WorldWideScience

Sample records for elements production rates

  1. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  2. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  3. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  4. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  5. Status of transuranium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the production, storage, and distribution center for the heavy-element research program of the US Department of Energy since 1966. During the past four years, annual production rates of transcurium elements have been relatively stable, averaging 34 mg of 249 Bk, 369 mg of 252 Cf, 1.4 mg of 253 Es, and 0.7 pg of 257 Fm. The extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment have allowed continual updating of the plant to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Production of transuranium elements. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.

    1976-01-01

    The cardiac pacemaker market and the potentialities of the radioisotopic plutonium 238 pacemakers are evaluated. In spite of restrictions due to the radioactivity of the source and the cost of the nuclear device, plutonium 238 pacemakers continue to occupy a definite place in the present market because of their long life and miniaturization possibilities. Finally the general plutonium 238 production program of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is outlined [fr

  7. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tall, Y.

    2008-03-01

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  8. Development and production of Zenith fissile elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D; Wheatley, C C.H.; Lloyd, H

    1959-06-15

    The development of a new glass-bonded alumina-uranium oxide composition forming the fissile component of the Zenith fuel elements is described, together with the production of the initial charge containing 15 Kg. of U{sub 235]; the composition is capable of retaining fission product gases at high temperatures. The description includes criticality considerations, details of manufacture, and production statistics of the 11,000 discs produced.

  9. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  10. Geotourism products industry element: A community approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basi Arjana, I. W.; Ernawati, N. M.; Astawa, I. K.

    2018-01-01

    The ability of a tourism area to provide products that could satisfy the needs and desires of tourists is the key to success in developing tourism. Geotourists are a niche market that has specific needs. This study aims to identify the needs of geotourists, which is undertaken by evaluating the perceptions of geotourists with respect to 6 elements which are the industrial aspects of community-based tourism products, using a qualitative approach. In-depth interview technique is used as data collection method. These products are as follows: there are five major categories of geotourism commercial elements, which include: travel services, accommodation, transportation, food and beverage, souvenir and packaging. The research results show that there are various products which are the output of the industry elements desired by tourists in Batur representing the needs of different market segments and accommodating the sustainability of nature. These needs are arised and inspired by local culture. The necessity to offer an assortment of products packages is indicated to provide plentiful options for tourists, to lengthen tourist’s stay, and also to introduce various product components available in Batur. The research output could be used and contribute in providing a reference in developing geotourism products.

  11. The production of transplutonium elements in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Sontag, R.; Kertesz, C.

    1980-08-01

    The development of the program for the production of transplutonium elements, 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm, in France, required a major effort from the technological and chemical standpoints. Pre-existing hot cells were reconditioned and others specially built for these production operations. From the chemical standpoint, the development of extractive chromatography on the preparative scale has allowed the definition of simple processes. This type of process, initially developed for the treatment of Pu/Al targets, is ideal for the treatment of industrial wastes for their decontamination and for the production of 241 Am

  12. New elements in production technology and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melberg, O.

    1995-01-01

    The title of this presentation embraces quite a wide scope, however, focus will be on Mobile Production Systems (MPSs) and in particular on Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Units (FPSOs), for which there is presently a remarkable boost in interest particularly in the North Sea area. Over the last 20 years, pioneered by the Argyll TW 58 in 1975, 11 mobile systems have been/are active in the North Sea, i.e. a growth of one for each second year. In 1994 alone a number of eight mobile production systems were contracted of which seven were FPSOs. This boost is following nine years of successful operation of the Petrojarl 1 and is also clearly linked to the success of the Kerr-McGee's Gryphon A project. The title of this presentation reflects new elements in this business; the upturn in interest for FPSOs introduces new ways of thinking and acting. In this paper, the new elements are divided into the general trends; new commercial elements and new technological elements

  13. Glove box operations for transplutonium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes are used in the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for (1) completing the final chemical processing steps to isolate and purify the transplutonium elements, (2) packaging transplutonium elements for shipment, (3) preirradiation and postirradiation processing of samples used to produce special transplutonium isotopes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and (4) conducting special projects, which include providing highly purified transplutonium products in special chemical forms and/or in experimental devices as requested by researchers. During 20 years of operation, the quantities of transplutonium elements produced, and thus the amount of radioactivity handled, have continually increased. At the same time, substantial effort has been expended to reduce personnel radiation exposures. Equipment and techniques have been developed to maintain the desired operational capabilities in the glove boxes while keeping radiation exposures to operating personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Developments have included the design and fabrication of product handling and collection devices, product storage containers, and laminated exterior shields of lead glass, lead acrylic, acrylic sheets, polyethylene, and lead

  14. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  15. 15 CFR 700.12 - Elements of a rated order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.12 Elements of a rated order. Each...

  16. On the Production of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, P

    2003-01-01

    Since the discovery of Deformed Superheavy Nuclei (1983–85) a bridge connects the island of SHE to known isotopes of lighter elements. What we know experimentally and theoretically on the nuclear structure of SHE is reported in a first section. The making of the elements, with an analysis of production cross sections, and the macroscopic limitation to Z=112+ is presented in a second section. The break-down of fusion cross sections in the ‘Coulomb Falls’ within a range of about 10 elements is introduced as the universal limiting phenomenon. How the nuclear structure of the collision partners modifies the on-set of this limitation is presented in Section 3. Reactions induced by deformed nuclei are pushed by side collisions to higher excitation energies (4n- and 5n-channels), whereas reactions driven by the cluster-like, closed-shell nuclei, 208126Pb and 13882Ba, are kept at low excitation energies (1n- and 2n-channels). The on-set of production limitation for deformed collision partners is moved to smalle...

  17. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite acts as both an important source and sink for many different metals and metalloids in the environment, including many that are toxic. Oxidation of pyrite can release these elements while at the same time producing significant amounts of sulfuric acid. Such issues are common in the vicinity of abandoned mines and smelters, but, as pyrite is a common accessory mineral in many different lithologies, significant pyrite oxidation can occur whenever pyritic rocks are exposed to oxygenated water or the atmosphere. Accelerated exposure to oxygen can occur during deforestation, fracking for petroleum, and construction projects. Geochemical models for pyrite oxidation can help us develop strategies to mitigate these deleterious effects. An important component of these models is an accurate pyrite oxidation rate; however, current pyrite oxidation rates have been determined using relatively pure pyrite. Natural pyrite is rarely pure and has a wide range of trace element concentrations that may affect the oxidation rate. Furthermore, the position of trace elements within the mineral lattice can also affect the oxidation rate. For example, elements such as Ni and Co, which substitute into the pyrite lattice, are thought to stabilize the lattice and thus prevent pyrite oxidation. Alternatively, trace elements that are held within inclusions of other minerals could form a galvanic cell with the surrounding pyrite, thus enhancing pyrite oxidation rates. In this study, we present preliminary analyses from three different pyrite oxidation experiments each using natural pyrite with different trace element compositions. These results show that the pyrite with the highest trace element concentration has approximately an order of magnitude higher oxidation rate compared to the lowest trace element sample. To further elucidate the mechanisms, we employed microanalytical techniques to investigate how the trace elements are held within the pyrite. LA-ICPMS was used to determine the

  18. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  19. Elemental analysis of Kuwaiti petroleum and combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.S.; Cahill, T.A.; Gearhart, E.A.; Flocchini, R.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Crocker Nuclear Lab.); Schweitzer, J.S.; Peterson, C.A. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Crude oil from eight Kuwaiti fields and aerosols generated by their combustion in the laboratory have been analyzed by composition and particulate size. Liquid petroleum and petroleum combustion products were subjected to elemental analysis by proton induced x-ray techniques and by x-ray fluorescence techniques. The mean sulfur content of the burning wells was weighted by their production rates to obtain the mean sulfur content of the burning oil, 2.66%. The liquid samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analyses. Results show that Kuwaiti oil and smoke aerosols from laboratory combustion generally contain very low amounts of chlorine, contrary to what is found in airborne samples above Kuwait. Trace element signatures were developed to aid in tracing smoke from the oil fires. (Author).

  20. FREVAP-6, Metal Fission Products Release from HTGR Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The FREVAP type of code for estimating the release of longer-lived metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements has been developed to take into account the combined effects of the retention of metallic fission products by fuel particles and the rather strong absorption of these fission products by the graphite of the fuel elements. Release calculations are made on the basis that the loss of fission product nuclides such as strontium, cesium, and barium is determined by their evaporation from the graphite surfaces and their transpiration induced by the flowing helium coolant. The code is devised so that changes of fission rate (fuel element power), fuel temperature, and graphite temperature may be incorporated into the calculation. Temperature is quite important in determining release because, in general, both release from fuel particles and loss by evaporation (transpiration) vary exponentially with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. NESC0301/02: This version differs from the previous one in the following points: The source and output files were converted from BCD to ASCII coding. 2 - Method of solution: A problem is defined as having a one-dimensional segment made up of three parts - (1) the fission product source (fuel particles) in series with, (2) a non-source and absorption part (element graphite) and (3) a surface for evaporation to the coolant (graphite-helium interface). More than one segment may be connected (possibly segments stacked axially) by way of the coolant. At any given segment, a continuity equation is solved assuming equilibrium between the source term, absorption term, evaporation at coolant interface and the partial pressure of the fission product isotope in the coolant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5 isotopes; 10 time intervals for time-dependent variable; 49 segments (times number of isotopes); 5 different output print time-steps

  1. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  2. Fission product release from defected nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The release of gaseous (krypton and xenon) and iodine radioactive fission products from defective fuel elements is described with a semi-empirical model. The model assumes precursor-corrected 'Booth diffusional release' in the UO 2 and subsequent holdup in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Transport in the gap is separately modelled with a phenomenological rate constant (assuming release from the gap is a first order rate process), and a diffusivity constant (assuming transport in the gap is dominated by a diffusional process). Measured release data from possessing various states of defection are use in this analysis. One element (irradiated in an earlier experiment by MacDonald) was defected with a small drilled hole. A second element was machined with 23 slits while a third element (fabricated with a porous end plug) displayed through-wall sheath hydriding. Comparison of measured release data with calculated values from the model yields estimates of empirical diffusion coefficients for the radioactive species in the UO 2 (1.56 x 10 -10 to 7.30 x 10 -9 s -1 ), as well as escape rate constants (7.85 x 10 -7 to 3.44 x 10 -5 s -1 ) and diffusion coefficients (3.39 x 10 -5 to 4.88 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s) for these in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Analyses also enable identification of the various rate-controlling processes operative in each element. For the noble gas and iodine species, the rate-determining process in the multi-slit element is 'Booth diffusion'; however, for the hydrided element an additional delay results from diffusional transport in the fuel-to-heath gap. Furthermore, the iodine species exhibit an additional holdup in the drilled element because of significant trapping on the fuel and/or sheath surfaces. Using experimental release data and applying the theoretical results of this work, a systematic procedure is proposed to characterize fuel failures in commercial power reactors (i.e., the number of fuel failures and average leak size)

  3. The economic production lot size model with several production rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    should be chosen in the interval between the demand rate and the production rate, which minimize unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed form solutions for the optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost. Finally we...

  4. Atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y.; Hajdas, W.; Baltensperger, U.; Synal, H.A.; Kubik, P.W.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Using experimental cross sections, a new calculation of the atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl was carried out. A mean production rate of 20 atoms m{sup -2}s{sup -1} was obtained, which is lower than mean {sup 36}Cl deposition rates. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  5. Atmospheric production rate of 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrat, Y.; Hajdas, W.; Baltensperger, U.; Synal, H.A.; Kubik, P.W.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Suter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Using experimental cross sections, a new calculation of the atmospheric production rate of 36 Cl was carried out. A mean production rate of 20 atoms m -2 s -1 was obtained, which is lower than mean 36 Cl deposition rates. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs

  6. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  7. Simple electrolytic cell for production of elemental fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dides F, M.; Padilla S, U.

    1990-01-01

    It was constructed and tested a simple electrolytic cell for the production of elemental fluorine. The fluorine production is essential in the obtainment of uranium hexafluoride, a compound for the nuclear fuel cycle. (A.C.A.S.)

  8. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  9. Strong beam production for some elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplan, J.; Chaumont, J.; Meunier, R.

    1974-01-01

    Three electromagnetic isotope separators are installed in Rene Bernas Laboratory, one being especially adapted to ion implantation. The three apparatus use the same type of ion source and system of beam extraction. The special ion source is distinguishable from the others only by its smaller dimensions. These sources allow strong currents to be obtained for almost every element. The source and its extraction system are briefly described, examples of beams obtained are given [fr

  10. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification

  11. Rate of nova production in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liller, W.; Mayer, B.; PROBLICOM Sky Survey, Los Angeles, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The ongoing PROBLICOM program in the Southern Hemisphere now makes it possible to derive a reliable value for the overall production rate of Galactic novae. The results, 73 + or - 24/y, indicates that the Galaxy outproduces M 31 by a factor of two or three. It is estimated that the rate of supernova ejecta is one and a half orders of magnitude greater than that of novae in the Galaxy. 15 references

  12. Production of a tracer packet of heavier rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, S.; Nayak, D.; Maji, S.

    2004-01-01

    Production of a tracer packet of heavier rare earth elements containing carrier-free radionuclides of 153,155 Tb, 153,155,157 Dy, 159 Ho, 159,161 Er, 161 Tm produced by medium energy 7 Li and 12 C irradiation on an europium oxide target and the subsequent separation of bulk europium from the carrier-free products is described. (author)

  13. Gamma spectrometry at OSIRIS. Determination of the power and combustion rate of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Musso, J.F.; Cerles, J.M.

    1975-12-01

    An original gamma spectrometer is available at Saclay near the core of the Osiris reactor. With such a device, it is possible to investigate nuclear fuel elements irradiated at Osiris or originating from power reactors. It is quite possible to build devices based on this principle in nuclear power reactors, more particularly in water reactors. With such a device, it is possible to follow the evolution in space and with time of a large number of fission products, and from there to draw precious conclusions relative to reactor safety (e.g. failed element detection) and to fuel economy (i.e. determination of combustion rate). The general characteristics of the device are given as well as its applications: determination of the mass combustion and of the linear power of an irradiated element. A non-destructive, versatile and fast means of investigation is therefore given by the installation of gamma spectroscopy inside a reactor [fr

  14. ECONOMIC ELEMENTS REGARDING THE STEEL COST PRODUCTION COUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian IOANA; Nicolae CONSTANTIN; Elena-Claudia DRAGNA; Massimo POLIFRONI

    2016-01-01

    Our article features the elements that make up the cost of production. The economic activity implies a consumption of factors followed-up by products expressed in goods or services. In the first part of the article, we have defined and detailed the cost of production. In the second part we have calculated the cost of the production of one tone of low alloyed steel with vanadium. The prices for the components of cost production have been established within, Tenaris site, located in Calarasi co...

  15. ECONOMIC ELEMENTS REGARDING THE STEEL COST PRODUCTION COUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IOANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our article features the elements that make up the cost of production. The economic activity implies a consumption of factors followed-up by products expressed in goods or services. In the first part of the article, we have defined and detailed the cost of production. In the second part we have calculated the cost of the production of one tone of low alloyed steel with vanadium. The prices for the components of cost production have been established within, Tenaris site, located in Calarasi county, Romania.

  16. The Metabolic Properties of the Fission Products and Actinide Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton M.D., J.G.

    1948-03-01

    An investigation of the assimilation, distribution, retention, an excretion of the fission products and actinide elements in the rat has been conducted at the Crocker Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California. These studies were initiated October 15, 1942, and are continuing at the present time. An extensive survey has been made of the metabolism of twenty-two different radio elements in the rat.

  17. The industrial production of fuel elements; La fabrication en france des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Nadal, J [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (SICN), 75 - Paris (France); Pellen, A [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The authors deal successively with the industrial production of fuel elements for power reactors of the natural uranium-graphite-gas type, and more particularly for the EDF power stations, and with the industrial production of fuel elements containing enriched uranium designed for swimming-pool type reactors. 1. part: advanced fuel elements for the EDF reactors. After recalling the characteristics of the fuel elements now being produced industrially for the Marcoule and Chinon reactors, the authors give the various steps leading to the industrial production of a new type of fuel element both as concerns the can, and in certain cases the graphite sleeve, and the fuel itself. As for as the production of the fuel is concerned, they describe the various operations, stressing the original aspects of the production and of the equipment such as: - casting in hot moulds, - thermal treatments, of Uranium containing 1% in weight molybdenum, - welding of the pellets for closing the tubes of uranium, - canning, - controls in the various steps. As far as can production is concerned they show why the extruded can was replaced by a machined can and give a few characteristics of the equipment used as well as the controls effected. They give also some details concerning the production and machining of the sleeves. After recalling the state of the nuclear fuel industry in France in mid-1964 the authors stress the economic aspects of the production of fuel elements. They show the relative importance of capital costs on the cost price of the fuel itself and examine the various items involved. They analyse the cost price of a completed fuel element using present date knowledge. In conclusion the authors show the particular points which should be the subject of future efforts in order to decrease the cost of a production which is perhaps delicate but now will define, and review the development of this new industrial branch. 2. part: industrial production of fuel elements for swimming

  18. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geochemical assessment of the primary involvement of chemical elements in technogenesis in the world and individual countries. In order to compare the intensity of production of various chemical elements in different countries, the authors have introduced a number of new terms and parameters. The new term is “abstract rock” (AR - an elemental equivalent, whose average composition corresponds to the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust. The new parameters are: “conditional technophility of an element” (TY, “specific technophility” (TYN “regional conditional technophility” (TYR, “specific regional technophility” (TN, and “density of regional conditional technophility” (TS. TY equals to the tons of AR per year necessary for the production of the current level of the element. TY of different elements has been estimated for 2008-2010. The highest TY values are associated with C, S, N, Ra, and Au. TY of many micro- and ultramicroelements is of the order of n•1011t. TYN reflects the volume of AR per the world’s capita. TYN changes from the 1960s to 2010 indicates that the Earth’s population is growing much faster than its demand for many chemical elements. TYR, TN, and TS were used for the integrated assessment of technogenesis at the regional scale; they reflect the intensity of the technogenesis process at the level of individual countries and allow comparing countries with different levels of elements production, population, and areas. The TN and TS levels of the leaders in extraction of natural resources are below these values in other countries due to the large territories (Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Mali, Libya, Mongolia, and Sudan, to the large population (Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nigeria, or to both high spatial and demographic dimensions (India, Brazil, France, Egypt

  19. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...

  20. First ever production of a transactinide element in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, D.T.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Piguet, D.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Thoerle, P.; Trautmann, N.; Zauner, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The transactinide element {sup 261}Rf was produced for the first time at the PSI Phillips cyclotron in the reaction {sup 244}Pu({sup 22}Ne,5n). At bombarding energy of 116 MeV the production cross section was 3 nb. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  1. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  2. Elemental Study in Soybean and Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorapot, Permnamtip; Arporn Busamongkol; Sirinart, Laoharojanaphand

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Elements were analyzed in soybean and products by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Pseudo-Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (PCINAA) and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (EINAA). Elements detected in sample were include Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn. The result showed that the nutritional contents changed after food processing. From experiments (n = 2), it was found that after food processing, the concentration of Cl and Na in soy bean curd increased from 0.0045 and 0.0011% to found 0.91 and 0.39 %, respectively. Other elements did not differ from soybean. Limits of detection for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn were 0.05, 0.2, 50, 6, 10, 15, 0.05, 30, 40, 5, 5, 0.05 and 1 mg.kg - 1, respectively

  3. Quality control in the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic-Popovic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Djuricis, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel and fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and producers fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work of nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future in the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in out country it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level. (author)

  4. Production and properties of the heaviest elements. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, H.; Hebberger, F.P.; Sewtz, M.; Turler, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the following topics which were discussed at the Workshop on the Atomic Properties of the Heaviest Elements held from September 25-27, 2006 in Chiemsee, Germany: (i) the recent progress in the production of the heaviest elements, the investigation of their nuclear structure, and prospects for direct mass measurements in Penning traps; (ii) recent studies of their chemical properties with the aid of volatile species and single-atom aqueous-phase chemistry; (iii) the current status and future prospects for the investigation of atomic and ionic properties such as optical spectroscopy in gas cells and ion traps, including fully relativistic calculations of the atomic level structure with predictions for the element nobelium; and (iv) ionic charge radii measurements in buffer gas filled drift cells, and ion chemical reactions in the gas phase. (authors)

  5. 30 CFR 75.601-3 - Short circuit protection; dual element fuses; current ratings; maximum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection; dual element fuses... Trailing Cables § 75.601-3 Short circuit protection; dual element fuses; current ratings; maximum values. Dual element fuses having adequate current-interrupting capacity shall meet the requirements for short...

  6. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  7. Recent trends in accumulation rate, elemental and isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isotope results show that the organic material deposited in the bay are generally derived from C4 type of plants and are not transported far from the river mouth. Also the results show that preservation of organic matter is high in open water probably due to high primary productivity owing to high concentration of nutrients ...

  8. On the production of heavy elements by cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1985-01-01

    After a short historical introduction (Section 1), this article presents new insights into the mechanism limiting the fusion of heavy nuclides (Section 2). Fusion is finally limited by the increasing Coulomb forces in the formation process of a compound system, as well as in its deexcitation. Moreover, nuclear structure effects in all stages of evaporation residue (EVR) formation are shown to be of importance. The wide field of fusion reaction studies and possible experimental techniques is projected onto the task of element synthesis, and only those aspects that are of relevance here are covered. The better understanding of EVR formation (Section 2) and the new experimental techniques (Section 3) that enabled the production of elements 107-109 (Section 4) are also discussed. In Section 5 ground-state properties and the nuclear structure of the heaviest isotopes, together with their production cross sections, are discussed. Finally, an outlook on how eventually to go beyond Z = 109 is given

  9. Fission product release from HTGR coated microparticles and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Deryugin, A.I.; Lyutikov, R.A.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of fission products release from microparticles with UO 2 core and five-layer HII PyC- and SiC base protection layers of TRICO type as well as from spherical fuel elements based thereon. It is shown that relative release of short-lived xenon and crypton from microparticles does not exceed (2-3) 10 -7 . The release of gaseous fission products from fuel elements containing no damaged coated microparticles, is primarily determined by the contamination of matrix graphite with fuel. An analytical dependence is derived, the dependence described the relation between structural parameters of coated microparticles, irradiation conditions and fuel burnup at which depressurization of coated microparticles starts

  10. recent trends in accumulation rate, elemental and isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the mean accumulation rates of organic carbon and nitrogen for the bay, range from 6.92 to 57.25 gC/m2/yr and 0.51 to 4.37 gN/m2/yr, respectively, and show that ... organic compounds (biomarkers) in ... Sampling and analysis.

  11. Experimental Determination of the Cosmogenic Ar Production Rate From Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, S.; Schäfer, J. M.; Wieler, R.; Naumann, R.

    2005-12-01

    Cosmogenic 38Ar is produced in terrestrial surface rocks by spallation of target nuclides, in particular K and Ca. Though the presence of cosmogenic Ar in Ca-rich minerals has been demonstrated earlier [1], is has proven difficult to establish its production rate. To circumvent problems connected to 36Ar production by 35Cl neutron capture and different production rates from K and Ca, we have analyzed the noble gases in seven pyroxene separates (px) from the Antarctic Dry Valleys which are essentially free of Cl and K. The px were obtained from dolerite rocks, for which 3He and 21Ne exposure ages from 1.5 to 6.5 Ma have been reported [2]. The noble gases were extracted in two or three heating steps at GFZ Potsdam, yielding 38Ar/36Ar ratios up to 0.2283 ± 0.0008 (air: 0.1880). Ca (3.7-11.2 wt. %) is expected to be the only relevant target element for Ar production in the five pure px (ratio of 1.5 ± 0.2, we obtain cosmogenic 38Ar concentrations between 130 and 530x106 atoms/g. The 38Ar production rate was calculated based on 21Ne exposure ages [2], corrected for elevated nuclide production in Antarctica due to prevailing low air pressure and for the revised 21Ne production rate from Si. We obtain values between 188 ± 17 and 243 +110/-24 atoms (g Ca)-1 a-1 at sea level and high (northern) latitudes for four out of the five pure px, while one yields a very high value of 348 ± 70 atoms (g Ca)-1 a-1. Values above 250 atoms (g Ca)-1 a-1 are also obtained from two less pure px containing 0.3 and 0.9% K and from one feldspar/quartz accumulate, indicating that the production rate from K may be higher than that from Ca. The weighted mean (excluding the outlier) of ~200 atoms (g Ca)-1 a-1 is in excellent agreement with Lal's [3] theoretical estimate. [1] Renne et al., EPSL 188 (2001) 435. [2] Schäfer et al., EPSL 167 (1999) 215. [3] Lal, EPSL 104 (1991) 424.

  12. Chipping and grinding production rate calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew. Smidt; Dana Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    The data for individual chipper and grinder production estimates were recorded with all the attributes available. If a study provided more than one production estimate and there was sufficient detail to describe each estimate, we entered multiple production estimates.

  13. Fuzzy production planning models for an unreliable production system with fuzzy production rate and stochastic/fuzzy demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Halim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider a single-unit unreliable production system which produces a single item. During a production run, the production process may shift from the in-control state to the out-of-control state at any random time when it produces some defective items. The defective item production rate is assumed to be imprecise and is characterized by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. The production rate is proportional to the demand rate where the proportionality constant is taken to be a fuzzy number. Two production planning models are developed on the basis of fuzzy and stochastic demand patterns. The expected cost per unit time in the fuzzy sense is derived in each model and defuzzified by using the graded mean integration representation method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the optimal results of the proposed fuzzy models.

  14. Test elements of direct sums and free products of free Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We give a characterization of test elements of a direct sum of free Lie algebras in terms of test elements of the factors. In addition, we construct certain types of test elements and we prove that in a free product of free Lie algebras, product of the homogeneous test elements of the factors is also a test element.

  15. Test elements of direct sums and free products of free Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give a characterization of test elements of a direct sum of free Lie algebras in terms of test elements of the factors. In addition, we construct certain types of test elements and we prove that in a free product of free Lie algebras, product of the homogeneous test elements of the factors is also a test element.

  16. Diffusion of Fission Product Elements in Compacted Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratomo-Budiman-Sastrowardoyo; Dewi-Susilowati; Dadang-Suganda

    2000-01-01

    Study on diffusion of fission product in compacted bentonite has been conducted. The information about mobilities of these elements have been obtained from the studies resulted in many countries. It is presented that the diffusion coefficient was varied by the function of solution phase condition as well as the nature of bentonite. It is also showed that the diffusion coefficient decreased by the increasing of density, as well as the increasing of montmorillonite content in bentonite. The ratio of bentonite/silica-sand used, was related to the increasing of elements mobility. In many case variation of diffusion coefficient was related to the variation of pH, redox condition, and the presence of complex ant in solution phase. The lower diffusion coefficient could give the higher retardation factor, which is a favorable factor to retard the radionuclides release from a disposal facility to geosphere. (author)

  17. An improved model for considering strain rate effects on reinforced concrete elements behavior under dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, J.; Soroushian, P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved model for predicting the reinforced concrete element behavior under dynamic strain rates was developed using the layer modeling technique. The developed strain rate sensitive model for axial/flexural analysis of reinforced concrete elements was used to predict the test results, performed at different loading rates, and the predictions were reasonable. The developed analysis technique was used to study the loading rate sensitivity of reinforced concrete beams and columns with different geometry and material properties. Two design formulas for computing the loading rate dependent axial and flexural strengths of reinforced concrete sections are suggested

  18. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  19. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  20. Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...

  1. The contribution of nature to people: Applying concepts of values and properties to rate the management importance of natural elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Wagner, Christian; Wallace, Ken J; Pourabdollah, Amir; Lewis, Loretta

    2016-06-15

    An important, and yet unresolved question in natural resource management is how best to manage natural elements and their associated values to ensure human wellbeing. Specifically, there is a lack of measurement tools to assess the contribution of nature to people. We present one approach to overcome this global issue and show that the preferred state of any system element, in terms of realising human values, is a function of element properties. Consequently, natural resource managers need to understand the nature of the relationships between element properties and values if they are to successfully manage for human wellbeing. In two case studies of applied planning, we demonstrate how to identify key element properties, quantify their relationships to priority human values, and combine this information to model the contribution of elements to human wellbeing. In one of the two case studies we also compared the modelling outputs with directly elicited stakeholder opinions regarding the importance of the elements for realising the given priority values. The two, largely congruent outputs provide additional support for the approach. The study shows that rating sets of elements on their relative overall value for human wellbeing, or utility, provides critical information for subsequent management decisions and a basis for productive new research. We consider that the described approach is broadly applicable within the domain of natural resource management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

  3. Convective-diffusive transport of fission products in the gap of a failed fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Z.W.; Carlucci, L.N.; Arimescu, V.I.

    1995-03-01

    A model is presented to describe the transport behaviour of gaseous fission products along the axial fuel-to-sheathe gap of a failed fuel element to the coolant system. The model is applicable to an element having failed under normal operating conditions or loss-of coolant-accident conditions. Because of the large differences in operating parameters, the transport characteristics of gaseous fission products in a failed element under these two operating conditions are significantly different. However, in both cases the transport process can be described by convection-diffusion caused by the continuous release of fission products from the fuel to the gap. Under normal operating conditions, the bulk-flow velocity is found to be negligible, due to the low release rate of fission products from fuel. The process can be well approximated by the diffusion of fission products in a stagnant gas-steam mixture. The effect of convection on the fission product transport, however, becomes significant under loss-of-coolant-accident conditions, where the release rates of fission products from fuel can be several orders of magnitude higher that that under normal operating conditions. The convection of the mixture in the gap not only contributes an additional flux to the gas-mixture transport, but also increases the gradient of fission products concentration across the opening, and therefore increases the diffusion flux to the coolant. As a result of the bulk flow, the transport of fission products along the gap is accelerated and the hold-up of short-lived isotopes in the gap is significantly reduced. Steam ingress through the opening into the gap is obstructed by the bulk flow, resulting in low steam concentrations in the gap under loss-of-coolant-accident conditions. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs

  4. Real Exchange Rate and Productivity in an OLG Model

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Hong Thinh DOAN; Karine GENTE

    2013-01-01

    This article develops an overlapping generations model to show how demography and savings affect the relationship between real exchange rate (RER) and productivity. In high-saving (low-saving) countries and/or low-population-growth-rate countries, a rise in productivity leads to a real depreciation (appreciation) whereas the RER may appreciate or depreciate in highproduction-growth-rate. Using panel data, we conclude that a rise in productivity generally causes a real exchange rate appreciati...

  5. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  6. Elemental concentration of zooplankton and their particulate products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1974-01-01

    Since zooplankton fecal pellets and molts are major vectors in the vertical transport of zinc in the sea, analyses have been made also for other trace metals in these particulate products. Euphausiids and pelagic shrimp were collected live off the Monaco coast by taking several short oblique tows with an Issacs-Kidd midwater trawl. Animals were placed in clean sea water, sorted according to species and immediately transported to the laboratory in plastic containers filled with filtered sea water taken at the collection site. Samples of microplankton, which serve as food for the macroplankton were also taken. Elemental concentrations in whole euphausiids and shrimp were measured. It was observed that molt analyses strongly support the contention that crustacean molts play an important role in the transport of metals and radionuclides in marine ecosystems. Molts can release metals to the water column or sediments upon decomposition or serve as a rich source of metals for organisms of other trophic levels which ingest them

  7. Production of sensitivity and false alarm rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zijie; Kang Wu; Chu Chengsheng; Hao Fanhua; Liu Xiaoya; Cao Lin; Hu Yongbo; Gong Jian; Xiang Yongchun; Zhang Jianhua; Yang Xiangdong

    2007-01-01

    The false alarm rate and sensitivity in nuclear material monitoring system are affected by alarm principle. Two different alarm principles are studied with theory and experiment analysis in this paper. Our research shows that theory analysis and experiment result are accordant very much. This study provides technology support for designing better alarm principle in nuclear material monitoring system. (authors)

  8. Evaporation Loss of Light Elements as a Function of Cooling Rate: Logarithmic Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-Liang; Hewins, Roger H.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about the evaporation loss of light elements is important to our understanding of chondrule formation processes. The evaporative loss of light elements (such as B and Li) as a function of cooling rate is of special interest because recent investigations of the distribution of Li, Be and B in meteoritic chondrules have revealed that Li varies by 25 times, and B and Be varies by about 10 times. Therefore, if we can extrapolate and interpolate with confidence the evaporation loss of B and Li (and other light elements such as K, Na) at a wide range of cooling rates of interest based upon limited experimental data, we would be able to assess the full range of scenarios relating to chondrule formation processes. Here, we propose that evaporation loss of light elements as a function of cooling rate should obey the logarithmic law.

  9. Multiculturalism as an element of Lublin's tourism product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodzoś, Jolanta; Szczęsna, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account both the cultural resources and the demand for a tourist offer with elements of cultural heritage, it can be stated that creating an intergrated tourism product based on Lublin's multicultural character is possible and needed. Traces of existence of various ethnic, national, religious groups are clear and vivid and may become the basis of an interesting offer for tourists. They are at the same time original and unique enough to become the trademark of the city. The realization of such a product can make Lublin the center of historical multiculturalism. The products could become Lublin's distinctive feature on the Polish and European map. The addressees of such a product could be tourists but also Lublin's citizens themselves, for whom it would be a great opportunity to learn about the past of their city. Multicultural heritage allows to create an offer that will help tourists to engage themselves actively in the cognitive process of discovering the city. Taking part in a cultural-religious event of a particular cultural group, staying in a stylish hotel, or a meal in a restaurant offering some traditional cuisine will activate tourists in an emotional way and will offer an opportunity to experience reality in a new way. This means of presenting reality is needed these days. There is a great need for active methods of presenting history, traditions, and customs. The Lublin of today offers too many traditional means of presentation, in which tourists are just passive observers and listeners. Broadening the current offer will not only promote Lublin's multicultural heritage but will also become a chance of creating a new image of its tourism.

  10. Attribute Ratings and Profiles of the Job Elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    The primary purpose of this study was to obtain estimates of the human attribute requirements of the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). A secondary purpose was to explore the reliability of job-related ratings as a function of the number of raters. A taxonomy of 76 human attributes was used and ratings of the relevance of…

  11. Standard Cosmic Ray Energetics and Light Element Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Cassé, M; Vangioni-Flam, E; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Casse, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal poor stars has led to a reassessment of the origin of the light elements in the early Galaxy. At low it is metallicity ([O/H] < -1.75), it is necessary to introduce a production mechanism which is independent of the interstellar metallicity (primary). At higher metallicities, existing data might indicate that secondary production is dominant. In this paper, we focus on the secondary process, related to the standard Galactic cosmic rays, and we examine the cosmic ray energy requirements for both present and past epochs. We find the power input to maintain the present-day Galactic cosmic ray flux is about 1.5e41 erg/s = 5e50 erg/century. This implies that, if supernovae are the sites of cosmic ray acceleration, the fraction of explosion energy going to accelerated particles is about 30%, a value which we obtain consistently both from considering the present cosmic ray flux and confinement and from the present 9Be and 6Li abundances. Using the abundances of 9Be (an...

  12. Effect of trace element addition and increasing organic loading rates on the anaerobic digestion of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K; Harris, Peter W; Lee, Seonmi

    2018-05-18

    In this study, anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater with the addition of trace elements was monitored for biogas quantity, quality and process stability using CSTR digesters operated at mesophilic temperature. The determination of trace element concentrations was shown to be deficient in Fe, Ni, Co, Mn and Mo compared to recommendations given in the literature. Addition of these trace elements resulted in enhanced degradation efficiency, higher biogas production and improved process stability. Higher organic loading rates and lower hydraulic retention times were achieved in comparison to the control digesters. A critical accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed at an organic loading rate of 1.82 g L -1  d -1 in the control compared to 2.36 g L -1  d -1 in the digesters with trace element addition. The improved process stability was evident in the final weeks of experimentation, in which control reactors produced 84% less biogas per day compared to the reactors containing trace elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A finite element modeling method for predicting long term corrosion rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.W.; Chan, S.

