experimental conditions and analyzed. Several atomic lines such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, etc. have been observed in the LIBS s...

  6. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  7. Effect of a three-month football training program on trace element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of a three-month football training program on some trace elements in the serum in male kids aged between eight and twelve years. The study registered eight boys whose mean age was 10.25 ± 0.75 years, mean height was 138.63 ± 3.28 cm and mean weight was 32.13 ...

  8. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, F.; Zaw, Khin; Meffre, Sebastien; Yui, Tzen-Fui; Thu, Kyaw

    2014-01-01

    Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and ...

  9. New Technique for Soil Reclamation and Conservation: In Situ Stabilization of Trace Elements in Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Negim, Osama

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals in the soil is mainly inherited from parent materials or inputs through human activities. New techniques are being developed to remediate trace elements in contaminated soils such as phytoremediation and in situ stabilization. In situ stabilization technique is one of the common practices for reducing negative effects of metals and metalloids such as As, Cr, Cu and Zn in contaminated soils by adding amendments. The application of alkaline materials such as bas...

  10. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FOLLICULAR FLUID AND THEIR EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Kolesárová; Marcela Capcarová

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pollution plays an important role in affecting the internal milieu of animals and humans. The amount of trace elements in the environment is generally low, but these chemicals can interfere with physiological systems. Thus, the health and welfare of individuals could be compromised by exposure to environmental levels of pollutants. In order to understand risk and effects of carious chemicals on the animal and human organism, the input of pollutants into biological systems has to...

  11. Trace elements in home-produced eggs in Belgium: Levels and spatiotemporal distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR-CODA-CERVA), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Hoenig, Michel [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR-CODA-CERVA), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Goeyens, Leo [Scientific Institute of Public Health (IPH), J. Wytsmanstraat 14, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); De Temmerman, Ludwig [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR-CODA-CERVA), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in home-produced eggs, soils and kitchen waste samples of private chicken owners in Belgium, and to determine spatiotemporal differences in trace element contents in eggs. Eggs were sampled in all provinces of Belgium in autumn 2006 and spring 2007. A total number of 59 private chicken owners participated in the study. Trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry except for mercury, which was determined by atomic absorption of mercury vapour. The mean fresh weight concentrations in eggs in autumn and spring respectively were < 8.0 and < 8.0 {mu}g/kg for arsenic, 0.5 and < 0.5 {mu}g/kg for cadmium, 116 and 74 {mu}g/kg for lead, 0.43 and 0.52 mg/kg for copper, 20.3 and 19.2 mg/kg for zinc, and 3.15 and 4.44 {mu}g/kg for mercury. Analysis of variance determined significant differences in some trace element concentrations in eggs among seasons and regions in Belgium. Average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and mercury corresponded well with values measured in other countries, while copper and zinc concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as in other countries. Average lead concentrations were high compared to concentrations in eggs from other countries and correlated well with lead concentrations in soil, indicating that the soil is an important source. Other sources of trace elements in eggs might be home-grown vegetables and forage (grass and herbs), and indirectly, air pollution.

  12. Comparative study of trace elements in normal and cancerous colorectal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoriadis, G.C.; Apostolidis, N.S.; Romanos, A.N.; Paradellis, T.P.

    1983-08-01

    Quantitative study of the Zn, Cu, K, Rb, Mn, Pb and Ni trace elements by the x-ray fluorescence method in normal and cancerous tissue samples, obtained from 18 patients suffering from cancer of the colon and rectum, shows that cancerous tissues exhibit statistically higher K, Rb, and Cu concentration than corresponding normal tissues. There are evidences that also Ni and Pb are elevated in cancerous tissues. Finally Zn and Mn do not show any appreciable difference in normal and cancerous tissues.

  13. Annex 1 to: Trace elements mobility in soils from the hydrothermal area of Nisyros (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Daskalopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nisyros Island, Greece, is a stratovolcano known for its intense hydrothermal activity. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field campaign, soil samples were collected in the caldera area to determinate the main mineralogical assemblages and to investigate the distribution of trace element concentrations and the possible relationship to the contribution of fluids of deep origin. Soil samples were analysed with XRD and for the chemical composition of their leachable (deionized water and pseudo total (microwave digestion  [...

  14. An isotope trace element study of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Karen; Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Dykes of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm can be divided into pre- and syn-break-up tholeiitic dykes, and post-break-up transitional dykes. Of the pre- and syn-break-up dykes, the most abundant group (Tholeiitic Series; TS) has major element compositions similar to the main part of the East......Nd. The post-break-up Transitional Series (TRANS) dykes are isotopically distinct from Iceland and MORB, and are interpreted as the products of contamination of Iceland plume melts with continental crust. Comparison of the Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic and trace element compositions of dykes from different segments...

  15. Some observations on the trace element concentrations in human dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, D W; Peach, D F

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of trace elements has been measured for dental enamel from 86 healthy human teeth using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The majority of the teeth (n = 70) were collected from dentists in the county of Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom, although a smaller group (n = 16) were collected from Cornwall. The elements K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Hg have been detected and statistically analyzed by grouping according to sex, age, and geographical location. The concentrations of Fe and Cu were found to be lower in the teeth from female donors (P apatite (HAP) within the dental enamel.

  16. Comparative study of pathological findings and trace elements profiles of gastric mucosa in benign gastric disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, N.; Ito, M.; Sakurai, S.; Yukawa, M [Digestive Disease Center, Nippon Medical Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify how trace elements in gastric mucosa, reflex bile acid and inflammation of gastric mucosa relate to environment of Helicobacter Pylori. Subjects were 33 patients who had colonic endoscopic examination. 11 gastric ulcer and 14 duodenal ulcer patients were chosen as subjects of the study. The control group had 8 members who had no localized lesions. Trace elements were measured by PIXE analysis which use Pd as internal standard. Cu and Zn, especially Zn, were found in large amount in gastric body and antrum. Zn value for the antrum was higher than that for the gastric body. Especially, the values of Zn for antrum showed significant differences between grade I, II and III of inflammatory cell infiltration. In gastric ulcer group, the value of Cu indicated high at gastric body and low at antrum. On the other hand, the values of Zn were low at both gastric body and antrum. Particularly, development of atrophy in antrum requires less than one in gastric body; therefore, trace elements decreased in gastric ulcer group. (author)

  17. White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejon, Paula; Maranon, Teodoro; Murillo, Jose M.; Robinson, Brett

    2004-11-01

    Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River (S. Spain), one year after this area was contaminated by a mine spill, and 10 trees in non-affected sites. The spill-affected soils had significantly higher levels of available cadmium (mean of 1.25 mg kg{sup -1}), zinc (117 mg kg{sup -1}), lead (63.3 mg kg{sup -1}), copper (58.0 mg kg{sup -1}) and arsenic (1.70 mg kg{sup -1}), than non-affected sites. The concentration of trace element in poplar leaves was positively and significantly correlated with the soil availability for cadmium and zinc, and to a lesser extent for arsenic (log-log relationship). Thus, poplar leaves could be used as biomonitors for soil pollution of Cd and Zn, and moderately for As.