    1984-01-01

    For the analyses of galvanic corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, which have been identified as possible corrosion processes for nuclear waste isolation, a finite element method has been developed for the prediction of corrosion rates. The method uses a finite element mesh to model the corrosive environment and the polarization curves of metals are assigned as the boundary conditions to calculate the corrosion cell current distribution. A subroutine is used to calculate the chemical change with time in the crevice or the pit environments. In this paper, the finite element method is described along with experimental confirmation

  14. Regulation of primary productivity rate in the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.T.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the Chl-specific rate of primary productivity (P B ) as a function of subsurface nutrient concentration at >300 equatorial stations provides an answer to the question: What processes regulate primary productivity rate in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters of the equatorial Pacific? In the western Pacific where there is a gradient in 60-m [NO 3 ] from 0 to ∼12 μM, the productivity rate is a linear function of nutrient concentration; in the eastern Pacific where the gradient is from 12 to 28 μM, the productivity rate is independent of nutrient concentration and limited to ∼36 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 , or a mean euphotic zone C-specific growth rate (μ) of 0.47 d -1 . However, rates downstream of the Galapagos Islands are not limited; they are 46.4 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 and μ = 0.57 d -1 , very close to the predicted nutrient-regulated rates in the absence of other limitation. This pattern of rate regulation can be accounted for by a combination of eolian Fe, subsurface nutrients, and sedimentary Fe derived from the Galapagos platform. In the low-nutrient western Pacific the eolian supply of Fe is adequate to allow productivity rate to be set by subsurface nutrient concentration. In the nutrient-rich easter equatorial region eolian Fe is inadequate to support productivity rates proportional to the higher nutrient concentrations, so in this region eolian Fe is rate limiting. Around the Galapagos Islands productivity rates reach levels consistent with nutrient concentrations; sedimentary Fe from the Galapagos platform seems adequate to support increased nutrient-regulated productivity rates in this region

  15. Elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yu; Zhou, Jiajia; Khisro, Said Nasir; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Abnormal elements redistribution behavior was observed in tellurite glass. • The refractive index and Raman intensity distribution changed significantly. • The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed. • First time report on the abnormal element redistribution behavior in glass. • The glass network structure determines the elemental redistribution behavior. - Abstract: The success in the fabrication of micro-structures in glassy materials using femtosecond laser irradiation has proved its potential applications in the construction of three-dimensional micro-optical components or devices. In this paper, we report the elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass after the irradiation of high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed significantly, which is quite different from previously reported results about the high repetition rate femtosecond laser induced elemental redistribution in silicate glasses. The involved mechanism is discussed with the conclusion that the glass network structure plays the key role to determine the elemental redistribution. This observation not only helps to understand the interaction process of femtosecond laser with glassy materials, but also has potential applications in the fabrication of micro-optical devices

  16. Productivity Demand Shocks And Asia-Pacific Real Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ordean Olson

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a productivity-based explanation for real exchange rate behavior of East Asian currencies is examined using sectoral output and employment data, relative prices and relative productivities for China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Time series regressions of the real exchange rate on relative productivity ratios indicate significant relationships for the Philippines, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan and Korea. Only when a...

  17. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    btween the demand rate and the production rate which minimizes unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed-form expressions for all optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost. This analysis reveals that it is the size...... of the setup cost that determines the need for being able to use several production rates. Finally, we show how to derive a near-optimal solution of the general problem....

  18. Assessment of vehicle trip production rates in Ilorin (Nigeria) | Jimoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupation, age, gender, income lev-el, vehicle ownership, trip length and fare structure affected the total trip generation, with an average production rate of 3.5, in the range of 2.79 - 4.29. The lower rate was characteristic of school children (5 - 15 years), while the highest rate was attributed to affluent and elderly persons ...

  19. Helium production in mixed spectrum reactor-irradiated pure elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneff, D.W.; Oliver, B.M.; Skowronski, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to apply helium accumulation neutron dosimetry to the measurement of neutron fluences and energy spectra in mixed-spectrum fission reactors utilized for fusion materials testing, and to measure helium generation rates of materials in these irradiation environments. Helium generation measurements have been made for several Fe, Cu Ti, Nb, Cr, and Pt samples irradiated in the mixed-spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results have been used to integrally test the ENDF/B-V Gas Production File, by comparing the measurements with helium generation predictions made by Argonne National Laboratory using ENDF/B-V cross sections and adjusted reactor spectra. The comparisons indicate consistency between the helium measurements and ENDF/B-V for iron, but cross section discrepancies exist for helium production by fast neutrons in Cu, Ti, Nb, and Cr (the latter for ORR). The Fe, Cu, and Ti work updates and extends previous measurements

  20. Elements for computing and forecasting the leakage rate of the inner containment of nuclear reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, M.; Capra, B.; Mazars, J.; Colliat, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at introducing a methodology based on a macro-element discretization to compute and forecast the air leak rate of double-wall reactor buildings during air pressure tests. Assumptions at the basis of a weakly coupled strategy are checked in the case of a typical porous concrete section of an inner containment modeled during a 33 year period including four decennial regulatory pressure tests. However, air leakage due to porosity is only part of in situ measurements. Leakage due to cracking is another part and should be taken into account. A first macro-element is then presented, that superimposes Darcy flow within a porous matrix together with Poiseuille flow within a crack. Those elements are then used in a 3D hydraulic model to compute more accurately the total air leakage rate of considered structures. (authors)

  1. Rare earth elements materials production from apatite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, A V; Buynovskiy, A S; Makaseev, Y N; Mazov, I N; Nefedov, R A; Sachkov, V I; Valkov, A V; Andrienko, O S; Stepanova, O B

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of processing apatite ores with nitric acid and extraction of the rare earth elements. The rare earth elements can be successfully separated and recovered by extraction from the nitrate- phosphate solution, being an tributyl phosphate as extraction agent. The developed scheme of the processing apatite concentrate provides obtaining rare earth concentrates with high qualitative characteristics. (paper)

  2. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  3. Analysis of gamma irradiator dose rate using spent fuel elements with parallel configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto; Pudjijanto MS; Ardani

    2006-01-01

    To enhance the utilization of the RSG-GAS reactor spent fuel, the gamma irradiator using spent fuel elements as a gamma source is a suitable choice. This irradiator can be used for food sterilization and preservation. The first step before realization, it is necessary to determine the gamma dose rate theoretically. The assessment was realized for parallel configuration fuel elements with the irradiation space can be placed between fuel element series. This analysis of parallel model was choice to compare with the circle model and as long as possible to get more space for irradiation and to do manipulation of irradiation target. Dose rate calculation were done with MCNP, while the estimation of gamma activities of fuel element was realized by OREGEN code with 1 year of average delay time. The calculation result show that the gamma dose rate of parallel model decreased up to 50% relatively compared with the circle model, but the value still enough for sterilization and preservation. Especially for food preservation, this parallel model give more flexible, while the gamma dose rate can be adjusted to the irradiation needed. The conclusion of this assessment showed that the utilization of reactor spent fuels for gamma irradiator with parallel model give more advantage the circle model. (author)

  4. Fuel element structure - design, production and operational behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Dietz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures held at the meeting of the fuel element section of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft gives a survey of developments in fuel element structure design for PWR-type, BWR-type and fast breeder reactors. For better utilization of the fuel, concepts have been developed for re-usable, removable and thus repairable fuel elements. Furthermore, the manufacturing methods for fuel element structures were refined to achieve better quality and more efficient manufacturing methods. Statements on the dimensional behaviour and on the mechanical stability of fuel element structures in normal and accident operation could be made on the basis of post-irradiation inspections. Finally, the design, manufacture and irradiation behaviour of graphite reflectors in HTGR-type reactors are described. The 12 lectures have been recorded in the data base separately. (RF) [de

  5. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    production rates should be chosen in the interval between the demand rate and the production rate which minimizes unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed-form expressions for all optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost....... This analysis reveals that it is the size of the setup cost that determines the need for being able to use several production rates. We also show how to derive a near-optimal solution of the general problem....

  6. Distinguishing the elements of a full product basis set needs only projective measurements and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2004-01-01

    Nonlocality without entanglement is an interesting field. A manifestation of quantum nonlocality without entanglement is the possible local indistinguishability of orthogonal product states. In this paper we analyze the character of operators to distinguish the elements of a full product basis set in a multipartite system, and show that distinguishing perfectly these product bases needs only local projective measurements and classical communication, and these measurements cannot damage each product basis. Employing these conclusions one can discuss local distinguishability of the elements of any full product basis set easily. Finally we discuss the generalization of these results to the locally distinguishability of the elements of incomplete product basis set

  7. The rating of element closure welds and its influence on fuel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Ceccotti, G.; Magnoli, L.

    1986-10-01

    A high performance standard of CANDU fuel, and similarly of CIRENE fuel is possible only if the frequency of fuel element failures due to incomplete welds is kept very low. Weld rating, i.e. the relative length of sound weld line, is used to characterize the weld completeness. Metallography is used for quantative determination of the weld rating. The nature of the metallographic inspection method, together with the affordable sample size and the very low acceptable weld failure rate, make a statistical approach to the evaluation of the weld ratings necessary. The paper outlines a statistical method of weld rating assessment. The method links the probability of finding discontinuities in metallographic sections, with the distribution of discontinuities in a statistical sample of welds. It presents the results in the form of a weld rating distribution graph. Applications of the method are discussed. Its use is shown for three batches of CIRENE development welds

  8. Enhanced production of recombinant proteins with Corynebacterium glutamicum by deletion of insertion sequences (IS elements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Yim, Sung Sun; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2015-12-29

    In most bacteria, various jumping genetic elements including insertion sequences elements (IS elements) cause a variety of genetic rearrangements resulting in harmful effects such as genome and recombinant plasmid instability. The genetic stability of a plasmid in a host is critical for high-level production of recombinant proteins, and in this regard, the development of an IS element-free strain could be a useful strategy for the enhanced production of recombinant proteins. Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a workhorse in the industrial-scale production of various biomolecules including recombinant proteins, also has several IS elements, and it is necessary to identify the critical IS elements and to develop IS element deleted strain. From the cultivation of C. glutamicum harboring a plasmid for green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression, non-fluorescent clones were isolated by FACS (fluorescent activated cell sorting). All the isolated clones had insertions of IS elements in the GFP coding region, and two major IS elements (ISCg1 and ISCg2 families) were identified. By co-cultivating cells harboring either the isolated IS element-inserted plasmid or intact plasmid, it was clearly confirmed that cells harboring the IS element-inserted plasmids became dominant during the cultivation due to their growth advantage over cells containing intact plasmids, which can cause a significant reduction in recombinant protein production during cultivation. To minimize the harmful effects of IS elements on the expression of heterologous genes in C. glutamicum, two IS element free C. glutamicum strains were developed in which each major IS element was deleted, and enhanced productivity in the engineered C. glutamicum strain was successfully demonstrated with three models: GFP, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Our findings clearly indicate that the hopping of IS elements could be detrimental to the production of recombinant proteins in C

  9. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damastuti, E.; Syahfitri, W.Y.N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RADA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 - 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement (author)

  10. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  11. empirical model for predicting rate of biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale ... Biogas is a Gas obtained by anaerobic ... A. A. Adamu, Petroleum and Natural Gas Processing Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B..

  12. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dosimetric measurement of the disintegration rate of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solymosi, J.; Nagy, L.G.; Zagyvai, P.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations on the disintegration rate of fission products of 238 U and 239 Pu are presented. The intensity of the β-and γ-radiation of fission products were measured continously in an interval of 1-1300 hours following the fission, offering the possibility for determining the general and specific characteristics of the individual fission products. A universal measuring procedure was elaborated for the rapid in situ determination of the dosimetric features of fission products, which is suitable for the accurate evaluation and prediction of external absorbed dose even in case of fission products of various origin and unknown composition. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  14. BIG-10 fission product generation and reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fission product generation rates for high quality fission foils and reaction rates of nonfission foils have been measured by gamma ray activation analyses. These foils were irradiated in the BIG-10 facility and the activities were measured by NaI counting techniques

  15. Production of elemental fluorine at IPEN - S. Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.; Ikuta, A.; Wirkner, F.M.; Silva, F.P. da.

    1981-04-01

    The construction, installation and operation of a pilot unit for electrolytic generation of elemental fluorine are described. The 400 A monel electrolytic cell is heated by a water jacket. The electrolyte has the composition KF.1,8 - 2,0 HF that is maintained by intermittent addition of gaseous HF. Pre-electrolysis is made using nickel anodes which are then exchanged by non-graphitized carbon ones. Systems for purification of elemental fluorine by cryoscopy and absortion of HF, compression and storage for fluorine are described. Pure fluorine is used for the preparation of uranium hexafluoride. Identification of problems and difficulties and their solution are pointed out. (Author) [pt

  16. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazak, V.G.; Agnelov, A.I.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  18. Mapping {sup 15}O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogg, Kira; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Zhu, Xuping [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Min, Chul Hee [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of); Testa, Mauro; Winey, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Normandin, Marc D. [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A.; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 ({sup 15}O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of {sup 15}O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using {sup 15}O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the {sup 15}O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, {sup 15}O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy.

  19. In-target rare nuclei production rates with EURISOL single-stage configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Chabod, S P; Ene, D; Doré, D; Blideanu, V; David, J.-Ch; Ridikas, D

    2010-01-01

    We conducted calculations of exotic nuclei production rates for 320 configurations of EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) direct spallation targets. The nuclei yields were evaluated using neutron generation-transport codes, completed with evolution calculations to account for nuclei decays and low energy neutron interactions. The yields were optimized for 11 selected elements (Li, Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ni, Ga, Kr, Sn, Hg, Fr) and 23 of their isotopes, as function of the target compositions and geometries as well as the incident proton beam energies. For the considered elements, we evaluated the yield distributions as functions of the charge and mass numbers using two different spallation models.

  20. [Trans-uranium elements in food products (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, I Ia

    1994-01-01

    The data of Russian and foreign authors concerning of level environmental contamination and migration of transuranic elements in food chains, metabolism and biological danger of nuclides entering in human body with foods are reviewed. A level of radionuclide load of population and doses of radiation are discussed and the danger is estimated. The doses of radiation from radionuclide ingestion are lower than level of allowed radiation safety standards.

  1. UTILIZATION OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS FOR PRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational films are productions aiming to inform target audience about designated issues. Educational films are distributed via television, cinema, computers (CD, DVD and Internet environment with technological developments. Films are produced by means of digital technologies. Despite the means for film presentation and distribution go through a change, the cinematography concept systemizing artistic and technical principles of film production has been continuing to exist as a valid assessment criterion for all films. Cinematographic agreements, which encompass precise organization of images and sounds for films, ensure conveying the message of productions. In this study, conventions that could be affective on preparation of educational films at the utilization environments of cinematographic principles and on sustaining interest on the productions have been scrutinized, and the usage purposes of these conventions in educational films have been discussed.

  2. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and various organ-uptake rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four elements and 65 radioactive compounds were examined to determine the organ uptake rates for rats 3, 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection of these compounds. They were prepared as carrier free nuclides, or containing a small amount of stable nuclide. Generally speaking, behaviors of K, Rb, Cs and Tl in all the organs were very similar to one another, but they differed from that of Na. Bivalent hard acids were avidly taken up into bone; therefore, uptake rates in soft tissues were very small. Hard acids of tri-, quadri- and pentavalence which were taken up into the soft tissue organs decreased more slowly from these organs than other ions. Soft acids such as Hg2+ were bound very firmly to the component in the kidney. Anions (with few exceptions), GeCl4 and SbCl3 were rapidly excreted in urine, so that the uptake rates in organs were low.

  3. Copepod egg production, moulting and growth rates and secondary production in the Skagerrak in August 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, W.T.; Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of hydrography, chlorophyll, moulting rates of juvenile copepods and egg production rates of adult female copepods were made at eight stations along a transect across the Skagerrak. The goals of the study were to determine (i) if there were correlations between spatial variations...... in hydrography, phytoplankton and copepod production rates, (ii) if copepod egg production rates were correlated with juvenile growth rates, and (iii) if there was evidence of food-niche separation among co-occurring female copepods. The 200 km wide Skagerrak had a stratified water column in the center...... is similar to maximum rates known from laboratory studies, thus were probably not food-limited. Egg production rates were food-limited with the degree of limitation varying among species: 75% of maximum for Centropages typicus, 50% for Calanus finmarchicus, 30% for Paracalanus parvus and 15% for Acartia...

  4. Genome-Wide Estimates of Transposable Element Insertion and Deletion Rates in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Jeffrey R.; Song, Michael J.; Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knowing the rate at which transposable elements (TEs) insert and delete is critical for understanding their role in genome evolution. We estimated spontaneous rates of insertion and deletion for all known, active TE superfamilies present in a set of Drosophila melanogaster mutation-accumulation (MA) lines using whole genome sequence data. Our results demonstrate that TE insertions far outpace TE deletions in D. melanogaster. We found a significant effect of background genotype on TE activity, with higher rates of insertions in one MA line. We also found significant rate heterogeneity between the chromosomes, with both insertion and deletion rates elevated on the X relative to the autosomes. Further, we identified significant associations between TE activity and chromatin state, and tested for associations between TE activity and other features of the local genomic environment such as TE content, exon content, GC content, and recombination rate. Our results provide the most detailed assessment of TE mobility in any organism to date, and provide a useful benchmark for both addressing theoretical predictions of TE dynamics and for exploring large-scale patterns of TE movement in D. melanogaster and other species. PMID:28338986

  5. Review of tellurium release rates from LWR fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Beahm, E.C.; Wichner, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Although fission product tellurium presents a potentially significant radiohazard, its release and transport in source-term experiments is frequently overlooked because it does not possess a readily measurable, gamma emission; moreover, a recent study emphasized noble gas, iodine and cesium release from LWR fuel elements because of the large data base that exists for these materials. Some new tests show that in some cases tellurium may be held up in core material to a greater degree than previously assumed - an observation that prompts a careful reappraisal of the existing tellurium-release data and its chemical foundation

  6. Soil Production and Erosion Rates and Processes in Mountainous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, A. M.; DiBiase, R. A.; Whipple, K. X.

    2012-12-01

    We focus here on high-relief, steeply sloped landscapes from the Nepal Himalaya to the San Gabriels of California that are typically thought to be at a critical threshold of soil cover. Observations reveal that, instead, there are significant areas mantled with soil that fit the conceptual framework of a physically mobile layer derived from the underlying parent material with some locally-derived organic content. The extent and persistence of such soils depends on the long-term balance between soil production and erosion despite the perceived discrepancy between high erosion and low soil production rates. We present cosmogenic Be-10-derived soil production and erosion rates that show that soil production increases with catchment-averaged erosion, suggesting a feedback that enhances soil-cover persistence, even in threshold landscapes. Soil production rates do decline systematically with increasing soil thickness, but hint at the potential for separate soil production functions for different erosional regimes. We also show that a process transistion to landslide-dominated erosion results in thinner, patchier soils and rockier topography, but find that there is no sudden transition to bedrock landscapes. Our landslide modeling is combined with a detailed quantification of bedrock exposure for these steep, mountainous landscapes. We also draw an important conclusion connecting the physical processes producing and transporting soil and the chemical processes weathering the parent material by measuring parent material strength across three different field settings. We observe that parent material strength increases with overlying soil thickness and, therefore, the weathered extent of the saprolite. Soil production rates, thus, decrease with increasing parent material competence. These observation highlight the importance of quantifying hillslope hydrologic processes where such multi-facted measurements are made.

  7. Proton-induced production cross-sections and production rates of 41Ca from Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, C.; Synal, H.-A.; Gartenmann, P.; Santos-Arevalo, F.J.; Gomez-Martinez, I.; Suter, M.; Tarabischi, A.; Bastian, T.; Sudbrock, F.; Herpers, U.; Leya, I.; Gloris, M.; Michel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-induced production cross-sections of 41 Ca from Ni are presented. Moreover, depth-dependent production rates of 41 Ca from Ni were determined in a meteoroid simulation experiment. Based on these data, modelled production rates of 41 Ca from Ni in iron meteoroids are presented as a function of depth and size. These data are relevant for modelling the production rate ratio of 41 Ca/ 36 Cl in metal phases of meteoroids and thus for the application of the 41 Ca- 36 Cl method to determine terrestrial ages of meteorites

  8. Production application of injection-molded diffractive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter P.; Chao, Yvonne Y.; Hines, Kevin P.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate that transmission kinoforms for visible light applications can be injection molded in acrylic in production volumes. A camera is described that employs molded Fresnel lenses to change the convergence of a projection ranging system. Kinoform surfaces are used in the projection system to achromatize the Fresnel lenses.

  9. Understanding And Developing Innovative Products And Services: The Essential Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    Innovation is synonymous with successful development and implementation, and therefore peculiar to innovation is that it has to prove itself on the market before we can deem it innovative. This paper suggests an approach for understanding the principles for innovative products which is based, not...

  10. Finite element approximation of flow of fluids with shear-rate- and pressure-dependent viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirn, A.; Lanzendörfer, Martin; Stebel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 1604-1634 ISSN 0272-4979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR IAA100300802; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * shear-rate- and pressure-dependent viscosity * finite element method * error analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2012

  11. Production and decay rates of the iota meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; O'Donnell, P.J.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1984-01-01

    We correlate the results for the mass spectrum of low lying isoscalar-pseudoscalar mesons with the production decay rates from J/psi->γP, with P=eta 1 , eta' 1 , eta 2 and iota and study the radiative decays of the iota meson. We conclude that the iota meson has to be interpreted as having a strong gluonium component. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of biogas production rate and biochemical changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biogas generation and biochemical changes in pig dung used in a simple mobile biogas digester designed and constructed at the Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria were evaluated. Measurable gas production started 4 days after feeding the digester with ...

  13. Empirical Model for Predicting Rate of Biogas Production | Adamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale batch reactors (13 liter and 108 liter capacities). Two empirical models based on the Gompertz and the modified logistic equations were used to fit the experimental data based on non-linear regression analysis using Solver tool ...

  14. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six-months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on ...

  15. Fuel elements and fuel element materials. Experimental facilities for fission products lift-off tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.; Veyrat, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    One of the hypothetical accidents on the HTGR primary cooling circuits is the failure of a circuit resulting in a depressurization in the primary loops of the reactor. There is a risk of release of fission products in relation to the size of the failure. Experimental facilities for HTGR tests were developed: an in pile helium loop Comedie and an out of pile helium loop

  16. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  17. Metallic fission product releases from HTR-spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmbold, M.; Amian, W.; Stoever, D.; Hecker, R.

    1978-01-01

    Fission product releases from fuel determines to a large extent the feasibility of a special reactor concept. Basic data describing the diffusion behaviour from coated particle fuel are presented concerning isotopes Cs 137 , Sr 90 and Agsup(110m). Taking into account these data for typical 3000MWth plants release calculations are performed. Sensitive release parameters could be defined and the results show low release figures for all the considered reactor concepts. (author)

  18. THE PRODUCTION RATE OF SN Ia EVENTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washabaugh, Pearce C.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2013-01-01

    In globular clusters, dynamical evolution produces luminous X-ray emitting binaries at a rate about 200 times greater than in the field. If globular clusters also produce SN Ia at a high rate, it would account for many of the SN Ia production in early-type galaxies and provide insight into their formation. Here we use archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of nearby galaxies that have hosted an SN Ia to examine the rate at which globular clusters produce these events. The location of the SN Ia is registered on an HST image obtained before the event or after the supernova (SN) faded. Of the 36 nearby galaxies examined, 21 had sufficiently good data to search for globular cluster hosts. None of the 21 SNe have a definite globular cluster counterpart, although there are some ambiguous cases. This places an upper limit to the enhancement rate of SN Ia production in globular clusters of about 42 at the 95% confidence level, which is an order of magnitude lower than the enhancement rate for luminous X-ray binaries. Even if all of the ambiguous cases are considered as having a globular cluster counterpart, the upper bound for the enhancement rate is 82 at the 95% confidence level, still a factor of several below that needed to account for half of the SN Ia events. Barring unforeseen selection effects, we conclude that globular clusters are not responsible for producing a significant fraction of the SN Ia events in early-type galaxies.

  19. Collisions of deformed nuclei and superheavy-element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Moeller, P.; Univ. of Aizu, Fukushima; P. Moller Scientific Computing and Graphics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Nix, J.R.; Sagawa, Hiroyuki, Sagawa

    1995-01-01

    A detailed understanding of complete fusion cross sections in heavy-ion collisions requires a consideration of the effects of the deformation of the projectile and target. The aim here is to show that deformation and orientation of the colliding nuclei have a very significant effect on the fusion-barrier height and on the compactness of the touching configuration. To facilitate discussions of fusion configurations of deformed nuclei, the authors develop a classification scheme and introduce a notation convention for these configurations. They discuss particular deformations and orientations that lead to compact touching configurations and to fusion-barrier heights that correspond to fairly low excitation energies of the compound systems. Such configurations should be the most favorable for producing superheavy elements. They analyze a few projectile-target combinations whose deformations allow favorable entrance-channel configurations and whose proton and neutron numbers lead to compound systems in a part of the superheavy region where a half-lives are calculated to be observable, that is, longer than 1 micros

  20. Signatures of Heavy Element Production in Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    Compact object mergers involving at least one neutron star have long been theorized to be sites of astrophysical nucleosynthesis via rapid neutron capture (the r-process). The observation in light and gravitational waves of the first neutron star merger (GW1701817) this past summer provided a stunning confirmation of this theory. Electromagnetic emission powered by the radioactive decay of freshly synthesized nuclei from mergers encodes information about the composition burned by the r-process, including whether a particular merger event synthesized the heaviest nuclei along the r-process path, or froze out at lower mass number. However, efforts to model the emission in detail must still contend with many uncertainties. For instance, the uncertain nuclear masses far from the valley of stability influence the final composition burned by the r-process, as will weak interactions operating in the merger’s immediate aftermath. This in turn can affect the color electromagnetic emission. Understanding the details of these transients’ spectra will also require a detailed accounting the electronic transitions of r-process elements and ions, in order to identify the strong transitions that underlie spectral formation. This talk will provide an overview of our current understanding of radioactive transients from mergers, with an emphasis on the role of experiment in providing critical inputs for models and reducing uncertainty.

  1. Transposable elements in cancer as a by-product of stress-induced evolvability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars P.; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Barbara McClintock's famous notion of TEs acting as controlling elements modifying the genetic response of an organism upon exposure to stressful environments has since been solidly supported in a series of model organisms. This re...... as an evolutionary by-product of organisms' abilities to genetically adapt to environmental stress....

  2. Optimization of the flexible mould process for the production of double-curved concrete elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grunewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and wellperforming concrete structures and elements can be manufactured. In this paper, an innovative method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for

  3. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  4. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  5. Iodox process tests in a transuranium element production campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Benker, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Iodox process removes gaseous iodine from air by oxidation of organic iodides and by hydrolysis-oxidation of free iodine to the stable iodate form. An Iodox system for treatment of the 10 -4 m 3 /s dissolver off-gas (DOG) stream was installed and is used for initial removal of radioiodine, this allowing the Hopcalite-charcoal to serve as a backup system in TRU. During a recent TRU production campaign, three dissolver runs were made to test the Iodox process

  6. Modeling Electric Discharges with Entropy Production Rate Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP. Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates, provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s.

  7. Modelling the bioconversion of cellulose into microbial products: rate limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, J A

    1984-12-01

    The direct bioconversion of cellulose into microbial products carried out as a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has a strong effect on the rates of cellulose degradation because cellobiose and glucose inhibition of the reaction are circumvented. A general mathematical model of the kinetics of this bioconversion has been developed. Its use in representing aerobic systems and in the analysis of the kinetic limitations has been investigated. Simulations have been carried out to find the rate limiting steps in slow fermentations and in rapid ones as determined by the specific rate of product formation. The requirements for solubilising and depolymerising enzyme activities (cellulase and cellobiase) in these systems has been determined. The activity that have been obtained for fungal cellulases are adequate for the kinetic requirements of the fastest fermentative strains. The results also show that for simultaneous bioconversions where strong cellobiose and glucose inhibition is overcome, no additional cellobiase is necessary to increase the rate of product formation. These results are useful for the selection of cellolytic micro-organisms and in the determination of enzymes to be cloned in recombinant strains. 17 references.

  8. Chemical elements contamination of snow cover in region of coal production 'Karazhyra'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlampieva, E.P.; Panin, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of space distribution of chemical elements in hardphase and water-soluble falls of snow cover in region of coal deposit 'Karazhyra' are investigated. The maximal, minimal and background areas of elements accumulation in the snow of this region and distribution of their cumulative rates are determined. The main pollutants of snow cover unto background level are revealed.

  9. High production rate of IBAD-MgO buffered substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, M., E-mail: myoshizumi@istec.or.j [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The conventional IBAD (Ion Beam Assisted Deposition) process using fluorite materials yields low production rates, resulting in high production cost, which reduces the motivation for practical application in spite of its high quality. The IBAD process using rock salt materials, e.g. MgO, is well known as a strong candidate of practical application due to its potential of high production rate and high in-plane grain alignment. In this work, the IBAD-MgO process was investigated for a newly developed architecture of PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition)-CeO{sub 2}/sputter-LMO (LaMnO{sub 3})/IBAD-MgO/sputter-GZO (Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7})/Hastelloy{sup TM} to make long buffered metal tapes with high properties and a high production rate. The 50 m-long IBAD-MgO substrates with about 4 deg. of DELTAphiCeO{sub 2} in an XRD phi scan could be fabricated repeatedly. A GdBCO (GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}) layer deposited on the buffered substrate showed the minimum I{sub c} value of 325 A/cm-w in a 41 m-long tape. Almost of the tape showed 500-600 A/cm-w of I{sub c} value. The deposition time for the IBAD-MgO layer was 60 s which was about 2 orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional IBAD process. The production rate of 24 m/h was realized at the IBAD-MgO process to fabricate the GdBCO coated conductor with high J{sub c} and I{sub c} properties.

  10. Reaction rate and energy-loss rate for photopair production by relativistic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Michal J.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Sikora, Marek

    1992-01-01

    The process of e(+/-) pair production by relativistic nuclei on ambient photons is considered. The process is important for cosmic-ray nuclei in interstellar and intergalactic space as well as in galactic and extragalactic compact objects. The rate of this process is given by an integral of the cross section over the photon angular and energy distribution. In the case of isotropic photons, the angular integration is performed to provide an expression for the rate at given photon energy in the nucleus rest frame. The total rate then becomes a single integral of that rate over the photon energy distribution. Formulas are also given for the fractional energy loss of a relativistic nucleus colliding with a photon of a given energy in the rest frame. The nucleus energy-loss rate is integrated over the photon angular distribution in the case of isotropic photons, and simple fits are provided.

  11. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg/sup 2 +/, Au/sup +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/, /sup 67/Ga/sup 3 +/, /sup 181/Hf/sup 4 +/, and /sup 95/Nb/sup 5 +/, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases. Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl/sub 4/ and SbCl/sub 3/ behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  12. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  13. Gas production and decline rates in the province of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the gas production decline rates in Alberta. The study examined the producing gas wells that were place in production between 1990 and 1997. Three major assumptions were used to determine the number of wells necessary to meet future market demand. These were: (1) reserves have been declining at greater rates in the past several years. The current rate of decline is 12 per cent, (2) new reserves added in future will produce at 5.1 E6M3 per year, and (3) the decline rates for new gas wells will be 27 per cent in the first year, 16 per cent in the second year, 12 per cent in the third year and thereafter. With this information, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board estimates that the annual total deliveries of gas from Alberta in the year 2002 will be 177.4 E9M3 compared to 127 E9M3 in 1997. In order to meet this supply, drilling activity for successful gas wells will have to double the 1997 rate because it is predicted that more than 6400 new wells will be needed per year to meet future demand. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs

  14. Effects of growth rate, cell size, motion, and elemental stoichiometry on nutrient transport kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Skibinski, David O F; Lindemann, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Nutrient acquisition is a critical determinant for the competitive advantage for auto- and osmohetero- trophs alike. Nutrient limited growth is commonly described on a whole cell basis through reference to a maximum growth rate (Gmax) and a half-saturation constant (KG). This empirical application of a Michaelis-Menten like description ignores the multiple underlying feedbacks between physiology contributing to growth, cell size, elemental stoichiometry and cell motion. Here we explore these relationships with reference to the kinetics of the nutrient transporter protein, the transporter rate density at the cell surface (TRD; potential transport rate per unit plasma-membrane area), and diffusion gradients. While the half saturation value for the limiting nutrient increases rapidly with cell size, significant mitigation is afforded by cell motion (swimming or sedimentation), and by decreasing the cellular carbon density. There is thus potential for high vacuolation and high sedimentation rates in diatoms to significantly decrease KG and increase species competitive advantage. Our results also suggest that Gmax for larger non-diatom protists may be constrained by rates of nutrient transport. For a given carbon density, cell size and TRD, the value of Gmax/KG remains constant. This implies that species or strains with a lower Gmax might coincidentally have a competitive advantage under nutrient limited conditions as they also express lower values of KG. The ability of cells to modulate the TRD according to their nutritional status, and hence change the instantaneous maximum transport rate, has a very marked effect upon transport and growth kinetics. Analyses and dynamic models that do not consider such modulation will inevitably fail to properly reflect competitive advantage in nutrient acquisition. This has important implications for the accurate representation and predictive capabilities of model applications, in particular in a changing environment.

  15. Cooling Rates of Mantle Peridotites Estimated from Lithophile Trace Element Diffusion in Orthopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Handt, A.; Hellebrand, E.; Snow, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Cooling rates of ocean floor mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges can potentially provide important information about ridge dynamics, emplacement mechanisms and mantle uplift. There are a growing number of geospeedometric methods to retrieve such cooling rates in various settings. However, few exist for typical four- phase mantle peridotites and they only cover temperatures below 800° C. The down-temperature lithophile trace element exchange between clinopyroxene (cpx) and orthopyroxene (opx) can provide such a high- temperature spinel peridotite geospeedometer. Orthopyroxenes studied by SIMS from two fresh Gakkel Ridge peridotites are zoned in all trace elements while clinopyroxenes are homogeneous. This allows the calculation of equilibrium temperatures [1]. Several profiles in opx cover a range of 1250° C (opx core) to 800° C (opx rim) and are in agreement with straightforward diffusion and closure temperature models. The systematics of REE diffusion in opx deviate from the results of a recent experimental study [2]. The data allow us to estimate diffusion systematics of 16 elements (REE and TE) and their cation distributions in orthopyroxene. The data set is internally coherent as all elements were subjected to the same extrinsic parameters. 1. Decreasing ionic radius increases REE diffusion in opx (as it does in cpx). 2. M2-site diffusion is controlled more by ionic radius than by cationic charge. 3. M1-site diffusion is controlled by both ionic radius and cationic charge. 4. M1-site diffusion is generally slower than M2-site diffusion for isovalent cations, most likely because of higher M1- site energies compared to M2-site. The advantages of this geospeedometer should be its relatively good precision, use of standard analytical methods and its coverage of the important range between solidus temperatures and 800° C. In combination with other geospeedometers it will be possible to retrieve the continuous cooling history of a mantle rock from its solidus down

  16. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  17. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k 0 -standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  18. The effect of seeding with bacteria on biogas production rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangoggo, S.M. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry; Aliyu, M.; Atiku, A.T. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Energy Research Centre

    1996-09-01

    Biogas as a clean and cheap fuel is studied with the aim of determining the effect of seeding with bacteria on its production rate using four different substrates. The seeding with four different digesters was carried out with 5g of digested cowdung sludge obtained from a working digester. Results indicate that of all the substrates used for the studies, ipomea asarifobia produced the highest amount of biogas over a period of 40 days. (Author)

  19. Enhanced photon production rate on the light-cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy; Gelis, F.; Kobes, R.; Petitgirard, E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies of the high temperature soft photon production rate on the light cone using Braaten-Pisarski resummation techniques have found collinear divergences present. It is shown that there exist a class of terms outside the Braaten-Pisarski framework which, although also divergent, dominate over these previously considered terms. The divergences in these new terms may be alleviated by application of a recently developed resummation scheme for processes sensitive to the light-cone. (author)

  20. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  1. Combined Effect of Heating Rate and Microalloying Elements on Recrystallization During Annealing of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavoine, Marion; Dumont, Myriam; Drillet, Josée; Hébert, Véronique; Maugis, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Adjusting ferrite recrystallization kinetics during annealing is a way to control the final microstructure and thus the mechanical properties of advanced cold-rolled high-strength steels. Two strategies are commonly used for this purpose: adjusting heating rates and/or adding microalloying elements. The present work investigates the effect of heating rate and microalloying elements Ti, Nb, and Mo on recrystallization kinetics during annealing in various cold-rolled Dual-Phase steel grades. The use of combined experimental and modeling approaches allows a deeper understanding of the separate influence of heating rate and the addition of microalloying elements. The comparative effect of Ti, Nb, and Mo as solute elements and as precipitates on ferrite recrystallization is also clarified. It is shown that solute drag has the largest delaying effect on recrystallization in the present case and that the order of solute drag effectiveness of microalloying elements is Nb > Mo > Ti.

  2. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  3. A synthesis of rates and controls on elemental mercury evasion in the Great Lakes Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkenberger, Joseph S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Eckley, Chris S.; Cohen, Mark; Selvendiran, Pranesh

    2012-01-01

    Rates of surface-air elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) fluxes in the literature were synthesized for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). For the majority of surfaces, fluxes were net positive (evasion). Digital land-cover data were combined with representative evasion rates and used to estimate annual Hg 0 evasion for the GLB (7.7 Mg/yr). This value is less than our estimate of total Hg deposition to the area (15.9 Mg/yr), suggesting the GLB is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. The greatest contributors to annual evasion for the basin are agricultural (∼55%) and forest (∼25%) land cover types, and the open water of the Great Lakes (∼15%). Areal evasion rates were similar across most land cover types (range: 7.0–21.0 μg/m 2 -yr), with higher rates associated with urban (12.6 μg/m 2 -yr) and agricultural (21.0 μg/m 2 -yr) lands. Uncertainty in these estimates could be partially remedied through a unified methodological approach to estimating Hg 0 fluxes. - Highlights: ► Considerable variability exists across spatial/temporal scales in Hg 0 evasion rates. ► Methodological approaches vary for estimating and reporting gaseous Hg 0 fluxes. ► Hg 0 evasion from the Great Lakes Basin is estimated at 7.7 Mg/yr (10.2 μg/m 2 -yr). ► Hg flux estimates suggest region is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. ► 95% of Hg 0 evasion in the region is from agriculture, forest, and the Great Lakes. - A synthesis of Hg evasion was conducted and this information was used to develop an estimate of Hg evasion for the Great Lakes Basin.