  18. White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, Paula; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M; Robinson, Brett

    2004-11-01

    Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River (S. Spain), one year after this area was contaminated by a mine spill, and 10 trees in non-affected sites. The spill-affected soils had significantly higher levels of available cadmium (mean of 1.25 mg kg(-1)), zinc (117 mg kg(-1)), lead (63.3 mg kg(-1)), copper (58.0 mg kg(-1)) and arsenic (1.70 mg kg(-1)), than non-affected sites. The concentration of trace element in poplar leaves was positively and significantly correlated with the soil availability for cadmium and zinc, and to a lesser extent for arsenic (log-log relationship). Thus, poplar leaves could be used as biomonitors for soil pollution of Cd and Zn, and moderately for As.

  19. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production - A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glina, Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by "Torf Corporation" company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  20. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, H. K.; Bischoff, S. C.; Boehles, H. J.; Muehlhoefer, A.

    2009-01-01

    A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea) must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status) is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml) or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.). Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes. PMID:20049067

  1. Serum trace elements in obese Egyptian children: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, only a few studies on child obesity concerned Trace Elements (TE). TE is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity related diseases. We tried to assess trace elements status [zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and chromium (Cr)] in obese Egyptian children and their relationships with serum leptin and metabolic risk factors of obesity. Methods This was a case–control study performed with 80 obese children (BMI ≥ 95thcentile for age and gender) and 80 healthy non-obese children with comparable age and gender as the control group. For all subjects, serum Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, ferritin and Cr as well as biochemical parameters including lipid profile, serum glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Levels of serum leptin were measured by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method), and serum insulin was measured by an electrochemiluminesce immunoassay. Results Compared to the control group, serum Zn, Se, and Fe levels were significantly lower (all P  0.05). A significant negative correlation was found between serum leptin and zinc levels in the obese children (r = −0.746; P trace elements which may be playing an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and related metabolic risk factors. PMID:24555483

  2. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of Trace Elements in Mixed Saliva of Caries Free and Caries Active Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Punya; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod; Chopra, Radhika

    2017-10-31

    Composition of saliva plays an important role in defining the dental caries risk for an individual. The role of trace elements present in saliva on dental caries is still not clear. Thus this study was designed to evaluate the effect of certain salivary trace elements like copper, potassium, fluoride, selenium and lead on the caries experience of children. 60 subjects in the age group of 3-15 years were selected and divided into two groups, caries active and caries free. 5 ml of unstimulated saliva from each subject was collected and analyzed for the levels of trace elements using Induced Couple Plasma Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). Copper and Fluoride levels were significantly higher in caries free as compared to caries active individuals whereas Lead was significantly higher in caries active as compared to caries free children (p-value0.05). In caries free subjects, copper and fluoride levels were significantly higher while the level of lead was lower as compared to caries-active children. Potassium and selenium did not show any significant differences within the two groups.

  4. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on cognitive function in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamins and trace elements in modest amounts influences cognitive function in apparently healthy, elderly subjects. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six, apparently healthy, independent men and women older than 65 y of age were recruited and randomized to receive a supplement of trace elements and vitamins or a placebo daily for 12 mo. Blood-nutrient levels were estimated at baseline and at the end of the study. The major outcome measure assessed was cognitive function consisting of immediate and long-term memory, abstract thinking, problem-solving ability, and attention. Eighty-six subjects completed the 1-y trial. The supplemented group showed a significant improvement in all cognitive tests (P 0.1). Those whose blood-nutrient levels were below the reference standard showed lower responses on cognitive tests. There was no significant correlation between individual nutrient levels and performance on various cognitive function tests. Cognitive functions improved after oral supplementation with modest amounts of vitamins and trace elements. This has considerable clinical and public health significance. We recommend that such a supplement be provided to all elderly subjects because it should significantly improve cognition and thus quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Such a nutritional approach may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badzinski, Shannon S., E-mail: sbadzinski@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada); Flint, Paul L., E-mail: pflint@usgs.go [U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gorman, Kristen B., E-mail: kgorman@alumni.sfu.c [Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Petrie, Scott A., E-mail: spetrie@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 mug g{sup -1} dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 mug g{sup -1} dw), and selenium (Se: >10 mug g{sup -1} dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. - Some female greater scaup initiate nesting with elevated hepatic concentrations of some trace elements, but adverse effects on condition and productivity are unlikely.

  6. Sources and Distribution of Trace Elements in Soils Near Coal-Related Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yuxian; Wei, Yuan; Wang, Linquan; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The degree of contamination of soil and the potential ecological risks associated with five different coal-burning industries were assessed in Shanxi Province, China. Results showed that the trace element concentrations in soil close to the coal industries were higher than those in the background soils, and the enrichment factors were >1. The potential ecological risk indexes ranged from 99 to 328 for the five coal-related industries. Results also illustrated that the trace elements were transported through the atmosphere. Concentrations of B, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, and Mn were high in the area around the steel plant. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that the sources of Se, Mo, Hg, Cd, As, Cr, B, Ni, and Cu were mainly anthropogenic, whereas Pb, V, Cu, Zn, and Mn were from natural sources. The soil Hg and Se contents were simulated by an artificial neural network model, which showed that Hg and Se in soils were from atmospheric deposits and their spatial distributions were related to the dominant wind direction. The potential ecological risk from Hg was much higher (one order of magnitude) than that from the other trace elements, which highlights the fact that it deserves urgent attention. Control of emissions from the burning of coal and other raw materials (such as iron and phosphate ores) should also be prioritized.

  7. Natural concentrations and reference values for trace elements in soils of a tropical volcanic archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio Neta, Adelazil de Brito; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; van Straaten, Peter; Bittar, Sheila Maria Bretas

    2018-02-01

    Fernando de Noronha is a small volcanic archipelago in the Southern Atlantic, some 350 km NE of the city of Natal in NE Brazil. These remote volcanic islands represent a largely pristine environment, distant from sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study was carried out to determine the natural concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the A and B horizons of soils of Fernando de Noronha. The aims of the study were twofold: determine whether there is a relationship between the bedrock geology and soils and to establish quality reference values for soils from Fernando de Noronha. Soil samples were subjected to acid digestion by the USEPA method 3051A, and metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry. The results showed that the trace element distribution largely reflects the geochemistry of the underlying volcanic rocks of the Remedios and Quixaba Formations. The results demonstrate that the concentrations of Ba, Cr, Zn, Ni and Cu from the soils of the volcanic Fernando de Noronha archipelago are higher than those found in soils from continental Brazil. However, concentrations of Ni, Cu and Co are lower in soils of the archipelago as compared to other volcanic islands throughout the world. The elevated trace element concentrations of the volcanic parent material of Fernando de Noronha soils seem to be the main factor governing the relatively high natural concentrations of trace elements.

  8. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  9. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.. Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes.

  10. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sium, Mussie; Kareru, Patrick; Keriko, Joseph; Girmay, Berhane; Medhanie, Ghebrehiwet; Debretsion, Semere

    This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs) and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  11. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Sium

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (P<0.05.

  12. Investigation on the trace elemental profile of sewage workers in Kolkata, an Indian megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajlaxmi Basu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environmental pollution has become a global health risk. Exposure to pollutants at the work place, i.e. occupational exposure, is one of the areas that need immediate attention. The civic drainage workers are exposed to pollutants present in the wastewater they handle and most of them are toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such pollutants may be a health hazard, since it can lead to the imbalance in nutrient elements status.§Design and Methods. In the present study, profiling of trace elements in the blood of drainage worker population from an Indian megacity, Kolkata, was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF and compared with the control group population of the same area. Results. The elements detected by EDXRF spectrometry include P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb. By using ANOVA with 5% significance level, we observed significant alterations in the trace elements status, iron over loading, selenium deficiency, and in Cu-Zn ratio. Gender specific variations within the same population were also observed. Conclusions. The results indicate that the drainage workers have altered elemental profile in comparison to that of control population.

  13. [Trace elements in the statoliths of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Ma, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Statolith is one of the most important hard tissues of cephalopods which is widely used in the research of fisheries ecology including population structure, life history reconstruction and so on. Trace elements of 18 statoliths of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2007 by Chinese jigging fishing fleets were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicated that the statoliths of O. bartramii mainly contained 55 elements, and calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) were the 10 most abundant elements. The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in each element distribution between different sexual squid except for P, Si and B. Significant differences existed in the contents of Sr and Na but no significant difference was found in the contents of Ca, P, K, Si, Mg, B, Fe and Ba between different hatching populations. There were significant differences in the contents of Ca, Sr, Na, P, Mg and Ba, but no significant difference was found in the contents of K, Fe, B and Si in the statoliths among different growth zones. This study presented Sr and Na could be the best two trace elements used in the research on the population structure and life history reconstruction for O. bartramii.

  14. Research review trends of food analysis in Latvia: major and trace element content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    The current paper involves overview of several studies concerning quantitative major and trace element analysis of different food samples, such as products of plant origin, e.g., locally grown vegetables (carrots, onions, potatoes) and products of animal origin derived with or without processing (cottage cheese, eggs, honey). Food samples were collected over the territory of Latvia in the time period 2009-2012. Sample pre-treatment was chosen according to the product specifics but mostly wet mineralization with concentrated nitric acid was applied. Analysis of major elements (e.g., Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and trace elements (e.g., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) was performed by appropriate quantitative analytical technique: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Not only the influence of environmental factors (e.g., geographical or seasonal impact) was detected in element dissemination in food, also botanical origin (if applicable) and applied agricultural praxis, product processing and storage specifics were found to be important. Possible food contamination by potentially toxic elements can be associated mostly with the consequences of anthropogenic activities. The studies revealed the significance of food research in the context of environmental science.

  15. Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: sbr-r@yahoo.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)

    2006-08-15

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.

  16. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements; Electromigration en sels fondus et application a la separation des isotopes des elements alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for {sup 48}Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr{sub 2} - CeBr{sub 3}. A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [French] On a etudie la separation des isotopes des elements alcalino-terreux par electromigration a contre-courant en bromures fondus. On a etudie les conditions dans lesquelles la cathode fonctionne en electrode a brome pour des intensites les plus elevees possibles. Pour la separation du calcium, il a ete necessaire d'utiliser une chaine stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr). Pour le baryum et le strontium, on a pu operer sur les bromures purs. On a obtenu des facteurs d

  17. Detached Eddy Simulations (des) of Incompressible Turbulent Flows Using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Gregory M.; McCallen, Rose C.; Dunn, Timothy A.; Salari, Kambiz

    2001-11-01

    An explicit Galerkin finite-element (GFEM) formulation of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) 1-equation turbulent transport model was implemented into an incompressible GFEM code, using both a RANS formulation and a DES formulation. DES is a new technique for simulating/modeling turbulence using a hybrid RANS/LES formulation. The turbulent viscosity is constructed from an intermediate viscosity obtained from the transport equation which is spatially discretized using Q1 elements and integrated in time via forward Euler time integration. Simulations of plane channel flow were conducted to validate the implementation: SA-RANS, SA-DES and Smagorinsky. Preliminary results indicate that the modeling and grid resolution are strongly related, as expected, and that good results can be obtained on the appropriate grid. Using a RANS-grid, very good agreement was observed between the SA-RANS results and theory, namely the Log Law of the Wall (LLW), especially in the viscous sub-layer and, to a lesser extent, in the log- layer. It was observed that near the wall, the SA-DES model behaved as a RANS model, and away from the wall it was more characteristic of an LES model. (This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.)

  18. Development of melting system for Measurement of trace elements and ions in ice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Lee, Khang Hyun; Hur, Soon Do; Soyol-Erene, Tseren-Ochir; Kim, Sun Mee; Chung, Ji Woong; Jun, Seong Joon [Korea Polar Research Institute, KIOST, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Min [Dept. of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Hee [Dept. of Chemistry and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    We present a titanium (Ti) melting head divided into three zones as an improved melting system for decontaminating ice-core samples. This system was subjected to performance tests using short ice-core samples (4 × 4 cm{sup 2}, ⁓5 cm long). The procedural blanks (PBs) and detection limits of ionic species, with the exception of math formula, were comparable with published values, but for elements the experimental procedures should be refined to obtain valid Zn concentrations due to the PB of ⁓90.0 ± 16.2 ng/L. The improved melting system efficiently decontaminated the samples, as verified by the concentration profiles of elements and ions in the melted samples from the three melting-head zones. The recovery of trace elements in ice-core samples was ⁓70–120% at ⁓100 ng/L in artificial ice cores. Because of the memory effects between ice-core samples melted in series, the melting system should be rinsed at least 5–6 times (in a total volume of ⁓2.5 mL deionized water) after each melting procedure. Finally, as an application of this technique, trace elements were measured in ice-core samples recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Everest, (28°03′N, 86°96′E, 6518 m a.s.l.), and the concentrations of trace elements following mechanical chiseling and the melting method were compared.