  4. Rate and Product Studies of Solvolyses of Benzyl Fluoroformate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. Kevill

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The specific rates of solvolysis of benzyl fluoroformate have been measured inseveral hydroxylic solvents at 25.0 °C. For methanolysis, the solvent deuterium isotopeeffect and activation parameters were determined and activation parameters were alsodetermined for solvolyses in ethanol and 80% ethanol. For several of the binary hydroxylicsolvents, measurement of product ratios allowed selectivity values to be determined. Anextended Grunwald–Winstein treatment of the data led to sensitivities to changes in solventnucleophilicity and ionizing power. Comparison with previously determined specific ratesfor solvolysis of the chloroformate gave fluorine/chlorine rate ratios greater than unity. Allof the determinations made were consistent with an addition–elimination (association–dissociation mechanism, with addition rate-determining.

  5. Interactive effects of genotype and food quality on consumer growth rate and elemental content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Clay; Wagner, Nicole D; Frost, Paul C

    2017-05-01

    Consumer body stoichiometry is a key trait that links organismal physiology to population and ecosystem-level dynamics. However, as elemental composition has traditionally been considered to be constrained within a species, the ecological and evolutionary factors shaping consumer elemental composition have not been clearly resolved. To this end, we examined the causes and extent of variation in the body phosphorus (P) content and the expression of P-linked traits, mass specific growth rate (MSGR), and P use efficiency (PUE) of the keystone aquatic consumer Daphnia using lake surveys and common garden experiments. While daphnid body %P was relatively constrained in field assemblages sampled across an environmental P gradient, unique genotypes isolated from these lakes showed highly variable phenotypic responses when raised across dietary P gradients in the laboratory. Specifically, we observed substantial inter- and intra-specific variation and differences in daphnid responses within and among our study lakes. While variation in Daphnia body %P was mostly due to plastic phenotypic changes, we documented considerable genetic differences in daphnid MSGR and PUE, and relationships between MSGR and body P content were highly variable among genotypes. Overall, our study found that consumer responses to food quality may differ considerably among genotypes and that relationships between organismal life-history traits and body stoichiometry may be strongly influenced by genetic and environmental variation in natural assemblages. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Success rates for product development strategies in new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, E; Nelson, G M; Haynes, M; Sargeant, F

    2016-04-01

    While research has examined the likelihood that drugs progress across phases of clinical trials, no research to date has examined the types of product development strategies that are the most likely to be successful in clinical trials. This research seeks to identify the strategies that are most likely to reach the market-those generated using a novel product development strategy or strategies that combine a company's expertise with both drugs and indications, which we call combined experience strategies. We evaluate the success of product development strategies in the drug development process for a sample of 2562 clinical trials completed by 406 US pharmaceutical companies. To identify product development strategies, we coded each clinical trial according to whether it consisted of an indication or a drug that was new to the firm. Accordingly, a clinical trial that consists of both an indication and a drug that were both new to the firm represents a novel product development strategy; indication experience is a product development strategy that consists of an indication that a firm had tested previously in a clinical trial, but with a drug that was new to the firm; drug experience is a product development strategy that consists of a drug that the firm had prior experience testing in clinical trials, but with an indication that was new to the firm; combined experience consists of both a drug and an indication that the firm had experience testing in clinical trials. Success rates for product development strategies across clinical phases were calculated for the clinical trials in our sample. Combined experience strategies had the highest success rate. More than three and a half percent (0·036) of the trials that combined experience with drugs and indications eventually reached the market. The next most successful strategy is drug experience (0·025) with novel strategies trailing closely (0·024). Indication experience strategies are the least successful (0·008

  7. Statistical Methods in Assembly Quality Management of Multi-Element Products on Automatic Rotor Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, V. V.; Proskuriakov, N. E.

    2018-04-01

    To control the assembly quality of multi-element mass-produced products on automatic rotor lines, control methods with operational feedback are required. However, due to possible failures in the operation of the devices and systems of automatic rotor line, there is always a real probability of getting defective (incomplete) products into the output process stream. Therefore, a continuous sampling control of the products completeness, based on the use of statistical methods, remains an important element in managing the quality of assembly of multi-element mass products on automatic rotor lines. The feature of continuous sampling control of the multi-element products completeness in the assembly process is its breaking sort, which excludes the possibility of returning component parts after sampling control to the process stream and leads to a decrease in the actual productivity of the assembly equipment. Therefore, the use of statistical procedures for continuous sampling control of the multi-element products completeness when assembled on automatic rotor lines requires the use of such sampling plans that ensure a minimum size of control samples. Comparison of the values of the limit of the average output defect level for the continuous sampling plan (CSP) and for the automated continuous sampling plan (ACSP) shows the possibility of providing lower limit values for the average output defects level using the ACSP-1. Also, the average sample size when using the ACSP-1 plan is less than when using the CSP-1 plan. Thus, the application of statistical methods in the assembly quality management of multi-element products on automatic rotor lines, involving the use of proposed plans and methods for continuous selective control, will allow to automating sampling control procedures and the required level of quality of assembled products while minimizing sample size.

  8. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  9. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Lepp, Nicholas W.; Madejon, Engracia

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: → By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. → Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. → The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. → Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  10. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Fairchild, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    The fifth in a projected series of six postirradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements is described. The element analyzed received an equivalent of 897 full-power days of irradiation prior to the scheduled termination of Core 2 operation. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a 137 Cs inventory of 20.3 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.1 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides 134 Cs, /sup 110 m/Ag, 60 Co, and 154 Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the beta-emitters 3 H, 14 C, and 90 Sr were obtained at four axial locations of the fueled region of the element sleeve and two axial locations of the element spine. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. In addition to fission product distributions, the appearance of the component parts of the element was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed

  11. [Proceeding: Production rate, metabolic clearance rate and mean plasma concentration of cortisol in hyperthyroidism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquette, M; Lefebvre, J; Racadot, A; Cappoen, J P

    1975-01-01

    The adrenocortical function was studied in 23 patients with hyperthyroidism and compared with a group of 15 normal subjects. Parameters of adrenal function were determined with 1,2(3)H-cortisol. The half-life of cortisol is significantly shortened in hyperthyroidism, as compared to normal subjects (49,5 +/- 6,6 min vs 68,3 +/- 10,5 min) and metabolic clearance rate is increased (418,5 +/- 89,5 L/24 h vs 237,5 +/- 48,5 L/24 h, for normal subjects). The production rate of cortisol, calculated from specific and cumulate activities of THE and THF is increased in hyperthyroidism expressed as mg/24 h or mg/m2/24 h (respectively : 26,7 +/- 7,8 mg/24 h vs 15,7 +/- 3 mg/24 h and 16,9 +/- 4,6 mg/m2/24 h vs 9,5 +/- 1,8 mg/m2/24 h). The mean plasma concentration, calculated as the radio (see article) is not statiscally different in hyperthyroid and normal subjects (6,8 +/- 2,1 microg/100 ml vs 7,3 +/- 1,9 microg/100 ml). 7 patients were reinvestigated after treatment of thyrotoxicosis when they were clinically and biologically in euthyroid state. All the values were normalized, without statistically significant difference from control (T 1/2 = 65,4 +/- 18 min, Metb Cl. Rate : 255 +/- 64,5 L/24 h, production rate : 15,6 +/- 1,8 mg/24 h and 9 +/- 1,4 mg/m2/24 h. mean plasma concentration : 6,8 +/- 2,8 microg/100 ml). Shortened cortisol half life, increased metabolic clearance rate and production rate, and normal mean plasma concentration have been reported in hyperthyroidism (Peterson, Copinschi, Gallagher). These changes, secondary to thyroid hormone excess, are the consequences of increased hepatic catabolism of cortisol. The activity of 11 OH steroid deshydrogenase is increased, as demonstrated by increased ratio (see article) in normal subjects (0,001 less than p less than 0,005). There is a high proportion of 17 kéto metabolites (E, DHE, THE) whose feed-back effect is weak as compared to 17 OH metabolites (F, DHF, THF). The hypothalamo-hypophyso-adrenal system is

  12. The production rate of cosmogenic deuterium at the Moon's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füri, Evelyn; Deloule, Etienne; Trappitsch, Reto

    2017-09-01

    The hydrogen (D/H) isotope ratio is a key tracer for the source of planetary water. However, secondary processes such as solar wind implantation and cosmic ray induced spallation reactions have modified the primordial D/H signature of 'water' in all rocks and soils recovered on the Moon. Here, we re-evaluate the production rate of cosmogenic deuterium (D) at the Moon's surface through ion microprobe analyses of hydrogen isotopes in olivines from eight Apollo 12 and 15 mare basalts. These in situ measurements are complemented by CO2 laser extraction-static mass spectrometry analyses of cosmogenic noble gas nuclides (3He, 21Ne, 38Ar). Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of the mare basalts, derived from their cosmogenic 21Ne content, range from 60 to 422 Ma. These CRE ages are 35% higher, on average, than the published values for the same samples. The amount of D detected in the olivines increases linearly with increasing CRE ages, consistent with a production rate of (2.17 ± 0.11) ×10-12 mol(g rock)-1 Ma-1. This value is more than twice as high as previous estimates for the production of D by galactic cosmic rays, indicating that for water-poor lunar samples, i.e., samples with water concentrations ≤50 ppm, corrected D/H ratios have been severely overestimated.

  13. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  14. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful

  15. Lifetime and production rate of beauty baryons from Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fürstenau, H; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, M; McNulty, M; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Ostankov, A P; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stäck, H; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Überschär, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Wehr, A; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    The production and decay of beauty baryons (b-baryons) have been studied using 1.7 \\times 10^6 Z hadronic decays collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Three different techniques were used to identify the b-baryons. The first method used pairs of a \\Lambda and a lepton to tag the b-baryon decay. The second method associated fully reconstructed \\Lambda_c baryons with leptons. The third analysis reconstructed the b-baryon decay points by forming secondary vertices from identified protons and muons of opposite sign. Using these methods the following production rates were measured: \\begin{eqnarray*} f(\\qb \\ra \\Bb) \\times \\BR(\\Bb \\ra \\mLs \\ell\\bar{\

  16. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2008-02-01

    In an effort to encourage self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astronomy and astrophysics. The average new astronomer might expect to hold up to 3 jobs before finding a steady position.

  17. Separation of transuranium elements and fission products from medium activity aqueous liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.; Kunze, S.; Eden, G.; Loesch, G.; Zemski, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of work performed between January 1981 and June 1985 on the separation of TRU elements and fission products three liquid alpha containing waste streams were treated: - medium level waste solutions, - waste solutions from the acid digestion of burnable alpha containing solid residues, - waste solutions from mixed oxide fuel element fabrication. The method of separation was initially developed and optimized with simulating substances. Subesequently it was tested with real waste solutions

  18. Radiative Rates for Forbidden Transitions in Doubly-Ionized Fe-Peak Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivet, Vanessa; Quinet, P.; Bautista, M.

    2012-05-01

    Accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly-ionized Fe-peak species (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) are of paramount importance for the analysis of the high resolution astrophysical spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources like Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula [1] and stars like Eta Carinae [2]. However, forbidden transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly-ionized iron-peak ions have been very little investigated so far and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or inexistent. We are carrying out a systematic study of the electronic structure of doubly-ionized iron-peak elements. The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are computed using the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan [3] and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE [4]. This multi-platform approach allows for consistency checks and intercomparison and has proven very successful in the study of the complex Fe-peak species where many different effects contribute [5]. References [1] A. Mesa-Delgado et al., MNRAS 395 (2009) 855 [2] S. Johansson et al., A&A 361 (2000) 977 [3] R.D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Berkeley: Univ. California Press (1981) [4] N.R. Badnell, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 (1997) 1 [5] M. Bautista et al., ApJ 718 (2010) L189

  19. The Effect of Loading Rate on Hydraulic Fracturing in Synthetic Granite - a Discrete Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, I.; Gutierrez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation from a borehole in hard synthetic rock is modeled using the two dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). DEM uses previously established procedure for modeling the strength and deformation parameters of quasi-brittle rocks with the Bonded Particle Model (Itasca, 2004). A series of simulations of laboratory tests on granite in DEM serve as a reference for synthetic rock behavior. Fracturing is enabled by breaking parallel bonds between DEM particles as a result of the local stress state. Subsequent bond breakage induces fracture propagation during a time-stepping procedure. Hydraulic fracturing occurs when pressurized fluid induces hoop stresses around the wellbore which cause rock fracturing and serves for geo-reservoir permeability enhancement in oil, gas and geothermal industries. In DEM, a network of fluid pipes and reservoirs is used for mathematical calculation of fluid flow through narrow channels between DEM particles, where the hydro-mechanical coupling is fully enabled. The fluid flow calculation is superimposed with DEM stress-strain calculation at each time step. As a result, the fluid pressures during borehole pressurization in hydraulic fracturing, as well as, during the fracture propagation from the borehole, can be simulated. The objective of this study is to investigate numerically a hypothesis that fluid pressurization rate, or the fluid flow rate, influences upon character, shape and velocity of fracture propagation in rock. The second objective is to better understand and define constraints which are important for successful fracture propagation in quasi-brittle rock from the perspective of flow rate, fluid density, viscosity and compressibility relative to the rock physical properties. Results from this study indicate that not only too high fluid flow rates cause fracture arrest and multiple fracture branching from the borehole, but also that the relative compressibility of fracturing fluid and

  20. A comparison of jet production rates on the Z0 resonance to perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adami, F.

    1990-01-01

    The production rates for 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-jet hardronic final states have been measured with the DELPHI detector at the e + e - storage ring LEP at centre of mass energies around 91.5 GeV. Fully corrected data are compared to O(α s 2 ) QCD matrix element calculations and the QCD scale parameter Λsub(anti Manti S) is determined for different parametrizations of the renormalization scale μ 2 . Including all uncertainties our result is α s (M Z 2 )=0.114±0.003[stat.]±0.004[syst.]±0.012[theor.]. (orig.)

  1. Memory behaviors of entropy production rates in heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the relaxation time approximation and first-order expansion, memory behaviors in heat conduction are found between the macroscopic and Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon (BGS) entropy production rates with exponentially decaying memory kernels. In the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT) and BGS statistical mechanics, the memory dependency on the integrated history is unidirectional, while for the extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) and BGS entropy production rates, the memory dependences are bidirectional and coexist with the linear terms. When macroscopic and microscopic relaxation times satisfy a specific relationship, the entropic memory dependences will be eliminated. There also exist initial effects in entropic memory behaviors, which decay exponentially. The second-order term are also discussed, which can be understood as the global non-equilibrium degree. The effects of the second-order term are consisted of three parts: memory dependency, initial value and linear term. The corresponding memory kernels are still exponential and the initial effects of the global non-equilibrium degree also decay exponentially.

  2. Buyer-vendor coordination for fixed lifetime product with quantity discount under finite production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Luo, Jianwen; Duan, Yongrui

    2016-03-01

    Buyer-vendor coordination has been widely addressed; however, the fixed lifetime of the product is seldom considered. In this paper, we study the coordination of an integrated production-inventory system with quantity discount for a fixed lifetime product under finite production rate and deterministic demand. We first derive the buyer's ordering policy and the vendor's production batch size in decentralised and centralised systems. We then compare the two systems and show the non-coordination of the ordering policies and the production batch sizes. To improve the supply chain efficiency, we propose quantity discount contract and prove that the contract can coordinate the buyer-vendor supply chain. Finally, we present analytically tractable solutions and give a numerical example to illustrate the benefits of the proposed quantity discount strategy.

  3. The phosphorus fertilizer production as a source of rare-earth elements pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokh, A.A.; Gorbunov, A.V.; Revich, B.A.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Chen Sen Pal.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers some peculiarities of the production of phosphorus fertilizers from the point of view of the pollution of the environment with rare-earth elements. The principal possibility is demonstrated of the determination of the influence of a given type of production on the environment by measuring the change in the rare-arth elements interrelationship in the show. The main source of industrial dust is identified. The distribution of pollutants in dependence on the size of aerosol particles is given. The data on the concentrations of the pollutants in agricultural plants, employees hair and hair of local residents are also reported. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorwade, C V; Ashcroft, I A; Silberschmidt, V V; Alghamdi, A S; Song, M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  5. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwade, C. V.; Alghamdi, A. S.; Ashcroft, I. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.; Song, M.

    2012-08-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  6. Measurements of the potential ozone production rate in a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, L.; Sklaveniti, S.; Kramer, L.; Bloss, W.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Dusanter, S.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Millet, D. B.; Alwe, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a significant source of organic compounds globally and alongside NOx play a key role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Understanding how changes in NOx concentrations feed through to altered ozone production in BVOC dominated environments will aid our understanding of future atmospheric composition, notably as developing nations transition from NOx dominated to NOx limited chemistry as a result of mitigation strategies. Here we empirically investigate this ambient ozone formation potential. We report deployment of a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ chemical ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for a sampled ambient air mixture, including full VOC complexity, i.e. independent of characterization of individual organic compounds. Ground level measurements were performed as part of the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 field campaign, at a site located within a Northern Michigan forest that has typically low NOx abundance, but high isoprene and terpenoid loadings. As the ambient NOx concentrations were low during the campaign, experiments were performed in which NO was artificially added to the sampled ambient air mixture, to quantify changes in the potential ozone production rate as a function of NOx, and hence the ozone forming characteristics of the ambient air. Preliminarily results from these experiments are presented, and indicate that while ozone production increases with added NO, significant variation was observed for a given NO addition, reflecting differences in the ambient VOC chemical reactivity and ozone formation tendency.

  7. Large-scale production of PWO scintillation elements for CMS ECAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annenkov, A.; Auffray, E.; Drobychev, G.; Korzhik, M.; Kostylev, V.; Kovalev, O.; Lecoq, P.; Ligoun, V.; Missevitch, O.; Zouevski, R.

    2005-01-01

    JSC Bogoroditsk Technical Chemical Plant, BTCP, has produced up to date more than 20,000 lead tungstate scintillation elements for the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS Collaboration. Here we report on the status of the crystal production and results of the quality insurance program, which is performed by the Collaboration in cooperation with BTCP to keep crystal properties within specifications

  8. The Design Co-ordination Framework: key elements for effective product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Bowen, J.; Storm, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes a Design Co-ordination Framework (DCF) i.e. a concept for an ideal DC system with the abilities to support co-ordination of various complex aspects of product development. A set of frames, modelling key elements of co-ordination, which reflect the states of design, plans, orga...

  9. Use of ELOCA.Mk5 to calculate transient fission product release from CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; de Vaal, J.W.; Arimescu, V.I.; McGrady, T.G.; Wong, C.

    1992-04-01

    A change in fuel element power output, or a change in heat transfer conditions, will result in an immediate change in the temperature distribution in a fuel element. The temperature distribution change will be accompanied by concomitant changes in fuel stress distribution that lead, in turn, to a release of fission products to the fuel-to-sheath gap. It is important to know the inventory of fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap, because this inventory is a major component of the source term for many postulated reactor accidents. ELOCA.Mk5 is a FORTRAN-77 computer code that has been developed to estimate transient releases to the fuel-to-sheath gap in CANDU reactors. ELOCA.Mk5 is an integration of the FREEDOM fission product release model into the ELOCA fuel element thermo-mechanical code. The integration of FREEDOM into ELOCA allows ELOCA.Mk5 to model the feedback mechanisms between the fission product release and the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel element. This paper describes the physical model, gives details of the ELOCA.Mkt code, and describes the validation of the model. We demonstrate that the model gives good agreement with experimental results for both steady state and transient conditions

  10. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  11. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  12. The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison

    2010-01-13

    A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  13. Composition, production rate and characterization of Greek dental solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalidis, Alexandros; Topalidis, Antonios; Voudrias, Evangelos A; Iosifidis, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the composition, characterization and production rate of Greek dental solid waste (DSW). This information is important to design and cost management systems for DSW, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 141 kg of DSW produced by a total of 2542 patients in 20 dental practices from Xanthi, Greece was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of four working weeks. The waste was separated in 19 sub fractions, which were classified in 2 major categories, according to Greek regulations: Domestic-type waste comprising 8% and hazardous waste comprising 92% by weight of total DSW. The latter was further classified in infectious waste, toxic waste and mixed type waste (infectious and toxic together), accounting for 88.5%, 3.5% and 0.03% of total DSW by weight, respectively. The overall unit production rates (mean ± standard error of the mean) were 381 ± 15 g/practice/d and 53.3 ± 1.4 g/patient/d for total DSW, 337 ± 14 g/practice/d and 46.6 ± 1.2 g/patient/d for total infectious DSW, 13.4 ± 0.7 g/practice/d and 2.1 ± 0.1 g/patient/d for total toxic DSW and 30.4 ± 2.5 g/practice/d and 4.6 ± 0.4 g/patient/d for domestic-type waste. Daily DSW production was correlated with daily number of patients and regression correlations were produced. DSW was subject to laboratory characterization in terms of bulk density, calorific value, moisture, ash and volatile solids content. Measured calorific values were compared to predictions from empirical models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 679 - Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut 3 Table 3 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut ER28JA02.074 ER10JY02.000 ER28JA02...

  15. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of two production inventory systems with buffer, retrials and different production rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, K. P.; Nair, Salini S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper considers the comparison of two ( {s,S} ) production inventory systems with retrials of unsatisfied customers. The time for producing and adding each item to the inventory is exponentially distributed with rate β. However, a production rate α β higher than β is used at the beginning of the production. The higher production rate will reduce customers' loss when inventory level approaches zero. The demand from customers is according to a Poisson process. Service times are exponentially distributed. Upon arrival, the customers enter into a buffer of finite capacity. An arriving customer, who finds the buffer full, moves to an orbit. They can retry from there and inter-retrial times are exponentially distributed. The two models differ in the capacity of the buffer. The aim is to find the minimum value of total cost by varying different parameters and compare the efficiency of the models. The optimum value of α corresponding to minimum total cost is an important evaluation. Matrix analytic method is used to find an algorithmic solution to the problem. We also provide several numerical or graphical illustrations.

  17. C1 finite elements on non-tensor-product 2d and 3d manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Karčiauskas, Kęstutis; Peters, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Geometrically continuous (Gk) constructions naturally yield families of finite elements for isogeometric analysis (IGA) that are Ck also for non-tensor-product layout. This paper describes and analyzes one such concrete C1 geometrically generalized IGA element (short: gIGA element) that generalizes bi-quadratic splines to quad meshes with irregularities. The new gIGA element is based on a recently-developed G1 surface construction that recommends itself by its a B-spline-like control net, low (least) polynomial degree, good shape properties and reproduction of quadratics at irregular (extraordinary) points. Remarkably, for Poisson’s equation on the disk using interior vertices of valence 3 and symmetric layout, we observe O(h3) convergence in the L∞ norm for this family of elements. Numerical experiments confirm the elements to be effective for solving the trivariate Poisson equation on the solid cylinder, deformations thereof (a turbine blade), modeling and computing geodesics on smooth free-form surfaces via the heat equation, for solving the biharmonic equation on the disk and for Koiter-type thin-shell analysis. PMID:26594070

  18. The Effects of Trace Elements on the Lipid Productivity and Fatty Acid Composition of Nannochloropis oculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Dou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of trace elements on the lipid productivity and fatty acid composition of Nannochloropis oculata (N. oculata were studied. The results showed that trace elements had a strong influence on not only the lipid productivity but also the fatty acid composition. The addition of Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Mo6+, and EDTA and the deletion of Cu2+ and Co2+ can increase the lipid productivity. The optimum concentrations of the trace elements in the culture medium are 6 times of Fe3+ and EDTA, the same concentration of Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mo6+ as the control group, but the optimum medium has no Cu2+ or Co2+. Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Mo6+, and EDTA are indispensable during the EPA formation of N. oculata. The addition of Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Mo6+, and EDTA can strongly increase the content of EPA in the lipid of N. oculata, but the concentration of the trace elements had little influence on the level of EPA.

  19. Trace-Element Analysis by Use of PIXE Technique on Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Makisaka, K.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Matsumiya, R.; Fujita, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2009-10-01

    In order to examine whether a trace-element analysis by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) gives a clue to identify production area of agricultural products, we carried out a study on soy beans as an example. In the present study, a proton beam at the energy of 2.3MeV was provided by Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. We used a Ge detector with Be window to measure X-ray spectra. We prepared sample soy beans from China, Thailand, Taiwan, and 7 different areas in Japan. As a result of PIXE analysis, 5 elements, potassium, iron, zinc, arsenic and rubidium, have been identified. There are clear differences in relative amount of trace-elements between samples from different international regions. Chinese beans contain much more Rb than the others, while there are significant differences in Fe and Zn between beans of Thailand and Taiwan. There are relatively smaller differences among Japanese beans. This result shows that trace-elements bring us some practical information of the region where the product grown.

  20. Process for separately recovering uranium, transuranium elements, and fission products of uranium from atomic reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balal, A.L.; Metscher, K.; Muehlig, B.; Reichmuth, C.; Schwarz, B.; Zimen, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel elements are dissolved in dilute nitric acid. After addition of acetic acid as a complexing agent, the nitric acid is partly decomposed and the mixture subjected to electrolysis while a carrier liquid, which may be dilute acetic acid or a dilute mixture of acetic acid and nitric acid is caused to flow in the electric field between the electrodes either against the direction of ion migration or transversely thereto. The ions of uranium, plutonium, and other transuranium elements, and of fission products accumulate in discrete portions of the electrolyte and are separately withdrawn as at least three fractions after one or more stages of electrolysis

  1. Hekla Volcano, Iceland, in the 20th Century: Lava Volumes, Production Rates, and Effusion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Belart, J. M. C.; Magnússon, E.; Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Kizel, F.; Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Lava flow thicknesses, volumes, and effusion rates provide essential information for understanding the behavior of eruptions and their associated deformation signals. Preeruption and posteruption elevation models were generated from historical stereo photographs to produce the lava flow thickness maps for the last five eruptions at Hekla volcano, Iceland. These results provide precise estimation of lava bulk volumes: V1947-1948 = 0.742 ± 0.138 km3, V1970 = 0.205 ± 0.012 km3, V1980-1981 = 0.169 ± 0.016 km3, V1991 = 0.241 ± 0.019 km3, and V2000 = 0.095 ± 0.005 km3 and reveal variable production rate through the 20th century. These new volumes improve the linear correlation between erupted volume and coeruption tilt change, indicating that tilt may be used to determine eruption volume. During eruptions the active vents migrate 325-480 m downhill, suggesting rough excess pressures of 8-12 MPa and that the gradient of this excess pressure increases from 0.4 to 11 Pa s-1 during the 20th century. We suggest that this is related to increased resistance along the eruptive conduit.

  2. Modeling gallic acid production rate by empirical and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Kar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the rate of enzymatic reaction empirical correlation based on the experimental results obtained under various operating conditions have been developed. Models represent both the activation as well as deactivation conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis and the results have been analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. The tannase activity was found maximum at incubation time 5 min, reaction temperature 40ºC, pH 4.0, initial enzyme concentration 0.12 v/v, initial substrate concentration 0.42 mg/ml, ionic strength 0.2 M and under these optimal conditions, the maximum rate of gallic acid production was 33.49 mumoles/ml/min.Para predizer a taxa das reações enzimaticas uma correlação empírica baseada nos resultados experimentais foi desenvolvida. Os modelos representam a ativação e a desativativação da hydrolise enzimatica. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de variança (ANOVA. A atividade máxima da tannase foi obtida após 5 minutos de incubação, temperatura 40ºC, pH 4,0, concentração inicial da enzima de 0,12 v/v, concentração inicial do substrato 0,42 mg/ml, força iônica 0,2 M. Sob essas condições a taxa máxima de produção ácido galico foi de 33,49 µmoles/ml/min.

  3. Metabolic clearance and blood production rates of estradiol in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, E C; Longcope, C; Maloof, F

    1975-09-01

    The metabolic clearance rate of 17beta-estradiol (MCR2), the plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2)1, sex-steroid binding globulin (SSBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured in 10 hyperthyroid subjects (7 men and 3 women). The blood production rate of 17beta-estradiol (PB2) was calculated for all subjects. Nine of the 10 hyperthyroid subjects had a decreased MCR2 which returned towards normal in 5 of the 6 subjects restudied following therapy. In all 10 subjects the levels of SSBG were increased when they were hyperthyroid and returned toward normal with therapy. It is concluded that the decrease in MCR2 is largely due to the increased binding of 17beta-estradiol to SSBG. In 7 of the 10 hyperthyroid the plasma E2 concentrations were normal whereas 3 had slightly elevated levels. In 8 of the 10 hyperthyroid the PB2 was within the normal range. Only 2 hyperthyroid subjects had slightly elevated PB2. In the 6 subjects who were restudied after therapy, there was no consistent change in PB2 which remained in the normal range in all cases. It is concluded that the MCR2 is decreased in most subjects with hyperthyroidism in association with an increase of SSBG. Despite this change in MCR2 there is no significant change in PB2. The increase in SSBG levels in hyperthyroidism appears to be a direct effect of the elevation of thyroid hormone activity and is not mediated through estrogen.

  4. Metabolic clearance and production rates of human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew L.; Finster, Joseph L.; Mintz, Daniel H.

    1969-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of human growth hormone (HGH) was determined by the constant infusion to equilibrium technique utilizing HGH-125I. 22 control subjects had a MCR of 229 ±52 ml/min (mean ±SD). No difference was evident between sexes, or between various age groups. Patients with acromegaly demonstrated normal MCR's. Moreover, acute elevations of plasma growth hormone concentrations in normal subjects did not alter the MCR of HGH. The MCR was relatively constant from day to day and within the day when subjects were evaluated in the supine position. In contrast, the assumption of the upright position was associated with a mean 24% decrease in the MCR. These results were contrasted with the MCR of HGH observed in a small number of patients with altered thyroid function or diabetes mellitus. In six patients with hypothyroidism the MCR (131 ±36 ml/min) was significantly decreased (P < 0.001); whereas the MCR in eight patients with hyperthyroidism (240 ±57 ml/min) did not differ from control subjects. The MCR in eight patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (IID) (185 ±41 ml/min) and in eight patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDD) (136 ±31 ml/min) were significantly different from control subjects (P = < 0.05 and P = < 0.001, respectively). These data were interpreted to indicate that the plasma HGH-removing mechanism(s) is not saturated at physiologic plasma HGH levels, that plasma HGH levels alone may not permit distinction between variations in pituitary release of the hormone and its rate of clearance from the plasma, and that the estimation of the MCR of HGH may help clarify the mechanism of abnormal plasma HGH responses to various stimuli. Production rates of HGH (PR) in control subjects (347 ±173 mμg/min) were contrasted with hyperthyroid patients (529 ±242 mμg/min, P < 0.05), hypothyroid patients (160 ±69 mμg/min, P < 0.02), IID (245 ±100 mμg/min, NS), and IDD (363 ±153 mμg/min, NS). Considerable

  5. Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING RATE PRODUCT AT HIGH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  7. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Analysis of oil shale and oil shale products for certain minor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Purdy, M.; Doerges, J.E.; Ryan, V.A.; Poulson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The University of Wyoming was contracted by the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) to develop rapid, inexpensive, and simple methods of quantitative and qualitative elemental analysis for products used and generated in the simulated in-situ retorting of oil shale. Alpha particle spectrometry was used to determine the radioisotope content of the aqueous retort products. Alpha particles are mono-energetic and the spectrometry method employed had very low background levels (1 count per 2000 seconds). These factors allow for both the quantitative and qualitative analysis of natural radioisotopes at the 1 ppm level. Sample preparation does not require any chemical treatment. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for the multi-element analysis of the retort products. The XRF, integrated with a mini-computer, allows rapid analysis of several elements in multiple samples. XRF samples require minimal amounts of preparation and analytical results are highly reproducible. This paper presents the methods developed and preliminary analytical results from oil shale by-products. Results from the analysis of oil shale rocks are not yet ready for presentation

  9. Radiation dose rates from commercial PWR and BWR spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingham, C.E.

    1981-10-01

    Data on measurements of gamma dose rates from commercial reactor spent fuel were collected, and documented calculated gamma dose rates were reviewed. As part of this study, the gamma dose rate from spent fuel was estimated, using computational techniques similar to previous investigations into this problem. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates provided a recommended dose rate in air versus distance curve for PWR spent fuel

  10. Production of porous filter elements from PEUAPM nanocomposites and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzo, M.A.; Hui, W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The production of filter elements for water based in polymers is widespread in the market, but has an undesirable characteristic: they are not efficient and able to retain or eliminate microorganisms at all times. This paper proposes to produce nanocomposite filters with biocidal properties composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE) and silver nanoparticles, the UHMWPE is responsible for the uniform porous structure of the filters and the silver nanoparticles incorporated on the polymer are responsible for the biocide action. Particulate polymer that presents a different particle size curve was used for sintering the filters. Samples of filter elements obtained in this work were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS microanalysis. The results indicated a porosity of approximately 49% in the filter, and the formation of the nanocomposite. key-words: nanocomposites, silver, UHMWPE, filter elements. (author)

  11. Analysis of technology and quality control the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Momcilovic, I.

    1976-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and procedures of fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work with nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future of the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in our country, it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level

  12. Production of building elements based on alkali-activated red clay brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Robayo-Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the feasibility of reusing a red clay brick waste (RCBW in order to produce building elements such as blocks, pavers and tiles, by using the technique of alkaline activation. The production of these building elements was based on the design of a hybrid mortar with 48.61 MPa of compressive strength, at 28 curing days at room temperature (25 °C. The hybrid mortar was synthesized by adding 10% by weight of Portland cement (OPC to the RCBW, Red Clay Brick Waste. As alkaline activators were used commercial industrial grade sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. Building elements were physically and mechanically characterized, according to Colombian Technical Standards (NTC. This technology process is presented as an alternative for the reuse of RCBW and its contribution to the environmental sustainability.

  13. Production and quality control of optical elements for the end cap hadron calorimeter of the CMS setup

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, V V; Korablev, A V; Korneev, Yu P; Krinitsyn, A N; Kryshkin, V I; Markov, A A; Talov, VV; Turchanovich, L K; Volkov, A A; Zaichenko, A A

    2005-01-01

    An end cap hadron calorimeter, in which scintillators with wavelength-shifting fibers are used as the active elements, has been designed for the compact muon spectrometer (CMS) now under construction at CERN. A total of 1368 optical elements containing 21 096 scintillators have already been manufactured. The production and quality control procedures for these optical elements are described. copy 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

  14. Results of the experiment on chemical identification of Db as a decay product of element 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.N.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Utenkov, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time the chemical identification of Db as the terminal isotope of the decay element 115 produced via the 243 Am( 48 Ca, 3n) 288 115 reaction was realized. The experiment was performed on the U400 cyclotron of FLNR, JINR. The 243 Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of 3.4 · 10 18 48 Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV in the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 . The group 5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex 50X8 cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1 M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group 5 elements. The eluant was evaporated onto 0.4 μm thick polyethylene foils which were placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by 3 He neutron counters for measurement of α particles, fission fragments and neutrons. Over the course of the experiment, we observed 15 spontaneous fission events with T 1/2 = 32 -7 +11 h which we attribute to 268 Db. The production cross section for the 243 Am + 48 Ca reaction was 4.2 -1.2 + 1 .6 pb. These results agree with the original element 115 synthesis experiment where 268 Db was first observed as the terminal isotope following the five consecutive α decays from the 288 115 parent nucleus at the Dubna gas-filled separator. The data from the present experiment give independent evidence for the synthesis of element 115 as well as element 113 via the 243 Am + 48 Ca reaction

  15. Modelling of fission product release behavior from HTR spherical fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Mueller, D.

    1991-01-01

    Computer codes for modelling the fission product release behavior of spherical fuel elements for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) have been developed for the purpose of being used in risk analyses for HTRs. An important part of the validation and verification procedure for these calculation models is the theoretical investigation of accident simulation experiments which have been conducted in the KueFA test facility in the Hot Cells at KFA. The paper gives a presentation of the basic modeling and the calculational results of fission product release from modern German HTR fuel elements in the temperature range 1600-1800 deg. C using the TRISO coated particle failure model PANAMA and the diffusion model FRESCO. Measurements of the transient release behavior for cesium and strontium and of their concentration profiles after heating have provided informations about diffusion data in the important retention barriers of the fuel: silicon carbide and matrix graphite. It could be shown that the diffusion coefficients of both cesium and strontium in silicon carbide can significantly be reduced using a factor in the range of 0.02 - 0.15 compared to older HTR fuel. Also in the development of fuel element graphite, a tendency towards lower diffusion coefficients for both nuclides can be derived. Special heating tests focussing on the fission gases and iodine release from the matrix contamination have been evaluated to derive corresponding effective diffusion data for iodine in fuel element graphite which are more realistic than the iodine transport data used so far. Finally, a prediction of krypton and cesium release from spherical fuel elements under heating conditions will be given for fuel elements which at present are irradiated in the FRJ2, Juelich, and which are intended to be heated at 1600/1800 deg. C in the KueFA furnace in near future. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  16. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  17. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology.

  18. Segregation of Elements in Continuous Cast Carbon Steel Billets Designated for Long Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutny A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research results concerning designation of the scope of segregation of elements by analysing the ingot, designated for hot rolling of long products. The research tests were performed under industrial conditions, during continuous casting production cycle of high carbon steels. From cc ingots with square cross-section of 160 mm samples having the length of 400 mm were collected, out of which two samples were cut up, the so-called templates with the thickness of 20 mm. Segregation of elements was determined based on the quantitative analysis of results performed by using spark spectrometry pursuant to PN-H-04045. Changes in concentrations of elements were analysed along the line, which join the opposite sides of the sample in their half length and pass through the geometric centre of the square cross-section. In the further course of the research study, there was also determined the segregation along perpendicular line up to the surface connecting the core of the cross-section with lateral plane. Designations of element contents were performed at points distanced from each other by approx. 10 mm and situated on the lines. There was found segregation of carbon, sulphur and phosphorus.

  19. Systematic comparison of ISOLDE-SC yields with calculated in-target production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukic, S.; Gevaert, F.; Kelic, A.; Ricciardi, M.V.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.

    2006-02-01

    Recently, a series of dedicated inverse-kinematics experiments performed at GSI, Darmstadt, has brought an important progress in our understanding of proton and heavy-ion induced reactions at relativistic energies. The nuclear reaction code ABRABLA that has been developed and benchmarked against the results of these experiments has been used to calculate nuclide production cross sections at different energies and with different targets and beams. These calculations are used to estimate nuclide production rates by protons in thick targets, taking into account the energy loss and the attenuation of the proton beam in the target, as well as the low-energy fission induced by the secondary neutrons. The results are compared to the yields of isotopes of various elements obtained from different targets at CERN-ISOLDE with 600 MeV protons, and the overall extraction efficiencies are deduced. The dependence of these extraction efficiencies on the nuclide half-life is found to follow a simple pattern in many different cases. A simple function is proposed to parameterize this behavior in a way that quantifies the essential properties of the extraction efficiency for the element and the target - ion-source system in question. (orig.)

  20. Rapid separation of individual rare-earth elements from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.D.; Gehrke, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled radiochemical separation system has been developed to rapidly separate rare-earth elements from gross fission products. The system is composed of two high performance liquid chromatography columns coupled in series by a stream-splitting injection valve. The first column separates the rare-earth group by extraction chromatography using dihexyldiethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate (DHDECMP) adsorbed on Vydac C 8 resin. The second column isolates the individual rare-earth elements by cation exchange using Aminex A-9 resin with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as the eluent. With this system, fission-product rare-earth isotopes with half-lives as short as three minutes have been studied

  1. Actinide, Elemental, and Fission Product Measurements by ICPMS at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovo, L.L.; Waller, P.R.; Clymire, J.; Jones, V.D.; Boyce, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    VG Elemental Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS), PlasmaQuad 1 (PQ1) Model No. 4, installed in a radiohood, is used by the Savannah River Technology Center to provide non-routine mass measurements for environmental monitoring, waste tank characterization studies, isotope ratios for criticality determinations, and the measurement of elemental, fission product, and actinide mass distributions of the glass product from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Modifications to improve instrument reliability, sample preparation, and data handling, as well as modifications to the laboratory that permit measurements in a radioactive environment will be discussed. Based on our operating experience, two laboratory facilities are being prepared for additional instruments to operate in a radioactive environment. A separate instrument is being installed for non-radioactive measurements and method development

  2. Dynamics of chemical elements in the fermentation process of ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil has become the largest producer of biomass ethanol derived from sugar cane. The industrial production is based on the fermentation of sugar cane juice by yeast, inside of large volume vats, in a fed-batch process that recycles yeast cells. To study the dynamics of chemical elements in each operating cycle, five stages of the fermentation process were considered: must, yeast suspension, wine, non-yeast wine and yeast cream. For this, a mass balance of the terrigenous elements, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Sc, Sm, and Th, and the sugar cane plant elements, Br, K, Rb, and Zn, were established in fermentation vats of an industrial scale unit, with sampling undertaken during different climatic conditions (dry and rainy periods). A similar distribution of the sugar cane characteristics elements was found for the stages analysed, while for the terrigenous elements a trend of accumulation in the yeast cream was observed. Preferential absorption of Br, K, Rb, and Zn by yeast cells was indicated by the smaller concentrations observed in yeast suspension than in yeast cream. (author)

  3. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: mlnegro@ipen.br, E-mail: saliba@ipen.br, E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  4. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  5. Estimation of graphite dust production in ITER TBM using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji-Ho, E-mail: jhkang@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daekeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daekeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Youngmin; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphite dust production was estimated for the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector. • Wear amount was calculated by Archard model using finite element analysis results. • Life time estimation of graphite dust production was done. - Abstract: In this study, an estimation method of graphite dust production in the pebble-bed type reflector region of the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project using Finite Element Method (FEM) was proposed and the total amount of dust production was calculated. A unit-cell model of uniformly arranged pebbles was defined with thermal and mechanical loadings. A commercial FEM program, Abaqus V6.10, was used to model and solve the stress field under multiple contact constraints between pebbles in the unit-cell. Resultant normal contact forces and slip distances on the contact points were applied into the Archard adhesive wear model to calculate the amount of graphite dust. The Finite Element (FE) analysis was repeated at 27 unit-cell locations chosen to form an interpolated dust density function for the entire region of the reflector. The dust production calculation was extended to the life time of the HCCR and the total graphite dust production was estimated to 0.279 g at the end of the life time with the maximum graphite dust density of 0.149 μg/mm{sup 3}. The dust explosion could be a safety issue with the calculated dust density level and it requires that an appropriate maintenance to remove sufficient amount of graphite dust regularly to prevent the possibility of dust explosion.

  6. Estimation of graphite dust production in ITER TBM using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Eung Seon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Youngmin; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite dust production was estimated for the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector. • Wear amount was calculated by Archard model using finite element analysis results. • Life time estimation of graphite dust production was done. - Abstract: In this study, an estimation method of graphite dust production in the pebble-bed type reflector region of the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project using Finite Element Method (FEM) was proposed and the total amount of dust production was calculated. A unit-cell model of uniformly arranged pebbles was defined with thermal and mechanical loadings. A commercial FEM program, Abaqus V6.10, was used to model and solve the stress field under multiple contact constraints between pebbles in the unit-cell. Resultant normal contact forces and slip distances on the contact points were applied into the Archard adhesive wear model to calculate the amount of graphite dust. The Finite Element (FE) analysis was repeated at 27 unit-cell locations chosen to form an interpolated dust density function for the entire region of the reflector. The dust production calculation was extended to the life time of the HCCR and the total graphite dust production was estimated to 0.279 g at the end of the life time with the maximum graphite dust density of 0.149 μg/mm"3. The dust explosion could be a safety issue with the calculated dust density level and it requires that an appropriate maintenance to remove sufficient amount of graphite dust regularly to prevent the possibility of dust explosion.

  7. The manufacture of MTR fuel elements and Mo99 production targets at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium/aluminium alloy elements have been produced at Dounreay for nearly 40 years. In April 1990 the two DIDO-type reactors operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Harwell were closed, with the result that a large portion of the then current customer base disappeared and, to satisfy the needs of the evolving market, the decision was taken to invest over 1m pounds in new equipment for the manufacture of dispersed fuels and molybdenum production targets. (author)

  8. Release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.L.; Tsikunov, A.G.; Lisitsin, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on the release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements are given in the report. Various groups of radionuclides: inert gases Xe, Kr, volatile Cs, J, non-volatile Nb, and La are considered. The results of calculation-experimental study of transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the reactor primary circuit, gas system and sodium coolant are considered. It is shown that some complex radioactivity transfer processes can be described by simple mathematical models. (author)

  9. Production of transplutonium elements in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Corbett, B.L.; King, L.J.; McGuire, S.C.; Sims, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques described have been demonstrated to be adequate to predict the contents of transplutonium element production targets which have been irradiated in the HFIR. The deviations, at least for isotopes of mass 253 or less, are generally within the usual analytical uncertainties, or else are for isiotopes which are of little overall import to the program. Work is especially needed to get a better picture of the production of 250 Cm, 254 Es, 255 Es, and ultimately 257 Fm, since researchers are frequently stating their interest in obtaining larger quantities of these rare and difficult-to-produce nuclides

  10. Spin Density Matrix Elements in exclusive production of ω mesons at Hermes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianski B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin density matrix elements have been determined for exclusive ω meson production on hydrogen and deuterium targets, in the kinematic region of 1.0 < Q2 < 10.0 GeV2, 3.0 < W < 6.3 GeV and –t' < 0.2 GeV2. The data, from which SDMEs are determined, were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer during the running period of 1996 to 2007 using the 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam of HERA. A sizable contribution of unnatural parity exchange amplitudes is found for exclusive ω meson production.

  11. Designing an AHP methodology to prioritize critical elements for product innovation: an intellectual capital perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, R. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has for the past decades been evidenced as an important source of competitive advantages and differentiation at the firm level. At the same time, innovation has become a critical factor for companies to ensure their sustainability and even their survival in a globalized business landscape. Having in mind these two crucial concepts for business success, this study intends to build on the relationships between intellectual capital and product innovation at the firm level. Specifically, we will design and test a model based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, whose aim is to allow the prioritization of intellectual capital elements according to their relative importance for product innovation performance at the firm level. The main goal of this research is to build a diagnosis and action tool that helps business managers incorporate an intellectual capital perspective into their product innovation initiatives. This framework will help managers to better understand which intellectual capital elements are more critical to their product innovation efforts, and thereby systematize actions and clarify resource allocation priorities to improve their product innovation capabilities. In order to validate the practicability of this proposal, the methodology was empirically applied to a Portuguese innovative company.

  12. Elemental and radionuclides distribution in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saueia, Catia Heloisa Rosignoli

    2006-01-01

    Fertilizer is considered an essential component for agriculture, because its use increases the natural soil nutrients, which are lost slow waste or erosion. The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition, radionuclides of the U and Th natural series in. During the chemical attack of the phosphate rock, this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides and the elements migrate to intermediate, final products and byproducts, according to their solubility and chemical properties. While the fertilizers are commercialized, the phosphogypsum is disposed in stack piles and can cause an impact in the environment. In order to evaluate the radionuclides and the elements distribution in the industrial process of phosphate fertilizer production, samples of concentrated rock, fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP) and phosphogypsum from three national industries (A, B and C), were analyzed. The characterization of the elements Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr, and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained showed that, in general, the rare earth elements are distributed uniformly in the fertilizers and phosphogypsum, except for Lu. The elemental concentration present in the fertilizers SSP and TSP are of the same order of magnitude of the source rock. The same behavior was observed in the fertilizers MAP and DAP, except for the elements Co, Sc and U. The radionuclides of the U series ( 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and of the Th series ( 232 Th, 228 Ra, 228 Th

  13. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eNavarro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  14. Characterization of the region and year of production of wines by stable isotopes and elemental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Day

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope and elemental analyses were applied to the study of wines produced from the Cabernet Franc vine variety cultivated during several years (1982 to 1990 on specific parts of the Saumur-Champigny vineyard dedicated to the « terroir » experiment of INRA. The purpose of this work was to describe the behaviour or 2H, 13C and 18O isotopes in the water and ethanol of wines in terms of the meteorological conditions (temperature, precipitation and insolation which govern vine growing. Since the « terroir » concept involves a synergy between the c1imate and the soil, the distribution of typical metallic elements was also determined by flame and electrothermal ionization atomic absorption. About twenty parcels, carefully described from the geological and pedological point of view were considered in this study which demonstrated the ability of Sr, Al and Rb to discriminate between wines from the same year but grown on adjacent parcels. The content in trace elements of the wines was also shown to be correlated with the geological nature of the soil. As far as stable isotopes are considered, it appears that the climate of the year of production of a given region has a drastic influence on the isotope ratios of water and ethanol of wines and good correlations way be computed between these parameters and temperature and precipitations. From a more basic aspect, it is also shown that the nature of the soil which governs, at least in a part, the water use efficiency of vine, induces typical variations in the isotopic composition of wines. The results of this study demonstrate also the ability of stable isotope and elemental analyses to determine the geographical origin of a wine, and when the region of production is known, to infer the year of production from meteorological data. This method might prove to be an alternative method to radio carbon analysis for the next vintages.

  15. Relative radiative decay rates of vacancies in L-subshells of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Leite, C.V. de; Pinho, A.G. de; Castro Faria, N.V. de.

    1977-01-01

    Relative radiative decay of vacancies in L-subshells were measured for a large number of heavy elements with a Si(Li) detection system. A graphical method was employed to analyze the x-ray spectra so obtained. Systematic results are presented together with other already published results obtained in our laboratories in recent years. This covers the interval 74<=Z<=93. Results are compared with theoretical predictions and experimental data from other authors and some general features are noted

  16. Empirical description of the element production cross sections in dissipative heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollersheim, H.J.

    1984-06-01

    Correlations between experimental observables yield analytical expressions for the energy dsigma/dE and element distributions dsigma/dZ, d 2 sigma/dZdE in dissipative collisions. These empirical formulas are applied to twelve heavy ion systems at bombarding energies well above the Coulomb barrier. The element production can be calculated for all kinetic energies of the reaction fragments from the quasi-elastic region down to a minimum total kinetic energy Vsub(c)sup(def) which is the result of the Coulomb repulsion of two deformed nuclei prior to scission. In cases where the dissipative collisions are the dominant part of the reaction process, the deformed Coulomb energy can also be deduced from the total reaction cross section. For these heavy ion systems the empirical formulas depend only on quantities of the ingoing channels. Especially, the normalization of the Gaussian shaped element distributions indicates that the reminiscence on the entrance channel is not completely lost in dissipative collisions. For the 209 Bi + 136 Xe reaction at a laboratory bombarding energy of 1130 MeV the energy and element distributions are calculated which show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  17. Behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO2 fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have carried out experiments using a ''sweep gas'' technique to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating, intact UO 2 fuel elements. The Zircaloy-4-clad elements were 500 mm long and contained fuel of density 10.65-10.71 Mg/m 3 . A He-2% H 2 carrier gas swept gaseous or volatile fission products out of the operating fuel element past a gamma spectrometer for measurement. In tests at linear powers of 45 and 60 kW/m to maximum burnups of 70 MW.h/kg U, the species measured directly at the spectrometer were generally the short-lived xenons and kryptons. We did not observe iodine or bromine during normal operation. However, we have deduced the behaviour of I-133 and I-135 from the decay of Xe-133 and Xe-135 during reactor shutdowns. Plots of R/B (released/born) against lambda (decay constant) or effective lambda for all isotopes observed at 45 and 60 kW/m show that a line of slope -0.5, corresponding with diffusion kinetics, is a good fit to the measured xenon and krypton data. Our inferred release of iodine fits the same line. From this we can extrapolate to an R/B for I-131 of about 5x10 -3 . The ANS 5.4 release correlation gives calculated results in good agreement with our measurements. (author)

  18. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Furlan, Marcos R.

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  19. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  20. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products | Ogunsanwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanuts seeds roasted at 140°C for 40 min for either 25 or 35 min were rated to be of comparable quality with locally available commercial samples. Peanut butter prepared from seeds roasted at160°C for 30 min was also rated to be comparable with commercial samples, while Kwulinkwulis from seeds dry roasted at 150°C ...

  1. Influence of pH and temperature on alunite dissolution rates and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Patricia; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is one of the main elements in most mining-affected environments, where it may influence the mobility of other elements and play a key role on pH buffering. Moreover, high concentrations of Al can have severe effects on ecosystems and humans; Al intake, for example, has been implicated in neurological pathologies (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; Flaten, 2001). The behaviour of Al in mining-affected environments is commonly determined, at least partially, by the dissolution of Al sulphate minerals and particularly by the dissolution of alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), which is one of the most important and ubiquitous Al sulphates in mining-affected environments (Nordstrom, 2011). The presence of alunite has been described in other acid sulphate environments, including some soils (Prietzel & Hirsch, 1998) and on the surface of Mars (Swayze et al., 2008). Despite the important role of alunite, its dissolution rates and products, and their controlling factors under conditions similar to those found in these environments, remain largely unknown. In this work, batch dissolution experiments have been carried out in order to shed light on the rates, products and controlling factors of alunite dissolution under different pH conditions (between 3 and 8) and temperatures (between 279 and 313K) similar to those encountered in natural systems. The obtained initial dissolution rates using synthetic alunite, based on the evolution of K concentrations, are between 10-9.7 and 10-10.9 mol-m-2-s-1, with the lowest rates obtained at around pH 4.8, and increases in the rates recorded with both increases and decreases in pH. Increases of temperature in the studied range also cause increases in the dissolution rates. The dissolution of alunite dissolution is incongruent, as has been reported for jarosite (isostructural with alunite) by Welch et al. (2008). Compared with the stoichiometric ratio in the bulk alunite (Al/K=3), K tends to be released to the solution preferentially over Al

  2. Influence of elution rate on the efficiency of chromatographic separation process of rare earth and transplutonium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshkov, A.S.; Chuveleva, Eh.A.; Nazarov, P.P.; Rybakov, S.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Applicability of finely dispersed sulfocationites of the KU-2-8 MD grade for the separation of radionuclides of rare earth and transplutonium element separation by the method of replacing complexing chromatography (RCC) has been investigated. Using as an example separation of neodymium-praseodymium, yttrium-europium by the RCC method, using nitriloacetic (1) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (2) acid solutions as eluent, the dependence of the element separation of ficiency on elution rate is shown. It is found that when using solution 1 as eluent, the value of the height equivalent to theoretical plate depends on elution rate much less, than in case of solution 2. The conclusion is made that for 1 the main contribution to the blurring of the areas is made by transcolumn effect, and for 2 -by transcolumn and transpartial effects

  3. Minor and trace-elements in apiary products from a historical mining district (Les Malines, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Saunier, Jean-Baptiste; Grison, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The trace-elements (TE) contents of honey, royal-jelly and beeswax from a historical Zn-Pb mining district have been investigated to assess potential contamination. In spite of high levels of heavy metal (As, Cd, Tl, Pb) in wastes left after mining stopped, apiary products appear to be relatively free of TE contamination. For honey, the following average levels (±standard error) were observed: Zn 571±440μgkg(-1), Pb 26±20μgkg(-1), Tl 13±10μgkg(-1), Cd 7±6μgkg(-1) and As 3±4μg.kg(-1). These results bring additional data to the potential impact of brownfields left after mining on apiary products. They also bring new data to assess potential risks linked with honey consumption and discuss legal TE contents in honey and other food products from apiaries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  5. Influence of the crack propagation rate in the obtaining opening and closing stress intensity factor by finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo; Carlos Alexandre J. Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique as criterion design. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading fr...

  6. Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation

  7. Rates of As and trace-element mobilization caused by Fe reduction in mixed BTEX–ethanol experimental plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Brady A.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation of organic matter, including petroleum-based fuels and biofuels, can create undesired secondary water-quality effects. Trace elements, especially arsenic (As), have strong adsorption affinities for Fe(III) (oxyhydr)-oxides and can be released to groundwater during Fe-reducing biodegradation. We investigated the mobilization of naturally occurring As, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) from wetland sediments caused by the introduction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and ethanol mixtures under iron- and nitrate-reducing conditions, using in situ push–pull tests. When BTEX alone was added, results showed simultaneous onset and similar rates of Fe reduction and As mobilization. In the presence of ethanol, the maximum rates of As release and Fe reduction were higher, the time to onset of reaction was decreased, and the rates occurred in multiple stages that reflected additional processes. The concentration of As increased from <1 μg/L to a maximum of 99 μg/L, exceeding the 10 μg/L limit for drinking water. Mobilization of Co, Cr, and Ni was observed in association with ethanol biodegradation but not with BTEX. These results demonstrate the potential for trace-element contamination of drinking water during biodegradation and highlight the importance of monitoring trace elements at natural and enhanced attenuation sites.

  8. Hedging endowment assurance products under interest rate and mortality risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Mahayni, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how model misspecification associated with both interest rate and mortality risk influences hedging decisions of insurance companies. For this purpose, diverse risk management strategies which are riskminimizing when model risk is ignored come into consideration. The

  9. Mobility of rare earth element in hydrothermal process and weathering product: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintjewas, L.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Rare Earth Element (REE), consists of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, are important elements to be used as raw materials of advanced technology such as semiconductors, magnets, and lasers. The research of REE in Indonesia has not been done. Several researches were conducted on granitic rocks and weathering product such as Bangka, Sibolga, West Kalimantan, West Sulawesi and Papua. REE can be formed by hydrothermal processes such as Bayan Obo, South China. The REE study on active hydrothermal system (geothermal) in this case also has the potential to produce mineral deposits. The purpose of this review paper is to know the mobility of REE on hydrothermal process and weathering products. Mobility of REE in the hydrothermal process can change the distribution patterns and REE content such as Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, and Y. Another process besides the hydrothermal is weathering process. REE mobility is influenced by weathering products, where the REE will experience residual and secondary enrichment processes in heavier minerals.

  10. Circular economy: To be or not to be in a closed product loop? A Life Cycle Assessment of aluminium cans with inclusion of alloying elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    Packaging, representing the second largest source of aluminium scrap at global level, deserves a key role in the transition towards the circular economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of aluminium products has been typically based on one life cycle considering pure aluminium flows and neglecting...... the presence of alloying elements and impurities. However, this simplification undermines the potentials of using LCA to quantify the environmental performances of products in multiple loops, as required in the circular economy. This study aims to investigate the effects of including the actual alloy...... composition in the LCA of aluminium can production and recycling, in order to understand whether a can-to-can (i.e. closed product loop) recycling should be promoted or not. Mass balance of the main alloying elements (Mn, Si, Cu, Fe) was carried out at increasing levels of recycling rate, corresponding...

  11. Energy productivity, fertilization rate and profitability of wheat production after various predecessors II.Profitability of wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Uhr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the course of our study on the adaptation of modern genotypes common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum to the requirements of sustainable agriculture data were received concerning the influence of the predecessor and nitrogen fertilizer rate on energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization and profitability of productivity.We share these data with the scientific community, as they are up-to-date and informative in both theoretical and practical aspects. The analyses are based on data from field experiments fertilizer derived after predecessor cereals – regular crop of sorghum, millet, maize and legumes after predecessor - separate sowing of chickpeas. Energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was calculated as the ratio between the energy supplied in the additional grain yield and energy input in the form of fertilizers. Refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization is the additional amount of nitrogen accumulated in the grain, with respect to the applied nitrogen fertilization. Economic profitability of production is evaluated by coefficient R = P/Ra (ratio of benefits/costs. The results show that energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization are on average five times higher after cereal than after legumes predecessor, and decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate, the decrease was statistically significant only for the first item (exponent. Profitability ratio of production after the introduction of legumes predecessor in crop rotation increases by an average of 42% and retains maximum values of fertilization levels 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18 t/ha nitrogen. Profitability of wheat production using pre-legumes crop is not determined by the parameters nitrogen fertilizer rate and energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization.

  12. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

  13. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Scheurich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity.

  14. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, Rebecca; Zamm, Anna; Palmer, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive) and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity. PMID:29681872

  15. [Impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-shuang; Gu, Yong-en; Ba, Te; Zhai, Min; Pu, Ji; Shen, Zhen-lin; Tang, Shi-chuan; Jia, Guang

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis. Devices and consumable products of different brands used in specimen collection or storage were selected and treated separately as below:urine collection and storage tubes (Brand A, B, C and D, 2 samples for each brand) were treated with 1% of HNO(3) volume fraction for 2 - 4 h; blood taking device (Brand O, P and Q, 3 samples for each brand) were used for ultra-pure water samples collecting as simulation of blood sampling;dust sampling filters (Brand X, Y and Z, 2 samples for each brand) were cold digested by nitric acid for 12 h, followed by microwave digestion. Then cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, stannum, titanium, vanadium and zinc concentrations in the solutions obtained during the course of collect or storage were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. For the urine collection and storage consumable products, background values of elements were described as mean of parellel samples. The consentration of 14 quantified elements were relatively low for 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand B) with background values range of 0.001 - 0.350 ng/ml. The background values of copper of 50 ml centrifuge tubes (brand A), chromium of 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand C) and zinc of 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes (brand D) were relatively high, which were 1.900, 1.095 and 1.368 ng/ml, respectively. Background values of elements in blood sampling devices were described as x(-) ± s. Background values of chromium for brand O, P and Q were (0.120 ± 0.017), (0.337 ± 0.093) and (0.360 ± 0.035) ng/ml; for copper were (0.050 ± 0.001), (0.017 ± 0.012) and (0.103 ± 0.015) ng/ml; for lead were (0.057 ± 0.072), (0.183 ± 0.118) and (0.347 ± 0.006) ng/ml; for titanium were (7.883 ± 0.145), (8.863 ± 0.190) and (8.613 ± 0.274) ng/ml; zinc were (2.240 ± 0.573), (42.140 ± 22.756) and (8

  16. Reusing a residue of the oil industry (FCC) in the production of building elements

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo Casso, Eduard Andrés; Universidad del Valle; Mejía de Gutiérrez, Ruby; Universidad del Valle; Gordillo Suárez, Marisol; Universidad Autónoma de Occidente; Torres Agredo, Janneth; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Palmira

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of using a residue of spent catalyst (FCC) of the cracking process, from a Colombian oil company, in the production of building elements such as locks and pavers. To define the optimal mix of portland cement/FCC, Portland cement mortars with FCC ratios between 0 and 70% as replacement of cement were prepared and its compressive strength is evaluated at ages up to 28 days of curing. Using a statistical processing, applying the methodology of response, the pr...

  17. r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F., E-mail: jlippuner@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y{sub e}, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y{sub e} ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y{sub e} lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The heating rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y{sub e}, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the heating rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the heating rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y{sub e}, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.

  18. r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2015-01-01

    r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y e , initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y e ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y e lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The heating rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y e , but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the heating rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the heating rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y e , s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich

  19. Traditional product rating in gastronomic circuits: lessons from the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Villamil Balestro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The social construction of differentiated and nested markets and alternative agrifood systems in relation to conventional agribusiness systems of modern agriculture constitute a significant strategy to overcome the exclusion of millions of small farmers and peasants. On its turn, the growing demand and differentiated use of traditional products in the gastronomic circuit, as well as new forms of interaction between chefs and farmers who produce traditional products, can be a drive for the construction of these differentiated markets. One of the findings of this article is that the asymmetry between chefs and producers in the possession of symbolic capital necessary for the assessment process of the typical products has a negative impact for the distribution of economic capital and, as a result, there is great unevenness between the prices paid to produces and the prices of the dishes incorporating such products as delicacies. The appropriation of the economic result of the valuation decreases as a result of this process. The producer knowledge is often appropriated and reproduced in the assessment process and he does not take advantage of it. Departing from contributions of economic sociology and the economy of singularities, such issues are discussed by this article.

  20. Integrated rate expression for the production of glucose equivalent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    green plants is discussed. The C4 plants are chosen and in these plants, the rate of photosynthesis does not .... overall CO2 assimilation process and glucose pro-. Figure 1. ..... Thus these plants show an optimal growth of an enzyme activity ...

  1. Price promotions and products with low consumer ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, H. C.; Kuo, H. C.; Nakhata, C.; Nakhata, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates the aversive effect of low consumer ratings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. This paper aims to apply decision justifiability theory to investigate how price promotions – price discount and price bundling – can reduce this effect. 517-527.

  2. Transplutonium elements production program: extraction chromatographic process for plutonium irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Koehly, G.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment of irradiated plutonium targets by extraction chromatography allowed the purification of the isotopes 243 Am and 244 Cm on the scale of few tens of grams. This process proved to be extremely simple and flexible, and yielded results which are reproducible in time. The chief advantage of the TBP process over the HDEHP process in high and medium activity conditions lies in the rapid absorption/desorption kinetics of the elements to be purified and in the separation of americium from curium, which largely offsets its lower selectivity for lanthanide elements. it is certainly possible to improve the performance of this process by: a) optimization of the characteristics of the stationary phase, b) improvement in the filling technique and in hydraulic operation of the columns, c) on-line analysis of americium (the key element in actinide/lanthanide separation) in the eluate. The application of extraction chromatography with HD(DiBM)P to the purification of 243 Am of the end of treatment makes the process more consistent, eliminates the delicate stages implemented in hot cell, and considerably improves final product quality

  3. Results of the Experiment on Chemical Identification of Db as a Decay Product of Element 115

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Utyonkov, V K; Shishkin, S V; Eremin, A V; Lobanov, Yu V; Tsyganov, Yu S; Chepigin, V I; Sokol, E A; Vostokin, G K; Aksenov, N V; Hussonnois, M; Itkis, M G; Aggeler, H W; Schumann, D; Bruchertseifer, H; Eichler, R; Shaughnessy, D A; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Stoyer, M A; Wild, J F

    2004-01-01

    For the first time the chemical identification of Db as the terminal isotope of the decay element 115 produced via the $^{243}{\\text{Am}}(^{48}{\\text{Ca}},3n)^{288}115$ reaction was realized. The experiment was performed on the U400 cyclotron of FLNR, JINR. The $^{243}$Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of $3.4\\cdot 10^{18}$ $^{48}$Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV in the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO$_3$. The group 5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex 50$\\times$8 cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group 5 elements. The eluant was evaporated onto 0.4 $\\mu$m thick polyethylene foils which were placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by $^3$He neutron counters for measurement of $\\alpha$ particles, fission fragments and neutrons. Over the course of the experiment...

  4. 78 FR 1277 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: January 8... add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products...

  5. Application of multi-element clustering techniques of five Egyptian industrial sugar products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, R.M.; Mohamed, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 18 elements in different cane sugar products, i.e., cane sugar plants, crude and syrup juices, molasses, and the end products of the consumer sugar, were analyzed and processed. The samples were collected from five cities, i.e., Kom Ombo, Edfu, Armant, Deshna and Naga Hammady in Upper Egypt where the main Egyptian sugar industry factories are located. INAA was applied for the determination of Al, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and Sc, while Cu, Li, P, Sn, V and Zn were determined by ICP-AES and Pb and As were determined by AAS. These three analytical methods were applied to optimize the sensitivity and the accuracy of the measurements in order to provide a sound basis for the obtention of reliable clustering results. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  6. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  7. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  8. Estimation of Sand Production Rate Using Geomechanical and Hydromechanical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Tung Pham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a numerical model that can be used in sand control during production phase of an oil and gas well. The model is able to predict not only the onset of sand production using critical bottom hole pressure inferred from geomechanical modelling, but also the mass of sand produced versus time as well as the change of porosity versus space and time using hydromechanical modelling. A detailed workflow of the modelling was presented with each step of calculations. The empirical parameters were calibrated using laboratory data. Then the modelling was applied in a case study of an oilfield in Cuu Long basin. In addition, a sensitivity study of the effect of drawdown pressure was presented in this paper. Moreover, a comparison between results of different hydromechanical models was also addressed. The outcome of this paper demonstrated the possibility of modelling the sand production mass in real cases, opening a new approach in sand control in petroleum industry.

  9. Influence of the crack propagation rate in the obtaining opening and closing stress intensity factor by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique as criterion design. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FD&E SAE Keyhole Specimen Test Load Histories by finite element analysis. The crack propagation simulation was based on release nodes at the minimum loads to minimize convergence problems. To understand the crack propagation processes under variable amplitude loading, retardation effects are discussed.

  10. Measurement of single top quark production at D0 using a matrix element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrevski, Jovan Pavle

    2007-01-01

    Until now, the top quark has only been observed produced in pairs, by the strong force. According to the standard model, it can also be produced singly, via an electroweak interaction. Top quarks produced this way provide powerful ways to test the charged-current electroweak interactions of the top quark, to measure |V tb |, and to search for physics beyond the standard model. This thesis describes the application of the matrix element analysis technique to the search for single top quark production with the D0 detector using 0.9 fb -1 of Run II data. From a comparison of the matrix element discriminants between data and the background model, assuming a Standard Model s-channel to t-channel cross section ratio of σ s /σ t = 0.44, we measure the single top quark production cross section: σ(p(bar p) → tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.8 -1.4 +1.6 pb. This result has a p-value of 0.08%, corresponding to a 3.2 standard deviation Gaussian equivalent significance

  11. Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae is one of the largest families in vegetable kingdom consisting of largest number of edible type species. Momordica charantia is one such important vegetable that belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In order to evaluate the effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on M. charantia, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experiment was laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen rates consisting of: N1 = 75, N2 = 150 and N3 = 225 kg N ha−1 as main plot and three time application including: T1 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 before flowering, T2 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 after fruit to start, and T3 = 1/3 at 3 and 4 leaves, 1/3 before flowering, and 1/3 after fruit to start were used as sub plot. The results revealed that both rate and time of nitrogen application had a significant effect on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was recorded at the rate of N3 and time of nitrogen application in T3 treatment. In this study, by increasing nitrogen levels from 75 to 225 kg N ha−1, the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit increased. The time of nitrogen application and interaction between rate and time of nitrogen treatments had no significant effect on the amounts of these three elements. Nitrogen level had a significant effect on the amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc elements. The highest values of calcium and zinc were obtained at N2 and manganese at N3 nitrogen level. Time of nitrogen application treatment in this experiment had only significant effect on the amounts of calcium and zinc elements and had no significant effect on the other elements.

  12. Assessment of Metabolome Annotation Quality: A Method for Evaluating the False Discovery Rate of Elemental Composition Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Shinbo, Yoko; Oikawa, Akira; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fiehn, Oliver; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2009-01-01

    Background In metabolomics researches using mass spectrometry (MS), systematic searching of high-resolution mass data against compound databases is often the first step of metabolite annotation to determine elemental compositions possessing similar theoretical mass numbers. However, incorrect hits derived from errors in mass analyses will be included in the results of elemental composition searches. To assess the quality of peak annotation information, a novel methodology for false discovery rates (FDR) evaluation is presented in this study. Based on the FDR analyses, several aspects of an elemental composition search, including setting a threshold, estimating FDR, and the types of elemental composition databases most reliable for searching are discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings The FDR can be determined from one measured value (i.e., the hit rate for search queries) and four parameters determined by Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that relatively high FDR values (30–50%) were obtained when searching time-of-flight (TOF)/MS data using the KNApSAcK and KEGG databases. In addition, searches against large all-in-one databases (e.g., PubChem) always produced unacceptable results (FDR >70%). The estimated FDRs suggest that the quality of search results can be improved not only by performing more accurate mass analysis but also by modifying the properties of the compound database. A theoretical analysis indicates that FDR could be improved by using compound database with smaller but higher completeness entries. Conclusions/Significance High accuracy mass analysis, such as Fourier transform (FT)-MS, is needed for reliable annotation (FDR metabolome data. PMID:19847304

  13. Continuous biohydrogen production using cheese whey: Improving the hydrogen production rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Cota-Navarro, Ciria Berenice; Razo-Flores, Elias [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P (Mexico); Rosales-Colunga, Luis Manuel; de Leon-Rodriguez, Antonio [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P (Mexico)

    2009-05-15

    Due to the renewed interest in finding sustainable fuels or energy carriers, biohydrogen (Bio-H{sub 2}) from biomass is a promising alternative. Fermentative Bio-H{sub 2} production was studied in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated during 65.6 d with cheese whey (CW) as substrate. Three hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were tested (10, 6 and 4 h) and the highest volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was attained with HRT of 6 h. Therefore, four organic loading rates (OLRs) at a fixed HRT of 6 h were tested thereafter, being: 92.4, 115.5, 138.6 and 184.4 g lactose/L/d. The highest VHPR (46.61 mmol H{sub 2}/L/h) and hydrogen molar yield (HMY) of 2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol lactose were found at an OLR of 138.6 g lactose/L/d; a sharp fall in VHPR occurred at an OLR of 184.4 g lactose/L/d. Butyric, propionic and acetic acids were the main soluble metabolites found, with butyric-to-acetic ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.4. Bacterial community was identified by partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that at HRT of 10 h and 6 h were dominated by the Clostridium genus. The VHPR attained in this study is the highest reported value for a CSTR system using CW as substrate with anaerobic sludge as inoculum and represents a 33-fold increase compared to a previous study. Thus, it was demonstrated that continuous fermentative Bio-H{sub 2} production from CW can be significantly enhanced by an appropriate selection of parameters such as HRT and OLR. Enhancements in VHPR are significant because it is a critical parameter to determine the full-scale practical application of fermentation technologies that will be used for sustainable and clean energy generation. (author)

  14. Effects of rare earth elements on growth rate, lipids, fatty acids and pigments in microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goecke, Franz; Vítová, Milada; Lukavský, Jaromír; Nedbalová, L.; Řezanka, Tomáš; Zachleder, Vilém

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2017), s. 226-234 ISSN 1322-0829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416; GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027; GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorophylls * lanthanides Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (BU-J) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Bioproducts (products that are manufactured using biological material as feedstock) biomaterials, bioplastics, biofuels, bioderived bulk and fine chemicals, bio-derived novel materials (BU-J) Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  15. The Modeling of Logistics and Coordination of the Rate of Commodities Production with the Rate of their Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstennykov Yuriy V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic objective of the modern high-tech enterprise is the optimal expansion of its own market niche and bringing the production capacities in accordance with the current demand for the products. An important role in this respect is played by issues of optimal organization of the enterprise logistics, marketing analysis of the current demand and effective advertising campaign aimed at maximal use of the available production capacity and creation of proper conditions for developing, in particular for increasing the production capacities. The purpose of the article is the elaboration of economic and mathematical models of enterprise production activity taking into account the logistics and market demand; the use of the elaborated model to harmonize the rate of production of everyday commodities with the rate of their disposal. Two variants of the enterprise logistics schemes are analyzed. The influence of the advertising company on expanding the enterprise market niche is studied. A model that allows conducting a detailed study of the influence of market conditions on the pace of sales has been developed. It is appropriate to apply the model for the integrated coordination of the production rate of commodities of everyday demand with the dynamics of flows of commodities and services disposal.

  16. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material.