  19. Spatial patterns of some trace elements in four Swedish stream networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Temnerud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Four river basins in southern Sweden, with catchment sizes from 0.3 to 127 km2 (median 1.9, were sampled in October~2007. The 243 samples were analysed for 26 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, In, La, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, Ti, U, V and Zn to identify spatial patterns within drainage networks. The range and median of each element were defined for different stream orders, and relationships to catchment characteristics, including deposition history, were explored. The sampling design made it possible to compare the differences along 40 stream reaches, above and below 53 stream junctions with 107 tributaries and between the 77 inlets and outlets of 36 lakes. The largest concentration differences (at reaches, junctions and lakes were observed for lakes, with outlets usually having lower concentration compared to the inlets for As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Ga, Ge, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn. Significantly lower concentrations were observed for Cd and Co when comparing headwaters with downstream sites in each catchment. Common factor analysis (FA revealed that As, Bi, Cr, Ga, Ge, Tl and V co-vary positively with Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC and negatively with La, Li and pH. The strong removal of a large number of trace elements when passing through lakes is evident though in the FA, where lake surface coverage plots opposite to many of those elements. Forest volume does not respond in a similar systematic fashion and, surprisingly, the amount of wetland does not relate strongly to either Fe or TOC at any of the rivers. A better understanding of the quantitative removal of organic carbon and iron will aid in understanding trace element fluxes from landscapes rich in organic matter and iron.

  20. Characterization, partitioning, and potential ecological risk quantification of trace elements in coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-06-01

    Coal-based thermal power plants are the major source of power generation in India. Combustion of coal gives rise to by-products such as fly ash (FA) in huge quantities. The current study focuses on physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization and risk evaluation of FA, generated from five thermal power plants (TPPs) of India. The coal, and corresponding FA and bottom ash (BA) were further analyzed for trace elements in order to observe the enrichment and partitioning behavior of elements. The environmental risk assessment of trace elements in FA was performed in accordance with geoaccumulation index (I geo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI). The results demonstrated that FA was enriched predominantly in SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 along with small concentrations of CaO and MgO. The mineral phases identified in FA were quartz, mullite, hematite, and magnetite. Elemental characterization indicated that the metals were more enriched in FA as compared to coal and BA. The concentrations of trace elements, Cr, Pb, Hg, and As in FA (TPPs), varied from 12.59-24.28, 22.68-43.19, <0.0001-2.29, and 0.08-3.39 mg/kg, respectively. Maximum enrichment ratio (ER) was observed for Pb (5.21) in TPP3 FA. Hg in TPP1 showed the highest partition ratio (PR) value. I geo values for metals were mostly below zero. The PERI values indicated moderate risk from TPP4 FA and low risk from TPP1, TPP2, TPP3, and TPP5 FA to the environment, according to the threshold values provided.

  1. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaa, Mohamed

    The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration

  2. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  3. Fetoplacental transport of various trace elements in pregnant rat using the multitracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Shuichi; Hirunuma, Rieko [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The placenta functions as the barrier between fetus and mother, providing means of regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. In this paper, the multitracer technique was applied to study the maternal transport of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus. In this experiment, the multitracer solution used contained the following nuclides: {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 48}V, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 56}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 74}As, {sup 75}Se, {sup 84}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 87}Y, {sup 88}Zr, {sup 96}Tc, {sup 101m}Rh, and {sup 103}Ru. We examined the time dependence of the uptake amounts about various elements. From these results, we observed a large difference in the time dependencies between elements and the elements were classified into three groups. Group I elements, such as Be, Sc, V, As, Y, Zr, Tc, Rh, and Ru, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and only accumulates in the placenta. Group II elements, such as Na, Co, Ga, Rb, and Sr, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and accumulate in the placenta, fetus, and amniotic fluid. Group III elements, such as Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and mainly accumulate in the fetus. From these results, it was considered that the placenta is a highly selective filters because essential elements such as Group III elements are readily transported from the placental membrane to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals such as Group I elements have difficulty penetrating the placental barrier that protects the fetus from the toxic effects of these elements. (author)

  4. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  5. Trace Elements in High-Ca Pyroxene and Plagioclase in the Bilanga Diogenite: Implications for the Magmatic Evolution of Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanik, K. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Hagerty, J.; Kolar, S. E.; Drake, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    High-Ca pyroxene and plagioclase are typically present as minor phases in diogenites. However, although the trace element content of diogenite orthopyroxene has been measured in a number of studies; almost no trace element data is available for the high-Ca pyroxene and plagioclase with which it routinely coexists in these meteorites. These data could provide insights into the nature and evolution of the melts from which diogenites crystallized in the HED parent body. In this study we have obtained initial measurements of several REEs in high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, and orthopyroxene in the Bilanga. Measurement of additional incompatible trace element concentrations in these phases is currently in progress.

  6. A method for the assessment of the mineral/organic matter association of trace elements in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkin, B.P.; Somerfield, C,; Laban, K.L. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Department of Mineral Resources Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Describes a method for the sequential dissolution of coal samples enabling the location and mineral association of the trace elements to be determined. The technique is based on the sequential attack of a coal sample by acids using a sealed microwave digestion system. An advantage of the trace element technique is that the forms of sulphur in the coal can be determined simultaneously with the trace elements with sulphate sulphur, pyritic sulphur and organic sulphur being extracted in the three fractions. Selective dissolution was verified by X-ray diffraction, following low temperature ashing, and the petrographic analysis of the residues. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-08-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent {gamma}-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences ({mu}g/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn.

  8. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  9. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  10. Trace elements and heavy metals in hair of stage III breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderli Cihan, Yasemin; Sözen, Selim; Oztürk Yıldırım, Sema

    2011-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to compare the hair levels of 36 elements in 52 patients with stage III breast cancer to those of an equal number of healthy individuals. Principal component and cluster analysis were used for source of identification and apportionment of heavy metals and trace elements in these two groups. A higher average level of iron was found in samples from patients while controls had higher levels of calcium. Both patients and controls had elevated levels of tin, magnesium, zinc, and sodium. Almost all element values in cancer patients showed higher dispersion and asymmetry than in healthy controls. Between the two groups, there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of silver, arsenic, gold, boron, barium, beryllium, calcium, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, cesium, gadolinium, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, scandium, selenium, and zinc (p cancer group and between palladium and cobalt (r = 0.945) in the healthy individuals. Our results show that there are distinct patterns of heavy metals and trace elements in the hair of breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls. These results could be of significance in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  11. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQ T ), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  12. Elemental composition of human teeth with emphasis on trace constituents: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, W H

    1978-04-01

    Literature covered by the current review is based on a search of Chemical Abstracts, 1917 through 1975. Early studies, pre-dating 1940, are referenced primarily for historical interest. Emphasis is on the micro-constituents of human teeth, those present at concentrations less than a few tenths of a percent by weight. Within this category of data, we have been primarily concerned with the radiochemically stable nuclides. The important relationship between caries and trace elements is covered only insofar as carious teeth exhibit properties with respect to trace element composition that differ from normal teeth. Having made these disclaimers, we note that an attempt has been made to cover the literature exhaustively; although some important results have undoubtedly been overlooked. It is our hope, however, that sufficient material has been included in this review to facilitate further recovery of data by interested individuals. In Chapter 1, analytical techniques that have been employed in this field are briefly presented; discussion centers on problems associated with preparation of specimens for analysis. Chapter 2 is devoted to topical coverage of data on the inorganic composition of teeth. An element-by-element tabulation of concentration data is provided, our statistical analysis of selected data explained, and evidence concerning several major factors thought to influence dental composition evaluated. These include provenance, age, sex, distribution, and tooth type/intermouth variation.