  17. Dual substrate feedback control of specific growth-rate in vaccine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, R.; Beuvery, E.C.; Vries, D.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Unexpectedly, primary concern of bio-pharmaceutical industry is not optimisation of product yield or cost reduction, but consistency in production and product quality. This paper describes the methodology and experimental results of specific growth-rate control for vaccine production. The

  18. Comparison of reconstructed radial pin total fission rates with experimental results in full scale BWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter; Jatuff, Fabian [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This work presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates in two configurations, I-1A and I-2A. Both configurations contain, in the central test zone, an array of 3x3 SVEA-96+ fuel elements moderated with light water at 20 deg. C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the NW corner of the central fuel element. To minimize the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3x3 experimental configuration was modeled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group albedos calculated at the test zone boundary using a full-core 3D MCNPX model. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratios of the total fission rates have a standard deviation of 1.3% in configuration I-1A (uncontrolled) and 3.2% in configuration I-2A (controlled). Sensitivity cases are analyzed to show the impact of certain parameters on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. It is shown that the relative pin fission rate is only weakly dependent on these parameters. In cases without a control blade, the pin power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, significant deviations, that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations, are observed in cases when the control blade is inserted. (authors)

  19. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  20. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Puglia, S. M. R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  1. Agricultural management, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production from Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Furlan, Marcos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information about organic and mineral fertilization, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production by the species Melissa officinalis. Elemental concentration was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. The elemental content and the main compounds vary according to agricultural management and season. The results indicate that the production of volatile oil main compounds from M. officinalis is correlated with the concentrations of Na, Co, Rb, Cd, Cs, La, Sm and Hf. (author)

  2. Experimental particle formation rates spanning tropospheric sulfuric acid and ammonia abundances, ion production rates, and temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, Joao; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Dunne, Eimear M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Barmet, Peter; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Gordon, Hamish; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Ickes, Luisa; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Onnela, Antti; Ortega, Ismael K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Smith, James N.; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Wagner, Paul E.; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Ken; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water as well as ternary nucleation involving ammonia arethought to be the dominant processes responsible for new particle formation (NPF) in the cold temperaturesof the middle and upper troposphere. Ions are also thought to be important for particle nucleation inthese regions. However, global models presently lack experimentally measured NPF rates under controlledlaboratory conditions and so at present must rely on theoretical or empirical parameterizations. Here withdata obtained in the European Organization for Nuclear Research CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets)chamber, we present the first experimental survey of NPF rates spanning free tropospheric conditions. Theconditions during nucleation cover a temperature range from 208 to 298 K, sulfuric acid concentrationsbet ween 5 × 105and 1 × 109cm3, and ammonia mixing ratios from zero added ammonia, i.e., nominally purebinary, to a maximum of ~1400 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We performed nucleation s...

  3. Changes in nutrient stoichiometry, elemental homeostasis and growth rate of aquatic litter-associated fungi in response to inorganic nutrient supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulis, Vladislav; Kuehn, Kevin A; Schoettle, Louie N; Leach, Desiree; Benstead, Jonathan P; Rosemond, Amy D

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic fungi mediate important energy and nutrient transfers in freshwater ecosystems, a role potentially altered by widespread eutrophication. We studied the effects of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and ratios on fungal stoichiometry, elemental homeostasis, nutrient uptake and growth rate in two experiments that used (1) liquid media and a relatively recalcitrant carbon (C) source and (2) fungi grown on leaf litter in microcosms. Two monospecific fungal cultures and a multi-species assemblage were assessed in each experiment. Combining a radioactive tracer to estimate fungal production (C accrual) with N and P uptake measurements provided an ecologically relevant estimate of mean fungal C:N:P of 107:9:1 in litter-associated fungi, similar to the 92:9:1 obtained from liquid cultures. Aquatic fungi were found to be relatively homeostatic with respect to their C:N ratio (~11:1), but non-homeostatic with respect to C:P and N:P. Dissolved N greatly affected fungal growth rate and production, with little effect on C:nutrient stoichiometry. Conversely, dissolved P did not affect fungal growth and production but controlled biomass C:P and N:P, probably via luxury P uptake and storage. The ability of fungi to immobilize and store excess P may alter nutrient flow through aquatic food webs and affect ecosystem functioning.

  4. Passive Acoustic Source Localization at a Low Sampling Rate Based on a Five-Element Cross Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate acoustic source localization at a low sampling rate (less than 10 kHz is still a challenging problem for small portable systems, especially for a multitasking micro-embedded system. A modification of the generalized cross-correlation (GCC method with the up-sampling (US theory is proposed and defined as the US-GCC method, which can improve the accuracy of the time delay of arrival (TDOA and source location at a low sampling rate. In this work, through the US operation, an input signal with a certain sampling rate can be converted into another signal with a higher frequency. Furthermore, the optimal interpolation factor for the US operation is derived according to localization computation time and the standard deviation (SD of target location estimations. On the one hand, simulation results show that absolute errors of the source locations based on the US-GCC method with an interpolation factor of 15 are approximately from 1/15- to 1/12-times those based on the GCC method, when the initial same sampling rates of both methods are 8 kHz. On the other hand, a simple and small portable passive acoustic source localization platform composed of a five-element cross microphone array has been designed and set up in this paper. The experiments on the established platform, which accurately locates a three-dimensional (3D near-field target at a low sampling rate demonstrate that the proposed method is workable.

  5. The Popeye domain containing genes: essential elements in heart rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Roland F; Poon, Kar Lai; Simrick, Subreena; Brand, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) gene family displays preferential expression in skeletal muscle and heart. Only recently a significant gain in the understanding of the function of Popdc genes in the heart has been obtained. The Popdc genes encode membrane proteins harboring an evolutionary conserved Popeye domain, which functions as a binding domain for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Popdc proteins interact with the two-pore channel TREK-1 and enhance its current. This protein interaction is modulated by cAMP. Null mutations of members of the Popdc gene family in zebrafish and mouse are associated with severe cardiac arrhythmia phenotypes. While in zebrafish an atrioventricular block was prevalent, in mouse a stress-induced sinus bradycardia was observed, which was due to the presence of sinus pauses. Moreover, the phenotype develops in an age-dependent manner, being absent in the young animal and becoming increasingly severe, as the animals grow older. This phenotype is reminiscent of the sick sinus syndrome (SSS), which affects mostly the elderly and is characterized by the poor ability of the cardiac pacemaker to adapt the heart rate to the physiological demand. While being a prevalent disease, which is responsible for a large fraction of pacemaker implantations in Western countries, SSS is poorly understood at the molecular level. It is therefore expected that the study of the molecular basis of the stress-induced bradycardia in Popdc mice will shed new light on the etiology of pacemaker disease.

  6. 2Kx2K resolution element photon counting MCP sensor with >200 kHz event rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J V

    2000-01-01

    Siegmund Scientific undertook a NASA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract to develop a versatile, high-performance photon (or particle) counting detector combining recent technical advances in all aspects of Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector development in a low cost, commercially viable package that can support a variety of applications. The detector concept consists of a set of MCPs whose output electron pulses are read out with a crossed delay line (XDL) anode and associated high-speed event encoding electronics. The delay line anode allows high-resolution photon event centroiding at very high event rates and can be scaled to large formats (>40 mm) while maintaining good linearity and high temporal stability. The optimal sensitivity wavelength range is determined by the choice of opaque photocathodes. Specific achievements included: spatial resolution of 200 000 events s sup - sup 1; local rates of >100 events s sup - sup 1 per resolution element; event timing of <1 ns; and low background ...

  7. Uranium, Thorium and Potassium concentrations and volumetric heat production rates at the eastern border of the Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Telma C.Q.; Ribeiro, Fernando B.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations were measured and volumetric heat production rates were calculated for rocks from the exposed basement at the eastern-southeastern border of the Parana Basin between 23 deg S and 32 deg S. Heat generating element concentration data available in the literature were also used when possible, for volumetric heat production calculations. The uranium concentrations vary from below determination limit (0.51 ppm) and 16 ppm whereas the thorium concentrations vary from below the determination limit (1.26 ppm) and 68 ppm, and K concentrations vary between 0.08% and 5.6%. Volumetric heat production rates vary between 0.07 μW/m 3 to 6.2 μW/m 3 , and the obtained results show a variable heat generation rate with high heat producing bodies scattered along this Parana Basin border. The higher observed values concentrate in the Ribeira fold belt at about 23 deg S and between 30 deg S and 32 deg S in the Down Feliciano fold belt. Isolated high heat production rates can also be observed between 26 deg S and 28 deg S. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  9. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  10. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de

    2003-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  11. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  12. Effect of γ-ray emission on transuranium element production cross sections in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'inov, A.S.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of competition of the γ ray emission with neutron evaporation and of compound nuclei fission induced by heavy ion reactions on the production cross sections for transuranium elements is considered. It is shown that taking account of γ ray emission leads to the broadening of the excitation functions of the (HI, xny) reactions such as 18 O+ 238 U, 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 207 Pb and 40 Ar+ 208 Pb reactions and to the displacement of their maximum toward the higher energies as well as to an increase of the absolute cross sections which is especially strong close to the fusion barrier. Cross sections for the radiative capture of heavy ions by a heavy target nucleus in 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 208 Pb, 48 Ca+ 204 Pb and 48 Ca+ 208 Pb reactions are estimated

  13. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part I. Wheat cereal products, vegetable products, confectionery and products for infants and children (2004 year)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Plewa, Monika; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The testing of products of wheat cereal (310 samples), vegetable (418 samples), confectionery (439 samples) and 952 samples of products for infants and children has initiated the 5-years cycle of monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health planned to perform in 2004-2008. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection collecting samples on all over the territory of Poland, both from retail market (of domestic origin as well as imported) and directly from producers; the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene responsible for elaboration of official food control and monitoring plans to be approved by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate and for the substantive supervising of tests performance. The reported metals contents were not of health concern and generally below the levels set forth in food legislation. The health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for cadmium, which has reached 9.4% PTWI for cereal based products and 4.7% PTWI for vegetables. The cadmium content in chocolate and derived products due to contamination of cocoa beans and the levels of this element in products for infants and children originated from contamination of cereal and soybeans row materials should not be ignored. The decrease of lead contamination comparing to those reported in 1990 studies was observed.

  14. Determination of boron and other elements in food and agricultural products by PGAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    In-beam thermal neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) can provide accurate concentrations for hydrogen, boron, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, potassium, sulfur, calcium, and cadmium in food and agricultural materials when care is taken to account for neutron-scattering effects. The hydrogen concentration of a given matrix affects element sensitivities and background count rates. Because the materials of interest, especially foods, vary greatly in hydrogen concentration, specialized packaging and standardization methods were needed to perform analyses properly. The purpose of the work discussed in this paper was to establish methods to lower limits of detection and minimize sources of error, especially those due to variations in the hydrogen concentration and the target shape

  15. Effects of Variable Production Rate and Time-Dependent Holding Cost for Complementary Products in Supply Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a major trend is going to redesign a production system by controlling or making variable the production rate within some fixed interval to maintain the optimal level. This strategy is more effective when the holding cost is time-dependent as it is interrelated with holding duration of products and rate of production. An effort is made to make a supply chain model (SCM to show the joint effect of variable production rate and time-varying holding cost for specific type of complementary products, where those products are made by two different manufacturers and a common retailer makes them bundle and sells bundles to end customers. Demand of each product is specified by stochastic reservation prices with a known potential market size. Those players of the SCM are considered with unequal power. Stackelberg game approach is employed to obtain global optimum solution of the model. An illustrative numerical example, graphical representation, and managerial insights are given to illustrate the model. Results prove that variable production rate and time-dependent holding cost save more than existing literature.

  16. Model for the evaluation and prediction of production rate of sinter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model has been derived for evaluation and prediction of production rate of sinter machine operating on vertical mode. The quadratic model expressed as: P = 0.4395 V – 0.0526 V2 + 0.54, showed that the production rate of the sinter machine was dependent on the vertical sintering height. The maximum deviation of the ...

  17. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  18. Correlation of gene expression and protein production rate - a system wide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvas Mikko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth rate is a major determinant of intracellular function. However its effects can only be properly dissected with technically demanding chemostat cultivations in which it can be controlled. Recent work on Saccharomyces cerevisiae chemostat cultivations provided the first analysis on genome wide effects of growth rate. In this work we study the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina that is an industrial protein production host known for its exceptional protein secretion capability. Interestingly, it exhibits a low growth rate protein production phenotype. Results We have used transcriptomics and proteomics to study the effect of growth rate and cell density on protein production in chemostat cultivations of T. reesei. Use of chemostat allowed control of growth rate and exact estimation of the extracellular specific protein production rate (SPPR. We find that major biosynthetic activities are all negatively correlated with SPPR. We also find that expression of many genes of secreted proteins and secondary metabolism, as well as various lineage specific, mostly unknown genes are positively correlated with SPPR. Finally, we enumerate possible regulators and regulatory mechanisms, arising from the data, for this response. Conclusions Based on these results it appears that in low growth rate protein production energy is very efficiently used primarly for protein production. Also, we propose that flux through early glycolysis or the TCA cycle is a more fundamental determining factor than growth rate for low growth rate protein production and we propose a novel eukaryotic response to this i.e. the lineage specific response (LSR.

  19. Engineering Mathematical Analysis Method for Productivity Rate in Linear Arrangement Serial Structure Automated Flow Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity rate (Q or production rate is one of the important indicator criteria for industrial engineer to improve the system and finish good output in production or assembly line. Mathematical and statistical analysis method is required to be applied for productivity rate in industry visual overviews of the failure factors and further improvement within the production line especially for automated flow line since it is complicated. Mathematical model of productivity rate in linear arrangement serial structure automated flow line with different failure rate and bottleneck machining time parameters becomes the basic model for this productivity analysis. This paper presents the engineering mathematical analysis method which is applied in an automotive company which possesses automated flow assembly line in final assembly line to produce motorcycle in Malaysia. DCAS engineering and mathematical analysis method that consists of four stages known as data collection, calculation and comparison, analysis, and sustainable improvement is used to analyze productivity in automated flow assembly line based on particular mathematical model. Variety of failure rate that causes loss of productivity and bottleneck machining time is shown specifically in mathematic figure and presents the sustainable solution for productivity improvement for this final assembly automated flow line.

  20. Distribution of Some Elements in Biosubstrates of Workers Occupied in the Production of Mineral Nitrogenous Phosphate Fertilizers

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Pavlov, S S; Geological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and biosubstrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in biosubstrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made.

  1. Distribution of some trace elements in biosubstrates of workers occupied in the production of mineral nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Okina, O.I.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogeneous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and bio substrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in bio substrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made

  2. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.

  3. Learning control for riser-slug elimination and production-rate optimization for an offshore oil and gas production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    , (ii) maximizing the production rate at the riser of an offshore production platform, by manipulating a topside choke valve through a learning switching model-free PID controller. The results show good steady-state performance, though a long settling time due to the unknown reference for no slugging...

  4. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  5. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  6. PROCUREMENT IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN: AN ELEMENT OF HOTEL PRODUCT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Mrnjavac

    2016-12-01

    organization is essential for the application of the supply-chain principles, but it can also have the opposite effect. The principles of supply chain organization and management are present in all investigated hotels, but to varying degrees. While obtaining the lowest price is singled out as the primary goal of procurement, the need to take into account other elements, such as the quality of procurement, products and services, is also emphasized because this makes it possible to create a hotel product that guests will be satisfied with. Conclusion: The presence of supply-chain elements in hotel procurement correlates with the size of the hotel enterprise, but not with the type of hotel or its location (type of tourist destination. The organizational basis of stand-alone hotels is better suited for the development of supply chains. Their less-formal business organization and decentralized procurement provide a suitable environment for focusing on and effectively managing the business process to enhance product quality. In contrast, centralized procurement embedded in the more rigid organization of hotel enterprises contains a number of barriers that go against the supply chain concept. Partly for this reason, the primary goal of hotel enterprises is price, while quality is only a secondary goal. Networked supply-chain structures are present in both cases, and high on the list of procurement goals is the importance of building sound relationships with prominent suppliers. Also important is that procurement organized in this way focuses on the long term; the supplier market and procurement terms are analyzed periodically and, if necessary, changes are made regarding suppliers and supplier relationships.

  7. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S. Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test for International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in... Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate (NPR) experimental product on August 15, 2013. The Postal...

  8. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H.; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. ► Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. ► Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. ► Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2–8.9 mg kg −1 ) than willow and poplar (5–80 mg kg −1 ), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300–6200 mg kg −1 ) and K (320–1250 mg kg −1 ), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  9. A systematic and detailed investigation of radiative rates for forbidden transitions of astrophysical interest in doubly ionized iron peak elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, Pascal; Fivet, Vanessa; Bautista, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge of accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly ionized iron peak elements, from scandium to copper, is of paramount importance for the analysis of the high resolution spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources like Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula [1] and stars like Eta Carinae [2]. However, forbidden transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly ionized species have been little investigated so far and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or inexistent.In the present contribution, we report on the recent study we have performed concerning the determination of magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities in those ions. For the calculations, we have extensively used the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan [3] and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE [4]. This multi-platform approach allowed us to check the consistency and to assess the accuracy of the results obtained.[1] Mesa-Delgado A. et al., MNRAS 395, 855 (2009)[2] Johansson S. et al., A&A 361, 977 (2000)[3] Cowan R.D., The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Univ. California Press, Berkeley (1981)[4] Badnell N.R., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 1 (1997)

  10. Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Stahre, Nanna; Mäkitalo, Maria; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through.

  11. IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

  12. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  13. Determination of toxic elements in tobacco products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of 15 elements in various brands of cigarette tobacco and cigarette wrapping paper were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The paper of some of the brands contains higher concentrations of toxic elements than the tobacco. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the adsorption of toxic elements on the filter and their transference in smoke. The toxic effects of some of the elements have been briefly discussed. (author)

  14. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  15. Influence of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [G.B. Pant Univ., of Agriculture and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Arora, C.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on product temperature profiles and production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt were investigated experimentally. Three sample thicknesses - 3.8 mm, 6.2 mm and 9.4 mm - were tested at chamber pressures of 0.01 and 0.5 mmHg. The production rate increased by decreasing product thickness in contact heating through the bottom of the frozen layer, whereas no significant change was observed in radiant heating. A reduction in chamber pressure from 0.50 to 0.01 mmHg increased the drying time in radiant heating. Maximum production rate was obtained when the thickness of dried product was 6.2 mm, when heat was transferred simultaneously through the frozen and dried layers, and the chamber pressure was at 0.01 mmHg. Use of the product tray developed in this study prevents the growth of dry layers at the contact surfaces. (Author)

  16. Dose rate distribution for products irradiated in a semi-industrial irradiation plant. 1st stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J.

    2005-01-01

    The model of the bulk product absorbed dose rate distribution in a semi industrial irradiation plant is presented. In this plant the products are subject to a dynamic irradiation process: single-plaque, single-direction, four-passes. The additional two passes, also one on each side of the plaque, serve to minimize the lateral dose variation as well as the depth-dose non-uniformity. The first stage of this model takes only into account the direct absorbed dose rate; the model outputs are the depth-dose distribution and the lateral-dose distribution. The calculated absorbed dose in the bulk product and its uniformity-ratio after the dynamic irradiation process for different products is compared. The model results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in a bulk of irradiated product; and the air absorbed dose rate in the irradiation chamber behind the product subject to the dynamic irradiation process. (author) [es

  17. Selecting Products Considering the Regret Behavior of Consumer: A Decision Support Model Based on Online Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the remarkable promotion of e-commerce platforms, consumers increasingly prefer to purchase products online. Online ratings facilitate consumers to choose among products. Thus, to help consumers effectively select products, it is necessary to provide decision support methods for consumers to trade online. Considering the decision makers are bounded rational, this paper proposes a novel decision support model for product selection based on online ratings, in which the regret aversion behavior of consumers is formulated. Massive online ratings provided by experienced consumers for alternative products associated with several evaluation attributes are obtained by software finders. Then, the evaluations of alternative products in format of stochastic variables are conducted. To select a desirable alternative product, a novel method is introduced to calculate gain and loss degrees of each alternative over others. Considering the regret behavior of consumers in the product selection process, the regret and rejoice values of alternative products for consumer are computed to obtain the perceived utility values of alternative products. According to the prior order of the evaluation attributes provided by the consumer, the prior weights of attributes are determined based on the perceived utility values of alternative products. Furthermore, the overall perceived utility values of alternative products are obtained to generate a ranking result. Finally, a practical example from Zol.com.cn for tablet computer selection is used to demonstrate the feasibility and practically of the proposed model.

  18. Quantitative study of the production rate of droplets in a T-junction microdroplet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Zeng, Wen; Li, Songjing

    2017-12-01

    In a T-junction microdroplet generator, a mathematical model which can quantify the production rate of droplets is demonstrated. The experiments of droplet formation are performed for different geometries of the T-junction microchannels, and good agreements are shown between the predicted and the measured values of the droplet production rates. From both theoretical and experimental study, the production rate of droplets varies nonlinearly with the flow-rate ratio of the two phases during droplet formation, and by fixing the flow-rate ratio, the production rate of droplets is approximately a linear function of the flow rate of the fluids. In particular, the coefficients of the linear relation are only determined by the geometrical parameters of the T-junction microchannel. As a result, our model can be validated experimentally, and especially for a specific geometry of the T-junction, the production rate of droplets can be precisely predicted and controlled based on the flow rate of the fluids.

  19. The safety of operations in the Dragon fuel element production building during the manufacture of thorium fuel for the first charge of the Dragon Reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, H.; Gardham, B.; Holliday, J.

    1965-04-01

    The first charge of fuel and fuel elements for the Dragon Reactor has been completed without significant difficulty. This report covers the safety of operations during the production of the 10 thorium elements together with the final 2 driver elements needed to complete the 37 element charge. (author)

  20. Trace element supplementation in the biogas production from wheat stillage--optimization of metal dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    A trace element dosing strategy for the anaerobic digestion of wheat stillage was developed in this study. Mesophilic CSTR reactors were operated with the sulfuric substrate wheat stillage in some cases under trace element deficiency. After supplementing trace elements during the start-up, one of the elements of Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, and W were depleted in one digester while still augmenting the other elements to determine minimum requirements for each element. The depletion of Fe and Ni resulted in a rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids while Co and W seem to have a long-term effect. Based on the results it was possible to reduce the dosing of trace elements, which is positive with reference to economic and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An integrated supply chain model for the perishable items with fuzzy production rate and fuzzy demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the changing market scenario, supply chain management is getting phenomenal importance amongst researchers. Studies on supply chain management have emphasized the importance of a long-term strategic relationship between the manufacturer, distributor and retailer. In the present paper, a model has been developed by assuming that the demand rate and production rate as triangular fuzzy numbers and items deteriorate at a constant rate. The expressions for the average inventory cost are obtained both in crisp and fuzzy sense. The fuzzy model is defuzzified using the fuzzy extension principle, and its optimization with respect to the decision variable is also carried out. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the model and sensitivity analysis is performed to study the effect of parameters.

  2. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  3. Combining extractant systems for the simultaneous extraction of transuranic elements and selected fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The popularity of solvent extraction (SX) stems from its ability to operate in a continuous mode, to achieve high throughputs and high decontamination factors of product streams, and to utilize relatively small quantities of very selective chemical compounds as metal ion complexants. The chemical pretreatment of nuclear waste for the purpose of waste minimization will probably utilize one or more SX processes. Because of the diversity and complexity of nuclear waste, perhaps the greatest difficulty for the separation chemist is to develop processes that remove not only actinides but also selected fission products in a single process. A stand alone acid-side SX process (TRUEX) for removal of uranium and transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am) from nuclear waste has been widely reported. Recently, an acid-side SX process (SREX) to extract and recover 90 Sr from high-level nuclear waste has also been reported. Both the TRUEX and SREX processes extract Tc to a significant extent although not as efficiently as they extract transuranics and Sr. Ideally one would like to have a process that can extract and recover all actinides as well as 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs. A possible solution to multielement extraction is to mix two extractants with totally different properties into a single process solvent formulation. For this approach to be successful, both extractants must be essentially the same type, either neutral, liquid cationic, or liquid anionic. Experimental work has been carried out on mixed TRUEX and SREX processes, for synthetically created waste, and demonstrates the combined solvent formulation is effective at extracting both the actinides and Tc, as well as Sr. There is no evidence for the presence of either synergistic or antagonistic effects between the two extractants. This demonstates the feasibility of at least part of a combined solvent extraction scheme

  4. Diamond grinding wheels production study with the use of the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrák, J; Fedorovich, V; Markopoulos, A P; Pyzhov, I; Kryukova, N

    2016-11-01

    Research results on 3D modeling of the diamond grain and its bearing layer when sintering diamond grinding wheels are provided in this paper. The influence of the main characteristics of the wheel materials and the wheel production process, namely the quantity of metallic phase within diamond grain, coefficient of thermal expansion of the metallic phase, the modulus of elasticity of bond material and sintering temperature, on the internal stresses arising in grains is investigated. The results indicate that the stresses in the grains are higher in the areas around the metallic phase. Additionally, sintering temperature has the greatest impact on the stresses of the grain-metallic phase-bond system regardless of the type of the bond. Furthermore, by employing factorial design for the carried out finite element model, a mathematical model that reflects the impact of these factors on the deflected mode of the diamond grain-metallic phase-bond material system is obtained. The results of the analysis allow for the identification of optimal conditions for the efficient production of improved diamond grinding wheels. More specifically, the smallest stresses are observed when using the metal bond with modulus of elasticity 204 GPa, the quantity of metallic phase in diamond grain of not higher than 7% and coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.32 × 10 -5  1/K or lower. The results obtained from the proposed 3D model can lead to the increase in the diamond grains utilization and improve the overall efficiency of diamond grinding.

  5. Experimental verification of methods for gamma dose rate calculations in the vicinity of containers with the RA reactor spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Cupac, S.; Pesic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology for equivalent gamma dose rate determination on the outer surface of existing containers with the spent fuel elements of the RA reactor is briefly summarised, and experimental verification of this methodology in the field of gamma rays near the aluminium channel with spent fuel elements lifted from the stainless steel containers no. 275 in the RA reactor hall is presented. The proposed methodology is founded on: the existing fuel burnup data base; methods and models for the photon source determination in the RA reactor spent fuel elements developed in the Vinca Institute, and validated Monte Carlo codes for the equivalent gamma dose rate calculations. (author) [sr

  6. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatchurrohman, N; Marini, C D; Suraya, S; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc. (paper)

  7. Fission product release profiles from spherical HTR fuel elements at accident temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, W.; Pitzer, D.; Nabielek, H.

    1986-10-01

    A total of 22 fuel elements with modern TRISO particles has been tested in the temperature range 1500-2500 0 C. Additionally, release profiles of iodine and other isotopes have been obtained with seven UO 2 samples at 1400-1800 0 C. For heating times up to 100 hours at the maximum temperature, the following results are pertinent to HTR accident conditions: Ag 110 m is the only fission products to be released at 1200-1600 0 C by diffusion through intact SiC, but it is of low significance in accident assessments; cesium, iodine, strontium, and noble gas releases up to 1600 0 C are solely due to various forms of contamination; at 1700-1800 0 C, corrosion induced SiC defects cause the release of Cs, Sr, I/Xe/Kr; above 2000 0 C, thermal decomposition of the silicon carbide layer sets in while pyrocarbons still remain intact. Around 1600 0 C, the accident specific contribution of cesium, strontium, iodine, and noble gases is negligible. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Radiological Impacts and Regulation of Rare Earth Elements in Non-Nuclear Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy industries account for a significant portion of total rare earth usage, both in the US and worldwide. Rare earth minerals are frequently collocated with naturally occurring radioactive material, imparting an occupational radiological dose during recovery. This paper explores the extent to which rare earths are used by various non-nuclear energy industries and estimates the radiological dose which can be attributed to these industries on absolute and normalized scales. It was determined that typical rare earth mining results in an occupational collective dose of approximately 0.0061 person-mSv/t rare earth elements, amounting to a total of 330 person-mSv/year across all non-nuclear energy industries (about 60% of the annual collective dose from one pressurized water reactor operated in the US, although for rare earth mining the impact is spread out over many more workers. About half of the collective dose from non-nuclear energy production results from use of fuel cracking catalysts for oil refining, although given the extent of the oil industry, it is a small dose when normalized to the energy equivalent of the oil that is used annually. Another factor in energy industries’ reliance on rare earths is the complicated state of the regulation of naturally occurring radiological materials; correspondingly, this paper also explores regulatory and management implications.

  9. Domain- and nucleotide-specific Rev response element regulation of feline immunodeficiency virus production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hong; Huisman, Willem; Ellestad, Kristofor K.; Phillips, Tom R.; Power, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Computational analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA sequences indicated that common FIV strains contain a rev response element (RRE) defined by a long unbranched hairpin with 6 stem-loop sub-domains, termed stem-loop A (SLA). To examine the role of the RNA secondary structure of the RRE, mutational analyses were performed in both an infectious FIV molecular clone and a FIV CAT-RRE reporter system. These studies disclosed that the stems within SLA (SA1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of the RRE were critical but SA6 was not essential for FIV replication and CAT expression. These studies also revealed that the secondary structure rather than an antisense protein (ASP) mediates virus expression and replication in vitro. In addition, a single synonymous mutation within the FIV-RRE, SA3/45, reduced viral reverse transcriptase activity and p24 expression after transfection but in addition also showed a marked reduction in viral expression and production following infection. PMID:20570310

  10. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure.

  11. Methodology for determination of radon-222 production rate of residential building and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Thomas C.W.; Niu, J.L.; Burnett, J.; Lau, Judy O.W.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration is mainly associated with the radon production rate of building material, ventilation rate, and the outdoor radon concentrations. Radon production rate of a room is defined as the sum of the products of the radon emanation rates and the exposed areas of the materials. Since the selection of the building materials and the exposed areas are different from room to room, it makes the radon production rate of homes fall in a wide range. Here, the radon production rate of a room is suggested to be quantified by a sealing method, in which the systematic radon growth curve is obtained. The radon production rate of the room can be determined from the initial slope of the growth curve. Three rooms at different homes in Hong Kong were selected in the study for verifying the methodology. The uncertainty characterized by data scatter arisen from the coupling effect of the leakage rate and outdoor radon was also included in the discussion. During the measurements, no occupant was allowed into the home. No mechanical ventilation was involved in the measurement. The indoor and outdoor radon concentrations of the sampled homes were monitored simultaneously and lasted for more than three days. The radon production rates and the uncertainties of three rooms at Homes 1, 2, and 3 were found to be 232.8, 46.0, 414.6, and 20.3, 9.4, 59.2Bqh -1 , respectively. The approach is valid when the air leakage rate of the room is controlled below 0.1h -1

  12. Corrosion product deposition on fuel element surfaces of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade the problem of corrosion products deposition on light water reactor fuel elements has been extensively investigated in relation to the possibility of failures caused by them. The goal of the present study is to understand in a quantitative way the formation of such kind of deposits and to analytically understand the mechanism of formation and deposition with help of the quasi-steady state concentrations of a number of 3d metals in reactor water. Recent investigations on the complex corrosion product deposits on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel cladding have shown that the observed layer locally presents unexpected magnetic properties. The buildup of magnetic corrosion product deposits (crud) on the fuel cladding of the BWR, Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt (KKL) Switzerland has hampered the Eddy-current based measurements of ZrO 2 layer thickness. The magnetic behavior of this layer and its axial variation on BWR fuel cladding is of interest with respect to non-destructive cladding characterization. Consequently, a cladding from a BWR was cut at elevations of 810 mm, where the layer was observed to be magnetic, and of 1810 mm where it was less magnetic. The samples were subsequently analyzed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), magnetic analysis and X-ray techniques (μXRF, μXRD and μXAFS). Both EPMA and μXRF have shown that the observed corrosion deposit layer which is situated on the Zircaloy corrosion layer consists mostly of 3-d elements’ oxides (Fe, Zn, Ni and Mn). The distribution of these elements within the investigated layer is rather complex and not homogeneous. The main components identified by 2D μXRD mapping inside the layer were hematite and spinel phases with the common formula (M x Fe y )[M (1-x) Fe (2-y) ]O 4 , where M = Zn, Ni, Mn. With μXRD it was clearly shown that the cell parameter of analyzed spinel is different from the one of the pure endmembers (ZnFe 2 O 4 , NiFe 2 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 ) proving the existence of

  13. Elevated standard metabolic rate in a freshwater shrimp (Palaeomonetes paludosus) exposed to trace element-rich coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, C.L. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1998-12-01

    A transplant experiment was conducted to determine whether standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a freshwater shrimp (Palaeomonetes paludosus) would be affected by exposure to trace element-enriched coal combustion waste (coal ash). Shrimp were transplanted into replicate cages in a coal ash-polluted site and a reference site for 8 months. The coal ash-polluted site was characterized by elevated sediment concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Se compared to sediments in the reference site. After 8 months in the study sites, shrimp in the polluted site appeared to have accumulated As, Cd and Se from the habitat, but there were on differences in survival between the study sites. However, mean SMR of shrimp (measured as O{sub 2} consumption at rest) held in the polluted site was 51% higher than mean SMR of shrimp held in the reference site. The elevation in SMR indicates that the energetic costs of maintenance are greater for shrimp chronically exposed to the coal-ash polluted enviorment than shrimp in the reference site. It is likely, therefore, that other physiological or behavioral processes may be modified in the pollution-exposed individuals to compensate for the increased energy demands for maintenance. Recent studies have reported similar elevations in SMR in an amphibian and a reptile chronically exposed to coal ash. Analogous physiological responses in such taxonomically diverse animals (a crustacean, an amphibian, and a reptile) indicate that elevated SMR may be a general response by many types of organisms exposed to the mixture of trace elements characteristic of coal ash. The relationships among pollution-induced elevations in maintenance expenditures, long-term health of individuals, and population-level parameters require further attention. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Faleiros, João Paulo Martin; da Silva, José Carlos Domingos; Nakaguma, Marcos Yamada

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coeffici...

  15. Productivity dynamics of Livestock in southern peninsular India: A Compound growth rate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kathiravan 1 and S. Selvam 2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although India possesses the large volume of livestock, their productivity is abysmally low at global level. India, with its wide variation in geo-ecological parameters, elucidates a high variation in the productivity of its livestock, among regions. The compound growth rate of livestock productivity was worked out for the Southern Peninsular state of India, Tamil Nadu. The average productivity of milk in cross bred cows and buffaloes in Tamil Nadu was less than the national average, while the productivity desi cows was a bit a more. The annual compound growth rate of milk productivity among crossbred cows of Tamil Nadu was at meager 0.54 per cent during the period between 1998-1999 and 2006- 2007, whereas the productivity of milk in desi cows had improved from at an annual compound growth rate of 1.29 per cent. Notably, the milk productivity in buffaloes had declined at a rate of 0.29 per cent during the period under study. The annual compound growth of egg productivity in improved hens of Tamil Nadu was 20.87 per cent. The average annual productivity was 109.531 eggs, which improved from 70.623 in 1998-1999 to 197.084 in 2004-2005. Correspondingly, the productivity of desi hens also had a positive swing from the year 2003-2004 onwards. The results implied that the simulation of increased productivity, better farm financing and improved milk marketing could result in enhanced livestock production that would meet the future demands. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 68-74

  16. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati

    2008-01-01

    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  17. Analysis and characterization of trace elements in shale oil and shale oil products by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1978-12-01

    Trace elements and their mobilization constitute an important consideration in the development of new fossil fuel technologies. Shale oil produced by in situ retorting of oil shale is an alternative fossil energy source. This study deals with the analysis of trace elements in various shale oil products using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). INAA offers several advantages for those elements for which it is applicable. The greatest advantage is the lack of sample preparation prior to analysis, which greatly simplifies the process and prevents sample contamination. The elements for which analyses are reported in this study are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bromine, cerium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iodine, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfur, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc

  18. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA

    2017-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...

  19. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  20. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non- Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non- Published... request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...--Non-Published Rates, to the Competitive Products List, and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) the Enabling...

  1. Pressure effect on rate of production of glucose-equivalent in plant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    C4 Green plants; rate of equivalent production; pressure effect. 1. Introduction ... the photosynthetic process, especially on the activa- tion and ... Section 4 deals with the effect ... the global concentrations of glyceraldehydes-3- ... chloroplast,9a a product of the maximum possible .... as soil, tissue, development stage, etc.

  2. Production of Curved Precast Concrete Elements for Shell Structures and Free-form Architecture using the Flexible Mould Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grünewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and well-performing precast concrete structures can be manufactured. In this paper, a method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for milling two expensive

  3. 76 FR 396 - Product Change-Priority Mail-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory... States Postal Service Concerning Priority Mail--Non-Published Rates and Notice of Filing Materials Under...

  4. Enhanced bit rate-distance product impulse radio ultra-wideband over fiber link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on a record distance and bit rate-wireless impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link with combined transmission over a 20 km long fiber link. We are able to improve the compliance with the regulated frequency emission mask and achieve bit rate-distance products as high as 16 Gbit/s·m....

  5. Divergent evolutionary rates in vertebrate and mammalian specific conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in echolocating mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2014-12-19

    The majority of DNA contained within vertebrate genomes is non-coding, with a certain proportion of this thought to play regulatory roles during development. Conserved Non-coding Elements (CNEs) are an abundant group of putative regulatory sequences that are highly conserved across divergent groups and thus assumed to be under strong selective constraint. Many CNEs may contain regulatory factor binding sites, and their frequent spatial association with key developmental genes - such as those regulating sensory system development - suggests crucial roles in regulating gene expression and cellular patterning. Yet surprisingly little is known about the molecular evolution of CNEs across diverse mammalian taxa or their role in specific phenotypic adaptations. We examined 3,110 vertebrate-specific and ~82,000 mammalian-specific CNEs across 19 and 9 mammalian orders respectively, and tested for changes in the rate of evolution of CNEs located in the proximity of genes underlying the development or functioning of auditory systems. As we focused on CNEs putatively associated with genes underlying the development/functioning of auditory systems, we incorporated echolocating taxa in our dataset because of their highly specialised and derived auditory systems. Phylogenetic reconstructions of concatenated CNEs broadly recovered accepted mammal relationships despite high levels of sequence conservation. We found that CNE substitution rates were highest in rodents and lowest in primates, consistent with previous findings. Comparisons of CNE substitution rates from several genomic regions containing genes linked to auditory system development and hearing revealed differences between echolocating and non-echolocating taxa. Wider taxonomic sampling of four CNEs associated with the homeobox genes Hmx2 and Hmx3 - which are required for inner ear development - revealed family-wise variation across diverse bat species. Specifically within one family of echolocating bats that utilise

  6. Logging production rates in young-growth, mixed-conifer stands in north central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1972-01-01

    To quantify production rates for small trees, this study examined the components of log-making and tractor yarding at the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, California. Rates were calculated over a range of 12 to 40 inches d.b.h. The rate for incense-cedar was lowest; for ponderosa pine it was intermediate; and for Douglas-fir, white fir, and sugar pine...

  7. Sustainability of rare earth elements chain: from production to food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of chemical elements that include lanthanoids (lanthanum to lutetium), scandium and yttrium. In the last decades, the REE demand in the industry and other areas has increased significantly. In general, REE have shown low concentrations in soils, plants, water and atmosphere, but they may accumulate in such environments due to anthropogenic inputs. In areas where there is REE contamination, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Many studies have shown environmental areas contaminated with REE and their toxic effects. Thus, it is important to review, in order to improve the current understanding of these elements in the environment, showing the effects of REE exposure in mining, soil, water, plants and food. Besides, there are few suppliers and a limited quantity of these elements in the world. This paper suggests options to improve the sustainability management of REE chain.

  8. Improvement to heat exchanger elements, to the corresponding exchangers and their methods of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a flat rectangular element for a heat exchanger made by closely assembling two regular ribbed sheets against each other. In the element thus obtained the ribbing forms two parallel passages at two opposite sides of the rectangle and running along these two sides, and a series of identical channels parallel to the two other sides of the rectangle. The two ends of these channels respectively give on to the two passages. Each light-alloy sheet is very thin, under .5mm. The total thickness of the element is less than 5 mm. The total area of each rectangular side of the element is around one square metre, its length being greater than 1 metre. The heat exchanger is built up of a bank of these elements juxtaposed side by side with requisite interpositions for the circulation of the external exchange [fr

  9. Joule heat production rate and the particle energy injection rate as a function of the geomagnetic indices AE and AL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, B.; Akasofu, S.; Kamide, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the joint efforts of operating six meridian chains of magnetometers during the IMS, magnetic records from 71 stations are used to deduce the distribution of electric fields and currents in the polar ionosphere for March 17, 18, and 19, 1978. As a continuation of this project, we have constructed hourly distribution maps of the Joule heat production rate and their sum over the entire polar region on the three days. For this purpose the conductivity distribution is inferred at each instant partially on the basis of an empirical method devised by Ahn et al. (1982). The particle energy injection rate is estimated similarly by using an empirical method. The data set thus obtained allows us to estimate also the global Joule heat production rate U/sub J/, the global particle energy injection rate U/sub A/ and the sum U/sub Gamma/ of the two quantities. It is found that three global quantities (watt) are related almost linearly to the AE(nT) and AL(nT) indices. Our present estimates give the following relationships: U/sub J/ = 2.3 times 10 8 x AE 8 U/sub A/ = 0.6 times 10 8 x AE 8 and U/sub I/ = 2.9 times 10 8 x AE: U/sub J/ = 3.0 times 10 8 x AL 8 U/sub A/ = 0.8 times 10 8 x AL, and U/sub I/ = 3.8 times 10 8 x AL

  10. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Dieless Tube Drawing of Strain Rate Sensitive Material with Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Takashi; Manabe, Ken-ichi

    2004-06-01

    Dieless drawing is a unique deformation process without conventional dies, which can achieve a great reduction of wire and tube metals in single pass by means of local heating and cooling approach. In this study, for microtube forming, the dieless drawing process applying superplastic behavior was analyzed by finite element method (FEM) in order to clarify the effect of dieless tube drawing conditions such as tensile speed, moving speed of heating and cooling system, and material properties on deformation behavior of the tube. In the calculation, the material properties were dealt in a special subroutine, whose constitutive equation was defined as σ = Kɛnɛ˙m, and was linked to the solver. A coupled thermo-mechanical analysis was performed for the dieless tube drawing using the FEM. In the thermal analysis of dieless tube drawing, heat transfer was introduced to calculate the heat flux between heating coil and tube surface, and heat conduction in a tube. The influence of dieless tube drawing conditions on deformation behavior was clarified. As a result, for the strain rate sensitive material, the maximum reduction of area and the minimum outer diameter in single pass attain to 90.9% and 2.56mm, respectively. From the result, it is concluded that the dieless tube drawing is essential to produce an extrafine microtube by reason of keeping cylindrical tube diameter ratio constant with extremely high reduction.

  12. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources; Norsk ressurspolitikk: Utvinningstempoet for norske petroleumsressurser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway`s largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Constant rate natural gas production from a well in a hydrate reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Chuang; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2003-01-01

    Using a computational model, production of natural gas at a constant rate from a well that is drilled into a confined methane hydrate reservoir is studied. It is assumed that the pores in the reservoir are partially saturated with hydrate. A linearized model for an axisymmetric condition with a fixed well output is used in the analysis. For different reservoir temperatures and various well outputs, time evolutions of temperature and pressure profiles, as well as the gas flow rate in the hydrate zone and the gas region, are evaluated. The distance of the decomposition front from the well as a function of time is also computed. It is shown that to maintain a constant natural gas production rate, the well pressure must be decreased with time. A constant low production rate can be sustained for a long duration of time, but a high production rate demands unrealistically low pressure at the well after a relatively short production time. The simulation results show that the process of natural gas production in a hydrate reservoir is a sensitive function of reservoir temperature and hydrate zone permeability

  14. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  15. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  16. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Gill, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  17. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C., E-mail: sheppards@ecomatters.co [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B. [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba, R0E 1L0 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of {sup 129}I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg{sup -1} or d L{sup -1}) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  18. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of 129 I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg -1 or d L -1 ) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  19. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of (129)I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg(-1) or d L(-1)) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  20. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  1. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  2. Measurement of very low release rates of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.-P.; Falk, I.

    1984-01-01

    A radiotracer technique has been developed for the measurement of release rates from nuclear reactor materials and it has been tested in a number of experiments. THis article, which forms the first part in a series, describes the experimental loop, the experimental technique and the preliminary results. Experiments were carried out on 18Cr8Ni stainless steel and on Inconel X750 in BWR primary system and feed water environments. The result show that a steady state in the release rate is achieved after operation for approximately 600 h. The release rate depends on the elemental concentration in the material and on the chemical and physical environments. Typical release rates for an 18Cr8Ni stainless steel and Inconel X750 in a BWR primary system environment were found to be 5 mdm and 8 mdm respectively. (Authors)

  3. Technology development and commercial production of current-carrying elements on the basis of Nb3Sn superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.D.; Shikov, A.K.; Davydov, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    A description of a current carrying element intended for Tokamak-15 magnetic system is presented. The element is produced from multicore wires with superconducting Nb 3 Sn cores and calculated for 8.5 kA critical current in magnetic field of 8 T. Main processing procedures of its manufacturing are shown. Extrusion conditions needed for production of composite bronze-niobium rods and multicore wire 1.5 mm in diameter with 14641 niobium cores are determined. Heat treatment used results in formation of Nb 3 Sn intermetallics and assures maximal current-carrying capacity of 910-920 A in 8 T magnetic field. 15 refs., 9 figs

  4. Process for the production of prismatic graphite molded articles for high temperature fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Rachor, L.; Hrovat, M.; Wolff, W.

    1976-01-01

    Prismatic graphite molded objects for high temperature fuel elements are prepared by producing the outer geometry and the holes for cooling channels and for receiving fuel and fertile materials in the formation of the carbon object

  5. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tru, Nguyen Nhi; Yoshino, Tsujino; Yasuki, Maeda

    2008-01-01

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time

  6. Gross domestic product growth rates as confined Lévy flights: Towards a unifying theory of economic growth rate fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2018-01-01

    A model that combines economic growth rate fluctuations at the microscopic and macroscopic levels is presented. At the microscopic level, firms are growing at different rates while also being exposed to idiosyncratic shocks at the firm and sector levels. We describe such fluctuations as independent Lévy-stable fluctuations, varying over multiple orders of magnitude. These fluctuations are aggregated and measured at the macroscopic level in averaged economic output quantities such as GDP. A fundamental question is thereby to what extent individual firm size fluctuations can have a noticeable impact on the overall economy. We argue that this question can be answered by considering the Lévy fluctuations as embedded in a steep confining potential well, ensuring nonlinear mean-reversal behavior, without having to rely on microscopic details of the system. The steepness of the potential well directly controls the extent to which idiosyncratic shocks to firms and sectors are damped at the level of the economy. Additionally, the theory naturally accounts for business cycles, represented in terms of a bimodal economic output distribution and thus connects two so far unrelated fields in economics. By analyzing 200 years of U.S. gross domestic product growth rates, we find that the model is in good agreement with the data.

  7. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  8. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  9. Localized specific absorption rate calculations in a realistic phantom leg at 1-30 MHz using a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection standards for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation are principally intended to avoid detrimental thermal effects. To this end the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and national bodies such as the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), recommend limitations on the localized specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in various parts of the body. The role of numerical dosimetry is to estimate the SAR from measurable parameters such as external field strengths and total body currents. In recent years there have been significant advances in the sophistication of the anatomical models available, and in our knowledge of the electrical properties of the body tissues. Several groups, including NRPB, have developed mathematical phantoms from medical imaging data, such as MRI scans. It has been known for some time that under certain circumstances SAR restrictions may be violated in the ankle due to the concentration of current in a small area. In this paper the author presents calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high-frequency (HF) band. This band contains the human whole-body resonance frequency and therefore gives the strongest coupling of the body to the field. The present study uses a finite element model with variable mesh size, derived from a 2 mm resolution voxel phantom of the whole body. It also uses recently acquired data on the electrical properties of the tissues. The results are discussed in the light of the exposure standards promulgated by national and international bodies such as NRPB and ICNIRP, and it is shown that the basic SAR restrictions in the leg are ensured by a current reference level of 100 mA. (author)

  10. First superheavy element experiments at the GSI recoil separator TASCA: The production and decay of element 114 in the 244Pu(48Ca,3-4n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, J. M.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Schaedel, M.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Bruechle, W.; Essel, H. G.; Hartmann, W.; Hessberger, F. P.; Huebner, A.; Jaeger, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Steiner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with the new recoil separator, Transactinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA), at the GSI were performed by using beams of 48 Ca to irradiate targets of 206-208 Pb, which led to the production of 252-254 No isotopes. These studies allowed for evaluation of the performance of TASCA when coupled to a new detector and electronics system. By following these studies, the isotopes of element 114 ( 288-291 114) were produced in irradiations of 244 Pu targets with 48 Ca beams at compound nucleus excitation energies around 41.7 and 37.5 MeV, demonstrating TASCA's ability to perform experiments with picobarn-level cross sections. A total of 15 decay chains were observed and were assigned to the decay of 288-291 114. A new α-decay branch in 281 Ds was observed, leading to the new nucleus 277 Hs.

  11. Rate of germanium-isotope production by background processes in the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Data on a direct determination of systematic uncertainties caused by the background production of germanium isotopes in the radiochemical SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux are analyzed. The result obtained for the rate of 68 Ge production is 6.5(1±1.0) times greater than the expected one; the rate of 69 Ge production does not exceed preliminary estimates. The above result for 68 Ge corresponds to the systematic uncertainty that is caused by the interaction of cosmic-ray muons and which is equal to 5.8% (4.5 SNU) at a solar-neutrino-capture rate of 77.0 SNU. An experiment is proposed that would test the effect of cosmic-ray muon influence on the SAGE systematic uncertainty and which would be performed at the location of the underground scintillation telescope facilities of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences)

  12. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  13. On-line tritium production and heat deposition rate measurements at the Lotus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Scherrer, P.; Anand, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Integral tritium production and heat deposition measurement in a prototype fusion blanket would enable verification of the computational codes and the data based employed for the calculations. A large number of tritium production rate measurements have been reported for different type of blankets, whereas the direct heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field in the fusion environment, is still in its infancy. In order to ascertain the kerma factors and the photon production libraries, suitable techniques must be developed to directly measure the nuclear heat deposition rates in the materials required for the fusion systems. In this context, at the Lotus facility, we have developed an extremely efficient double ionizing chamber, for the on-line tritium production measurements and employed a pure graphite calorimeter to measure the nuclear heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field of the 14 MeV, Haefely neutron generator. This paper presents both systems and some of the recent measurements. (authors). 8 refs., 13 figs

  14. Fines stabilizing agent reduces production decline rates in steam injected wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo de Castillo, Milagros; Fernandez Andrades, Jarvi [PDVSA - Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Navarro Cornejo, Willian; Curtis, James [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Bachaquero Lago heavy oil field, located in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, with an area of 9800 ha, in which more than 1800 wells have been drilled. The Lagunillas formation in this field is a mature, clastic, unconsolidated sandstone of Miocene age with good permeability. Clays are present, in laminated form or dispersed within the productive sandstones. Heavy oil, less than 12 deg API, is produced by cyclic steam injection. Wells are completed with cased-hole gravel packs to prevent sand and fines production. Rapid production decline rates are typically observed after the steam injection cycles, due to fines migration and plugging of the reservoir and gravel pack. This paper describes the methodology used to treat the wells with a fines stabilizing agent during the steam injection cycles in order to successfully reduce the subsequent production decline rate. Results from a multi-well pilot project are presented and analyzed. (author)

  15. Economic fluctuations in a small economy with two productive sectors under a floating exchange rate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ustorgio Mora Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical model of aggregate supply and demand in a small economy with two productive sectors, under a flexible exchange regime and imperfect capital mobility. Only one of the production sectors is assumed to produce an exportable commodity sold at world market prices, while the production of the other sector is assumed to supply the domestic market. This model helps to explain how the impact of both domestic (economic policy, productivity, etc. and foreign (changes in exchange terms shocks is spread. In every case studied, results show that real output increases consistently with those cases postulated by economic theory. Conversely, the effects on the price level, the exchange rate and the real interest rate are ambiguous. In terms of domestic shocks, fiscal or monetary policy may be seen as a way to stabilize or stimulate the economy but the costs involved raise the price level.

  16. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  17. Water coning. An empirical formula for the critical oil-production rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schols, R S

    1972-01-01

    The production of oil through a well that partly penetrates an oil layer underlain by water causes the oil/water interface to deform into a bell shape, usually referred to as water coning. To prevent water- breakthrough as a result of water coning, a knowledge of critical rates is necessary. Experiments are described in which critical rates were measured as a function of the relevant parameters. The experiments were conducted in Hele Shaw models, suitable for radial flow. From the experimental data, an empirical formula for critical rates was derived in dimensionless form. Approximate theoretical solutions for the critical rate appear in literature. A comparison of critical rates calculated according to these solutions with those from the empirical formula shows that these literature data give either too high or too low values for the critical rates.

  18. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  19. A production inventory model with exponential demand rate and reverse logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Raj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated production inventory model for reworkable items with exponential demand rate. This is a three-layer supply chain model with perspectives of supplier, producer and retailer. Supplier delivers raw material to the producer and finished goods to the retailer. We consider perfect and imperfect quality products, product reliability and reworking of imperfect items. After screening, defective items reworked at a cost just after the regular manufacturing schedule. At the beginning, the manufacturing system starts produce perfect items, after some time the manufacturing system can undergo into “out-of-control” situation from “in-control” situation, which is controlled by reverse logistic technique. This paper deliberates the effects of business strategies like optimum order size of raw material, exponential demand rate, production rate is demand dependent, idle times and reverse logistics for an integrated marketing system. Mathematica is used to develop the optimal solution of production rate and raw material order for maximum expected average profit. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is illustrated to validate the model.

  20. Comparison of Heterotrophic Bacterial Production-Rates in Early Spring in the Turbid Estuaries of the Scheldt and the Elbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1995-01-01

    In spring bacterial production rates were estimated by tritiated thymidine incorporation in the turbid estuaries of the rivers Scheldt and Elbe. Bacterial production rates in the Scheldt were 5 times higher than in the Elbe. In the Scheldt bacterial production rates correlated better with the DOC

  1. MTR fuel element supply by CERCA through CECCN after the production transfer from NUKEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassel, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of fuel element supply contracts, the corresponding Al-materials, structure parts, documents, uranium metal, customers related know-how, tools and equipment from NUKEM to CERCA has been completed, thus now giving a high flexibility for CERCA's workshop to fabricate and inspect large quantities of several types of fuel elements simultaneously. Based on this fact, on strategic planning for the next couple of years and on the fact that after 10 years of RERTR program the necessary high density fuel has been successfully developed and implemented, 'business as usual' in the field of fabrication has well become possible. The RERTR community should now use the great chance to concentrate all its efforts on problems which still strongly influence the fabrication and the use of MTR fuel elements: supply of enriched uranium,reprocessing capabilities and politics, transports of nuclear materials. (author)

  2. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw

    2013-01-01

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL -1 Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  3. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw, E-mail: anna.szymczycha@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Analytical Chemistry Division, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL{sup -1} Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  4. The Cost Structure - Key Element in the Development of Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiroveanu

    2016-01-01

    In this regard, planning the launch of new products or services requires a strategic approach, astructural analysis of the costs and the identification of opportunities to increase optimization withthe aim of increasing the effectiveness of the product policy.

  5. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  6. Antibiotics from bacillus subtilis AECL90 - effect of trace elements and carbohydrates on antibiotic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Shaukat, G.A.; Ahmed, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Three types of antibiotics S, X and F characteristically bioactive against staphylococcic, xanthomonas and fungi are elaborated by Bacillus Subtilis AECL 69 when grown in molasses peptone malt extract sucrose. No antibiotic production was observed when molasses was omitted from the growth medium. A mineral salt mixture was devised that could replace molasses and restore the production of antibiotics. Influence of various carbohydrates on the production of antibiotics was also studied. Mannose and mannitol had inhibitory effect on the antibiotic production. (author)

  7. The effect of harmeful elements in production of iron in relation to input and output material balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of blast-furnace operators include maximum production of pig iron of required chemical composition at minimal cost. This can be ensured only in case of quality raw material basis and trouble-free operation of blast-furnace. Both parameters are influenced by the concentration of undesirable elements. The negative elements contained in the blast-furnace raw materials cause many technological problems in the sintering as well as in the blast-furnace process. These are mainly heavy metals and alkaline carbonates. The article deals with the analysis of material balance of zinc and selected alkaline carbonates contents in the input raw materials and output products of the blast-furnace.

  8. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  9. Product ion isotopologue pattern: A tool to improve the reliability of elemental composition elucidations of unknown compounds in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Walker, S; Mol, G

    2016-04-15

    Elucidation of the elemental compositions of unknown compounds (e.g., in metabolomics) generally relies on the availability of accurate masses and isotopic ratios. This study focuses on the information provided by the abundance ratio within a product ion pair (monoisotopic versus the first isotopic peak) when isolating and fragmenting the first isotopic ion (first isotopic mass spectrum) of the precursor. This process relies on the capability of the quadrupole within the Q Orbitrap instrument to isolate a very narrow mass window. Selecting only the first isotopic peak (first isotopic mass spectrum) leads to the observation of a unique product ion pair. The lighter ion within such an isotopologue pair is monoisotopic, while the heavier ion contains a single carbon isotope. The observed abundance ratio is governed by the percentage of carbon atoms lost during the fragmentation and can be described by a hypergeometric distribution. The observed carbon isotopologue abundance ratio (product ion isotopologue pattern) gives reliable information regarding the percentage of carbon atoms lost in the fragmentation process. It therefore facilitates the elucidation of the involved precursor and product ions. Unlike conventional isotopic abundances, the product ion isotopologue pattern is hardly affected by isobaric interferences. Furthermore, the appearance of these pairs greatly aids in cleaning up a 'matrix-contaminated' product ion spectrum. The product ion isotopologue pattern is a valuable tool for structural elucidation. It increases confidence in results and permits structural elucidations for heavier ions. This tool is also very useful in elucidating the elemental composition of product ions. Such information is highly valued in the field of multi-residue analysis, where the accurate mass of product ions is required for the confirmation process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Estimation of build up of dose rate on U3O8 product drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Shinde, A.M.; Deshpande, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In fuel reprocessing plant, plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) are products. Approximately 180 kg U 3 O 8 is filled in SS drum and sealed firmly before storage. In PHWR natural uranium (UO 2 ) is used as fuel. In natural uranium, thorium-232 is present as an impurity at few tens of ppm level. During irradiation in power reactors, due to nuclear reaction formation of 232 U from 232 Th takes place. Natural decay of 232 U leads to the formation of 208 Tl. As time passes, there is buildup of 208 Tl and hence increase in dose rate on the drum containing U 3 O 8 . It is essential to estimate the buildup of dose rate considering the external radiological hazards involved during U 3 O 8 drum handling, transportation and fuel fabrication. This paper describes the calculation of dose rate on drum in future years using MCNP code. For dose rate calculation decay of fission product activity which remains as contamination in product and build up of '2 08 Tl from 232 U is considered. Some measured values of dose rate on U 3 O 8 drum are given for the comparisons with estimated dose rate based on MCNP code. (author)

  11. Estimation of Oil Production Rates in Reservoirs Exposed to Focused Vibrational Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2014-01-01

    Elastic wave-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being investigated as a possible EOR method, since strong wave motions within an oil reservoir - induced by earthquakes or artificially generated vibrations - have been reported to improve the production rate of remaining oil from existing oil fields. To date, there are few theoretical studies on estimating how much bypassed oil within an oil reservoir could be mobilized by such vibrational stimulation. To fill this gap, this paper presents a numerical method to estimate the extent to which the bypassed oil is mobilized from low to high permeability reservoir areas, within a heterogeneous reservoir, via wave-induced cross-flow oscillation at the interface between the two reservoir permeability areas. This work uses the finite element method to numerically obtain the pore fluid wave motion within a one-dimensional fluid-saturated porous permeable elastic solid medium embedded in a non-permeable elastic semi-infinite solid. To estimate the net volume of mobilized oil from the low to the high permeability area, a fluid flow hysteresis hypothesis is adopted to describe the behavior at the interface between the two areas. Accordingly, the fluid that is moving from the low to the high permeability areas is assumed to transport a larger volume of oil than the fluid moving in the opposite direction. The numerical experiments were conducted by using a prototype heterogeneous oil reservoir model, subjected to ground surface dynamic loading operating at low frequencies (1 to 50 Hz). The numerical results show that a sizeable amount of oil could be mobilized via the elastic wave stimulation. It is observed that certain wave frequencies are more effective than others in mobilizing the remaining oil. We remark that these amplification frequencies depend on the formation’s elastic properties. This numerical work shows that the wave-based mobilization of the bypassed oil in a heterogeneous oil reservoir is feasible, especially

  12. Optical measurements of atomic oxygen concentration, temperature and nitric oxide production rate in flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Franklin Henry

    An optical method for measuring nitric oxide (NO) production rates in flames was developed and characterized in a series of steady, one-dimensional, atmospheric-pressure laminar flames of 0.700 Hsb2/0.199 Nsb2/0.101 COsb2 or 0.700 CHsb4/0.300 Nsb2 (by moles) with dry air, with equivalence ratios from 0.79 to 1.27. Oxygen atom concentration, (O), was measured by two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), temperature was measured by ultraviolet Rayleigh scattering, and nitrogen concentration was calculated from supplied reactant flows; together this information was used to calculate the NO production rate through the thermal (Zel'dovich) mechanism. Measurements by two other techniques were compared with results from the above method. In the first comparison, gas sampling was used to measure axial NO concentration profiles, the slopes of which were multiplied by velocity to obtain total NO production rates. In the second comparison, LIF measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH) were used with equilibrium water concentrations and a partial equilibrium assumption to find (O). Nitric oxide production rates from all three methods agreed reasonably well. Photolytic interference was observed during (O) LIF measurements in all of the flames; this is the major difficulty in applying the optical technique. Photolysis of molecular oxygen in lean flames has been well documented before, but the degree of interference observed in the rich flames suggests that some other molecule is also dissociating; the candidates are OH, CO, COsb2 and Hsb2O. An extrapolative technique for removing the effects of photolysis from (O) LIF measurements worked well in all flames where NO production was significant. Using the optical method to measure NO production rates in turbulent flames will involve a tradeoff among spatial resolution, systematic photolysis error, and random shot noise. With the conventional laser system used in this work, a single pulse with a resolution of 700 mum measured NO

  13. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  14. Production of light elements by cascades from energetic antiprotons in the early Universe and problem of nuclear cosmoarcheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Yu.L.; Sobol', I.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model of the process of light-element (D and 3 He) production due to disintegration of 4 He nuclei, induced by nonequilibrium processes of production of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe is suggested. Numerical calculations show that formation of the nucleon cascade induced by antiproton slowing down increases the D and 3 He yield due to the growth of probability of disintegration of several 4 He nuclei by a single antiproton and due to disintegration of such nuclei by cascade protons. Restraints on the concentration of possible sources of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe are strengthened respectively

  15. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data).

  16. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village. Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian, after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface, the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands. Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  17. Cosmic-ray production rates of neon isotopes in meteorite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, N.

    1988-01-01

    The rates of production of 21 Ne and 22 Ne in spallation reactions, both due to solar as well as galactic cosmic rays, in some major meteoritic minerals, e.g. olivines, feldspars and pyroxenes, are calculated using their energy spectra and excitation functions. The production profiles of 21 Ne and 22 Ne due to galactic cosmic rays, and the 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio depend upon the size of the meteoroid. The 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio is very sensitive to the abundance of sodium and consequently its depth profile is distinctly different in feldspars, the ratio increasing with depth rather than decreasing as in pyroxenes and olivines. In the near-surface regions, up to a depth of 2 cm, production due to solar flare protons dominates, giving rise to a steep gradient in isotopic production as well as in the 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio. Composite production profiles are given and compared with measurements in some meteorites. (author). 22 refs

  18. High substrate uptake rates empower Vibrio natriegens as production host for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Eugenia; Grenz, Sebastian; Lange, Julian; Nitschel, Robert; Müller, Felix; Schwentner, Andreas; Feith, André; Lenfers-Lücker, Mira; Takors, Ralf; Blombach, Bastian

    2017-09-08

    The productivity of industrial fermentation processes is essentially limited by the biomass specific substrate consumption rate (q S ) of the applied microbial production system. Since q S depends on the growth rate (μ), we highlight the potential of the fastest growing non-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio natriegens , as novel candidate for future biotechnological processes. V. natriegens grows rapidly in BHIN complex medium with a μ of up to 4.43 h -1 (doubling time of 9.4 min) as well as in minimal medium supplemented with various industrially relevant substrates. Bioreactor cultivations in minimal medium with glucose showed that V. natriegens possesses an exceptionally high q S under aerobic (3.90 ± 0.08 g g -1 h -1 ) and anaerobic (7.81 ± 0.71 g g -1 h -1 ) conditions. Fermentations with resting cells of genetically engineered V. natriegens under anaerobic conditions yielded an overall volumetric productivity of 0.56 ± 0.10 g alanine L -1 min -1 (i.e. 34 g L -1 h -1 ). These inherent properties render V. natriegens a promising new microbial platform for future industrial fermentation processes operating with high productivity. Importance Low conversion rates are one major challenge to realize microbial fermentation processes for the production of commodities operating competitively to existing petrochemical approaches. For this reason, we screened for a novel platform organism possessing superior characteristics to traditionally employed microbial systems. We identified the fast growing Vibrio natriegens which exhibits a versatile metabolism and shows striking growth and conversion rates, as a solid candidate to reach outstanding productivities. Due to these inherent characteristics V. natriegens can speed up common laboratory routines, is suitable for already existing production procedures, and forms an excellent foundation to engineer next generation bioprocesses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Heavy-Ion Fusion Mechanism and Predictions of Super-Heavy Elements Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Shen Caiwan; Boilley, David; Giraud, Bertrand G.; Kosenko, Grigory

    2009-01-01

    Fusion process is shown to firstly form largely deformed mono-nucleus and then to undergo diffusion in two-dimensions with the radial and mass-asymmetry degrees of freedom. Examples of prediction of residue cross sections are given for the elements with Z = 117 and 118.

  20. Production of uranium hexafluoride by fluorination tetra-fluoride with elemental fluorine under pressure; Proizvodnja uraovega heksafluorida s tlacnim fluoriranjem uranovega tetrafluorida z elementarnim fluorom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutar, K; Smalc, A; Zemljic, A [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    In the introduction a brief description of some activities of fluorine chemistry department at the J. Stefan Institute is given - from production of elemental fluorine to the investigations in the field of uranium technology. Furthermore, a new method for the production of uranium hexafluoride is described more in detail. The method is based on the fluorination of uranium tetrafluoride with elemental fluorine. (author)

  1. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Production of Rare-Earth Elements for Energy Applications: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Julio [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Zhao, Fu, E-mail: fzhao@purdue.edu [Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-11-06

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 elements with similar chemical properties, including 15 in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage). However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore, reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life-cycle perspective.

  2. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Production of Rare-Earth Elements for Energy Applications: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Julio; Zhao, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 elements with similar chemical properties, including 15 in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage). However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore, reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life-cycle perspective.

  3. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  4. Combined results on b-hadron production rates, lifetimes, oscillations and semileptonic decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D.; Andreev, V.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Blyth, S.; Boix, G.; Bourdarios, C.; Calvi, M.; Checchia, P.; Coyle, P.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Gagnon, P.; Hawkings, R.; Hayes, O.; Henrard, P.; Hessing, T.; Jimack, M.; Kroll, I.J.; Leroy, O.; Lucchesi, D.; Margoni, M.; Mele, S.; Moser, H.G.; Muheim, F.; Palla, F.; Pallin, D.; Parodi, F.; Paulini, M.; Piotto, E.; Privitera, P.; Rosnet, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rousseau, D.; Schneider, O.; Schwick, C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Simonetto, F.; Spagnolo, P.; Stocchi, A.; Su, D.; Usher, T.; Weiser, C.; Wells, P.; Wicklund, B.; Willocq, Stephane

    2000-01-01

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates, B&0_d - Bbar^0_d and B^0_s - Bbar^0_s oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B^s0_s - Bbar^0_s system, and the values of the CKM

  5. Effect of supplementary feed and stocking rate on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of two different levels of supplementary feed and two different stocking rates on the production of grazing ostriches. One hundred and seventy ostriches were randomly allocated to four groups and kept on irrigated lucerne pasture with or without supplementary feed from ...

  6. Warming affects growth rates and microcystin production in tropical bloom-forming microcystis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Trung; Dao, Thanh Son; Vo, Truong Giang; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC) production in tropical Microcystis

  7. An expert system for estimating production rates and costs for hardwood group-selection harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; B. Gopalakrishnan; R. S. Pabba

    2003-01-01

    As forest managers shift their focus from stands to entire ecosystems alternative harvesting methods such as group selection are being used increasingly. Results of several field time and motion studies and simulation runs were incorporated into an expert system for estimating production rates and costs associated with harvests of group-selection units of various size...

  8. Second international comparison on measuring techniques of tritium production rate for fusion neutronics experiments (ICMT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Maekawa, Hiroshi

    1993-02-01

    An second international comparison on measuring techniques of tritium production rates for fusion neutronics experiments (ICMT-2) has been performed. The purpose is to evaluate the measurement accuracy of tritium production rates in the current measurement techniques. Two 14 MeV neutron source facilities, FNS at JAERI-Japan and LOTUS at EPFL-Switzerland, were used for this purpose. Nine groups out of seven countries participated in this program. A fusion simulated blanket assembly of simple-geometry was served as the test bed at each facility, in which Li-containing samples from the participants were irradiated in an uniform neutron field. The tritium production rates were determined by the participants using their own ways by using the liquid scintillation counting method. Tritiated water sample with unknown but the same concentration was also distributed and its concentration was measured to make a common reference. The standard deviation of measured tritium production rates among participants was about 10 % for both FNS and LOTUS irradiation levels: 4x10 -13 T-atoms/Li-atom and 1.6x10 -12 T-atoms/Li-atom at a sample, respectively. This standard deviation exceeds the expected deviation of 5 % in this program. It is presumed that the deviation of 10 % is caused mainly by the systematic and unknown errors in a process of tritium extraction from the irradiated samples depending on each organization. (author)

  9. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  10. 76 FR 65639 - International Mail: Proposed Product Rate and Fee Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Customs Clearance and Delivery Fee International Reply Coupons International Business Reply Service The... * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply Service... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Proposed Product Rate and Fee Changes AGENCY...

  11. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  12. Expressed microRNA associated with high rate of egg production in chicken ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N; Gaur, U; Zhu, Q; Chen, B; Xu, Z; Zhao, X; Yang, M; Li, D

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing. By comparing low rate of egg production chickens with high rate of egg production chickens, 17 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found (P chickens with high rates of egg production, suggesting that these miRNAs have an important role in ovary development and reproductive management of chicken. Furthermore, we uncovered that a significantly up-regulated miRNA-gga-miR-200a-3p-is ubiquitous in reproduction-regulation-related pathways. This miRNA may play a special central role in the reproductive management of chicken, and needs to be further studied for confirmation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  14. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  15. Optimization between heating load and entropy-production rate for endoreversible absorption heat-transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengrui; Qin Xiaoyong; Chen Lingen; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    For an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption heat-transformer cycle, for which a linear (Newtonian) heat-transfer law applies, an ecological optimization criterion is proposed for the best mode of operation of the cycle. This involves maximizing a function representing the compromise between the heating load and the entropy-production rate. The optimal relation between the ecological criterion and the COP (coefficient of performance), the maximum ecological criterion and the corresponding COP, heating load and entropy production rate, as well as the ecological criterion and entropy-production rate at the maximum heating load are derived using finite-time thermodynamics. Moreover, compared with the heating-load criterion, the effects of the cycle parameters on the ecological performance are studied by numerical examples. These show that achieving the maximum ecological criterion makes the entropy-production rate decrease by 77.0% and the COP increase by 55.4% with only 27.3% heating-load losses compared with the maximum heating-load objective. The results reflect that the ecological criterion has long-term significance for optimal design of absorption heat-transformers

  16. The effect of the composition and production process of concrete on the 222Rn exhalation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, P. de; Dijk, W. van; Hulst, J.G.A. van; Heijningen, R.J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    In a series of 18 concrete samples, the influence of several parameters related to composition and production processes on the radon exhalation rate was studied. The investigated parameters were: amount and type of cement, water-cement ratio, curing conditions and curing time, type of aggregates,

  17. Does warming affect growth rate and biomass production of shrubs in the High Arctic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed directly the impact of warming on plant growth and biomass production in the High Arctic. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 7 years of warming (open greenhouses) on the aboveground relative growth rate (RGR) of Cassiope tetragona and Salix arctica in North-East...

  18. Measurement of the incorporation rates of four amino acids into proteins for estimating bacterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, P

    1995-03-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into bacterial DNA and [(3)H]leucine incorporation into proteins are usually used to estimate bacterial production. The incorporation rates of four amino acids (leucine, tyrosine, lysine, alanine) into proteins of bacteria were measured in parallel on natural freshwater samples from the basin of the river Meuse (Belgium). Comparison of the incorporation into proteins and into the total macromolecular fraction showed that these different amino acids were incorporated at more than 90% into proteins. From incorporation measurements at four subsaturated concentrations (range, 2-77 nm), the maximum incorporation rates were determined. Strong correlations (r > 0.91 for all the calculated correlations) were found between the maximum incorporation rates of the different tested amino acids over a range of two orders of magnitude of bacterial activity. Bacterial production estimates were calculated using theoretical and experimental conversion factors. The productions calculated from the incorporation rates of the four amino acids were in good concordance, especially when the experimental conversion factors were used (slope range, 0.91-1.11, and r > 0.91). This study suggests that the incorporation of various amino acids into proteins can be used to estimate bacterial production.

  19. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  20. Estimation of Oil Production Rates in Reservoirs Exposed to Focused Vibrational Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok; Kallivokas, Loukas F.; Huh, Chun; Lake, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    the production rate of remaining oil from existing oil fields. To date, there are few theoretical studies on estimating how much bypassed oil within an oil reservoir could be mobilized by such vibrational stimulation. To fill this gap, this paper presents a

  1. The effect of cigarillo packaging elements on young adult perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Ranney, Leah M; Lazard, Allison J; Kim, KyungSu; Queen, Tara L; Avishai, Aya; Boynton, Marcella H; Sheeran, Paschal J; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-01-01

    Product packaging has long been used by the tobacco industry to target consumers and manipulate product perceptions. This study examines the extent to which cigarillo packaging influences perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal. A web-based experiment was conducted among young adults. Participants viewed three randomly selected cigarillo packs, varying on pack flavor descriptor, color, type, branding, and warning-totaling 180 pack images. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of pack elements on product perceptions. A total of 2,664 current, ever, and never little cigar and cigarillo users participated. Cigarillo packs with a flavor descriptor were perceived as having a more favorable taste (β = 0.21, p product taste (pictorial: β = -0.07, p = .03) and smell (text-only: β = -0.08, p = .01; pictorial: β = -0.09, p = .007), warnings did not moderate the effects of flavor descriptor or color. To our knowledge, this study provides the first quantitative evidence that cigarillo packaging alters consumers' cognitive responses, and warnings on packs do not suffice to overcome the effects of product packaging. The findings support efforts at federal, state, and local levels to prohibit flavor descriptors and their associated product flavoring in non-cigarette products such as cigarillos, along with new data that supports restrictions on flavor cues and colors.