  13. Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. R.; Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the effectiveness of long-wavelength heating in double pulse (DP) LIBS, quantitatively comparing figures of merit with those from traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS. The first laser pulse serves as the source of sample ablation, creating an aerosol-like plume that is subsequently reheated by the second laser pulse. At power densities used, the long-wavelength CO2 laser pulse does not ablate any of the solid sample in the atmospheric conditions investigated, meaning plasma emission and enhanced signal can be entirely attributed to the reheated plume rather than increased sample ablation. The signal discrimination was improved significantly using long-wavelength DP-LIBS. For bulk elemental analysis, DP-LIBS provided maximum enhancements of about 14 and 15 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, compared to SP-LIBS using the same quantity of ablated sample. For trace elemental analysis, maximum enhancements of about 7 and 4 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, were observed. These improvements are attributed to effective coupling between the second heating pulse and expanding plume and more efficient excitation of plume species than from the single pulse alone. Most significant improvements were observed in the case of low prepulse energy and minimal sample ablation. While bulk elemental analysis observed improvements for all prepulse energies studied, trace element discrimination only significantly improved for the lowest prepulse energy studied.

  14. Major Limitations in Using Element Concentrations in Hair as Biomarkers of Exposure to Toxic and Essential Trace Elements in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skröder, Helena; Kippler, Maria; Nermell, Barbro; Tofail, Fahmida; Levi, Michael; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Raqib, Rubhana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair is a commonly used exposure biomarker for metals and other trace elements, but concern has been raised regarding its appropriateness for assessing the internal dose. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate children’s hair as biomarker of internal dose for toxic (As, Mn, Cd, Pb) and essential elements (Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo). Methods: In 207 children (9–10 years of age), originating from a population-based cohort in rural Bangladesh, we measured concentrations of the selected elements in hair (2cm closest to the scalp) using ICP-MS. We compared these with previously measured concentrations in erythrocytes, urine, and water. For a subset of children (n=19), we analyzed four consecutive 2cm pieces of hair. Results: There were strong associations between hair As and the other biomarkers (erythrocytes: rS=0.73, p50% higher in 7th–8th cm compared with 1st–2nd cm, p<0.001). Conclusions: Hair was found to be a useful exposure biomarker of absorbed As and Se only. Of all measured elements, hair Mn seemed the least reflective of internal dose. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1239 PMID:28669939

  15. Paramètres influençant la distribution des éléments traces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les affluents de la rive gauche du fleuve Garonne, dans le Sud-Ouest de la France, traversent des bassins versants marqués par de fortes activités agricoles. Pour évaluer la qualité de la phase dissoute de ces cours d'eau, soixante-quinze (75) échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés. Plusieurs éléments traces métalliques ont ...

  16. New concept for the calculation of the trace element affinity in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klika, Z.; Kolomaznik, I. [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2000-05-01

    The present models for the calculation of the trace element affinity between organic and inorganic parts of coal are critically evaluated and a new concept of calculation is proposed. This new concept of calculation is based on the experimental data characterising coal fractions separated from coal samples using sink-float technique. It consists in the calculation of (a) organic element association (OEA) supposing constant concentration of the element in organic phase and (b) maximal organic element association (OEA{sub max}) supposing maximal possible concentration of the element in the organic phase of all coal fractions. For one coal sample OEA and OEA{sub max} are calculated. It must be valid that OEA {le} OEA{sub max}. This relation is not true for some elements e.g. Ge and Ga, which usually have extremely high concentration in the lightest coal fraction. Contemporary with OEA the inorganic element association (IEA) is evaluated. Using least squares method the IEA can be recalculated among mineral groups present in coal. The model was successfully tested on one sample of bituminous coal and one sample of brown coal. 17 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2018-02-01

    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  18. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  19. Improving Precision, Maintaining Accuracy, and Reducing Acquisition Time for Trace Elements in EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, J.; Singer, J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Trace element precision in electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) is limited by intrinsic random variation in the x-ray continuum. Traditionally we characterize background intensity by measuring on either side of the emission line and interpolating the intensity underneath the peak to obtain the net intensity. Alternatively, we can measure the background intensity at the on-peak spectrometer position using a number of standard materials that do not contain the element of interest. This so-called mean atomic number (MAN) background calibration (Donovan, et al., 2016) uses a set of standard measurements, covering an appropriate range of average atomic number, to iteratively estimate the continuum intensity for the unknown composition (and hence average atomic number). We will demonstrate that, at least for materials with a relatively simple matrix such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrSiO4, etc. where one may obtain a matrix matched standard for use in the so called "blank correction", we can obtain trace element accuracy comparable to traditional off-peak methods, and with improved precision, in about half the time. Donovan, Singer and Armstrong, A New EPMA Method for Fast Trace Element Analysis in Simple Matrices ", American Mineralogist, v101, p1839-1853, 2016 Figure 1. Uranium concentration line profiles from quantitative x-ray maps (20 keV, 100 nA, 5 um beam size and 4000 msec per pixel), for both off-peak and MAN background methods without (a), and with (b), the blank correction applied. We see precision significantly improved compared with traditional off-peak measurements while, in this case, the blank correction provides a small but discernable improvement in accuracy.

  20. Study by PIXE method of trace elements transferred from prostheses to soft tissues and organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudadesse, H. E-mail: hassane.oudadesse@univ-rennes1.froudadess@clermont.in2p3.fr; Guibert, G.; Chassot, E.; Irigaray, J.L.; Terver, S.; Vanneuville, G.; Tessier, Y.; Sauvage, T.; Blondiaux, G

    2002-05-01

    Some metallic prostheses inserted in human hip undergo physico-chemical modification, a few years after their implantation. Tissues surrounding these prostheses are damaged by metallic element transfer. Surgeons in Clermont-Ferrand Hospital (France) recover tissues of abnormal coloration that were in contact with metallic implants. PIXE technique (particles induced X-ray emission) with a 400 {mu}m proton beam and 3 MeV of energy is an efficient technique to analyze these tissues and to detect elements, which are transferred from prosthesis to tissues. PIXE analyses were carried at the CERI-CNRS Laboratory. We have applied this method to determine qualitatively and quantitatively trace elements migration from metallic implants to surrounding tissues and organs, like kidney, spleen, liver, lymphatic gland and lung.