  2. Production rates of strange vector mesons at the Z0 resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dima, Mihai O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This dissertation presents a study of strange vector meson production, "leading particle" effect and a first direct measurement of the strangeness suppression parameter in hadronic decays of the neutral electroweak boson, Z. The measurements were performed in e+e- collisions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) with the SLC Large Detector (SLD) experiment. A new generation particle ID system, the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) is used to discriminate kaons from pions, enabling the reconstruction of the vector mesons over a wide momentum range. The inclusive production rates of ρ and K*0 and the differential rates versus momentum were measured and are compared with those of other experiments and theoretical predictions. The high longitudinal polarisation of the SLC electron beam is used in conjunction with the electroweak quark production asymmetries to separate quark jets from antiquark jets. K*0 production is studied separately in these samples, and the results show evidence for the "leading particle" effect. The difference between K*0 production rates at high momentum in quark and antiquark jets yields a first direct measurement of strangeness suppression in jet fragmentation.

  3. Production rates of strange vector mesons at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dima, M.O.

    1997-05-01

    This dissertation presents a study of strange vector meson production, open-quotes leading particleclose quotes effect and a first direct measurement of the strangeness suppression parameter in hadronic decays of the neutral electroweak boson, Z 0 . The measurements were performed in e + e - collisions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) with the SLC Large Detector (SLD) experiment. A new generation particle ID system, the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) is used to discriminate kaons from pions, enabling the reconstruction of the vector mesons over a wide momentum range. The inclusive production rates of φ and K* 0 and the differential rates versus momentum were measured and are compared with those of other experiments and theoretical predictions. The high longitudinal polarisation of the SLC electron beam is used in conjunction with the electroweak quark production asymmetries to separate quark jets from antiquark jets. K* 0 production is studied separately in these samples, and the results show evidence for the open-quotes leading particleclose quotes effect. The difference between K* 0 production rates at high momentum in quark and antiquark jets yields a first direct measurement of strangeness suppression in jet fragmentation

  4. Production and quality of three varieties of chrysanthemum grown in pots with different NPK rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Crescencio Heidemann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum can be grown for cutting or as a pot plant year-round, providing a constant production flow. In Brazil, little is known about mineral nutrition and fertilization for this crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the production and quality of chrysanthemum varieties cultivated in pots with different NPK rates. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with the NPK rates (10-10-10 of 3 g L-1, 6 g L-1 and 9 g L-1 and chrysanthemum varieties Sheena, Calabria and Indianapolis. Pots of 1.2 L capacity were filled with substrate and placed three cuttings per pot kept in a fog chamber under long days. After 21 days, apical pruning was done and started the short-day period. After flowering induction, short days were suspended. It was realized analysis of variance and it was noticed that stem length and EC were affected by NPK rates. It was observed an inverse relation between the increase in NPK rate and cultivation cycle, resulting in precocity of flowering for all varieties. Plants cultivated under 9 g L-1 rate did not present toxicity symptoms, suggesting that this dose was more adequate for the production of pot plants for all three varieties.

  5. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  6. Impact of Optimized Flow Pattern on Pollutant Removal and Biogas Production Rate Using Wastewater Anaerobic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyi Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new-type of antigravity mixing method, which was applied in the biogas production process, using organic wastewater fermentation. It was found that the digesters with two designs, a high-position, centralized pressure outlet and a high-position, dispersed pressure outlets, both lead to an increase in biogas production rates by 89% and 125%, respectively. The biogas production peak appeared 1 day and 7 days earlier, and the COD removal rates were raised by 27% and 42%, respectively. The results indicated that the optimized flow field had a significant impact. This work also explains the mechanism of flow field optimization using computational fluid dynamics (CFD software for the simulation of the flow field form in the hydraulic mixing.

  7. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    -varying covariate in Cox models assessing predictors of the LIFE primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke), its individual components, and all-cause mortality. At baseline, the triple product in both treatment groups was, compared with normal adults, elevated in 70% of patients. During...... more, greater heart rate reduction with atenolol resulted in larger reduction of the triple product. Lower triple product during antihypertensive treatment was strongly, independently associated with lower rates of the LIFE primary composite end point, cardiovascular death, and MI, but not stroke.......In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference...

  8. Effect of turbulence on the disintegration rate of flushable consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagli, Fatih; Rittmann, Bruce E; McAvoy, Drew C; Richardson, John E

    2012-05-01

    A previously developed model for the physical disintegration of flushable consumer products is expanded by investigating the effects of turbulence on the rate of physical disintegration. Disintegration experiments were conducted with cardboard tampon applicators at 100, 150, and 200 rotations per minute, corresponding to Reynold's numbers of 25,900, 39,400, and 52,900, respectively, which were estimated by using computational fluid dynamics modeling. The experiments were simulated with the disintegration model to obtain best-fit values of the kinetic and distribution parameters. Computed rate coefficients (ki) for all solid sizes (i.e., greater than 8, 4 to 8, 2 to 4, and 1 to 2 mm) increased strongly with Reynold's number or rotational speed. Thus, turbulence strongly affected the disintegration rate of flushable products, and the relationship of the ki values to Reynold's number can be included in mathematical representations of physical disintegration.

  9. Finite element speaker-specific face model generation for the study of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, Marek; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Payan, Yohan

    2010-08-01

    In situations where automatic mesh generation is unsuitable, the finite element (FE) mesh registration technique known as mesh-match-and-repair (MMRep) is an interesting option for quickly creating a subject-specific FE model by fitting a predefined template mesh onto the target organ. The irregular or poor quality elements produced by the elastic deformation are corrected by a 'mesh reparation' procedure ensuring that the desired regularity and quality standards are met. Here, we further extend the MMRep capabilities and demonstrate the possibility of taking into account additional relevant anatomical features. We illustrate this approach with an example of biomechanical model generation of a speaker's face comprising face muscle insertions. While taking advantage of the a priori knowledge about tissues conveyed by the template model, this novel, fast and automatic mesh registration technique makes it possible to achieve greater modelling realism by accurately representing the organ surface as well as inner anatomical or functional structures of interest.

  10. Production of atomic negative ion beams of the Group IA elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method has been developed which enables the direct sputter generation of atomic negative ion beams of all members of the Group IA elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs). The method consists of the use of sputter samples formed by pressing mixtures of the carbonates of the Group IA elements and 10% (atomic) Cu, Ag, or other metal powder. The following intensities are typical of those observed from carbonate samples subjected to /approximately/3 KeV cesium ion bombardment: Li - : ≥0.5 μA; Na - : ≥0.5 μA; K - : ≥0.5 μA; Rb - : ≥0.5 μA; Cs - : ≥0.2 μA. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Production of Rare Earth Elements from Malaysian Monazite by Selective Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul Bahri; Al- Areqi, W.M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Mohd Izzat Fahmi Mohd Ruf

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are very valuable and have high demands for advanced technology nowadays. REEs can be classified to light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). Malaysian rare earth ore especially monazite, is rich with LREEs compared to HREEs. Therefore a study was carried out to extract the REE from Malaysian monazite. The objectives of this study are to determine the content of REEs in Malaysian monazite leach solution, as well as to produce high grade of REEs. Concentrated sulphuric acid was used in digestion process and the filtrate containing the REEs was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ammonia solution was used for REEs precipitation from monazite leach solution. The result indicated that REEs was successfully separated from monazite leach solution through selective precipitation using ammonia at pH 2.34 and the percentage of REEs that successfully separated was 70.03 - 81.85 %. The percentage of REEs which successfully separated from final solution was 96.05 - 99.10 %. Therefore, to have high purification of individual REEs, solvent extraction process should be carried out. (author)

  12. Study of color-octet matrix elements through J/ψ production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi-Jie; Xu, Guang-Zhi; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Liu, Kui-Yong [Liaoning University, Department of Physics, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Yu-Jie [Beihang University, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, the color-octet long distance matrix elements are studied through the inclusive J/ψ production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation within the framework of non-relativistic QCD factorization. The calculations are up-to next-to-leading order with the radiative and relativistic corrections in the energy region of the B-factory and the near-threshold region of 4.6-5.6 GeV. A constraint of the long distance matrix elements (left angle {sup 1}S{sub 0}{sup 8} right angle, left angle {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup 8} right angle) is obtained. Through our estimation, the P-wave color-octet matrix element (left angle 0 vertical stroke {sup 3}P{sup 8}{sub 0} vertical stroke 0 right angle) should be of the order of 0.008m{sub c}{sup 2} GeV{sup 3} or less. The constrained region is not compatible with the values of the long distance matrix elements fitted at hadron colliders. (orig.)

  13. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  14. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  15. Inventory model with two rates of production for deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajanta; Samanta, G. P.

    2011-08-01

    Goyal (1985) ['Economic Order Quantity Under Conditions of Permissible Delay in Payments', Journal of Operational research Society, 36, 35-38] assumed that unit selling price and unit purchasing price are equal. But in real-life the scenario is different. The purpose of this article is to reflect the real life problem by allowing unit selling price and purchasing price to be unequal. Our model is a continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items in which two different rates of production are available. The results are illustrated with the help of a numerical example. We discuss the sensitivity of the solution together with the changes of the values of the parameters associated with the model. Our model may be applicable in many manufacturing planning situations where management practices for deterioration are stringent; e.g. the two-production rate will be more profitable than the one-production rate in the manufacture of cold, asthma and allergy medicine. Our proposed model might be applicable to develop a prototype advance planning system for those manufacturers to integrate the management science techniques into commercial planning.

  16. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood: Gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Samuel L., E-mail: szelinka@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Sichel, Rebecca J. [College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Stone, Donald S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The composition of the corrosion products was similar for the nail head and shank. {yields} Reduced copper was not detected on any of the fasteners. {yields} Measured corrosion rates were between 1 and 35 {mu}m year{sup -1}. - Abstract: Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27 {sup o}C at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The corrosion rate was determined gravimetrically and the corrosion products were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Although the accepted mechanism of corrosion in treated wood involves the reduction of cupric ions from the wood preservative, no reduced copper was found on the corrosion surfaces. The galvanized corrosion products contained sulfates, whereas the steel corrosion products consisted of iron oxides and hydroxides. The possible implications and limitations of this research on fasteners used in building applications are discussed.

  17. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied pharmaceutical and chemical waste production in a Greek hospital. ► Pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. ► Unit production rate for total pharmaceutical waste was 12.4 ± 3.90 g/patient/d. ► Chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. ► Unit production rate for total chemical waste was 5.8 ± 2.2 g/patient/d. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and “other”. Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and

  18. Reliability of the NINDS common data elements cranial tomography (CT) rating variables for traumatic brain injury (TBI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harburg, Leah; McCormack, Erin; Kenney, Kimbra; Moore, Carol; Yang, Kelly; Vos, Pieter; Jacobs, Bram; Madden, Christopher J; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R; Bogoslovsky, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-contrast head computer tomography (CT) is widely used to evaluate eligibility of patients after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) for clinical trials. The NINDS Common Data Elements (CDEs) TBI were developed to standardize collection of CT variables. The objectives of this study

  19. Specific elements of communication on agri-food products resulting from EU legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Timiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union a significant number of regulations aimed at agricultural and food sector thus creating the legal framework regarding the mode of production, pricing, distribution and communication in relation to agri-food products. Specificity agri-food marketing communication at EU level resulting in most of the measures taken with regard to ensuring consumer protection, food safety and security, some of them, in force in early 2012, referring to the labeling, presentation and advertising of agri-food products, sponsorship and distinctive signs of quality are shown in this paper.

  20. Elements of product service systems as a potential to achieve a sustainable development: bibliometry and content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ariente Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of product-service systems (PSS is presented as an innovative strategy when offering products and services. It aims at for minimizing environmental impacts through sustainable business models. This study aims to identify which potentialities can be explored with regard to the elements of a PSS in a configuration that favor to offer answers on sustainable issues. To do so, the literature was analyzed by a structured process of bibliographic review. Among the results, three aspects are highlighted: (i the wideness of product concept to add services through PSS life-cycle, (ii the configuration of infra-structure to support a PSS by establishing the necessary communication relatively to logistics services. Finally, the net of actors should be explored to obtain organizational proposals that contribute to PSS performance.

  1. Integrated Strategic Planning of Global Production Networks and Financial Hedging under Uncertain Demands and Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Koberstein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-stage stochastic programming model that integrates financial hedging decisions into the planning of strategic production networks under uncertain exchange rates and product demands. This model considers the expenses of production plants and the revenues of markets in different currency areas. Financial portfolio planning decisions for two types of financial instruments, forward contracts and options, are represented explicitly by multi-period decision variables and a multi-stage scenario tree. Using an illustrative example, we analyze the impact of exchange-rate and demand volatility, the level of investment expenses and interest rate spreads on capacity location and dimensioning decisions. In particular, we show that, in the illustrative example, the exchange-rate uncertainty cannot be completely eliminated by financial hedging in the presence of demand uncertainty. In this situation, we find that the integrated model can result in better strategic planning decisions for a risk-averse decision maker compared to traditional modeling approaches.

  2. Absolute production rate measurements of nitric oxide by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipa, A V; Bindemann, T; Foest, R; Kindel, E; Roepcke, J; Weltmann, K-D

    2008-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been applied to measure the absolute production rate of NO molecules in the gas phase of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operating at rf (13.56 MHz) in argon with small (up to 1%) admixtures of air. The resulting NO production rates were found to be in the range (0.1-80) x 10 -3 sccm or (0.05-35) x 10 18 molecules s -1 depending on the experimental conditions. Maximum rates were obtained at 0.2% air. For TDLAS measurements the APPJ was arranged inside an astigmatic multi-pass cell of Herriott type with 100 m absorption length. The insertion into a closed volume differs slightly from the normal, open operation with the jet propagating freely into air. Therefore, the measuring results are compared with optical emission of the open jet to verify equivalent experimental conditions. The dependence of the optical emission of NO (237 nm) on power and gas mixture has been measured. The similar shape of the dependence of absorption and emission signals gives evidence that the comparability of experimental conditions is sufficiently satisfied. It is concluded that the NO production rate of the APPJ in ambient air can be characterized using TDLAS and provides reliable results in spite of differing experimental conditions due to the set-up.

  3. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  4. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on zinc oxide manufacturing process. The present work deals with the character and morphology of the input material for the production of ZnO by the indirect pyrometallurgical process. Undesirable phases in the feedstock can be identified through profound recognition of the source material and the nature of its microstructure. If these compounds diffuse into the lining during thermal processes, they become the cause of stress in metallurgical ceramics. The emergence of these chemical reactions may subsequently affect the entire metallurgical zinc smelting process. The results obtained by analysis are used to minimize waste - zinc slag and to eliminate the conditions which enable the formation of the undesired product, thereby increasing the productivity of the ZnO production.

  5. Voice recognition versus transcriptionist: error rates and productivity in MRI reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Rodney H; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E

    2010-10-01

    Despite the frequent introduction of voice recognition (VR) into radiology departments, little evidence still exists about its impact on workflow, error rates and costs. We designed a study to compare typographical errors, turnaround times (TAT) from reported to verified and productivity for VR-generated reports versus transcriptionist-generated reports in MRI. Fifty MRI reports generated by VR and 50 finalized MRI reports generated by the transcriptionist, of two radiologists, were sampled retrospectively. Two hundred reports were scrutinised for typographical errors and the average TAT from dictated to final approval. To assess productivity, the average MRI reports per hour for one of the radiologists was calculated using data from extra weekend reporting sessions. Forty-two % and 30% of the finalized VR reports for each of the radiologists investigated contained errors. Only 6% and 8% of the transcriptionist-generated reports contained errors. The average TAT for VR was 0 h, and for the transcriptionist reports TAT was 89 and 38.9 h. Productivity was calculated at 8.6 MRI reports per hour using VR and 13.3 MRI reports using the transcriptionist, representing a 55% increase in productivity. Our results demonstrate that VR is not an effective method of generating reports for MRI. Ideally, we would have the report error rate and productivity of a transcriptionist and the TAT of VR. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Voice recognition versus transcriptionist: error rated and productivity in MRI reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahan, Rodney H.; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the frequent introduction of voice recognition (VR) into radiology departments, little evidence still exists about its impact on workflow, error rates and costs. We designed a study to compare typographical errors, turnaround times (TAT) from reported to verified and productivity for VR-generated reports versus transcriptionist-generated reports in MRI. Methods: Fifty MRI reports generated by VR and 50 finalised MRI reports generated by the transcriptionist, of two radiologists, were sampled retrospectively. Two hundred reports were scrutinised for typographical errors and the average TAT from dictated to final approval. To assess productivity, the average MRI reports per hour for one of the radiologists was calculated using data from extra weekend reporting sessions. Results: Forty-two % and 30% of the finalised VR reports for each of the radiologists investigated contained errors. Only 6% and 8% of the transcriptionist-generated reports contained errors. The average TAT for VR was 0 h, and for the transcriptionist reports TAT was 89 and 38.9 h. Productivity was calculated at 8.6 MRI reports per hour using VR and 13.3 MRI reports using the transcriptionist, representing a 55% increase in productivity. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that VR is not an effective method of generating reports for MRI. Ideally, we would have the report error rate and productivity of a transcriptionist and the TAT of VR.

  7. The determination and analysis of site-specific rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlan, Casey L; Perevoschikova, Irina V; Goncalves, Renata L S

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely implicated in physiological and pathological pathways. We propose that it is critical to understand the specific sites of mitochondrial ROS production and their mechanisms of action. Mitochondria possess at least eight distinct sites of ROS...... production in the electron transport chain and matrix compartment. In this chapter, we describe the nature of the mitochondrial ROS-producing machinery and the relative capacities of each site. We provide detailed methods for the measurement of H2O2 release and the conditions under which maximal rates from...

  8. Harvesting costs and production rates for seed-tree removal in young-growth, mixed-conifer stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1969-01-01

    Ponderosa pine seed trees left from a previous cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, were removed in October 1963. Logging costs and production rates were compared with those for a seed-tree cutting on an area nearby. Production rates for seed-tree removal greatly exceeded those for the operation as a whole. Skidding production increased by 38...

  9. Estimation of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of bacterial cell growth in the rumen of buffalo calves has been measured applying the isotope dilution technique by injecting labelled mixed rumen bacteria into the rumen, and expressing the specific radioactivity either per mg dry bacterial cells or per μg DAPA in whole rumen samples. The animals were fed daily about 15-20 kg chopped green maize in 12 equal amounts at 2-h intervals. There was no significant difference in the rate of production of bacteria estimated by either method. (author)

  10. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  11. Finite element modeling of penetration of rigid cylindrical bar impacting on a clamped circular plate, employing a strain rate dependent flow rate and a Gruneisen equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Khan, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    A time dependent Finite Element simulation of penetration of a rigid cylindrical bar impacting on a copper plate is conducted, to demonstrate how material behavior appears to change when Johnson-Cook plasticity rule is employed along with a Gruneisen, equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle relationship, and defining pressure both for compressed and expanded materials, as compared to the behavior when only isotropic strain-hardening model is employed. The bar impacts the plate with a velocity of 1000 m/s, and penetrates the plate, a portion of it coming out of the other side. Results are obtained and compared taking both an isotropic strain-hardening model, and a model incorporating Johnson-Cook flow rule along with Gruneisen equation of state. (author)

  12. The quality management system: an element for the competitiveness and sustainability of agricultural production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Fonseca C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of the increasing globalization of markets, changing consumer habits, frequent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses (FBI, social organizations and governments seeking production and food supply include the assurance of safeness in all links in the chain. One way to achieve it, is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS for certification in agricultural production units, the process addresses the farm give the perspective of general systems theory, shaped by production subsystems and support; them develop both technical and management activities that seek to streamline processes while maintaining standards of sustainability and social responsibility to achieve food production with previously established quality criteria. the process of developing and implementing the QMS requires the construction and operation of support documents and manuals on issues of organization, and organization of producers, which are structured to meet the requirements of a standard, protocol or code of conduct; their compliance is verified through inspections that could lead to the granting of certification or seal of product quality or service, the process can be developed individually by a producer or a producer organization.

  13. Measurement of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Srivastava, V.N.

    1974-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the in vivo estimation of the rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. The animals were given their daily ration in 12 equal amounts at 2 hourly intervals. The bacterial cells from the rumen were labelled either with 14 C or 35 S by in vitro incubation in the presence of (U- 14 C)DL-leucine or 35 S-sodium sulphate. Labelled bacterial cells were injected in a single dose in the rumen. Samples from the ruminal fluid were drawn at various time intervals for 9 hours and the specific radioactivity of the bacteria was determined. The dilution in the specific radioactivity was used to calculate the turnover time and rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. (author)

  14. An EPLS model for a variable production rate with stock-price sensitive demand and deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that large piles of consumer goods displayed in supermarkets lead consumers to buy more, which generates more profit to sellers. But a large number of on-hand display of stock leaves a negative impression on the buyer. Also, the amount of shelf or display space is limited. Due to this reason, we impose a restriction on the number of on-hand display of stock and also on initial and ending on-hand stock levels. We introduce an economic production lot size model, where production rate depends on stock and selling price per unit. A constant fraction deterioration rate is considered in this model. To illustrate the results of the model, four numerical examples are established. Sensitivity analysis of the changes of parameter values is also given.

  15. Quantum Kronecker sum-product low-density parity-check codes with finite rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce an ansatz for quantum codes which gives the hypergraph-product (generalized toric) codes by Tillich and Zémor and generalized bicycle codes by MacKay as limiting cases. The construction allows for both the lower and the upper bounds on the minimum distance; they scale as a square root of the block length. Many thus defined codes have a finite rate and limited-weight stabilizer generators, an analog of classical low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Compared to the hypergraph-product codes, hyperbicycle codes generally have a wider range of parameters; in particular, they can have a higher rate while preserving the estimated error threshold.

  16. Seasonal rates of benthic primary production in a Greenland fjord measured by aquatic eddy correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Attard, Karl; Glud, Ronnie; McGinnis, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    -quality multiple-day EC data sets document the presence of a year-round productive benthic phototrophic community. The shallow-water sites were on average autotrophic during the spring and summer months, up to 43.6 mmol O2 m22 d21, and heterotrophic or close to metabolic balance during the autumn and winter....... Substantial benthic gross primary production (GPP) was measured year-round. The highest GPP rates were measured during the spring, up to 5.7 mmol O2 m22 h21 (136.8 mmol O2 m22 d21), and even at low light levels (, 80 mmol quanta m22 s21) during late autumn and winter we measured rates of up to 1.8 mmol O2 m22...

  17. Three stage supply chain model with two warehouse, imperfect production, variable demand rate and inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preety Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an integrated production inventory model from the perspectives of vendor, supplier and buyer. The demand rate is time dependent for the vendor and supplier and buyer assumes the stock dependent demand rate. As per the demand, supplier uses two warehouses (rented and owned for the storage of excess quantities. Shortages are allowed at the buyer’s part only and the unfulfilled demand is partially backlogged. The effect of imperfect production processes on lot sizing is also considered. This complete model is studied under the effect of inflation. The objective is to minimize the total cost for the system. A solution procedure is developed to find a near optimal solution for the model. A numerical example along with sensitivity analysis is given to illustrate the model.

  18. Investigating composition and production rate of healthcare waste and associated management practices in Bandar Abbass, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alipoor, Vali; Azizi, Kourosh; Binavapour, Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the composition and production rate of healthcare waste and associated management practices in healthcare centres in Bandar Abbas, southern Iran. A total of 90 centres, including 30 physician offices, 30 dental offices and 30 clinics were selected in random way. Two samples in summer and two samples in winter were taken and weighed from each selected centre at the end of successive working day on Mondays and Tuesdays. Results showed that the mean of daily production rate for each clinic, dental and physician office were 2125.3, 498.3 and 374.9 g, respectively. Domestic-type and potentially infectious waste had the highest and chemical and pharmaceutical waste and sharps had the lowest percentages in all centres. Questionnaire results indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in healthcare centres and management of sharps, potentially infectious and other hazardous waste was poor.

  19. Impacts of cloud water droplets on the OH production rate from peroxide photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Costa, M T C; Anglada, J M; Francisco, J S; Ruiz-López, Manuel F

    2017-12-06

    Understanding the difference between observed and modeled concentrations of HO x radicals in the troposphere is a current major issue in atmospheric chemistry. It is widely believed that existing atmospheric models miss a source of such radicals and several potential new sources have been proposed. In recent years, interest has increased on the role played by cloud droplets and organic aerosols. Computer modeling of ozone photolysis, for instance, has shown that atmospheric aqueous interfaces accelerate the associated OH production rate by as much as 3-4 orders of magnitude. Since methylhydroperoxide is a main source and sink of HO x radicals, especially at low NO x concentrations, it is fundamental to assess what is the influence of clouds on its chemistry and photochemistry. In this study, computer simulations for the photolysis of methylhydroperoxide at the air-water interface have been carried out showing that the OH production rate is severely enhanced, reaching a comparable level to ozone photolysis.

  20. Not Worth the Extra Cost? Diluting the Differentiation Ability of Highly Rated Products by Altering the Meaning of Rating Scale Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Decker, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of rating scales has grown in popularity in various fields, including customer online reviews and energy labels. Rating scales convey important information on attributes of products or services that consumers evaluate in their purchase decisions. By applying...... characteristics. In addition, two choice-based conjoint studies examine whether the way consumers make their choices among products can be influenced by changing the labeling of rating scale levels. The results show that a manipulation of the meaning of rating scale levels diminishes both the importance...

  1. Development of a portable instrument to measure ozone production rates in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ground-level ozone is a key species related to air pollution, causing respiratory problems, damaging crops and forests, and affecting the climate. Our current understanding of the tropospheric ozone-forming chemistry indicates that net ozone production occurs via reactions of peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2) with NO producing NO2, whose photolysis leads to O3 formation. Production rates of tropospheric ozone, P(O3), depend on concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and Volatile Organic Compounds (V OCs), but also on production rates of ROx radicals (OH + HO2 + RO2). The formation of ozone follows a complex nonlinear chemistry that makes strategies for reducing ozone difficult to implement. In this context, atmospheric chemistry models are used to develop emission regulations, but there are still uncertainties associated with the chemical mechanisms used in these models. Testing the ozone formation chemistry in atmospheric models is needed, in order to ensure the development of effective strategies for ozone reduction. We will present the development of an instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPR) in ambient air. The OPR instrument is made of three components: (i) two quartz flow tubes to sample ambient air, one exposed to solar radiation and one covered by a UV filter, (ii) a NO2-to-O3 conversion unit, and (iii) an ozone analyzer. The total amount of ozone exiting each flow tube is conserved in the form of Ox = NO2 + O3. Ozone production rates P(O3) are derived from the difference in Ox concentration between the two flow tubes, divided by the exposure time of air inside the flow tubes. We will present studies that were carried out in the laboratory to characterize each part of the instrument and we will discuss the performances of the OPR instrument based on experiments carried out using synthetic air mixtures of known composition (NOx and V OCs). Chemical modeling will also be presented to assess the reliability of ozone

  2. HEU and LEU MTR fuel elements as target materials for the production of fission molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameh, A.A.; Bertram-Berg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The processing of irradiated MTR-fuels for the production of fission nuclides for nuclear medicine presents a significantly increasing task in the field of chemical separation technology of high activity levels. By far the most required product is MO-99, the mother nuclide of Tc-99m which is used in over 90% of the organ function tests in nuclear medicine. Because of the short half life of Mo-99 (66 h) the separation has to be carried out from shortly cooled neutron irradiated U-targets. The needed product purity, the extremely high radiation level, the presence of fission gases like xenon-133 and of volatile toxic isotopes such as iodine-131 and its compounds in kCi-scale require a sophisticated process technology

  3. Measurement of HOx· production rate due to radon decay in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Huiling.

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce (·OH and HO 2 ·) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HO x · production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HO x · production rate was found to be (4.31±0.07) x 10 5 HO x · per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G (HO x ·) -value, 7.86±0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HO x ·] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HO x · produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HO x · production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for ·OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial ·OH produced from the photolysis of O 3 /H 2 O

  4. On scaling cosmogenic nuclide production rates for altitude and latitude using cosmic-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek

    2001-11-01

    The wide use of cosmogenic nuclides for dating terrestrial landforms has prompted a renewed interest in characterizing the spatial distribution of terrestrial cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray measurements from neutron monitors, nuclear emulsions and cloud chambers have played an important role in developing new models for scaling cosmic-ray neutron intensities and, indirectly, cosmogenic production rates. Unfortunately, current scaling models overlook or misinterpret many of these data. In this paper, we describe factors that must be considered when using neutron measurements to determine scaling formulations for production rates of cosmogenic nuclides. Over the past 50 years, the overwhelming majority of nucleon flux measurements have been taken with neutron monitors. However, in order to use these data for scaling spallation reactions, the following factors must be considered: (1) sensitivity of instruments to muons and to background, (2) instrumental biases in energy sensitivity, (3) solar activity, and (4) the way of ordering cosmic-ray data in the geomagnetic field. Failure to account for these factors can result in discrepancies of as much as 7% in neutron attenuation lengths measured at the same location. This magnitude of deviation can result in an error on the order of 20% in cosmogenic production rates scaled from 4300 m to sea level. The shapes of latitude curves of nucleon flux also depend on these factors to a measurable extent, thereby causing additional uncertainties in cosmogenic production rates. The corrections proposed herein significantly improve our ability to transfer scaling formulations based on neutron measurements to scaling formulations applicable to spallation reactions, and, therefore, constitute an important advance in cosmogenic dating methodology.

  5. 39 CFR 3.9 - Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products of general applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products of general applicability. 3.9 Section 3.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF... demonstrating compliance with the standards of 39 U.S.C. 3633(a). (b) Pursuant to § 6.6(f) of these bylaws, the...

  6. Measurement of the Production Rate of Charm Quark Pairs from Gluons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    The rate of secondary charm-quark-pair production has been measured in 4.4 million hadronic Z0 decays collected by OPAL. By selecting events with three jets and tagging charmed hadrons in the gluon jet candidate using leptons and charged D* mesons, the average number of secondary charm-quark pairs per hadronic event is found to be (3.20+-0.21+-0.38)x10-2.

  7. Haze production rates in super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmosphere experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Moses, Julianne I.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Vuitton, Véronique

    2018-04-01

    Numerous Solar System atmospheres possess photochemically generated hazes, including the characteristic organic hazes of Titan and Pluto. Haze particles substantially impact atmospheric temperature structures and may provide organic material to the surface of a world, potentially affecting its habitability. Observations of exoplanet atmospheres suggest the presence of aerosols, especially in cooler (diversity in haze production rates, as some—but not all—super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmospheres will possess photochemically generated haze.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    W. Limtrakarn; P. Boonmongkol; A. Chompupoung; K. Rungprateepthaworn; J. Kruenate; P. Dechaumphai

    2012-01-01

    Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor ...

  9. The effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Şener, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 99-104. This study investigated the effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition, in conjunction with an examination of materials and instruction. The study was conducted with the participation of 68 beginner and elementary level students, and their ...

  10. Process for the production of fuel combined articles for addition in block shaped high temperature fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a process for the production of fuel compacts consisting of an isotropic, radiation-resistant graphite matrix of good heat conductivity having embedded therein coated fuel and/or fertile particles for insertion into high temperature fuel elements by providing the coated fuel and/or fertile particles with an overcoat of molding mixture consisting of graphite powder and a thermoplastic resin binder. The particles after the overcoating are provided with hardener and lubricant only on the surface and subsequently are compressed in a die heated to a constant temperature of about 150 0 C, hardened and discharged therefrom as finished compacts

  11. Neutron production and dose rate in the IFMIF/EVEDA LIPAc injector beam commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Keitaro, E-mail: kondo.keitaro@jaea.go.jp [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Usami, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A dedicated neutron production yield monitoring system for LIPAc has been developed. • The biological dose rate during operation of the LIPAc injector was analyzed. • The neutron streaming effect due to penetrations in the shielding wall was investigated. - Abstract: The construction of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) is in progress in Rokkasho, Japan, and the deuteron beam commissioning of the injector began in July 2015. Due to the huge beam current of 125 mA, a large amount of d-D neutrons are produced in the commissioning. The neutron streaming effect through pipe penetrations and underground pits may dominate the radiation dose at the outside of the accelerator vault during the injector operation. In the present study the effective dose rate expected during the injector commissioning was analyzed by a Monte Carlo calculation and compared with the measured value. For the comparison it is necessary to know the total neutron production yield in the accelerator vault, thus a dedicated neutron production yield monitoring system was developed. The yield obtained was smaller than that previously reported in a literature by a factor of a few and seems to depend on some beam conditions. From the comparison it was proved that the calculation always provides a conservative estimate and the dose rates in places where occupational works can always access and the controlled area boundary are expected to be far less than the legal criteria throughout the injector commissioning.

  12. Inverse method for determining radon diffusion coefficient and free radon production rate of fragmented uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yong-jun; Wang, Li-heng; Ding, De-xin; Zhao, Ya-li; Fan, Nan-bin

    2014-01-01

    The radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate are important parameters for describing radon migration in the fragmented uranium ore. In order to determine the two parameters, the pure diffusion migration equation for radon was firstly established and its analytic solution with the two parameters to be determined was derived. Then, a self manufactured experimental column was used to simulate the pure diffusion of the radon, the improved scintillation cell method was used to measure the pore radon concentrations at different depths of the column loaded with the fragmented uranium ore, and the nonlinear least square algorithm was used to inversely determine the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate. Finally, the solution with the two inversely determined parameters was used to predict the pore radon concentrations at some depths of the column, and the predicted results were compared with the measured results. The results show that the predicted results are in good agreement with the measured results and the numerical inverse method is applicable to the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate for the fragmented uranium ore. - Highlights: • Inverse method for determining two transport parameters of radon is proposed. • A self-made experimental apparatus is used to simulate radon diffusion process. • Sampling volume and position for measuring radon concentration are optimized. • The inverse results of an experimental sample are verified

  13. An EPQ Model with Increasing Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate under Trade Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan QIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an EPQ model with the increasing demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing policy, which is seldom reported in the literatures. The model considers the manufacturer was offered by the supplier a delayed payment time. It is assumed that the demand is a linear increasing function of the time and the production rate is proportional to the demand. That is, the production rate is also a linear function of time. This study attempts to offer a best policy for the replenishment cycle and the order quantity for the manufacturer to maximum its profit per cycle. First, the inventory model is developed under the above situation. Second, some useful theoretical results have been derived to characterize the optimal solutions for the inventory system. The Algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the manufacturer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the theorems, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameters of the inventory system is performed. Some important management insights are obtained based on the analysis.

  14. The effect of temperature and effluent recycle rate on hydrogen production by undefined bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, L; Masilela, P; Obazu, F; Gray, V M

    2011-10-01

    Biohydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized granular bed bioreactor was strongly dependent on temperature and effluent recycle rates. At 45 °C as the effluent recycle rate was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min, the total H₂ output for the bioreactor increased from 10.6 to 43.2 L/h. Volumetric H(2) productivity also increased from 2.1 to 8.7 L H₂/L/h. At 70°C as the effluent recycle was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min, the total H₂ output for the bioreactor increased from 13.8 to 73.8L/h. At 70 °C volumetric H(2) productivities increased from 2.8 to 14.8L H₂/L/h as the effluent recycle rate was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min. At 45 °C % H₂ was 45% and reached 67% at 70 °C. Maximum hydrogen yields at 45 °C were 1.24 and 2.2 mol H₂/mol glucose at 70 °C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Productive Second elements in nominal compounds: the matching of Englis and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Hietsch

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the treasured reminders of my postgraduate years in England, I cherish a sizable sheaf of manuscript pages, now yellow with age. They are in the hand of Sir William Craigie, that venerable pioneer of lexicographical study. The neat and delicate lines trace out the beginnings of a new venture. Sir William was making a record of the nominal compounds in Beowulf: they are arrayed under the banners of various headwords, each of which, as a glance will show, is a   s e c o n d element of composition. Alas, work on the project was never completed, nor are the present generation of Anglo-Saxonists aware of the particular line of argument Sir William had in mind when he set out to re-list the Beowulf compound vocabu­ lary.

  16. submitter Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Praplan, A P; Bianchi, F; Rissanen, M P; Ehn, M; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Adamov, A; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Duplissy, J; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Krapf, M; Kürten, A; Lehtipalo, K; Riccobono, F; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Simon, M; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Ye, P; Curtius, J; Baltensperger, U; Donahue, N M; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition o...

  17. Two-loop massive operator matrix elements for unpolarized heavy flavor production to O({epsilon})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2008-02-15

    We calculate the O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}) massive operator matrix elements for the twist-2 operators, which contribute to the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}, up to the O({epsilon}) contributions. These terms contribute through the renormalization of the O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}). The calculation has been performed using light-cone expansion techniques without using the integration-by-parts method. We represent the individual Feynman diagrams by generalized hypergeometric structures, the {epsilon}-expansion of which leads to infinite sums depending on the Mellin variable N. These sums are finally expressed in terms of nested harmonic sums using the general summation techniques implemented in the Sigma package. (orig.)