  1. Trace elements of concern affecting urban agriculture in industrialized areas: A multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, C; Matanzas, N; García-González, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Gallego, J R

    2017-09-01

    The urban and peri-urban soils used for agriculture could be contaminated by atmospheric deposition or industrial releases, thus raising concerns about the potential risk to public health. Here we propose a method to evaluate potential soil pollution based on multivariate statistics, geostatistics (kriging), a novel soil pollution index, and bioavailability assessments. This approach was tested in two districts of a highly populated and industrialized city (Gijón, Spain). The soils showed anomalous content of several trace elements, such as As and Pb (up to 80 and 585 mg kg -1 respectively). In addition, factor analyses associated these elements with anthropogenic activity, whereas other elements were attributed to natural sources. Subsequent clustering also facilitated the differentiation between the northern area studied (only limited Pb pollution found) and the southern area (pattern of coal combustion, including simultaneous anomalies of trace elements and benzo(a)pyrene). A normalized soil pollution index (SPI) was calculated by kriging, using only the elements falling above threshold levels; therefore point-source polluted zones in the northern area and diffuse contamination in the south were identified. In addition, in the six mapping units with the highest SPIs of the fifty studied, we observed low bioavailability for most of the elements that surpassed the threshold levels. However, some anomalies of Pb contents and the pollution fingerprint in the central area of the southern grid call for further site-specific studies. On the whole, the combination of a multivariate (geo) statistic approach and a bioavailability assessment allowed us to efficiently identify sources of contamination and potential risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alkali trace elements in Gale crater, Mars, with ChemCam: Calibration update and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payré, V.; Fabre, C.; Cousin, A.; Sautter, V.; Wiens, R. C.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Lasue, J.; Ollila, A.; Rapin, W.; Maurice, S.; Nachon, M.; Le Deit, L.; Lanza, N.; Clegg, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard Curiosity can detect minor and trace elements such as lithium, strontium, rubidium, and barium. Their abundances can provide some insights about Mars' magmatic history and sedimentary processes. We focus on developing new quantitative models for these elements by using a new laboratory database (more than 400 samples) that displays diverse compositions that are more relevant for Gale crater than the previous ChemCam database. These models are based on univariate calibration curves. For each element, the best model is selected depending on the results obtained by using the ChemCam calibration targets onboard Curiosity. New quantifications of Li, Sr, Rb, and Ba in Gale samples have been obtained for the first 1000 Martian days. Comparing these data in alkaline and magnesian rocks with the felsic and mafic clasts from the Martian meteorite NWA7533—from approximately the same geologic period—we observe a similar behavior: Sr, Rb, and Ba are more concentrated in soluble- and incompatible-element-rich mineral phases (Si, Al, and alkali-rich). Correlations between these trace elements and potassium in materials analyzed by ChemCam reveal a strong affinity with K-bearing phases such as feldspars, K-phyllosilicates, and potentially micas in igneous and sedimentary rocks. However, lithium is found in comparable abundances in alkali-rich and magnesium-rich Gale rocks. This very soluble element can be associated with both alkali and Mg-Fe phases such as pyroxene and feldspar. These observations of Li, Sr, Rb, and Ba mineralogical associations highlight their substitution with potassium and their incompatibility in magmatic melts.

  3. Trace Elements in the Dullstroom Volcanics Provide Insight for the Origin of the Bushveld Igneous Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmaric, J. A.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.; Ducea, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    The 2.06 Ga Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa hosts one of the Earth's oldest and largest mafic layered intrusion. The Critical Zone of the BIC supplies 75% of the world's platinum, as well as significant amounts of palladium, chromium, and vanadium. The economic importance of the BIC has made it a target for numerous studies, but its origin and bulk composition still remain poorly understood today. The Rooiberg Group is a volcanic suite that represents the first pulse of Bushveld magmatism. In this study we present geochemical data from 27 samples of the Dullstroom Formation, which consists of alternating Low-Ti and High-Ti suites of predominantly basaltic andesite, as well as andesite and dacite. These volcanic rocks provide a unique opportunity to assess the bulk composition of mafic magmas associated with the BIC, which is usually obscured by the segregated layering characteristic of the intrusive complex. Whole-rock major element concentrations were determined by ICP-AES analysis and trace element concentrations were determined by Quadrupole ICP-MS analysis. Major element data is consistent with most samples being sub-alkaline tholeiites that range in composition from basalt to dacite. Trace element data reveals the low-Ti and high-Ti series of the Dullstroom are similar in compositions to the low-Ti and high-Ti suites of the Karoo flood basalts, respectively, and both experienced mixing, assimilation and fractional crystallization processes as it resided in an upper crustal magma chamber before being erupted. An enrichment in fluid-compatible elements and a depletion in fluid-incompatible elements suggests a subduction modified sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) contributed to the genesis of the parental magma.

  4. Trace elements in sub-alpine forest soils on the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Zhong, Xianghao; Li, Mai-He

    2009-08-01

    Industrial development has increased fast in China during the last decades. This has led to a range of environmental problems. Deposition of trace elements to forest ecosystems via the atmosphere is one potential problem. In this paper, we report the results from a pilot study where the trace element levels of the sub-alpine forest soils on the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau have been measured. Possible relationships between soil properties and trace element concentrations have also been investigated. The obtained concentrations (mg kg-1) were boron (B) 48.06-53.70, molybdenum (Mo) 1.53-2.26, zinc (Zn) 68.18-79.53, copper (Cu) 36.81-42.44, selenium (Se) 0.33-0.49, cadmium (Cd) 0.16-0.29, lead (Pb) 25.80-30.71, chromium (Cr) 96.10-110.08, nickel (Ni) 30.16-45.60, mercury (Hg) 0.05-0.11, and arsenic (As) 3.09-4.17. With a few exceptions, the element concentration can be characterized as low in the investigated sub-alpine forest soils. No clear differences in trace element levels were found between topsoil and subsoil samples, indicating that the atmospheric deposition of trace element has been low. The soil parent material plays a key role to determine trace element levels. Soil properties, including pHw, organic carbon (OC), clay fraction, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), total iron (Fe), and total aluminum (Al) concentrations were related to trace element concentration using correlation analysis. Total Fe and Al showed the strongest relationships with concentrations of most trace elements in the sub-alpine forest soils. PCA analyses indicated that a significant increase in the number of cars with the fast development of local tourism may result in higher Pb concentration in the future.