  18. The applications of rare earth elements in enhancement of crop and pasture production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peverill, K.; Maheswaran, J.; Meehan, B.; Buckingham, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) as trace nutrients in agriculture is widely practised in the People's Republic of China. Since 1972, results of Chinese research trials involving applications of small amounts of REEs to a wide range of crops and livestock have been reported. Experimental work on the effect of REEs on plant growth has received very limited attention outside China. In 1993, a collaborative research program initiated by the State Chemistry Laboratory and RMIT University in Victoria, Australia began to investigate the physiological and biochemical effects of REEs on a number of crops and pastures. The program has involved extensive pot trials on inert substrates and soils, together with several field trials on crops and pastures; the trials have shown clearly that under certain conditions REEs can have a pronounced positive effect on plant growth. This paper reviews the work carried out over the past five years under this program

  19. Production of Al-Ti-C grain refiners with the addition of elemental carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezer, Berke Turgay; Toptan, Fatih; Daglilar, Sibel; Kerti, Isil

    2010-01-01

    Grain refining process used in aluminium alloys, has an important role for preventing columnar, coarse grains and encouraging fine, equiaxed grain formation. Al-Ti-B grain refiners are widely used as aluminium grain refiners despite the problems in application Al-Ti-C refiners have an increasing demand in recent years. In the present work, Al-Ti-C grain refiners with different Ti:C ratios were produced by insitu method with the addition of elemental carbon. Microstructures were characterised by optic microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of temperature, holding time and Ti:C ratio on the grain refinement process were investigated and optimum conditions were determined.

  20. Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on vacuum alloys-production process for elements concentration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Lian, Fuqiang; Liu, Yang; Lin, Weiran; Mo, Zeqiang; Nie, Shuzhen; Wang, Pu; Xiao, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhong, Qixiu; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizing an echelle spectrograph-ICCD system is employed for on-line analysis of elements concentration in a vacuum induction melting workshop. Active temperature stabilization of echelle spectrometer is implemented specially for industrial environment applications. The measurement precision is further improved by monitoring laser parameters, such as pulse energy, spatial and temporal profiles, in real time, and post-selecting laser pulses with specific pulse energies. Experimental results show that major components of nickel-based alloys are stable, and can be well detected. By using internal standard method, calibration curves for chromium and aluminum are obtained for quantitative determination, with determination coefficient (relative standard deviation) to be 0.9559 (< 2.2%) and 0.9723 (< 2.8%), respectively.

  1. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    coefficients. Results and Discussion: Main results showed that real exchange rate volatility and export value of selected commodities are Co-integrated. The coefficient estimation of FMOLS and DOLS methods are equal and statically significant; so, these methods aren’t statically different and they showed that real exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on exported value for whole panel. However, the specific coefficient for each commodity showed contradictory behavior in short run and long run; for example real exchange rate fluctuation has a negative and significant impact on all the commodities; but, in short run this variable has a positive and significant impact on exported value. Moreover, based on estimated results it seems that fluctuation in exchange market has a greater impact on more valuable commodities like date. Conclusion: Considering the importance of agricultural product trade and in order to overcome mono-product economy, this study investigated long term and short term relation between export of grape, orange, date and exchange rate volatilities. To this aim, first the index of exchange volatility using generated autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH was calculated. In order to investigate the relation between exchange rate volatilities and export value of agricultural product, unit root test and cointegration test related to panel data were used during years 1971-2013. The results of model estimation showed that exchange rate volatilities in short term and long term have respectively positive and negative effects on the export value of orange, grape and date. In long term, the negative effects of Exchange rate volatilities on high-export-value products are more than its effects on low-export-value products. Based on the estimation results we can conclude that, in short run, exporters are willing to increase their interchange and gain profits of the volatility in exchange market; however, in long run exchange rate fluctuation has

  2. Optimization of XRFS for the analysis of toxic elements and heavy metals in coffee products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, I.; Makjanic, J.; Valkovic, V.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy can be successfully used for routine on-line analysis of different agricultural products, e.g. for food quality control. The optimization of the system for such purposes and the results obtained are shown on the example of the analysis of coffee. (author)

  3. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  4. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  5. Effect of water flow rate and feed training on "pacamã" (Siluriforme: Pseudopimelodidae juvenile production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Luz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water flow rates and feed training on the production of "pacamã" Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles were evaluated. In the first experiment, nine day post-hatch larvae (n= 2,400 were stocked at a density of 5 larvae/L. Different water flow (F rates were tested: F1 = 180; F2 = 600; F3 = 1,300; and F4 = 2,600mL/min. Artemia nauplii were offered as food during the first 15 days of active feeding. In the second experiment for feed training, 720 juveniles (total length of 22.2mm were stocked at a density of 1.5 juveniles/L. A water flow rate similar to F1 was used. The use of extruded dry diet was tested, and feed training was done with and without other enhanced flavors (Artemia nauplii or Scott emulsion. The water flow rates did not influence the survival or growth of L. alexandri. Cannibalism occurred during feed training. The worst survival, specific growth rate and high mortality were found with the use of extruded dry diet, while similar values were registered with the different feed training diets used. Reduced water flow rate can be used to lower water consumption during larviculture and feed training of L. alexandri.

  6. Dry matter production and chemical composition of Massai grass submitted to nitrogen rates and cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abadia Campos Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in a greenhouse with a 4X4 factorial arrangement randomized block design in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3 associated with cutting heights (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm on dry matter production and the chemical composition of Massai grass. The seeding was done in pots with 11 kg of soil. 10 plants were kept per pot, and there were two cuts every 35 days. Nitrogen fertilization was split between the two cuts, where the first N application occurred after the uniformity cut and the second after the first cut. In each cut the plants were separated and weighed for botanical component evaluation: leaf blade and stem + sheath. After this, the samples were homogenized and analysed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fibre (NDF content. In the first cut, the N fertilization caused a linear increase in DM production of 0.058 g pot-1 per each 1 mg dm-3 of N applied, as well as causing an increase of 0.549% in CP percentage, a 0.0124 pot-1 g increase in CP production and a reduction of 0.055% in NDF. In the second cut, N rates promoted a quadratic effect on DM production. A maximum DM production of 16.48 g pot-1 with 107.27 mg dm-3 of N was observed while CP production content was increased by 0.0092 g pot-1 for each 1 mg dm-3 N applied. In terms of linear responses to DM and PB, as well as the use efficiency calculated for Massai grass, recommended N doses range between 50 and 100 g dm-3.

  7. Translation elicits a growth rate-dependent, genome-wide, differential protein production in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Olivier; Goelzer, Anne; Schaffer, Marc; Calabre, Magali; Mäder, Ulrike; Aymerich, Stéphane; Jules, Matthieu; Fromion, Vincent

    2016-05-17

    Complex regulatory programs control cell adaptation to environmental changes by setting condition-specific proteomes. In balanced growth, bacterial protein abundances depend on the dilution rate, transcript abundances and transcript-specific translation efficiencies. We revisited the current theory claiming the invariance of bacterial translation efficiency. By integrating genome-wide transcriptome datasets and datasets from a library of synthetic gfp-reporter fusions, we demonstrated that translation efficiencies in Bacillus subtilis decreased up to fourfold from slow to fast growth. The translation initiation regions elicited a growth rate-dependent, differential production of proteins without regulators, hence revealing a unique, hard-coded, growth rate-dependent mode of regulation. We combined model-based data analyses of transcript and protein abundances genome-wide and revealed that this global regulation is extensively used in B. subtilis We eventually developed a knowledge-based, three-step translation initiation model, experimentally challenged the model predictions and proposed that a growth rate-dependent drop in free ribosome abundance accounted for the differential protein production. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. Relationships between stocking rate, livestock production systems and Alpine grasslands management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to identify the relationships between stocking rate, management system, topographic conditions and weed encroachment of summer pastures in “Lessinia”, a pre-Alpine area in the Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy. Using the data from a field survey on 46 summer pastures (30 with dairy cows and 16 with other bovine categories, various ANOVA/ANCOVA models were used to test the effects on stocking rate of livestock category, supplementary concentrate feeding, and pasture weed encroachment, slope and elevation. Stocking rate was higher in summer pastures with dairy cows than in those with other bovine categories, and in pastures with moderate slopes than in those with higher ones, but was unaffected by supplementary concentrate feeding, altitude and weed encroachment. This indicates that in the considered areas stocking rate is not constrained by pasture productivity and is kept at sub-optimal levels. Future research is needed to make more clear the effects that the present management status may have on the evolution of pastures productivity and biodiversity value.

  9. Mathematical model for predicting molecular-beam epitaxy growth rates for wafer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, B.Q.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical mathematical model for predicting molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth rates is reported. The mathematical model solves the mass-conservation equation for liquid sources in conical crucibles and predicts the growth rate by taking into account the effect of growth source depletion on the growth rate. Assumptions made for deducing the analytical model are discussed. The model derived contains only one unknown parameter, the value of which can be determined by using data readily available to MBE growers. Procedures are outlined for implementing the model in MBE production of III-V compound semiconductor device wafers. Results from use of the model to obtain targeted layer compositions and thickness of InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistor wafers are presented

  10. In Situ Measurement of Local Hydrogen Production Rate by Bubble-Evolved Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen visibly bubbles during photocatalytic water splitting under illumination with above-bandgap radiation, which provides a direct measurement of local gas-evolving reaction rate. In this paper, optical microscopy of superfield depth was used for recording the hydrogen bubble growth on Cd0.5Zn0.5S photocatalyst in reaction liquid and illuminated with purple light. By analyzing change of hydrogen bubble size as a function of time, we understood that hydrogen bubble growth experienced two periods, which were inertia effect dominated period and diffusion effect dominated period, respectively. The tendency of hydrogen bubble growth was similar to that of the gas bubble in boiling, while the difference in bubble diameter and growth time magnitude was great. Meanwhile, we obtained the local hydrogen production rate on photocatalyst active site by measuring hydrogen bubble growth variation characteristics. This method makes it possible to confirm local actual hydrogen evolution rate quantitatively during photocatalytic water splitting.

  11. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    At global and regional scales, tree mortality rates are positively correlated with forest net primary productivity (NPP). Yet causes of the correlation are unknown, in spite of potentially profound implications for our understanding of environmental controls of forest structure and dynamics and, more generally, our understanding of broad-scale environmental controls of population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Here we seek to shed light on the causes of geographic patterns in tree mortality rates, and we consider some implications of the positive correlation between mortality rates and NPP. To reach these ends, we present seven hypotheses potentially explaining the correlation, develop an approach to help distinguish among the hypotheses, and apply the approach in a case study comparing a tropical and temperate forest.

  12. 3D finite element analysis of stress distributions and strain energy release rates for adhesive bonded flat composite lap shear joints having pre-existing delaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-02-15

    The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.

  13. Chemical Identification of Dubnium as a Decay Product of Element 115 Produced in the Reaction $\\rm {^{48}Ca}+{^{243}Am}$

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Utyonkov, V K; Shishkin, S V; Eremin, A V; Lobanov, Yu V; Chepigin, V I; Sokol, E A; Tsyganov, Yu S; Vostokin, G K; Aksenov, N V; Hussonnois, M; Itkis, M G; Aggeler, H W; Schumann, D; Bruchertseifer, H; Eichler, R; Shaughnessy, D A; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Stoyer, M A; Wild, J F

    2004-01-01

    The results of an experiment designed to identify $^{268}$Db as the terminal isotope in the $\\alpha $-decay chain of element 115 produced via the ${\\rm {^{243}Am}}({\\rm {^{48}Ca}},3n){\\rm {^{288}115}}$ reaction are presented. The $^{243}$Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of $3.4\\cdot 10^{18}$ $^{48}$Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV at the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface layer of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO$_{3}$. The group-5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex $50{\\times} 8$ cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1 M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group-5 elements. The eluent was evaporated onto a 0.4 $\\mu$m thick polyethylene foil that was placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by $^{3}$He neutron counters for measurement of $\\alpha$ particles, fission fragments, and neutrons. In the course of the experiment, we observed 15 spo...

  14. Sequential separation of transuranic elements and fission products from uranium metal ingots in electrolytic reduction process of spent PWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Heon Lee; Kih Soo Joe; Won Ho Kim; Euo Chang Jung; Kwang Yong Jee

    2009-01-01

    A sequential separation procedure has been developed for the determination of transuranic elements and fission products in uranium metal ingot samples from an electrolytic reduction process for a metallization of uranium dioxide to uranium metal in a medium of LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt at 650 deg C. Pu, Np and U were separated using anion-exchange and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) extraction chromatography. Cs, Sr, Ba, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Zr and Mo were separated in several groups from Am and Cm using TBP and di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) extraction chromatography. Effect of Fe, Ni, Cr and Mg, which were corrosion products formed through the process, on the separation of the analytes was investigated in detail. The validity of the separation procedure was evaluated by measuring the recovery of the stable metals and 239 Pu, 237 Np, 241 Am and 244 Cm added to a synthetic uranium metal ingot dissolved solution. (author)

  15. Biological production models as elements of coupled, atmosphere-ocean models for climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1991-01-01

    Process models of phytoplankton production are discussed with respect to their suitability for incorporation into global-scale numerical ocean circulation models. Exact solutions are given for integrals over the mixed layer and the day of analytic, wavelength-independent models of primary production. Within this class of model, the bias incurred by using a triangular approximation (rather than a sinusoidal one) to the variation of surface irradiance through the day is computed. Efficient computation algorithms are given for the nonspectral models. More exact calculations require a spectrally sensitive treatment. Such models exist but must be integrated numerically over depth and time. For these integrations, resolution in wavelength, depth, and time are considered and recommendations made for efficient computation. The extrapolation of the one-(spatial)-dimension treatment to large horizontal scale is discussed.

  16. PRODUCTION WORKSHOP AT HOME: CULTURAL ELEMENT AND SURVIVAL STRATEGY IN THE REGION P'URHEPECHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Sandoval-Contreras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze, characterize and give a definition of home workshop production from wood craft activities performed by residents of San Juan Pamatácuaro, Michoacán. For its realization, from an ethnographic perspective had to live for a time in the community study and thus directly observe workspaces artisans and learn in their own words of their organization in different ways, as the establishment of a workshop is given in the domestic space, the tools that are used have certain peculiarities, labor usually takes familiar, coupled required part marketing or networking. Furthermore, learning from each of the trades is through socialization and observation. Thus the formation of these productive activities turn out to be a survival strategy just for families to meet their needs because they do not generate surpluses.

  17. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  18. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  19. Aqueous Rare Earth Element Patterns and Concentration in Thermal Brines Associated With Oil and Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, Charles [University of Wyoming; Quillinan, Scott Austin [University of Wyoming; Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-13

    This study is part of a joint effort by the University of Wyoming (UW) School of Energy Resources (SER), the UW Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratories (INL), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to describe rare earth element concentrations in oil and gas produced waters and in coal-fired power station ash ponds. In this work we present rare earth element (REE) and trace metal behavior in produced water from four Wyoming oil and gas fields and surface ash pond water from two coal-fired power stations. The concentration of REEs in oil and gas produced waters is largely unknown. For example, of the 150,000 entries in the USGS National Produced Waters Geochemical Database less than 5 include data for REEs. Part of the reason for this scarcity is the analytical challenge of measuring REEs in high salinity, hydrocarbon-bearing waters. The industry standard for water analysis struggles to detect REEs in natural waters under ideal conditions. The detection of REEs in oil and gas field samples becomes all but impossible with the background noise and interferences caused by high concentrations of non-REE ions and residual hydrocarbons. The INL team members have overcome many of these challenges (e.g. McLing, 2014), and continue to develop their methods. Using the methods of the INL team members we measured REEs in high salinity oil and gas produced waters. Our results show that REEs exist as a dissolved species in all waters measured for this project, typically within the parts per trillion range. The samples may be grouped into two broad categories analytically, and these categories match their genesis: Wyoming oil and gas brines contain elevated levels of Europium, and Wyoming industrial pond waters show elevation in heavy REEs (HREEs). While broadly true, important variations exist within both groups. In the same field Europium can vary by more than an order of magnitude, and likewise HREEs in industrial ponds at the same site can vary by more than

  20. Metabolic differentiation in biofilms as indicated by carbon dioxide production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Elanna; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Boonzaaier, Leandro; Liss, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The measurement of carbon dioxide production rates as an indication of metabolic activity was applied to study biofilm development and response of Pseudomonas sp. biofilms to an environmental disturbance in the form of a moving air-liquid interface (i.e., shear). A differential response in biofilm cohesiveness was observed after bubble perturbation, and the biofilm layers were operationally defined as either shear-susceptible or non-shear-susceptible. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis showed a significant reduction in biofilm thickness and biomass after the removal of the shear-susceptible biofilm layer, as well as notable changes in the roughness coefficient and surface-to-biovolume ratio. These changes were accompanied by a 72% reduction of whole-biofilm CO2 production; however, the non-shear-susceptible region of the biofilm responded rapidly after the removal of the overlying cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) along with the associated changes in nutrient and O2 flux, with CO2 production rates returning to preperturbation levels within 24 h. The adaptable nature and the ability of bacteria to respond to environmental conditions were further demonstrated by the outer shear-susceptible region of the biofilm; the average CO2 production rate of cells from this region increased within 0.25 h from 9.45 +/- 5.40 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) to 22.6 +/- 7.58 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) when cells were removed from the biofilm and maintained in suspension without an additional nutrient supply. These results also demonstrate the need for sufficient monitoring of biofilm recovery at the solid substratum if mechanical methods are used for biofouling control.

  1. Measurement of the electroweak top quark production cross section and the CKM matrix element Vtb with the DOe experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    exceeds the Standard Model expectation by 2 standard deviations. The result of the analysis presented here is in good agreement with the result of σ(p anti p→tb+X,tqb+X)=4.8± 1.3 pb, obtained from the combination of three other analyses performed on the same data set. From the cross section measurement a measurement of the strength vertical stroke V tb x f 1 L vertical stroke of the V-A coupling at the Wtb-vertex has been extracted. The result is vertical stroke V tb x f 1 L vertical stroke =1.42 -0.20 +0.21 . This value is above the Standard Model expectation by about 2∝standard deviations. The measurement agrees within uncertainties with the measurement of vertical stroke V tb x f 1 L vertical stroke =1.31 -0.21 +0.25 obtained by another analysis performed on the same data set. Constraining the prior of this measurement to the interval [0,1], i.e. setting the strength of the left-handed coupling f 1 L =1, a result for the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V tb vertical stroke has been determined to vertical stroke V tb vertical stroke =1.00 -0.08 +0.00 . From the posterior probability density of this measurement a lower limit for V tb has been set at 95% confidence level: vertical stroke V tb vertical stroke >0.79 rate at 95% C.L. (orig.)

  2. Quantifying the controls on potential soil production rates: a case study of the San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Pelletier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential soil production rate, i.e., the upper limit at which bedrock can be converted into transportable material, limits how fast erosion can occur in mountain ranges in the absence of widespread landsliding in bedrock or intact regolith. Traditionally, the potential soil production rate has been considered to be solely dependent on climate and rock characteristics. Data from the San Gabriel Mountains of California, however, suggest that topographic steepness may also influence potential soil production rates. In this paper I test the hypothesis that topographically induced stress opening of preexisting fractures in the bedrock or intact regolith beneath hillslopes of the San Gabriel Mountains increases potential soil production rates in steep portions of the range. A mathematical model for this process predicts a relationship between potential soil production rates and average slope consistent with published data. Once the effects of average slope are accounted for, a small subset of the data suggests that cold temperatures may limit soil production rates at the highest elevations of the range due to the influence of temperature on vegetation growth. These results suggest that climate and rock characteristics may be the sole controls on potential soil production rates as traditionally assumed but that the porosity of bedrock or intact regolith may evolve with topographic steepness in a way that enhances the persistence of soil cover in compressive-stress environments. I develop an empirical equation that relates potential soil production rates in the San Gabriel Mountains to the average slope and a climatic index that accounts for temperature limitations on soil production rates at high elevations. Assuming a balance between soil production and erosion rates on the hillslope scale, I illustrate the interrelationships among potential soil production rates, soil thickness, erosion rates, and topographic steepness that result from the

  3. Major, trace and rate earth elements in sediments of the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, F.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Oliva, J. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746 (United States); Glascock, M. D., E-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.m [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid industrial development in regions of Mexico during recent years has had the side effect of introducing toxic metals, fertilizers, and pesticides into the ecosystem. Sediment cores were collected from eight locations around the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam located in Municipality of Villanueva in the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The cores were analyzed for 32 major, trace, and rare earth elements (As, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn, Zr, Al, Ba, Ca, Dy, K, Mn, Na, Ti, V) in order to estimate the health risk. The samples were analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron fluxes of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for short and long irradiations, respectively. The results of the contamination levels for elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ta, V, and Zn were compared with the Mexican regulations and the guidelines of US EPA. (Author)

  4. Major, trace and rate earth elements in sediments of the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Oliva, J. E.; Speakman, R. J.; Glascock, M. D.

    2010-10-01

    The rapid industrial development in regions of Mexico during recent years has had the side effect of introducing toxic metals, fertilizers, and pesticides into the ecosystem. Sediment cores were collected from eight locations around the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam located in Municipality of Villanueva in the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The cores were analyzed for 32 major, trace, and rare earth elements (As, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn, Zr, Al, Ba, Ca, Dy, K, Mn, Na, Ti, V) in order to estimate the health risk. The samples were analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron fluxes of 8 x 10 13 and 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 for short and long irradiations, respectively. The results of the contamination levels for elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ta, V, and Zn were compared with the Mexican regulations and the guidelines of US EPA. (Author)

  5. Long gamma-ray burst as a production site of r-process elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamrua, Ko; Harikae, Seiji; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2012-01-01

    We simulated the r-process nucleosynthesis in and around a high entropy jet from a long gamma-ray burst (GRB). Our simulation is based on the collapsar scenario for long GRBs and on relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations (Harikae et al. 2009, 2010) including ray-tracing neutrino transport, which describe the development of the black hole accretion disk and the heating of the funnel region to produce a relativistic jet. The time evolution of the jet was then extended to later phase via axi-symmetric special relativistic hydrodynamic simulation to follow the temperature, entropy, electron fraction, and density evolution for representative test particles. The evolution of nuclear abundances from nucleons to heavy nuclei for representative test particle trajectories was solved in a large nuclear reaction network including more than 5000 isotopes. We show that a robust r-process successfully occurs within the collapsar jet outflow and that sufficient mass is ejected within the flow to account for the observed r-process abundance distribution along with the large dispersion in r-process elements observed in metal-poor halo stars.

  6. Production of positron emitters of metallic elements to study plant uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Ishioka, N.S.; Sekine, T.; Osa, A.; Koizumi, M.; Kiyomiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.; Mori, S.

    2001-01-01

    The metallic positron emitters 52 Mn, 52 Fe and 62 Zn, the elements of which are essential nutrients for plants as well as for animals, have been produced for a new tracer method in plant physiology. The tracer method utilizes the detection of annihilation γ-rays, like PET in nuclear medicine, to obtain two-dimensional images on a plant as well as to obtain radioactivity counts at specified points in a plant; this method allows us to observe the tracer movement in a living plant without touching the test plant. The previously reported methods of radiochemical separation of these metallic positron emitters from targets were partly modified from the view of their use in plant physiology. Radionuclidic impurities remaining in the final solutions were examined by γ-ray spectrometry, and their influences on the above-mentioned measurements are discussed. From the experiments on a barley plant, the speeds of 52 Mn 2+ ion and 52 Fe 3+ - mugineic-acid complex have been obtained for the first time to be 0.2 cm/min and 1.0 cm/min, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Light element production by cosmological cosmic rays and the gamma-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the view that the 1-100 MeV γ-ray background is of cosmological origin, and is produced by high-energy collisions in a burst at high redshifts (approximately 100) between cosmic rays and the ambient gas, as suggested by Stecker (1969). To test this 'cosmological cosmic-ray (CCR) hypothesis', use is made of the fact that, simultaneously, low energy interactions give birth to the light elements D, 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li and 7 Be. Their resulting abundances are calculated by normalizing the CCR flux to the observed γ-ray background. Since it is possible to find the correct (observed) 7 Li abundance, which is otherwise unexplained as yet, by this process, it is of interest to discuss the various uncertainties involved in the calculations. Among these, the spread of the present γ-ray data, especially between 1 and approximately 10 MeV, is a major uncertainty, and emphasis is put on its influence on the results and, as a consequence, on the validity of the CCR hypothesi

  8. Heart Rate Variability in Association with Frequent Use of Household Sprays and Scented Products in SAPALDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Carballo, David; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Rochat, Thierry; Schindler, Christian; Schwartz, Joel; Zock, Jan-Paul; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Team, SAPALDIA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Household cleaning products are associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, but the cardiovascular health effects are largely unknown. Objective: We determined if long-term use of household sprays and scented products at home was associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic cardiac dysfunction. Methods: We recorded 24-hr electrocardiograms in a cross-sectional survey of 581 Swiss adults, ≥ 50 years of age, who answered a detailed questionnaire regarding their use of household cleaning products in their homes. The adjusted average percent changes in standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals in 24 hr (24-hr SDNN) and total power (TP) were estimated in multiple linear regression in association with frequency [air freshening sprays, and scented products. Results: Decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP were observed with frequent use of all product types, but the strongest reductions were associated with air freshening sprays. Compared with unexposed participants, we found that using air freshening sprays 4–7 days/week was associated with 11% [95% confidence interval (CI): –20%, –2%] and 29% (95% CI: –46%, –8%) decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP, respectively. Inverse associations of 24-SDNN and TP with increased use of cleaning sprays, air freshening sprays, and scented products were observed mainly in participants with obstructive lung disease (p < 0.05 for interactions). Conclusions: In predominantly older adult women, long-term frequent use of household spray and scented products was associated with reduced HRV, which suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular health hazards. People with preexisting pulmonary conditions may be more susceptible. PMID:22538298

  9. Specific light uptake rates can enhance astaxanthin productivity in Haematococcus lacustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sang; Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Lumostatic operation was applied for efficient astaxanthin production in autotrophic Haematococcus lacustris cultures using 0.4-L bubble column photobioreactors. The lumostatic operation in this study was performed with three different specific light uptake rates (q(e)) based on cell concentration, cell projection area, and fresh weight as one-, two- and three-dimensional characteristics values, respectively. The q(e) value from the cell concentration (q(e1D)) obtained was 13.5 × 10⁻⁸ μE cell⁻¹ s⁻¹, and the maximum astaxanthin concentration was increased to 150 % compared to that of a control with constant light intensity. The other optimum q e values by cell projection area (q(e2D)) and fresh weight (q( e3D)) were determined to be 195 μE m⁻² s⁻¹ and 10.5 μE g⁻¹ s⁻¹ for astaxanthin production, respectively. The maximum astaxanthin production from the lumostatic cultures using the parameters controlled by cell projection area (2D) and fresh weight (3D) also increased by 36 and 22% over that of the controls, respectively. When comparing the optimal q e values among the three different types, the lumostatic cultures using q(e) based on fresh weight showed the highest astaxanthin productivity (22.8 mg L⁻¹ day⁻¹), which was a higher level than previously reported. The lumostatic operations reported here demonstrated that more efficient and effective astaxanthin production was obtained by H. lacustris than providing a constant light intensity, regardless of which parameter is used to calculate the specific light uptake rate.

  10. An Atomistic Modeling Study of Alloying Element Impurity Element, and Transmutation Products on the cohesion of A Nickel E5 {001} Twist Grain Boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A. Jr.; Najafabadi, R.; Strohmayer, W.; Baldrey, D.G.; Hamm, B.; Harris, J.; Sticht, J.; Wimmer, E.

    2003-01-01

    Atomistic modeling methods were employed to investigate the effects of impurity elements on the metallurgy, irradiation embrittlement, and environmentally assisted cracking of nickel-base alloys exposed to nuclear environments. Calculations were performed via ab initio atomistic modeling methods to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results. A Griffith-type fracture criterion was used to quantitatively assess the effect of elements or element pairs on the grain boundary cohesive strength. In order of most embrittling to most strengthening, the elements are ranked as: He, Li, S, H, C, Zr, P, Fe, Mn, Nb, Cr, and B. Helium is strongly embrittling (-2.04 eV/atom lowering of the Griffith energy), phosphorus has little effect on the grain boundary (0.1 eV/atom), and boron offers appreciable strengthening (1.03 eV/atom increase in the Griffith energy). Calculations for pairs of elements (H-Li, H-B, H-C, H-P, and H-S) show little interaction on the grain boundary cohesive energy, so that for the conditions studied, linear superposition of elemental effects is a good approximation. These calculations help explain metallurgical effects (e.g. why boron can strengthen grain boundaries), irradiation embrittlement (e.g. how boron transmutation results in grain boundary embrittlement), as well as how grain boundary impurity elements can affect environmentally assisted cracking (i.e. low temperature crack propagation and stress corrosion cracking) of nickel-base alloys

  11. Chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine for selective solid-phase extraction of trace elements: Effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine and its carboxymethylation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    The effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine (PEI), defined as a compound having two or more ethyleneamine units, and of its carboxymethylation rate (CM/N), represented by the ratio of ion-exchange capacity to the amount of N on the resin, on the selective solid-phase extraction ability of the chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated (CM) PEI was investigated. The chelating resins (24 types) were prepared by immobilization of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, pentaethylenehexamine, PEI300 (MW=ca. 300), and PEI600 (MW=ca. 600) on methacrylate resins, followed by carboxymethylation with various amounts of sodium monochloroacetate. When resins with approximately the same CM/N ratio (0.242-0.271) were used, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and alkaline earth elements increased with increasing the molecular weight of PEIs under acidic and weakly acidic conditions; however, the extraction behavior of Mo and V was only slightly affected. This was probably due to the increase in N content of the resin, resulting in an increase in carboxylic acid groups; the difference in the molecular weight of PEIs immobilized on the resin exerts an insignificant influence on the selective extraction ability. The CM/N ratio considerably affected the extraction behavior for various elements. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn increased with increasing CM/N values. However, under these conditions, the recovery of alkaline earth elements was considerably low when a resin with low CM/N ratio was used. This is presumably attributed to the different stability constants of the complexes of these elements with aminocarboxylic acids and amines, and to the electrostatic repulsion between the elements and the protonated amino groups in the CM-PEI. The recovery of Mo and V decreased or varied with increasing CM/N values, suggesting that the extraction of these elements occurred mainly

  12. Methane production rates from natural organics of glacial lake clay and granitic groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, M I; Stroes-Gascoyne, S; Hawkins, J L; Hamon, C J; Motycka, M

    1996-05-01

    Engineered barrier materials are an integral part of the proposed Canadian concept for the disposal of used nuclear fuel or high level waste. Components of these barriers, such as the buffer and backfill clays surrounding the waste containers in a vault, and granitic groundwater, naturally contain small quantities of organic material (up to about 1.2 wt%). Despite high temperatures, space and water limitations and radiation effects, the question remains whether gas could be produced from these organics as a result of biological processes. Degradation of organic carbon by microbes can produce gases such as carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}). This work demonstrates that methane is produced in natural systems containing < 6 mole % 0{sub 2}. In deep fracture zone groundwater, the largest methane production rate was 0.19 mole %/day or 5 {mu}g CH{sub 4}/L groundwater per day, at STP. This can be compared with the methane production rate of 1 {mu}g CH{sub 4}/(kg clay {center_dot} day) at STP in an earlier experiment containing added organic material. Using this rate of 5 pg CH{sub 4}/(L groundwater {center_dot} day) (3.75 {mu}g C/(L groundwater {center_dot} day)), all of the organic C in the groundwater, assuming it is equally bioavailable, would have been converted to CH{sub 4} during the timeframe of this experiment. Enhanced methane production occurred with an increase in natural organic carbon, an increase in the microbe population and with the addition of Fe. Steady-state methane production rates of 10 to 25 {mu}g CH{sub 4}/ L groundwater per day have been repeatedly observed in clay-free systems. The effects of microbial metabolism, the requirement for a facilitating consortium, the Eh, the pH, the salinity, the groundwater sulphate concentration, the presence of methanotrophs and the sorption effects of clay interlayers are discussed as possible explanations for the inhibition of methanogenesis and methane production in the presence of clay and

  13. The carbon dioxide production rate assumption biases gastric emptying parameters in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Oonagh; Shafat, Amir

    2013-02-28

    An altered gastric emptying (GE) rate has been implicated in the aetiology of obesity. The (13)C-octanoic acid breath test (OBT) is frequently used to measure GE, and the cumulative percentage of (13)C recovered (cPDR) is a common outcome measure. However, true cPDR in breath is dependent on accurate measurement of carbon dioxide production rate (VCO(2)). The current study aimed to quantify differences in the (13)C OBT results obtained using directly measured VCO(2) (VCO(2DM)) compared with (i) predicted from resting VCO(2) (VCO(2PR)) and (ii) predicted from body surface area VCO(2) (VCO(2BSA)). The GE rate of a high-fat test meal was assessed in 27 lean subjects using the OBT. Breath samples were gathered during the fasted state and at regular intervals throughout the 6-h postprandial period for determination of (13)C-isotopic enrichment by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The VCO(2) was measured directly from exhaled air samples and the PDR calculated by three methods. The bias and the limits of agreement were calculated using Bland-Altman plots. Compared with the VCO(2DM), the cPDR was underestimated by VCO(2PR) (4.8%; p = 0.0001) and VCO(2BSA) (2.7%; p = 0.02). The GE T(half) was underestimated by VCO(2PR) (13 min; p = 0.0001) and VCO(2BSA) (10 min; p = 0.01), compared with VCO(2DM). The findings highlight the importance of directly measuring VCO(2)production rates throughout the (13)C OBT and could partly explain the conflicting evidence regarding the effect of obesity on GE rates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and "other". Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective

  15. Rotating target wheel system for super-heavy element production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; Falout, J; Janssens, R V F

    2004-01-01

    A new scattering chamber housing a large diameter rotating target wheel has been designed and constructed in front of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) for the production of very heavy nuclei (Z greater than 100) using beams from the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS). In addition to the target and drive system, the chamber is extensively instrumented in order to monitor target performance and deterioration. Capabilities also exist to install rotating entrance and exit windows for gas cooling of the target within the scattering chamber. The design and initial tests are described.

  16. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  17. Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate in cattle fed on diet containing protected protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate using 14 C-choline as marker were studied on 9 adult male crossbred (Tharparker x Brown Swiss) rumen fistulated animals divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture and wheatstraw. However, groundnut cake (GNC) in concentrate mixture was untreated in group A, 50 per cent formaldehyde treated in group B and 100 per cent formaldehyde treated in group C. Although, DM intake was similar in these groups but water intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group. Total-N, ammonia-N and blood urea were significantly lower in group B and C as compared to group A. Apparent CP digestibility was not affected by addition of formaldehyde treated GNC at 50 and 100 per cent levels. However, N balances increased significantly (P<0.05) due to addition of protected protein in diet. Protozoal pool as well as production rate were significantly (P<0.01) decreased due to formaldehyde treatment of GNC protein. Thus addition of formaldehyde treated GNC in diets decreased ammonia and protozoa production but increased N retention in groups B and C. (author). 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

  19. Caed Interactions During A Product Life Cycle Oriented Towards the Decision-Making in the Design of Polymeric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffo, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present the real case of an industrial product was placed prematurely on the market without having checked the different stages of its life cycle. This type of products must be validated by numerical methods and by mechanical tests to verify their rheological behavior. In particular, the product consists of two small pieces in contact, one made of HDPE and the other one corresponding to a stainless steel. The polymeric piece supports the metal pressure under a constant static load over time. As a result of normal operation, the polymer experienced a “crazing” breakdown, which caused the failure to occur. In the study, design methods and computer assisted analysis software (CAED) have been used. These methods were complemented by scanning electron microscopy that confirmed the initial failure hypothesis. Using the finite element method (FEM), a series of load scenarios were carried out, where the different load hypothesis the product must go through prior to its placing on the market were simulated. It is shown that the failure was initiated by stress concentration on one of the edges of the polymeric piece. The proposed solution of the problem based on the analysis focuses on a simple redesign of the piece, which should have been round, or to the reduction of the thickness of the metal piece. As a result of the alteration of its natural life cycle, the company assumed both monetary costs and the definitive loss of customer confidence.

  20. Care production for tuberculosis cases:analysis according to the elements of the Chronic Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daiane Medeiros da; Farias, Hérika Brito Gomes de; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Sá, Lenilde Duarte de; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the care provided to tuberculosis cases in primary health care services according to the elements of the Chronic Care Model. Cross-sectional study conducted in a capital city of the northeastern region of Brazil involving 83 Family Health Strategy professionals.A structured tool adapted to tuberculosis-related care in Brazil was applied.Analysis was based on the development of indicators with capacity to produce care varying between limited and optimum. The organization of care for tuberculosis and supported self-care presented reasonable capacity.In the coordination with the community, the presence of the community agent presented optimum capacity.Partnership with organizations of the community and involvement of experts presented limited capacity.The qualification of professionals, the system for scheduling and monitoring tuberculosis in the community, and the clinical information system presented basic capacity. The capacity of the primary health care services to produce tuberculosis-related care according to the elements of the Chronic Care Model is still limited.Overcoming the fragmentation of care and prioritizing a systemic operation between actions and services of the health care network remains as a major challenge. Analisar,segundo os elementos doChronicCareModel,a produção do cuidado aos casos de tuberculose nos serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde. Estudo transversal, realizado em capital do nordeste brasileiro, envolvendo 83 profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Aplicou-se um instrumento estruturado, adaptado para atenção à tuberculose no Brasil. A análise pautou-se na construção de indicadores, cujacapacidade para produção de cuidados variou entre limitada a ótima. A organização da atenção à tuberculose e o autocuidado apoiado apresentaram capacidade razoável. Na articulação com a comunidade, a presençadoagente comunitário de saúde apresentou capacidade ótima. A parceria com organizações da