  5. Trace element storage capacity of sediments in dead Posidonia oceanica mat from a chronically contaminated marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Mazzola, Antonio; Cundy, Andrew B; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2017-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica mat is considered a long-term bioindicator of contamination. Storage and sequestration of trace elements and organic carbon (Corg ) were assessed in dead P. oceanica mat and bare sediments from a highly polluted coastal marine area (Augusta Bay, central Mediterranean). Sediment elemental composition and sources of organic matter have been altered since the 1950s. Dead P. oceanica mat displayed a greater ability to bury and store trace elements and Corg than nearby bare sediments, acting as a long-term contaminant sink over the past 120 yr. Trace elements, probably associated with the mineral fraction, were stabilized and trapped despite die-off of the overlying P. oceanica meadow. Mat deposits registered historic contamination phases well, confirming their role as natural archives for recording trace element trends in marine coastal environments. This sediment typology is enriched with seagrass-derived refractory organic matter, which acts mainly as a diluent of trace elements. Bare sediments showed evidence of inwash of contaminated sediments via reworking; more rapid and irregular sediment accumulation; and, because of the high proportions of labile organic matter, a greater capacity to store trace elements. Through different processes, both sediment typologies represent a repository for chemicals and may pose a risk to the marine ecosystem as a secondary source of contaminants in the case of sediment dredging or erosion. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:49-58. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. [Determination of trace elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn from different habitat by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Xue, Yue-Qin; Gui, Ren-Yi; Sun, Su-Qin; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2010-03-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique was proposed to determine the content of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Al, Se and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The RSD of the method was between 1.23% and 3.32%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method were between 95.8% and 104.20%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of metal elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn. The experimental results also indicated that different areas' Lophantherum gracile brongn had different trace elements content. The content of trace elements K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Mn beneficial to the human body was rich. The content of the heavy metal trace element Pb in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Hunan province was slightly high. The content of the heavy metal trace element Cu in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Guangdong province and Anhui province is also slightly higher. Beside, the contents of harmful trace heavy metal elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation and National Food Sanitation Standard. These determination results provided the scientific data for further discussing the relationship between the content of trace elements in Lophantherum gracile brongn and the medicine efficacy.

  7. Automated Trace Editing and Refraction Event Picking Using Neural Networks Édition automatique de traces et pointe des événements de réfraction à l'aide de réseaux neuronaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mccormack M. D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Programs have been developed that use a backpropagation neural network to automatically edit noisy seismic traces and pick first break refraction events. This paper shows that neural network-based trace editing and first break picking can achieve 85 to 98 percent agreement with manual methods for seismic data of moderate to good quality. Productivity improvements over current manual editing and picking techniques for 2D seismic data should range between 60 and 90 percent. For 3D seismic data sets efficiency increases of up to 800 percent have been demonstrated in a production processing environment. Nous avons développé des programmes utilisant les réseaux neuronaux et la rétropropagation pour l'édition automatique de traces bruitées et le pointé des premières arrivées. Cet article montre que les réseaux neuronaux peuvent donner des résultats en accord à 85-98% avec les méthodes manuelles d'édition de traces et de pointé des premières arrivées sur des données sismiques de qualité moyenne ou bonne. Les gains de productivité par rapport aux techniques manuelles actuelles d'édition et de pointé sur des données sismiques 2-D se situeraient de 60 à 90 %. Pour des jeux de données sismiques 3D, des gains de productivité allant jusqu'à 800 % ont été obtenus en production.

  8. Effect of traffic routes on the trace element concentration in plants in the Warsaw agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an analysis of concentration levels of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in plants and soil near the main roads of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of contamination by selected trace elements of plants growing at different distances from the road (directly at the roadside and 50 meters away from the road and to examine the relationship between the concentration of the tested parameters in the soil and their content in the plant. It was found that the lack of clear differentiation in the levels of all heavy metals in plants depending on the distance from the road was associated with the possibility of considerable pollutant migration. In addition, it was found that dandelion usually reveals higher concentrations of heavy metals than meadow-grass.

  9. Development of a Compact Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Trace Element Analysis of Potassium

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoshihiro; Minowa, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    A compact resonance ionization mass spectrometer is developed using two laser diodes and a quadrupole mass spectrometer to perform trace element analysis of potassium. With the help of a narrow linewidth of the laser diode, the isotope shifts of $^{40}{\\rm K}$ and $^{41}{\\rm K}$ of the 405~nm line with respect to $^{39}{\\rm K}$, corresponding to the transition of $4\\,^2$S$_{1/2}\\rightarrow$ $5\\,^2$P$^\\circ_{1/2}$, are measured to be $207\\pm13$~MHz and $451\\pm10$~MHz, respectively, by comparing them to the known hyperfine splitting widths of the $4\\,^2{\\rm S}_{1/2}$ ground state of each potassium isotope. The overall detection efficiency of an order of $\\sim10^{-6}$ in our setup indicates the availability of RIMS to the analysis of the trace metal impurities on or in a certain material such as the contamination assessment of semiconductor wafers.

  10. Trace elements in tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites: Geochemical controls and exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W.L.; Slack, J.F.; Ramsden, A.R.; Win, T.T.; Ryan, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element contents of tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites have been determined in situ by proton microprobe; >390 analyses were acquired from 32 polished thin sections. Concentrations of trace elements in the tourmalines vary widely, from inclusions. The highest base metal contents are in ore-related tourmaline samples from Kidd Creek (Ontario), Broken Hill (Australia), and Sazare (Japan). Tourmaline data from these and many other massive sulfide deposits cluster by sample and display broadly linear trends on Zn vs. Fe plots, suggesting chemical control by temperature and hydrothermal and/or metamorphic fluid-mineral equilibria. Significant Ni occurs only in samples from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, which is associated with a large footwall ultramafic body. An overall antithetic relationship between Zn and Ni probably reflects fluid source controls. Mn is correlated with Fe in tourmalines from barren associations, and possibly in some tourmalines associated with sulfide vein deposits. Sn increases systematically with Fe content irrespective of association; the highest values are found in schorls from granites. Other trace elements are generally uncorrelated with major element concentrations (e.g., Sr-Ca). Base metal proportions in the tourmalines show systematic patterns on ternary Cu-Pb-Zn diagrams that correlate well with the major commodity metals in the associated massive sulfide deposits. For example, data for tourmalines from Cu-Zn deposits (e.g., Ming mine, Newfoundland) fall mainly on the Cu-Zn join, whereas those from Pb-Zn deposits (e.g., Broken Hill, Australia) plot on the Pb-Zn join; no data fall on the Cu-Pb join, consistent with the lack of this metal association in massive sulfide deposits. The systematic relationship between base metal proportions in the tourmalines and the metallogeny of the host massive sulfide deposits indicates that the analyzed tourmalines retain a strong chemical signature of their original

  11. ION-EXCHANGE METHODS FOR CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS FROM SEAWATER. AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF METHODS, APPLICABLE ALSO TO ANALYSIS AND TO RELATED SOLUTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of trace elements from seawater and similar solutions are described for a number of trace elements . Both organic and inorganic...exchangers are used to concentrate trace elements from solutions. The summaries of the methods given here are detailed or scanty accordingly as the

  12. Chemometrics in biomonitoring: Distribution and correlation of trace elements in tree leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deljanin, Isidora [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Antanasijević, Davor, E-mail: dantanasijevic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Bjelajac, Anđelika [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Urošević, Mira Aničić [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia, (Serbia); Nikolić, Miroslav [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of 15 elements were measured in the leaf samples of Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia spp., Betula pendula and Acer platanoides collected in May and September of 2014 from four different locations in Belgrade, Serbia. The objective was to assess the chemical characterization of leaf surface and in-wax fractions, as well as the leaf tissue element content, by analyzing untreated, washed with water and washed with chloroform leaf samples, respectively. The combined approach of self-organizing networks (SON) and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) aided by Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (GAIA) was used in the interpretation of multiple element loads on/in the tree leaves. The morphological characteristics of the leaf surfaces and the elemental composition of particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector. The results showed that the amounts of retained and accumulated element concentrations depend on several parameters, such as chemical properties of the element and morphological properties of the leaves. Among the studied species, Tilia spp. was found to be the most effective in the accumulation of elements in leaf tissue (70% of the total element concentration), while A. hippocastanum had the lowest accumulation (54%). After water and chloroform washing, the highest percentages of removal were observed for Al, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sb (> 40%). The PROMETHEE/SON ranking/classifying results were in accordance with the results obtained from the GAIA clustering techniques. The combination of the techniques enabled extraction of additional information from datasets. Therefore, the use of both the ranking and clustering methods could be a useful tool to be applied in biomonitoring studies of trace elements. - Highlights: • Surface and in-wax fractions showed different trace element

  13. Freshwater mussel shells (Unionidae) describe anthropogenic changes to trace element cycling within a North American river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W Aaron; Fritts, Andrea K; Fritts, Mark W; Unrine, Jason M; Tweedy, Brent N; Casper, Andrew F

    2017-10-28

    Bivalve shells provide an unparalleled opportunity for understanding the history of bioavailable trace elements in aquatic systems. The present study analyzed the elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, U, V and Zn in freshwater mussel shells collected from a large floodplain river. Shells were collected fresh, sampled from a historic archive, and retrieved from pre-Columbian archeological sites. The elements As, Co, Cu and Ni varied with time over the course of the 20th century. When compared to the pre-Columbian shells, 20th century shell concentrations for these elements were either consistently higher (Co, Cu and Ni) or lower (As). The 20th century shells also had consistently lower concentrations of Mn and Zn when compared to the pre-Columbian period, however diagenesis is the most likely cause of this difference in Mn. The elements Cd and Fe had little spatial or temporal variation in this data set. Several elements (Al, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, U, and V) were below method detection limits in most shells. This study demonstrated that mussel shells can be used as archives of environmental history in river systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of the suitability of two lichen species for trace element atmospheric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Lichens have been widely used in monitoring studies. Consequently, it is very useful to study the suitability of lichen species to monitor pollutants allowing in this way the best choice. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of trace elements by two epiphytic lichen species Canoparmelia texana (Tuck) Elix and Hale and Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. Five samples of each species were collected during the period from November 2010 in a same site far from downtown Sao Paulo city. Lichens collected from tree barks were cleaned, freeze-dried, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Aliquots of lichen samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a digital spectrum analyzer. Concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined in both lichen species. The results demonstrated that both species can be used for evaluating air quality. The element concentrations showed difference between lichen species and also among their sampling periods. These differences may be attributed to the distinct mechanisms of element absorption by lichens as well as various other factors that affect their element accumulation. The comparative evaluation made calculating the ratios between C. texana species sample and that in Usnea amblyoclada for elemental concentrations indicated that, in general, foliose C. texana present similar or higher concentrations than those presented by fruticose Usnea. (author)

  15. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L; Anacleto, Patrícia; Carvalho, M Luísa; Rasmussen, Rie R; Sloth, Jens J; Almeida, C Marisa; Marques, António; Nunes, M Leonor

    2018-04-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest for sea urchin farming development. Concerning toxic elements, the profile was the following: As > Cd > Pb > Hg > iAs. The results evidenced higher levels of Pb and Hg in open areas. Distinct area characteristics and anthropogenic pressures of production areas evidence the importance of biomonitoring contaminants, particularly toxic elements. In general, the levels of these elements were below maximum levels in foodstuffs (MLs) which pose a minimal health risk to consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multivariant statistical methods to examine trace element distribution in Ruhr coals; Multivariate statistische Methoden zur Untersuchung der Spurenelementverteilung in Ruhrgebietskohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R.; Hagemann, H.W.; Wolf, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten; Wolff-Fischer, E.

    1996-12-01

    Multivariant statistical analyses were used to examine the bonding of coal-relevant trace elements As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, U, V and Zn with the minerals in 31 types of coal in the Ruhr coalfield. Samples chosen came from Westfal A to Westfal C. The trace element analyses and radioscopic phase analyses to establish the mineral content were carried out on both low and high-ash outputs from a laboratory flotation. Using factor analysis the geochemical character of the trace elements was described and `clay-mineral`, `sulphide` and, `heavy crop mineral` factors deduced. Cluster analysis in the Q-mode yields a separation according to the stratigraphy, while the R-mode provides an agglomeration according to the geochemical character of the trace elements. (orig.)

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of contaminated areas by trace elements: mechanisms and major benefits of their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lucélia; Soares, Claúdio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Giachini, Admir José; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, the concentration of trace elements has increased in soil and water, mainly by industrialization and urbanization. Recovery of contaminated areas is generally complex. In that respect, microorganisms can be of vital importance by making significant contributions towards the establishment of plants and the stabilization of impacted areas. Among the available strategies for environmental recovery, bioremediation and phytoremediation outstand. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered the most important type of mycorrhizae for phytoremediation. AMF have broad occurrence in contaminated soils, and evidences suggest they improve plant tolerance to excess of certain trace elements. In this review, the use of AMF in phytoremediation and mechanisms involved in their trace element tolerance are discussed. Additionally, we present some techniques used to study the retention of trace elements by AMF, as well as a summary of studies showing major benefits of AMF for phytoremediation.

  18. Organochlorine, Trace Element, and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants Investigation of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 1985-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine, trace element, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants were examined in sediment and biota from the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The study was...

  19. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  20. Determination of minor and trace elements concentration in kidney stones using elemental analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiments were performed and different kidney stones were analyzed. The interactions of X-ray photons and neutrons with matter are complementary in nature, resulting in distinctly different materials detection. This is the first approach to utilize combined X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the kideny stones. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. The use of open source program Python Multi-Channel Analyzer was utilized to unfold the XRF spectrum. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF and NAA analysis of the kidney stone. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF and NAA technique. The elements which were identified from XRF technique are Br, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mo, Nb, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, Y, Zr. And, by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) are Au, Br, Ca, Er, Hg, I, K, Na, Pm, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb, Zn. This thesis presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF and NAA instrumental activation analysis techniques.